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# Model Question Physics 2

-
1

1 x 10 = 10

M & M & 

 M i ,
 M l

h `
(iii)

(ii)

3
30
6

30

, d ^n M Q L

(i)

n
M (i) n

n

(i)

h,

(i)
(iii) =

M (iii)

2
,
, (ii) =

2
x , (iv) = 2 x .

2
x .

| s/ | s/
(i)

(iv)

(ii) ,

(ii) , (iii) ,

X ,

## (ii) , (iii) (iv) y

(ii)

S
-

M & M & 

M S S 
1+1=2

/ M

M d X  d
, M

S S 
,

g=

Q,

M

= gR

R =

= 2gR

, M = 2 

a U S j +q

S fj h S

M S fj P h P j  Q
A(+q)

B(+q)

S t

AP = BP = CP = DP =

P
D(+q)

2a
a
=
2
2

C(+q)

A j (+q) S , F1 =
B j (+q) S , F2 =
C j (+q) S , F3 =

q
(a / 2 ) 2

AP

BP

CP

q
(a / 2 )

q
(a / 2 ) 2

D j (+q) S , F4 =
F1

q
(a / 2 ) 2

DP

F2 , + F2 F4

S fj h

1+1=2

M qX | P-
n- ,

(A)

(A)

(G) S
 Q

cos 2

g = g1

289

g =

g =

1+3 = 4

m1 m2 d d Q S
F=G
G=

m1m 2
d2

Fd 2
m1m 2

Fd 2
G- S, [G] =

m1m 2

[MLT ][L ]
[M ]
= [M L T ]
2

1 3

Cos 2
.
g = g1
289

P j 

P j  r Q

r = R Cos

R=

  - d /
(w

P j m , r M

w M
mw2r f S
m mg

## mw2r mw2r cos

 Q

P j Q g
mg = mg mw 2 r cos
= mg mw 2R cos 2

[Q r = R cos ]

g = g w 2R cos

w 2R
= g1
cos 2
g

, ,

w=

2
24 3600

R = 6400 x 103 m.

g = 9.8 m/sec2
w 2R
1
=
g
289
cos 2

g = g1
289

n1 n2 Z
N = n1 n2

1+3=4

M - M
s/ j
S X s + X
, a c M /

y1 = a sin 2n1t

y2 = a sin 2n2t

, S q t ,
y = y1 + y2
= a sin2n1t + a sin2n2t
= 2acos 2

(n1 n 2 )t
(n n 2 )t
sin 2 1
2
2

/Z , t /
c

A = 2a cos2

(n1 n 2 )
2

n1 + n 2
2

t /
A = 2a cos2

t=

(n1 n 2 )
t = 0, 1 , 2 ,....
2
n1 n 2 n1 n 2

1
3
5
,
,
2(n1 n 2 ) 2(n1 n 2 ) 2(n1 n 2 )

t /
s
s

1
n1 n 2

1
n1 n 2

s
, = n1 n2 = Z

300 mt/sec

i
 X

## = 0.03, J = 4.2 107 erg/cal

M m gm
M

1
m (300 ) 2 x(100 ) 2 = 4.5 x10 8 m erg
2

M M +L
4.5 10 8 m erg

M M

=
=

M
 X
m.s.t =

1 4.5 10M

2
4.2

or, 0.03 x t =
or, t =

1 4.5

x10
2 4.2

1 45 1

10 3
2 42 3
15
10 3
84
= 178.5oC.

 X

178.5oC.

4.5 10 8 m
4.2x10 7

Cal.

450
m cal
42
s = = 0.03

-
4

+L
` 20 0.01A
 100 volt
| M

2+1+3=6

M h |
M
S
+L M K

` , 20
, / R | M M

S,

I = 0.01A

100 volt.

(G + R)I = 100
(20 + R) x 0.01 = 100
or, 20 + R = 10000
or, R = 10000 20
= 9080
| 9080 M

## Model Question Physics 3

Group A
Give answers to the following questions either in

one word

or one sentence.

1.(a)

1 x 10 = 10

## A progressive wave carries energy in a plane perpendicular to the plane of

wave front is the statement true ?

Ans:

(b)

## Beats will be audible if the difference in frequencies of two superposing waves

is not greater than _____________.

