You are on page 1of 16

Definition of ESP

English for Specific Purposes, which corresponds to the abbreviation ESP, is a relatively new
discipline within Applied Linguistics. In spite of many theoretical and practical investigations
carried out over the past few years, it still has not been explored thoroughly in all its
dimensions.
ESP is a discipline that bids a new approach to English language teaching, its methodology is
based on the specific needs of the learner. Kennedy and Bolitho (1984: 3) say that the ESP is
based on 'an investigation of the purposes of the learner and the set of communicative needs
arising from these purposes'. Another aspect of ESP's uniqueness stems from its relationship
with the intellectual and the professional world of science, technology, economy, etc. Then,
ESP can be divided and subdivided into specialities to answer particular needs of every

subject or discipline. Peter Strevens (1977) maintains that in terms of function we can
distinguish two types of needs, occupational and academic. Based on these, he suggests a
more detailed classification of ESP. Consequently, we could find there a distinction between
English for Occupational Purposes (EOP), also denominated English for Vocational Purposes
(EVP), and English for Academic Purposes (EAP). The EOP would be of service to those who
use English as a tool to carry out their daily tasks, or exercise their profession, for example, to
communicate in public, speak with clients, etc. The EAP on the other hand, would be for
those who need to read and understand textbooks or exchange scientific thoughts with other
colleagues from an academic world. That is also why it is being currently taught in
educational institutions, with its place within the University curriculum. Alcaraz speaking
about the functions of English in University careers states that 'en su funcin de lingua franca
se pueden distinguir tres direcciones de estudio y de investigacin: lengua segunda, lengua
extranjera y lengua de especialidad profesional y acadmica' (2001:26).
Hutchinson and Waters (1987) make principal distinctions among English as a Mother
Language Teaching (EMT), English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Foreign
Language (EFL). The division continues with a differentiation within the EFL branch, which
they split into General English (GE) and English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Reaching that
point in classification, the authors once more divide ESP into three subcategories: English for
Science and Technology (EST), English for Business and Economics (EBE) and English for
Social Sciences (ESS).
Upon reconsideration, we soon arrive to a conclusion that ESP must be thought of not as a
product of language analysis, but as an approximation to the needs of a person who is going to
learn English. At the same time, it must be considered as an approach for language teaching
with some concrete objectives and purposes. In other words, the particular needs will
determine skills and semantic, structural and discursive contents.
The Origins of ESP
ESP was not something that was planned ahead of time, but rather a phenomenon that surged
from a series of divergent tendencies, not always linguistic in nature. The end of the World
War II started an era of expansion of scientific, technical and economic activities on an
international scale. This exaggerated expansion created a unified world, dominated by two
powerful forces -technology and commerce- which soon demanded an international language
for the exchange of ideas and goods. The university community, scientists, technicians,
economists were in need of a common language in order to export and import knowledge and
technology, so English became a working tool that would satisfy these particular and specific
needs.
Most of these students of English were adults who disposed of not much time for learning
English according to their line of business. These particular demands, dictated more by
priorities than a desire for learning, gave birth to a stimulus that triggered a search for new
pedagogic approach or a suitable method for fast learning. Simultaneously, in a pace with the
growing demand for specific English, new tendencies surged in the field of Applied
Linguistics. The linguists would begin to revolt against grammar and shift their interest
towards lively and dynamic real communication. The third factor that contributed to an
emergence of ESP was the development of educational psychology that came to emphasize
the importance and the role of the students. Therefore, to teach English to a student of
medicine, biology, engineering, etc., specialized texts appeared on the scene to be used
instead of general English textbooks.
The notion of a language with singular characteristics begins to take root in the sixties and in
the early seventies, being associated above all, with the pioneering research of Halliday,

