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Sr. No.

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Table of content
Counseling the gifted
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Dr Indira Patil

Student Counselling Cell: A Need of the Hour


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Dr. Khalane S.H.

Counseling for Highly-Educated Unemployed Women


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Dr. Vanita Patwardhan

The Role of Counselor for Dropout Prevention


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Dr. Sujala Watve

Counselling for Socially Excluded


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Dr. Nikhila Bhagwat

Management of Adolescents Problems by Simulating Various Counselling

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Strategies-A Case Study


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Counseling at Work Place


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Vishal Ghule & Prof. B. R. Shejwal

Self-rated Emotional Intelligence in Deaf and Hard of Hearing adolescents


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Dr. Anagha Patil

Positive Affect Negative Affect and Health


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Prof. Tanuja Kher

Replicable effects of group counseling on livelihood of farmers


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Dr. Alpana Vaidya

Type A personality and counselling-Survey study of engineering students.


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Freda Cota e Pereira & Cedila Pereira e Gomes

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Walke S. B. &. Dr. Thingujam N. K. S.

Social Connectedness among Adolescents: The Friends v/s Family Conflict


- Ipsita Chatterjee & Prof. Gayathri Balasubramanian
The Study of Relationship Between Self Esteem and Loneliness Amongst
Smokers and Nonsmokers.
- Khushbu Shah & Vidhi Jain
Challenges faced In Counselling Of Adolescents
- Nikalje, Talreja, Chatterjee, & Balasubramanian

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Proceedings for National Level Seminar on Counseling

ISBN 978-93-5137-492-3

SELF-RATED EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN DEAF AND


HARD OF HEARING ADOLESCENTS
Walke Santosh B.*

Nutankumar S. Thingujam **

* Research Fellow, Dept. of Psychology, UoP, India.


**Assistant Professor, School of Human Sciences, Dept. of Psychology,
Sikkim University, India.
Abstract
The importance of psychological counseling service in people with deaf and hard of hearing
(DHH) is acknowledged by government of India as it is reflected in government policy.
Therefore, psychologists who work with such people need further inquiry into the specific
difficulties related to various psychological issues. The present study aimed at understanding
if people with DHH are poorer at emotional abilities embedded in the construct of emotional
intelligence. Sixty DHH adolescents and 60 hearing adolescents responded to the Self-rated
Emotional Intelligence scale. Data were subjected to MANOVA and results showed that
hearing participants provided significantly better emotional abilities in the areas of using
emotion, understanding emotion, managing emotion (self), and social management, but there
was no significant difference on perceiving emotion. Results are discussed in the context of
the requirement of counseling for improving emotional ability in adolescents with DHH.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Deaf and Hard of Hearing, adolescent.
Salovey and Mayer (1990) who first used the term emotional intelligence postulated
that emotional intelligence (EI) consists of the following three categories of adaptive abilities:
appraisal and expression of emotion, regulation of emotion and utilization of emotions in
solving problems. Later on, Mayer and Salovey (1997) formulated a revised model of EI
which gives more emphasis to the cognitive components of EI and conceptualizes emotional
intelligence in terms of potential for intellectual and emotional growth. The revised model
consists of the following four branches of EI: perception, appraisal and expression of
emotion; emotional facilitation of thinking; understanding, analyzing and employing
emotional knowledge and reflective regulation of emotions to further emotional and
intellectual growth. The perception, appraisal and expression of emotion are viewed as the
most basic processes, while the reflective regulation of emotions requires the most complex
processing. Based on the research on the human brain, Goleman (1994) stated that we really
have two different ways of understanding- intellectual and emotional - and our mental life
results from the interaction of both functions. It means mental health directly depends on
head and heart because intellectual development depends on head (brain) and emotional
development depends on heart. From the evidence gathered in the literature, it is crystal clear
that mental health is related with EI as well as esteem of the self.
Adolescents who are deaf or hard of hearing are far more vulnerable than their
hearing peers to the damaging psychological effects of social isolation, loneliness, and
interpersonal conflicts. An alarming number of adolescents who are deaf or hard of hearing
are referred to residential treatment centers because of perceived difficulties in
communication and co-occurring mental health disorders (Willis & Vernon, 2002). Van Gent,
Goedhart, Hindley, and Treffers (2007) explained that adolescents who are deaf or hard of

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Proceedings for National Level Seminar on Counseling