Ans:

## Beats will be audible if the difference in frequencies of two superposing waves

is not greater than

15

(c)

Ans:

Q
,
4 o R

(d)

Ans.

(e)

Ans.

(f)

Ans.

## In Xray production electron ejects photon.

1
1
1

Group B
2. (a) Why centrifugal force is termed as pseudo force ?
Ans.

## There is no existence of centrifugal force in an inertial frame of reference. The

source of this force in a noninertial frame, cannot be find out. It appears not
due to actionreaction like seal force. So it is termed as pseudo force.

(b)

Ans.

We know

Cp
Cv

= and = 1 +

2
.
f

2 7
=
5 5
Cp
7

==
Cv
5
= 1+

(c)

## At equal temperature does r.m.s velocity of the molecules of Hydrogen and

Oxygen will be same ? Give reason .

Ans.

## At equal temperature r.m.s. velocity of the molecules of Hydrogen and Oxygen

will not be same. Because for Hydrogen

(Cr.m.S )H

(Cr.m.S) O2 =

3RT
and for Oxygen
MH2
3RT
. Since MO 2 > MH2 ,
MO 2

so (Cr.m.S) O2 < (Cr.m.S )H2 i.e. r.m.s. velocity of Oxygen will be less than the
r.m.s. velocity of Hydrogen.
(d)

## An electron when projected from rest through a potential difference of 60,000 v

attains a velocity of 1,46 x 1010 cm/s. Find the ratio of charge and mass of
electron.

Ans.

## Here v = velocity attained by the electron

= 1,46 x 106 cm/s
= 1,46 x 108 m/s
V = Potential difference through which the electron is allowed to move.
= 60,000 volt
m = mass of the electron is S.I.
e = charge of the electron in S.I.
So,

1
mv 2 = ev
2

e
v2
146 10 8
146 146 10 16
=
=
=
Or,
= 1776. 33 x 108 coul/kg.
m 2V
2 60,000
12 10 4
(e)

## A metal shows photoelectric effect in green light. Will it show photoelectric

Ans.

Yes, the metal will show photoelectric effect in violet light also, because v >
G and hence Ev > EG, where F = energy of E.M. radiation
= h ,

Group C
3.a)

What do you mean by centripetal accn ? Obtain the expression for centripetal
accn of a point particle moving uniformly in a circular path.

Ans.

1+3

If a body moves in uniform circular motion, then the body has an acceleration
towards the centre of the circle due to change of direction of its velocity with
time. This acceleration is called centripetal acceleration.
Consider a particle of mass m moving along a circle of radius r with
r
r
uniform angular velocity w. Let v 1 and v 2 be the instantaneous linear velocities
of the particle at A and B respectively in a time

r
v2

## interval t. Since angular velocity is constant, the

r
r
magnitude of v 1 and v 2 be same. Therefore the

r
v1

## direction only. Take a point c. Draw ca parallel to

AX and cb parallel to BY.
r
r
Now | v 1 |=| v 2 |= v
a

i.e. ca = cb.

r
r
It is cleared that ab = v = change of velocity = v 2 v 1 .
r
v ab
The centripetal acceleration =
=
.
t
t

r
v1

r
v2

If t is small then will also be small. Then the hard AB will be nearly equal to
the arc AB. The AOB and acb are similar.

ab
ca
=
.
AB OA

Or,
Or,

ab v
= , because AB = v t ; ca = v; OA = r
vt r
ab v 2
=
t
r

## Hence the acceleration,

r ab
v2
= n
a=
, where n is the unit vector directed towards the centre.
r
t
So the acceleration is termed as centripetal acceleration.

b)

An artificial satellite is moving in a circular orbit around the earth with a speed
equal to the half of the magnitude of the escape velocity from the earth.
i)

## Determination the height of the satellite above the Earth surface.

ii)

If the satellite is stopped suddenly in its orbit and allowed to fall freely
on the earth, then determine the speed with which it hits the earths
surface.

Ans.