Macintosh and Strevens (1964), Jack Ewer and Latorre (1969), John Swales (1971), Henry
Widdowson (1978) and the so called Washington School with Larry Selinker (1979), Louis
Trimble (1978, 1985), John Lackstrom (1973) and Mary Todd Trimble (1978). The main aim
of these researchers was to design a syllabus that would give a priority to the language that
students need in their scientific studies.
The fact that ESP has some common characteristics does not imply teaching it as a variant
totally detached from General English, even though, the content of learning may vary. There
is no need to suppose that the learning process must be distinct for an ESP student and for the
learner of General English. What happens is that the data gathered from the analysis of
students' needs suggest certain techniques, strategies or activities in ESP courses, not always
employed or not excessively employed in General English courses. Again, what really
distinguishes ESP methodology is its attention to specifics. What is more, ESP has reinforced
and enhanced research in methodology concerning General English. The communicative
approach as applied to General English is not by any measure an isolated occurrence for in
fact, Widdowson and Strevens, among others, have done research in both fields: EFL and
ESP. ESP, as I have already mentioned, should not be considered as a product of language
analysis but rather as an approximation to the needs of the learner. Many distinguished
linguists subscribe to what was asserted above, among them Hutchinson and Waters (1978:19)
who say that: 'ESP must be seen as an approach not as a product'. Widdowson seems to
second it too when affirming: 'ESP is simply a matter of describing a particular area of
language and then using this description as a course specification to impart to learners the
necessary restricted competence with this particular area' (1983:10). Chris Kennedy and Rod
Bolitho insist on the same idea: 'It is important not to regard ESP as an area of development
separate from the rest of English Language Teaching' (1984:7).
Linguistic Characteristics of ESP
We can find some differences in the rhetorical organization, syntax and lexis in ESP. For
example, the rhetorical organization of a scientific or a technical essay, published in
specialized journal is thoroughly different from an article published in a newspaper, even
though, they deal with the same topic. The conversation between an attorney and his client or
between a doctor and his patient differs completely from the one which takes place between
two professionals in medicine or law, including the instances when the topics discussed by the
specialists might be similar to those dwelt upon in the lawyer's or doctor's office. ESP texts,
especially those of EST type, contain a high percentage of some structures, for example, the
passive voice, present and past simple, modal verbs, conjunctions, -ing forms, infinitives with
final function, relative clauses, etc. As far as lexis is concerned, we should distinguish four
vocabulary types in technical discourse: functional words, general, technical and semitechnical vocabulary.
The ESP teacher
The key of the learning process lies in the interaction between the teacher and his students. In
most cases, the ESP teacher arrives on the scene from the area of teaching General English.
This kind of experience is more than welcome, for the ESP teacher needs to have all the
qualities required for teaching General English, but in addition to this he ought to carry out a
needs analysis in order to fix objectives and design a syllabus for his/her students according to
the obtained data from the needs analysis; using an adequate methodology depending on the
specific needs of his/her students is another task. Moreover, he/she must select materials,
sometimes, he/she has to adapt them, other times to create them. However, the greatest
problem stems from the fact that the ESP teacher is sometimes not familiar with the topics
he/she is going to confront in English texts. Luckily, on occasions he/she can rely on the help