ISBN 978-93-5137-492-3

hearing are inadequately or inaccurately identified at an early age, and, compared to their
hearing peers, often have not been provided resources adequate to allow for earlier
intervention. In order to improve identification and intervention for adolescents who are deaf
or hard of hearing, it is necessary to examine ways in which their mental health needs differ
from those of hearing adolescents.
Gilman, Easterbrooks, and Frey (2004) suggested that youth who are deaf or hard of
hearing collectively experience less life satisfaction across most domains than their hearing
peers. Van Gent and colleagues (2007) examined emotional and behavioral correlates in a
large sample of adolescents with hearing loss and noted similar results. The prevalence of
psychopathology in adolescents who are deaf or hard of hearing is significantly greater than
in hearing adolescents, especially in regard to emotional disorders.
Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) people thought to have three to five times higher
chance than hearing people to face psychological problems (Veentjer & Govers, 1988) A
possible explanation for this is prelingually deaf childrenchildren deaf before age 3fall
behind in their language acquisition because lack of contact with spoken language. Cooper
(1979) concluded that prelingual deaf children showed more behavior and personality
problems compared with postlingual deaf children. In addition, growing up with faulty
communication can hamper the development of social and emotional skills (Greenberg, 1983;
Leigh, Corbett, Gutman, & Morere, 1996). Furthermore, Hindley (2005) concluded that,
children with early onset, severe to profound deafness are more vulnerable to mental health
problems than their hearing peers, developmental delays associated with early
communication deprivation are the key risk factors. Socially inadequate expression or
impoverished understanding of other peoples emotions can easily create a climate of
interpersonal misunderstanding. Earlier studies indicated that deaf children make more errors
in recognizing facial expressions of emotion than hearing children, and number of errors is
related to the onset of deafness (cf. Murray & Denver, 2003). Studies also showed that,
Social behaviors, personal adjustment, emotion regulation, and emotion understanding can be
adversely affected for children with hearing loss (Wake, Hughes, Poulakis, Collins, &
Rickards, 2004; Yoshinaga-Itano, 2003).
Preventative efforts at a young age may be beneficial in reducing the
psychological risks that are often developed in DHH population. This research may provide
information necessary for screening EI in DHH children. The purpose of this study is to
investigate the differences in hearing and DHH adolescents, and whether, EI can be
considered as preliminary diagnostic tool for DHH adolescents emotional abilities in the
areas of perceiving emotion, using emotion, understanding emotion, managing emotion (self),
and social management.

Methods
Participants:
Total 120 participants distributed in to two groups age ranging from 12 to 18. First
group includes 60 hearing participants, who were able to speak, read, write and understand
Marathi comfortably. Out of these 30 were boys (mean age = 14.73 years, SD = 0.86) and 30
were girls (mean age = 14.90 years, SD = 0.92). On the other group 60 DHH participants;
who were able to read, write and understand Marathi comfortably. Out of them 30 were boys
(mean age = 15.30 years, SD = 2.29) and 30 were girls (mean age = 15.43 years, SD = 2.06).
The participants were selected by using incidental sampling method. Hearing participants
were drawn from numerous schools from Pune city, and DHH participants were drawn from
deaf childrens special day/residential/integrated schools from Pune city; so that it would be a
fairly heterogeneous sample permitting wider range of generalizability.
Tools:

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Proceedings for National Level Seminar on Counseling

ISBN 978-93-5137-492-3

3.3.2. Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale (SREIS)


The SREIS (Brackett, Rivers, Shiffman, Lerner and Salovey, 2006) was developed to
examine the role of emotional abilities in social functioning and to map on to model of
emotional intelligence as well as on MSCEIT developed by Mayer and Salovey (1997).To
develop the SREIS, Brackett et. al. (2006) examined and amended items from relevant scales,
such as the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, & Palfai, 1995), and
the self-report measure of EI by Schutte et al. (1998), and also wrote additional items to cover
all four EI domains adequately. Before administering the SREIS, 10 graduate students
familiar with Mayer and Saloveys (1997) model of EI rated the content validity of each item.
Items for which there was less than 75% agreement were dropped, yielding a total of 34
items. The final scale included 9 items for Perceiving Emotions, 8 items for Using Emotions,
8 items for Understanding Emotions, and 9 items for Managing Emotions. Participants were
rated each item on a response scale ranging from 1 (disagree strongly) to 5 (agree strongly).
After factor analysis with principal axis along with oblique rotation, of the 34-item scale 19
items remained and among them six items comprised each of the scales for the Perceiving,
Using, and Managing Emotions domains, and 4 items comprised the Understanding Emotions
domain. Their primary interest was on the overall EI construct; therefore, they computed a
total EI score by averaging across the scales. The partwhole correlations between the four
dimension scores and the total SREIS score were high and statistically significant, r (287) =
.57 to .78, and the full scale was reliable ( = .84). A confirmatory factor analysis of the
revised SREIS supported both one- and four-factor solutions. Thus, there is converging
evidence that the four basic dimensions of EI can be detected with both self-report and
performance tests, which both load on one hierarchical factor of EI.
Translation of SREIS into Marathi was carried out following the cross-cultural
translation procedures. Firstly, the scale was translated from English into Marathi according
to the back-translation procedure. Secondly, two special educators were review the pilot
version of four scales and made changes according to the DHH students level of
understanding and comprehension. Thereafter, researchers selected the items that had
maintained the original meaning, and afterward prepared the scale format and the instructions
identically to the original version assessed the items thus obtained.