2+2

GM
Rth

## Where M = Mass of the earth

R = Radius of the earth
h = Height of the artificial satellite from the surface of the earth.
Let ve is the escape velocity then
2GM
R

ve =

According to condition,

(i)

Now,
or,
or,

v=

ve
2

v=

ve
2

GM 1 2GM
=
Rth 2
R
GM 1 2GM
=
Rth 4
R

or, Rth = 2R
h=R
(ii)

Let the speed of the satellite with which it hits the earth be V.
Now the total energy of the satellite when it is in orbit,
(E T ) =

1
GMm
mv 2
2
Rth

1 GM GMm

m
2 Rth
Rth

GMm GMm

2(Rth)
Rth

GMm
2(Rth)

(1)

The total energy of the satellite when it just hits the surface,

(E ) = 21 mv
/
T

Now

GMm
R

(2)

E T/ = E T
Or,

1
GMm
GMm
=
mv 2
2
R
2(Rth)

Or,

mv 2 GMm GMm
=

2
R
Rth

Or, v 2 =

2GM 2GM

R
Rth

1
1
= 2GM

R Rth
1
1
= 2GM
, h = R
R 2R
=

2GM GM
=
2R
R

v =

c)

## Show that in an adiabatic expansion, work done (W) by an ideal gas is

W=

Ans.

GM
.
R

R
[T2 T1 ] where temperature of the gas changes from T1 to T2.
1

## We know that the work done dw for expansion of a gas by an amount dv is

given by
dw = p dv
In case of adiabatic expansion of ideal gas pv = K (say)
or,

P=

so dw =

K
v
v2

dw

v1

K
v

dv
K
v

dv

K 1
1
1 1
1 v 2
v 1

d)

1 Kv 2 Kv 1

1 v 2
v 1

1
[P2 v 2 P1v 1 ]
1

R
[T2 T1 ]
1

which property of wave shows that sound wave is longitudinal ? Calculate the
value of Youngs modulus of steel if its density is 7.8 gm/cm3 and if sound
travels in it with a velocity of 5200 m/S.

Ans.

1+3

Sound waves can propagate through liquid and gas medium like longitudinal
waves. Polarisation of sound waves is not possible. Polarisation takes place
only in case of transverse wave. So sound wave is longitudinal wave.
Velocity of sound wave through a rod or through a wire is give by,
v=

## where v = velocity of sound wave

= 5200 m/S
= 520000 cm/S
= density of the material
= 7.8 gm/cm3
y = young modulus of the steel wire which has to be determined.
Now 520000 =
Or

y
7.8

y
= 52 52 10 8
7 .8

y = 7.7 52 52 108
= 21091.2 108
= 2.1 1012 dyne/cm2.
e)

## Two capacitor of capacitences C1 = 2F and C2 = 8F are connected in series

and the resulting combination is connected across 300 volt. Calculate the
charge, potential difference and energy stored in capacitor separately.

Ans.

c1 = 2F,

c2 = 8F

## v = 300 volt. The two capacitors are connected in series.

Let the potential difference, charge and energy stored in the two given
capacitors are v1, q1 E1 and v2, q2, E2 respectively. Since they are connected in
series, so q1 = q2 = q (say).
Now,

v1 =

q
c1

v = 300 volt =

and v 2 =

q
c2

q
q
+
c1 c 2

1
1

= q +
c1 c 2
1
1

+
= q
2F 8F
1
1

+
= q

6
6
8 10
2 10
1 1
= q 10 6 +
2 8
= 10 6 q
=

5
8

8 300

5 100

## = 480 x 106 coul

= 480 coul
So, v 1 =

q
480 coul
=
= 240 volt
c1
2F

v2 =

q
480 coul
=
= 60 volt
c2
8F

E1 =

1
1
q v 1 = 480 10 6 240
2
2
= 57600 x 106 Joule.
= 0.0576 Joule

E2 =

1
1
q v 2 = 480 10 6 60
2
2
= 0.0144 Joule.

f) i)

1+1

Ans.

## Combination of two isolated, equal and opposite magnetic poles separated by

a small distance constitute a magnetic dipole. The product of pole strength
(qm) and length (L) of dipole is called magnetic moment (M)
r
r
M = qm L
In S.I. system its unit is Am2.

ii)

If a bar magnet of length L and magnetic moment M is bent into the form of a
semicircle then find its magnetic moment.

Ans.

## Let the pole strength of the barmagnet be qm. So M = qm L.

Now d be the diameter of the semicircle, then L = r =
Or d =

d
2

2L

= qm

2L

2
qmL

2M
.

g)

## State Mosbys law. State two importance of Mosbys law.

2+2

Ans.