from his/her colleagues of other departments, experts in the subject matter or even on his/her
own students, much better versed in the specific topics. These comments are not intended to
suggest that the ESP teacher should instantly convert into a specialist in Telecommunications
or Electronics, for this is not feasible in the majority of cases. Still, this kind of interdepartmental cooperation would indeed help the teacher to clarify doubts concerning specific
topics and selecting interesting materials. The case of a specialized ESP teacher is rare,
naturally. Chris Kennedy says this in respect to the above: 'Some language teachers are in fact
scientists who have 'switched' and been retrained as ESP teachers. These 'hybrids' are rare and
programmes cannot be initiated on the assumption that such teachers will be recruited'
(1980:122).
Needs Analysis in the University of Alcal
Our students at the Polytechnic were students with supposedly high capacity for learning,
since all of them had got their A Levels (Bachillerato). Generally, there were two groups of
students, those that had studied English in final high school years and those who had studied
French never seeing English before. The resulting mixture of such disparaging levels made
English teaching a very difficult affair for the teacher/lecturer. Likewise, the teacher/lecturer
had to try to recruit students with fluent English as collaborators in order to make the teaching
of English more bearable to those without experience while he/she divided the group into
teams. However, all the students possessed similar knowledge as far as their knowledge in
Telecommunications was concerned and as expected, it ameliorated the interpretation of
technical texts. The possibility of grouping students according to their level in English from a
diagnostic test given as a norm at the beginning of a course was a mere utopia, since the
groups were formed in function of other needs of greater relevancy to their professional
training. What was undeniable was the fact that a Telecommunications engineer needed
English so that he/she could read and understand technical textbooks. The main needs of these
students consisted in understanding manuals and articles dealing with their profession subject
matter. Counting on a variety of informal interviews with professors or lecturers one could get
a pretty good idea that most students recognized the importance of English in view of their
professional future.
According to what was previously mentioned, the needs analysis involved more than mere
identification of linguistic characteristics of a given situation. There were several ways by
which we could obtain information that was of concern to students such as situation analysis,
interviews, questionnaires, informal talks, etc. In essence, the needs analysis consisted of a
series of questions directed towards the situation and attitudes of the students, for example the
teacher/lecturer should observe students in their proper academic environment and asked them
about their communicative habits, their expectations, their problems, their linguistic
handicaps, etc.
We carried out a survey to find out our students' needs with respect to English, about 352
students participated in this survey. The survey was designed with a content divided into three
blocks: English as required, range of skills, topics of interest. The second block was organized
in function of the four skills: reading comprehension, writing, listening and speaking. In the
third block, related to an exact opinion about topics, the students were asked to establish
preferential scale of suggested topics, by marking their preferences as their first choice (1),
second choice (2) etc., and in case that none of the topics appealed to them, they were asked
to mark it as null (0). The suggested topics were as follow:
a) exclusively the topic as related to study, for example, television, satellites, etc.,
b) besides the topic of study, other topics related to the subject study, for example, computers,
electronics, etc.,

c) technical and scientific topics in a broader sense: physics, statistics, human brain, etc.
d) general topics: pollution, hobbies, spare time, taxes, cinema, etc.
e) topics related to English-speaking countries: life style, education, culture, etc.
Here we have the results of the survey. Concerning the necessity of English we obtained
100% positive answers to the two general questions; expressing unmistaken desire and need
for studying English. In turn, this convinced us of a high level of motivation existing among
our students. Concerning the range of skills, reading comprehension was their favourite skill,
they needed to read articles, journals, catalogues, books on subject matter, instruction
manuals, to understand computer instructions, etc, However, writing was not so important for
them, some of them emphasized the need of writing summaries, taking notes, writing articles,
curricula, etc. Oral skills, both listening and speaking were not essential as reading and
writing, some needed oral language in order to attend conferences, watching videos, speaking
about technical matters or using daily life language. The results dealing with topics showed
their interest in technical and general science subjects and those related with the technical and
scientific world. In conclusion, it was quite easy to register a preponderance towards reading
comprehension winning over the other skills.
Lesson planning
The questions of aims, contents and method are clearly related with time in the planning of a
lesson. When planning a lesson, the teacher must have clear objectives and contents which
can be developed in a definite time. He/she must decide which are the main points to be
taught, though every language aspect is interrelated with another; for instance, we cannot
teach reading comprehension without teaching vocabulary but there should be main points in
every lesson which should be emphasized. In any case, in General English the teacher should
integrate within its lesson as many skills or language points as possible, as we are in favour of
a multidimensional syllabus, and we also defend to practise any kind of activities or to use
any sort of strategies to add variety to the classroom. As far as class management is
concerned, we state that either individual work, group work or pair work should be employed
in a classroom. A real cooperative interaction between teacher and student, student/teacher,
student/student, student/class is always needed; both the teacher and the students will feel
more confident. Summarizing, when a teacher plans a lesson, he/she must have in mind: Clear
objectives; presentation of the lesson; aids: textbook and supplementary materials; practice:
emphasis on learner's controlled performance; production: emphasis on learner's freer use of
language; variety within the lesson; classroom management; time: number of periods; age of
students, level of language and revision
According to our needs analysis reading comprehension required special attention and priority
in our lesson planning. Our students needed English for reading technical or scientific texts,
then the general and partial aims of the course should reflect this fact and it should also
specify the reading strategies required to acquire this skill. Reading comprehension implies
both general and specific information, though inference and prediction are also involved in
this skill but by comprehension we may also mean that the student is capable of recognizing
the structure of the text, guessing the meaning of unknown words from context, re-expressing
the content of the text, re-writing the text, summarizing it, either in a written or oral way, or
answering questions about it. So comprehension and expression are interrelated. Then we had
to adopt an adequate methodology: first reading strategies such as skimming, scanning,
inference, etc. had to be used for achieving reading comprehension and it also seemed logical
to insist on the functions and the structures most frequently appearing in the technical texts,
they should be practised during the lesson; finally vocabulary had to be taught within the