Results and Discussion:


To evaluate differences among hearing status and gender in SREIS and its subscales
MANOVA was carried out with hearing status and gender as independent variables and
emotional total EI scores along with sub-scales as dependent variables. Firstly, for hearing
status the MANOVA yielded a Wilks Lambda value of 0.606. The transformation of Wilks
Lambda provided F (6,111) = 12.02, p<.001. Results indicated that hearing adolescents
having higher scores on total EI than DHH adolescents (F (1, 118) = 47.36, p<.001); results
also showed that hearing adolescents having higher on Use of Emotion (F (1, 116)=13.25,
p<.001), Understanding Emotion (F (1, 116) = 24.47, p<.001), Managing Emotion (self) (F
(1, 116) = 11.78, p<.001), and on Social Management (F (1, 116) = 13.68, p<.001); however,
for Perceiving Emotion significant results was not found. However, secondly, for gender and
emotional intelligence scores along with its sub-scales significant results were not found on
total EI scores and its sub-scales; moreover, interaction effect for hearing status and gender
also not found statistically significant. The significant univariate F ratios and the descriptive
statistics are presented in Table 1 for SREIS and its sub-scales respectively. Table 2 provides
descriptive for gender.

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ISBN 978-93-5137-492-3

Table 1: Descriptive statistics and MANOVA results for SREIS and its sub-scales.
Hearing
DHH
Total
(n=60)
(n=60)
(n=120)
f
M
SD
M
SD
M
SD
Total EI
66.67 8.13 58.78 3.55 62.73 7.40 47.36**
Perceiving Emotion
14.37 3.16 13.93 2.44 14.15 2.82
ns
Use of Emotion
9.58 1.90 8.50 1.31 9.04 1.71 13.25**
Understanding Emotion 14.17 3.64 10.90 3.60 12.53 3.96 24.47**
Managing
13.53 2.98 11.92 2.11 12.73 2.69 11.78**
Emotion (self)
Social Management
15.02 2.69 13.47 1.82 14.24 2.42 13.68**
Note: Only statistically significant F(1,116) ratios are reported. ** p < .001.
Variable

Table 2: Descriptive statistics for SREIS and its sub-scales.


Female
(n=60)
M
SD
Total EI
63.18 7.64
Perceiving Emotion
14.57 2.77
Use of Emotion
8.92 1.75
Understanding Emotion 12.82 4.04
Managing
12.85 2.91
Emotion (self)
Social Management
14.02 2.53
Variable

Male
(n=60)
M
62.27
13.73
9.17
12.25

SD
7.18
2.82
1.68
3.88

Total
(n=120)
M
SD
62.72 7.40
14.15 2.82
9.04 1.71
12.53 3.96

12.60 2.48 12.73 2.69


14.47 2.29 14.24 2.42

The main purpose of the present study was to examine the group difference between
hearing and DHH adolescents in terms of their EI by using self-rating scale. The results
indicated that, DHH adolescents having lower EI skills than their hearing counterparts.
Results also showed that, DHH adolescents were able to perceive emotions but having much
more problems in how to use and or handle the emotions of their own and others, understand
and manage their own emotions and also showing problems in social management of their
emotions and emotional skills. One might possible reason for that, due to lack of linguistic
skills, improper language development and limited contact with society DHH adolescents
may not be able to understand, use and or manage emotional skills, furthermore, their limited
contact with hearing world may hinder their emotional abilities and skills.
Earlier studies have shown that self-rated emotional intelligence is related to higher
life satisfaction (Extremera & Fernandez-Berrocal, 2005; Murphy, 2006; Avsec & Kavcic,
2011), interpersonal relationship (Schutte, et. al., 2001), happiness (Furnham & Petrides,
2003; Furnham & Christoforou, 2007), and lower deviant behaviour (Brackett, Mayer &
Warner, 2004; Petrides, Frederickson & Furnham, 2004; Ct, DeCelles, McCarthy, Van
Kleef & Hideg, 2011). Therefore, the present study may be useful at screening level for
practitioners and parents to identify the actual problem in emotional abilities and or skills of
DHH adolescents. The results were not supported with the previous findings on gender
differences in either group or overall, which may a stray finding and need further exploration.

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References:
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SOCIAL CONNECTEDNESS AMONG ADOLESCENTS: THE


FRIENDS V/S FAMILY CONFLICT
Ipsita Chatterjee
(Student, Dept of Psychology, VES College of Arts, Science and Commerce)

Professor Gayathri Balasubramanian


(H.O.D, Dept. of Psychology, VES College of Arts, Science and Commerce)
Abstract
Connectedness represents the fundamental human desire for interpersonal relationships with
others. Research has consistently shown that higher levels of connectedness are associated
with positive mental health and wellbeing (Levesque, 2013).
Adolescents may face constant problems in forming social relationships or improving existing
connections. At this stage, the person faces a conflict between friends and family. The choice
made by adolescents between friends and family may either be voluntary or a result of
alienation from either of the sides.

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