Mosbys law states that the square root of the frequency of any particular
spectral line is proportional to the atomic number of the target element i.e.

( z b).
Two importance of Mosbys Law
(i)

## Properties of an element do not depend upon its atomic weight but

upon its atomic number. So atomic number is the fundamental quantity
of an element.

(ii)

## increases regularly from one element to next element. Hence in the

periodic table the elements should be arranged in the order of
increasing atomic number.

Group D
4.a)

i)

## Show that the fundamental frequency of an open pipe is twice that of a

closed pipe if they are of same length.

Ans.
L

L
Closed Pipe

Open Pipe

One closed pipe and one open pipe both the same length L are taken
for consideration. Formation of fundamental tone in both cases are
shown in the above fig. For closed pipe frequency of the fundamental
tone is given by,
no =

v
v
=
(i)
o 4L

## and for open pipe that is given by

n o/ =

v
v
=
(ii)
/
o 2L

= 2

v
4L

= 2 no
n o/ = 2n o
i.e. the fundamental frequency of an open pipe is twice that of a closed
pipe if they are same length.
ii)

Ans.

## Periodic variations of the intensity of wave resulting from the

superposition of two waves of slightly different frequencies is known as
the phenomenon of beats.

iii)

## The frequency of a tuning fork is 256 Hz and sound travels to a distance

of 40m. While the fork executes 32 vibrations. Find the wave length of
the note emitted by the form.

2+2+2

Ans.

## For 32 vibrations the distance traversed by sound wave is 40m. So the

distance traversed by sound wave for 256 vibrations is

40
256
32

= 320 meter.
v = velocity of the wave
= 320 m/S.

b)

i)
Ans.

320 5
= = 1.25m.
256 4

## State BiotSavart Law.

r
According to BiotSavarts Law, the magnetic field dB at a point whose
r
position vector r with respect to a current element dl of a wire carrying
current I, is given by
r oI dl rr

dB =
4 r 3

ii)

## By using this law find the magnetic induction B at a distance d from an

infinitely long straight conductor carrying current I.

Ans.

2+4

## Consider an element xy of a long straight conductor AB carrying current

I in the direction from A to B. Let P be the observation point at a
distance x from the centre of the element.
PM = r = normal distance of the point from the wire.
According BiotSavarts Law

=

o I dl sin
4 x 2

## sin = sin(/2 ) = cos

o I r sec 2 d cos

4
r2

from O

cos 2
=

o I
cos d
4 r

cos =

o I
cos d
4 r

x=
tan =

r
x
r
cos
l
r

l = r tan
dl = r sec2 d.

10

B =

dB =

oI
4r

cos d

o
(sin 2 sin 1 )
4r

11

## Model Question Physics 4

-
1

& M & 
1 x 10 = 10

(a)

1
n

M
(i)

24
n

K,

(ii)

24
n

K,

(iii)

24
n

K,

(iv)

24
n2

M ,

2
2MR 2
w
=
&
I
=

T
5

I1w1 = I2w2
2

2
2 R
MR 2 w 1 = M .w 2
5
5 n
w2 = n2w1

2
2
= n2
T2
T1

T2 =

T1

n2

T2 =

24
n2

T1 = 24

; T2 = ?

1
a
n

T S
r r r
r r r
(i) T = r F (ii) T = F x r (iii) T = r . F
r r r
T S T = r F

(b)

j --

(i) g

(ii) g/2

(iii) g/3

r
(iv) T = rF cos

(iv) 2g

M j

24
n2

, M

ve,

## & M --(i) 5ve

(ii)

ve
5
g=

(iii) 25ve

(iv) ve

GM
R2

S,

ge =

 { S,

GM e

g=

R 2e
G 5M e
(5R e )

1 GM e g e
.
=
5 R 2e
5

v e = 2g e R e
& v e/ = 2gR = 2.

(c)

ge
.5R e = 2g e R e = ve
5

M

ve, 5

& M

ve

/ s/

M / polarisation s / /
s / /
(d)

/ /
(i) n

(ii) (2n+1)

a
2

(iii) (2n 1)

a
2

(iv) (2n + 1)

a
4

M / /

n.