context. As technical texts are full of compound words, it should be convenient to dedicate
special attention to morphology too.
A Practical Example EXAMPLE: UNIT I. READING OF THE TEXT. II. EXERCISES

Main ideas.

Questions on the text.

True/False questions.

Find and give the information.

Locating Information

Comprehension exercises.

Synonyms antonyms.

Matching words.

Content review.

Replacing terms.

Vocabulary exercises. Understanding words.

Linking words.

Contextual reference

Text organization.

Text summary.

Schematic representation of data.

Summary skills.

Passive voice.

Exercises.

Focus review. Conditionals.

Focus.
ROCKETS FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATION.
The world needs a telecommunications system which could give constant field strength at
all times over the whole earth. Although it is possible to provide telephone links between
any two points on earth, the ionosphere can make long distance communication difficult.

A rocket flying at 8 km/sec outside the earth's atmosphere would stay in orbit. It would be
like a second moon, going round the earth without using power. If the rocket were in orbit
42,000 km above the earth, it would circle the earth once every 24 hours. It would stay
above the same spot on the earth.

10 It would be possible to build a space station in such an orbit by carrying up materials in


rockets. The station could be provided with transmitting and receiving equipment, and
could act as a repeater to relay transmissions between any two points on the hemisphere
beneath
15 For a world service at least three stations would be needed, placed at equal distances

around the earth. This is the only way to transmit around the whole world, using beams in
an unlimited number of channels. The station would have very low power needs, and even
if it were expensive at first the system would be much cheaper to run than present ones.
The first manmade satellite was launched on 4 October 1957. Five years later the Telstar,
working in a low altitude orbit, made possible live broadcasts between North America
and: Europe. The transmissions lasted for about 24 minutes at a time, but the satellite had
the capacity for about sixty telephone circuits or a very limited TV channel.
20 Intelsat I had only 240 telephone channels, but now satellites like Intelsat V relay 75% of
international telephone calls. New satellites have high capacity, long life, and can be used
for telephone. television or computer data transmissions. Intelsat V has 12,000 circuits for
all types of telecommunications.
25 Transmissions from a satellite can give global or spot beam coverage, but they are
received by all earth stations in sight of the satellite. Each station selects the channels or
carriers which are addressed to it. In the same way, all stations in sight of a satellite can
use it simultaneously, and this is known as multiple access.
30 Earth stations must be capable of detecting very low level signals. Their parabolic
antennas, which track the satellite automatically, feed the signal to a low noise first stage
amplifier, which may be followed by a second stage travelling wave tube amplifier. The
earth station transmitting equipment is very powerful, emitting signals at up to 10 kW. In
some cases it is possible to control the satellite transponders and antennas from an earth
station. This process is known as telecommanding
35 INTELSAT was formed in 1964 to operate and maintain the global satellite
communications system. The agency designs and builds satellites, and organizes their
launching.
NASA, the U.S. space organization, is the main agency in the world for launching
satellites. NASAs two and three stage Titan rockets safely launched all ten Gemini
manned spacecraft, as well as numerous satellites.
40 E.S.A., the European space agency, has produced the Ariane launch vehicle as a rival to
Titan. For a 1.2 tonne geostationary satellite an Ariane launch costs $30 million, compared
to $75 million by Titan. However, although it is more costly, Titan is also more reliable
with 119 successful launches out of 122.
45 The Ariane consists of three stages, each of which is a pair of fuel tanks with one or more
rocket engines. The fuel from the two tanks burn when mixed in the engine. The large first
stage lifts, the vehicle through the atmosphere, and when the fuel tanks are empty the
section falls away, igniting the second stage. The process is repeated by the second stage,
then the third stage, which carries a computer and directional equipment in its front end,
and manoeuvres the satellite into position
50 Expendable launch vehicles such as Titan and Ariane now face strong competition from
NASAs new generation of re-usable "Space Shuttle" launch vehicles. Although the cost
of a shuttle is as high as a billion dollars, the aeroplane like spacecraft is designed to go
into orbit repeatedly, thus reducing the cost of launching a satellite to around $16 million.
55 The space shuttle is launched with the aid of two booster rockets and an external fuel tank.