, /- :
M h h j&
i j i j&
= / wavefront
(e)

r L q

,
M

(i)

(ii) , (iii)

1 q2
4 0 r 0

(iv)

1 q2
8 0 r 2

2r
2.r r.q
F =
r

1
q.q
1
q2
.
.
=
4 0 (2r ) 2 16 0 r 2

1
q2
. 2.
16 0 r

, +
M S

(f)

c=

q
=
v

(g)

+L /
(i)

(ii) | B , (iii)

L .

(iv) L B

M +L /
L
(h)

r.m.s.

r.m.s.

r.m.s.

r.m.s.

=1:

(i)

(1.101)2

1.101 = 1 x 20 + (1 x 21 + 0 x 22 + 1 x 23)

2
1:

1 1
+ = 1 + 0.5 + 0.125
2 8

= 1+

= 1.625.
(1.101)2 = (1.625)10

(11.375)10

(11.375)10

,
2 11
2 5

2 2

(11)10 = (1011)2

,
.375 x 2 = 0.750

0.750 x 2 = 1.500

0.500 x 2 = 1.000

(.375)10 = (.011)2

(11.375)10 = (1011.011)2
(j)

E  M Z M &

M ,
En =

me 4
8 02 n 2 h 2

,
E2 =

E4 =

me 4
8 02 (2) 2 h 2

me 4
8 02 ( 4) 2 h 2
me 4

8 02 ( 4) 2 h 2
E4
1
=
= 2
4
4
E2
me
8 02 (2) 2 h 2
E4 =

E2
.
4

(i)

h
c

h
c

(ii)

h
C

(iii)

hc

(iv) h.

-
2

& M

(a)

B(2)t2

M S

t = t2 t 1

(b)

A(1)t1

S
rt

S = AB

S
r

w =

w =

1
=
w= 2
t 2 t1
t

d SL Q

2x7

v=

S
t

v
v = rw
r

B L

h g

S
M

(g)

L
P

OR =

f Q

S f Q /

- L g- Q h

g -

B h g- B
(c)

S  S


M S
Ml S X / v P X
S X
S X
 S 
-  -(i)

 Cv

(ii)

 CP

, +X S
M

=
L M


+X
L M 

M

M

pv = K

+X

S L i

(d)

pvr = K

S ^n i

< &&

## M < & & --

(e)

(i)

` Bi

(ii)

h `

(iii)

` L

j 

(a, o)

(o, a)

jZ S

q (a,a) j

A j P
r
E1 =

1
q
. 2 , PR
4 0 a

v
E2 =

E = E12 + E 22 =

h S

P(a, a)

1
2.q
. 2 .
4 0 a

r
E

q
(0, a)
B

1
q
. 2 , PS
4 0 a
r r
r
P j t E = E 1 + E 2

r
E1

A(a, 0)

E {

M S ,
T cos = mg

(1)

T sin = F

(2)

T cos

T sin

M ,

T sin
F
=
T cos mg

(f)

tan =

qE
mg

= tan 1

qE
mg

mg
[ F = q x E]

M Q & --

r
S E2

(i)

- S Q

(ii)

- -
Q X

(iii)

 Q h

, Q  n :
M dielectric
L Q & X
L n
L Q
L n

Q
(g)

S h / hS, S

x
r
E

r
v

O
r
R

Z1

y
r
B , y-
r
r
hS E , x- h / ( v )

S

Z1 

-
3

& M & 

(a)

4 x 11

... B M 

S S

## h g = 9.8 m/s2, R = 6400 Km.

M M

B S

2+2
v

 S f

m

r=R+h

v
mv 2
=
r

v =

M
R

r2
GM
r

GM
(R + h)
T=

2r 2(R + h)
=
v
GM
R+h

T=

2(R + h) 3 / 2
GM

2(R + h) 3 / 2

h<<R
T = 2

GMm

mv 2 GMm
=
v=
r
r2

(1)

gR 2

,
R
g

1 --

gR 2 T 2
9R 2 T 2

R
h
(R + h) =

+
=
4 2
4 2

T = 24

1/ 3

= 24 x 60 x 60 sec.

## R = 6400 km, g = 9.8 m/S2

(R + h) = 4.24 x 107 m
= 42400 km.

## h = 42400 6400 = 36000 km.

S

h = 36000 km.

M d r

1+3

M d Q S j
K , j
M d r

S

f=

GM
r2

f=

GM
r2

n
S
r
= f .dr = ( fdr ) = fdr

K Z

r
f

dr

r
f .dr = fdr

d Q

Q
r

= fdr =

GM
r2

dr = GM

dr

1
= GM
r

GM
r

M d

10

dr

GM
r

(b)

0oC  `

50% M +L `

M

2+2

B
M S -

S, - L M h

(ii)

(i)

external work i

L M X

{  Bi
`

=m

= ml

= mgh

[ L

mgh 1

J
2

La

mgh 1
= mL
J
2

h=

2LJ 2 80 ( 4.2 10 7 )
=
g
980

= 68.57

68.57

, X S S 

& '

0.155 Cal/goc1

 '

32

2cal.Mole oC1

M X S

2+2
P

S

11

v -

Pv =

Pv =

(1)
(2)


1

pdv + vdp = 0

dp
p
=
dv
v

2 -pv1dv + vdp = 0

X

, j X
x

p
dp
=
=
dv
v

X

## ' -Cv = M x Cv = 32 x 0.155 = 4.96

'  ,
Cp = Cv + R = 4.96 + 2 = 6.96

' 
Cp =
(c)

Cp
M

TK

6.96
= 0.2175
32

&Q & h

(r.m.s.), C =

3RT
M

12

0.178 gm/lit

2+2

 h
1

p,

1
mnc 2
3

[m =

(p) =

n
1
N
m c2
3
v

p=

pv =

, Q

v,

N
]
v

[ c2 = c2rms]

1
mNC 2
3

(1)

pv = RT

(2)

1 2
1
mNc 2 = RT
3

1
Mc 2 = RT (3)
3

c2 =

3RT
M

3P
D

C rms =

3RT
c=
M

[M = mN = 1

Crms =

P=

D=

P = 76 x 13.6 x 980 /

## D = 0.178 gm/lit = 0.000178 gm/c.c.

3 x 76 x 13.6 x 980
cm/sec.
0.000178

Crms =

3038784
0.000178

13

## = 1.306 x 105 cm/S.

,  X Q h & h
M 
277oC

77oC

M P, Q D h
C=

2+2

& M X

3P
=
D

3RT
M

M=

 X &

rms

1
D

Q h & rms
h M
E=

3
KT
2

K = n
T = S

3
3
K(273 + 77 ) = K 350
2
2

E T =77o C =

E =277o C =

3
3
K(273 + 277 ) = K 550
2
2

M X

% X
(d)

3
K(500 350 )
2

3
K 200
2

3
K 200
2
100% = 57.14%
=
3
K 200
2

s SL S t /
S S

14

1+1+2

M s SL S E

S &

s v
v=

E
.
D

: s  S
M &
(P)

(K = E)

c s  S  t

/ S
S : S s
^n s  S
X S X
&

Cp
Cv

Pv =

(K) =

X n

s SL

v=

(f)

Z w h Z Z` j
1+3

M c h

(+q, q)

h Z hZ M h Q & Z
Z w
Z 

AB = (=2l)

P j

Z`
OP = r.

15

+q

j ,

1
q
, AP
E1 =
4 o ( AP ) 2
q

E2 =

E1

E1 cos

E2 cos

1
q
, PB
.
4 o (PB) 2
AP = BP

E1 sin

E2

E1 = E2

E2 sin

A
+q

B
q

O
2l

PAB = PBA = E1

E1 cos

E2

E1 sin

E2 cos

j t

## E = E1 cos + E2 cos = 2E1 cos [Q E1 = E2]

=
E =

2
q
AO
AO
.
[Q cos =

]
2
AP
4 o ( AP)
AP

2
q l
2ql
1
.
=
. 2
3
4 o (r + l 2 ) 3 / 2
4 o ( AP)
=

M
1

4 o r 2 + l 2

M
4 o r 3

Q AP = p 2 + l 2

3/2

AB L

P j r>>l

, S
1+3

j
M

C.G.S.