When the boosters are no longer needed they fall to earth by parachute, to be picked up
from the sea and used again. Later the fuel tank is released, but this is not recovered. Once
In orbit, the orbiter uses its own engines to manoeuvre. After the mission the shuttle reenters the earth's atmosphere and lands on a runway in the same way as an aircraft.
(Text adapted from Telecommunications Developing Reading Skills in English. by D.
Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1985)
EXERCISES.
1. Comprehension exercises.
1.1 Main ideas.
a) Which two of the following subjects do you think the author deals with in this text.

To build space stations.

Use of rockets for launching satellites.

Description of the Ariane and the Titan.

A world service telecommunications system.

Role of satellites in modern communications.

b) Answer these questions.

Is it possible to have today worldwide communications? Why/why not.

How are satellites put into orbit?

1.2 Questions on the text.

Why does the ionosphere make long distance communication difficult?

To what does the author compare a rocket orbiting without power?

How are space stations built in an orbit?

What is the function of a repeater?

Why would satellite systems be cheaper to run?

What are the main characteristics of new satellites?

Which earth stations receive transmissions?

What is the name of the International Satellite Communication Organization?

What are the names of the American and European Space Organizations?

Which is the cheapest way t

o launch a satellite? Why?

Which is the most expensive and the most reliable vehicle?

How frequently can a space shuttle be used?

1.3 True/False questions.


Decide whether the following statements are true or false by referring to the information in
the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements, become true.

A space station acts as a repeater.

For a world service only two stations are needed.

The Telstar was launched in 1957.

Satellites are used only for T.V. and telephone transmissions.

Earth stations can control satellites.

INTELSAT was formed in 1964 to send monkeys to the moon.

INTELSAT designs and builds satellites, and organizes their launching.

After the mission the shuttle desintegrates.

1.4 Find and give the Information:

Distance from the earth needed by a rocket to circle it once every 24 hours.

The year in which the first telecommunications satellite was launched.

The duration of a Telstar transmission.

The capacity of Intelsat I.

The percentage of international telephone traffic relayed by Intelsat V.

1.5 Locating Information


Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the line
references.

The ionosphere poses problems to communications.

To cover the whole world several stations are needed.

The first satellites had a very limited capacity compared to the new ones.

The signals sent off by the satellite are received by some earth stations.

Not all rockets cost the same.

One type pf launching vehicle can be used more than once.

2. Vocabulary exercises. Understanding words.


2.1 Synonyms antonyms.
Refer back to the text and find synonyms (1-5) and antonyms (6-10) for the following words.
1. give (line 3)

6. above (line 11)

2. require (line 12)

7. cheap (line 14)

3. kind (line 22)

8. low (line 21)

4. principal (line 36) 9. before (line 56)


5. he1p (line 53)

10. take off (line 57)

2.2 Matching words.


Match each word In A with the meaning in B that comes closest to it.
A
1. beam

B
a) somebody or something thahgt may be

depended upon.
2. spot

b) supply, put in.

3. track

c) directed electromagnetic waves.

4. feed

d) particular place or area.

5. reliable

e) get, capture a signal.

6. tank

f) container for liquid or gas.