X SL t h L
h

SI

& + ,

r
K E.dS = 4q

16

r r
q
E.dS =
r
o

esu/cu

r
P

j h

r
1
E.dS =
.l
o

S h
r
E
.dS = E dS = E.2rl

E.dS =

E.2rl =
E =

l
o

1 2
.
4 o r

" +,
r
E=
(g)

1 2
. r
4 o r

h SL S

r2

i ,

r=

r1

M
r1r2

2+2

M h SL S ,

17

r
E

S - h ,
i S
HI 2

Z S - h ,
i

HR

S - h ,
i
,

Ht

I, R

S ,
HI2Rt

H = KI2Rt

[K =

n ]

S r1
I1
r

S I1 =

E
r + r1

r1

i , H1 =

r2

S,

E 2 r2 t
H2 =
(r + r2 ) 2 .J

,
H1 = H2

E 2 r1 t
E 2 r2 t
=
(r + r1 ) 2 J (r + r1 ) 2 J
r1(r + r2)2 = r2(r+r1)2

18

I12 r1 t
E 2 r1 t
=
J
(r + r1 ) 2 J

## r1 r 2 + 2r1 rr2 + r1 r22 = r2 r 2 + 2rr1 r2 + r2 r12

r1 r 2 + r1 r22 = r2 r 2 + r2 r12
r 2 (r1 r2 ) = r1 r2 (r1 r2 )
r = r1 r2

, S S hB S
S S S  S S
S M c S M

2+2

h E

ti

tn

  t
 0oC - 
 t S h, t- / h E
M S
S

tn

B   

Neutral temperature
 h E- S 
 S  Inversion temperature S
ti

19

S i ` L& M
X h
A

B+

S S
...
/
S h
c S h

(h)

h SL S&
220 volt A.C.


1+3

` / h ` h

 h 
(ii)

` h / h

h ,
E

d
dt

[ ]

220

volt

220 volt

20

## 220 volt A.C. 311 volt , Z 311

volt D.C. Z - 220 volt D.C.  220 volt
A.C. #

, h SL ? S S
1+3

M  S
M ? S h h
h ---

h h h

S ,


SI
d

| E |= N

dt

N `

h
d
dt

S / ? S ,
E = N

d
dt

M  S ? S - h g ? S
M  S 

N

M- M  X ` C-  `

B ` h h
hM M  S, M +L
hM , R

21

, X R, , M
X ` X
, ` `

N-

`
, `

S - `  M

 S ? S
(i)

5

r.m.s. S

Z
2+2

M -(a)

S / S

(b)

L S
SL

(c)

S sinusoidal
i = Io Sin wt

(d)

r.m.s. /
Io
ieff =

Io
2

## , i = Io Sin (220 t )amp.

, f =

w 220
=
= 110Hz.
2
2

r.m.s. S =

Io
2

= 0.707 Io amp.

22

-
4

& M

(a)

X -- X  s
4+2

|n

M S j j X j j i
i (n1)

l i / / 1 ,

l= 1
4

or, = 4l

i s v ,
v = n 1 1
or, n 1

v
v
=
1 4l

y i s
j j
j j j i
i (n2)
l  i /
/ 2
l=

2
2

or, 2 = 2l

i s v ,
v = n22

23

or, n 2 =

v
v
=
= 2n.
2 2l


X
X y i s S
h & odd Harmonics 
y i s h h
& S 
, i X |n
ZS i s 
, y i s |n
, R x- / /
0.7m / j 45o j Q
3+3
y

M , / +ve X
i ,

V - &

y = a Sin wt

a=

y = t -

w=

/ /

24

, =
t-

2x

, /

,
y = a Sin (wt )

2
2
t
x

T

[ w =

2
]
T

2
x

[ n =

1
]
T

[ K =

2
]

or,

y = a Sin

or,

y = a Sin 2nt

or,

## y = a Sin (wt Kx)

+ve x- /

t- / S
S
1 =

1 2 ,

2
2
t
x1
T

2 =

j = = 1 2 =
, = 0.7m = 45o =

2
2
t
x2
T

2
(x 2 x 1 ) = 2 x

4

2
=
x
4 0.7

x =
(b)

x1 x2 Q j

0.7
0.7 100
35
m=
cm = cm
5
8
8

S S M h ` 
j ? +

M S h idl h
r

 r Q j S dB - ,
i)

h /

ii)

dl j L Q r-

25

2+3+1

iii)

dl j r -

-
h

sine- /

dl P j S

,
dB

i dl Sin
r2

i dl Sin
or, dB = K
r2

dl{
i

"+
dB = K

i dl r
r2

K n,  j 

S.I. X K =

o
o =
4

26