2.3 Content review.


Find words with this meaning in the text.
1) Rocket used to give initial speed to a missile, after which it drops and leaves the missile to
continue under its own power.
2) The planet on which we live.
3) Object for relaying back to the earth telephone messages, radio o TV signals.
4) Band of frequencies within which signals from a transmitter must be kept to prevent
interference.
5) Outline from which something will be made.
2.4 Replacing terms.
Choose a word or phrase from the text to replace the underlined word.
1. To provide a link between two locations.
2. The ionosphere can produce difficulties in telecommunications.
3. Some satellites orbit the earth once every 24 hours,
4. A satellite could relay transmmissions to one half of the earth.
5. Earth stations are able to detect very low level signals.
6. The Ariane is composed of three stages.
3 Text organization.
3.1 Linking words.
Choose one of the words below and fill in the blanks. There are some extra words.
but, and, when, nevertheless, for, such as, if, in order to
1. INTELSAT was formed in 1964 operate and maintain the global satellite communication
system
2. There are several space agencies NASA, ESA.
3. The Telstar had the capacity for about 60 telephone circuits the Intelsat 1 had 240 telephone
channels.
4. we compare the Ariane and the Titan we will see that the Titan is more expensive it is more
reliable as well.
5. The boosters fall to earth by parachute they are no longer needed.
3.2 Contextual reference

Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.
1. system which could give (line 2)
2. It would be like a second

(line 5)

moon
3. cheaper to run than the

(line 15)

present ones.
4. but they are received

(line 24)

5. which are addressed to it.

(line 25)

6. although it is more costly

(line 41)

7. The process is repeated

(line 46)

8. uses its own engines

(line 56)

4. Summary skills.
4.1 Text summary.
Refer back to the text and choose the six most important points from this list in order to get a
summary.
1. Intelsat I had only 240 telephone channels.
2. The first manmade satellite was launched in October 4, 1957.
3. At least three stations are needed for a world service.
4. The world needs a telecommunications system.
5. The shuttle system reduces the cost of launching a satellite.
6. It is possible to control the satellites from an earth station.
7. INTELSAT organizes satellite launching.
8. Space stations can be built in an orbit.
9. The use of satellites in today's world communications is a must.
10. Rockets are used for putting the communications satellites into orbit.
4.2 Schematic representation of data.
Make a table listing the satellites and another listing the rockets mentioned in the text, adding
in each case relevant information (date of launching, channels available, nationality, price
etc).
5 Focus.
5.1 Passive voice.
A Examples:
The world needs a telecommunications system (line 1)
A telecommunications system is needed by the world.

Transmissions are received by all earth stations (lines 24/25)


All earth stations receive transmissions.
Subject

Active Verb

Object

The world

Needs

a telecommunications system.

a telecommunications system

is needed

by the world

Subject

Passive Verb

Agent

5.2 Exercises.
A Here you have a summary of the text. Fill in the blanks using the suitable form of the
passive voice of the verbs between brackets.
The earth can (circle) by satellites. New satellites can (use) for telephone, television or
computer data transmission. Transmissions (send) from the satellite and they (receive) by all
earth stations in sight of the satellite. The Ariane (build) by the Europeans and the Titan
(make) by the Americans. The global satellite communication system (maintain) by
INTELSAT.
B. Change the following sentences from active
e to passive as in the example.
Example: We need a telecommunications system
A telecommunications system is needed
1. We need at least three space stations for a world service.
e.
2. The shuttle reduces the cost of launching a satellite to around $16 million.
.
3. Titan rockets safely launched all ten Gemini manned spacecraft.
.
4. They have designed the shuttle to go into orbit repeatedly.
.
5. U.S. Air Force will use five planned shuttles to launch ten military satellites per year.
.
C. Here you have three dates: 1957, 1962, 1964. Say what happened in these years
according to the text. Use the passive voice.
1. .
2. .
3. .
D. Read this passage and complete the exercises which follow using the passive voice.
In the early days of space travel every pound weight added a 100 to the cost of the flight so
food had to be as light as possible. One way of making food lighter was to extract all the
moisture from it by a process known as freeze drying.

Raw or cooked food (freeze) inside a vacuum chamber and then (heat) a little. During the
freezing process, moisture in the food (turn) into ice crystals; these (then convert) into gas by
the heat, and the gas (finally suck out). During the flight, water (add) to the dried food to
make it more or less like normal food: hot water produces hot food.
E. Complete this text using either active or passive as needed.
A G. Bell (invent) the Telephone in 1876 and some years later, the radio (develop) by
Marconi. Both breakthroughs (become) essential to men and since then many other advances
(achieve) in the field of communications.
5.3 Focus review. Conditionals.
A Complete the sentence choosing one of the clauses given.

it would be like a second moon.

it will be like a second moon.

it were like a second moon.

If a rocket flies around the earth

a space station could be built in the orbit

a space station will be built in the orbit

a space station can be built in the orbit

If materials were carried in rockets


a) at least three stations would be needed
b) at least three stations were needed
c) at least three stations will be needed

If we want a world service telecommunications system

they will be received by all earth stations in sight of the satellite

they would be received by all earth stations in sight of the satellite

they could be received by all earth stations in sight of the satellite

If transmissions from a satellite can give global coverage

B. Choose one clause from the right as an answer to the problem posed:
When launching a new space vehicle the space experts are worried about these things:
1) What if the booster rocket did not work.

a) A new satellite can be sent to the space to


bring it down.

2) What If the cost were too expensive.

b) it would be repaired immediately.

3) What if the booster did not fall to earth.

c) a cheaper satellite will be built.

4) What If the shuttle did not re-enter the


earth's atmosphere.

d) a new satellite would be sent to the space to


bring it down.
e) it would be a catastrophe
f) people would have to pay more taxes to
launch the satellite
References

Alcaraz Var, E. (2001). La investigacin oracional y supraoracional en el Ingls


Profesional y Acadmico In Aguado, G. & P. Durn (eds.). La Investigacin en Lenguas
Aplicadas: Enfoque Multidisciplinar. Madrid: Universidad Politcnica de Madrid.
Davies, D. (1985). Telecommunications Developing Reading Skills in English. Oxford:
Pergamon Press.
Ewer, J. R. & G. Latorre (1969). A Course in Basic Scientific English. London: Longman.
Kennedy, C. (1980) Fundamental Problems in ESP. In Team Teaching in ESP. ELT
Documents: 106. London: British Council Information Centre.
Kennedy, C. & R. Bolitho, (1984). English for Specific Purposes. London: Macmilan.
Halliday, M. A. K.; A. McIntosh & P. Strevens (1964). The Linguistic Sciences and
Language Teaching. London: Longman.
Hutchinson, T. & A. Waters, (1978) English for Specific Purposes. A Learning Centered
Approach. Cambridge: CUP.
Lackstrom, J.; L. Selinker & L. Trimble (1973). Technical Rethorical Principles and
Grammatical Choices. TESOL Quarterly, 7, 2.
Selinker, L. (1979). On the Use of Informants in Discourse Analysis and Languages for
Specialized Purposes. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 27, 3.
Strevens, P. (1988). The learner and the Teacher of ESP in D. Chamberlain; R. J.
Baumgardner (eds.). An ESP in the Classroom. Practice and Evaluation. ELT Documents:
128. Oxford: Modern English Publications in Association with the British Council.
Swales, J. (1971). Writing Scientific English. London: Nelson.
Todd Trimble, M.; L. Trimble & K. Drobnic (1978). English for Specific Purposes. Oregon:
OUP.
Trimble, L. (1985). English for Science and Technology. A Discourse Approach.
Cambridge: CUP.
Widdowson, H. G. (1978). Teaching Languages as Communication. Oxford: OUP.
Widdowson, H.G. (1983). Language Purpose and Language Use. Oxford: OUP.
Lina Sierra Ayala
Universidad de Alcal, Alcal de Henares, Espaa Juan Silvio
Leer ms: http://www.monografias.com/trabajos14/reading/reading.shtml#ixzz2qPGdXiQH