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Active Learning Strategies in Characterizing the Learning Zone in Grade 11

Students: An Amelioration in English Teaching

A Thesis Writing
presented to
Dr. Teresita V. Dela Cruz
College of Graduate School
Southern Luzon Polytechnic University
Lucban, Quezon

In partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the course
RESEARCH WRITING ( EDUC503)
Master of Arts in Teaching English

by

RAYMUND C. FRANCIA
MATE II

July, 2016

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
This portion of the study shows the foundations of the research including the background
of the study, its objectives, hypothesis, and significance of the study, scope and limitations and
the definitions of the terminologies.

A. Background of the Study


Learning the competencies in English language is a unique event that does not happen
anytime, anywhere with anyone around. Instead, it is a situation artistically, considerably, and
patiently created by the learners and more of the teachers. It is an inherent responsibility of the
teachers to situate learners in the highest possibility of learning. Each of the learners have
different qualities, learning styles and intelligences that makes them distinctive learners. With
this idea born the concept of Tom Senniger that each learner, during the teaching-learning
process, could either be in comfort zone, learning zone, or panic zone which the teachers must
find out through different strategies. And, using the most desired strategy, guide the learners to
be in the learning zone.
Everybody has to leave the comfort zone to grow, or extend it persistently. Learning
happens not in the comfort zone but in the learning zone where everything has different colors,
new. However, pushing them too much nor inconsiderately teaching them with and by any topic,
assuming they are able to learn, creates learners but fear which in turn bring them to panic zone.
Panic zone is a phobic zone that caused most learners silent and unanimated during class or and
the worst is stop schooling.
Truly learners first understand how they learn best. Then they acquire the skills to choose
and use the tools that work best for their learning qualities. When they combine these skills and
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tools with strategies that support their learning, they will be able to self-direct and own their
learning. We know that every learner is unique and that one-size-fits-all instruction does not
work for most. Each teacher must find ways to create classroom environment, a zone for
learning, that gives each learner a voice and choice, (Bray and McClasley, 2013). Learning
environments should be able to flex to fit how each learner learns best but it takes a process over
time to achieve this flexibility.
It is truly hard to bring the students to their learning zone and once they are in, another
challenge is how to keep them up and sustain their engagement. There is a clash of belief in the
effectiveness of the traditional and modern strategies but the issue simply lies on how to make
the learning happen. Learning happen when the students are engage in the activity. When they
are active cognitively, affectively positive, and psychomotorly engaged learning is at its best.
Teaching English, making students speak, write, read, write, and/or view a topic strange
to them is like wrestling. Learners with good foundation can immediately cope up but almost less
than 15 percent of the entire student population perform to the expectation. A reality in the
language class, all students have a perfect time and a worst time of performing and creating
output. Why not only the perfect learning time every class and remove the worst time?
Idealistically, there is a chance.
Strategically, language teaching could be enhanced if teachers would ascertain the
students are in their learning zone and that positive activity is sustained.
The purpose of this study is to find out the manifestation of the learning zone through
active learning strategies and increase the possibility of learning the language skills. The results
of this study potentially provide a best fit to the characteristics of todays student generation.

B. Objectives of the Study


According to Thempras Social Pedagogy, It is not possible to teach, but it is possible to
create situations, wherein it is impossible not to learn. Guided with this thought, this study seeks
to give light in the following objectives:
1. Identify the active learning strategies, low risk or high risk, that prompts the learning
zone according to:
A. Class time required
B. Degree of Planning
C. Degree of structure
D. Subject Matter
E. Potential for Controversy
F. Prior Knowledge of the Subject Matter
G. Prior Knowledge of the Teaching Technique
H. Pattern of Interaction

2. Classify the low risk and high risk instructional strategies that favor learning zone.
3. Observe the manifested language behavior as sign of being in the learning zone as to
the ff:
A. Listening
B. Speaking
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C. Reading
D. Writing
E. Viewing

In view of the following:


A. As perceived by the teacher
B. As perceived by the learners.
4. Realize the relationship that exist or do not exist in the manifestation of language
behavior as sign of being in the learning zone as perceived by the teachers and
learners.
5. Enumerate ways for the students to
A. move from comfort zone to learning zone
B. avoid being in the panic zone.

C. Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis There is a significant relationship that exist between the perception of teachers
and perception of learners in the manifestation of language behavior as sign of being in the
learning zone.

Alternative Hypothesis There is no significant relationship that exist between the perception of
teachers and perception of learners in the manifestation of language behavior as sign of being in
the learning zone.

D. Significance of the Study

This research will benefit the following school stakeholders for Senior High School of
secondary schools in cluster VI of 3rd congressional level of Quezon Province

Students. Being the center of this research, the students will be able to maximize their
learning potential in the English language class. Their teachers will can now pinpoint the
environment of the students and guide them directly to being in the learning zone. Much of the
opportunities in any of the macro skill will be given to the students in class activities to be active.

Teachers. The results of this study this will serve as for the teachers to develop or design
other activities that will be utilized in their English language classes. They will be more sensitive
to the needs, characteristics, and manifestation of learning. Teachers can motivate with enhance
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efficiency their learners to be active. Performance and output of the students can be in its best
during class. Teachers role is facilitated with the students activity.

School Heads. The results of this study will help the school heads in their supervisory
instructional plan. Further, they can acquire additional information needed by them for their
classroom observations, evaluations and assessments. The results could further be used in
benchmarking and in class development.

Future researcher. Similar studies could be conducted relative to this research. It could
also be good reference about active learning strategies and learning zone.

Expected Output. The research aims to produce a booklet that will guide the users to
know the manifestation of language learning in their prospective students. Included also in the
booklet are instructional and teaching strategies, and activities which promote active learning,
leaving the comfort zone and avoiding the panic zone. Generally, the output aims for an
enhancement of the five macro skills in language teaching.

E. Scope and Limitations

This academic endeavor studies the low risk and high risk active learning strategies,
active learning instructional strategies, and the manifestation of being in the learning zone
through active learning strategies in teaching English language macro skills (listening, speaking,
reading, writing, and viewing as perceived by the teachers and by the learners. Additionally, this
study aims to realize how to extend learners comfort zone and avoid the panic zone.
The study does not touch the learning styles and intelligence of the students but the
manifestation of learning. It does not define active learning strategy in a whole but give guidance
on how to make students active during classes. Each individual has its own learning zone; this
study provides choices for the teachers to create opportunities for their learners to be in the
learning zone and maximize their potential of learning.

F. Definition of Terms
The terminologies are defined conceptually and operationally for the clarity of the study.
1. Active
Conceptually means moving about, busy, doing something, showing involvement or energy,
showing variable surface features and not extinct.
In this study, it is the full involvement of the learners mental, physical, and emotional aspects in
the teaching learning process. It also means being absorb with the activity, thus, leading the class
into a performance or output.

2. Learning
According to Microsoft dictionary 2009, learning means acquisition of knowledge which shows
a change in behavior.
Operationally, learning is a process of conscious and subconscious growth due the active
involvement to the learning process, it promotes enhancement of competencies which in this
study, the five macro skills.

3. Strategy
Conceptually, strategy is planning in any field, it is an adaptation important to success.
In this study, it means the teaching and instructional ways / actions of the teacher to promote
learning in the most positive way. Strategies are actions done to guide students into active
learning in bring student into the learning zone.

4. Active Learning Strategy:

Theoretically, active learning strategy is any action which engage the students into an activity
with conscious knowledge on what is happening.
In this study, it is a pre-planned or necessary actions to promote learner-centered activity. Where
teachers are sensitive and sensible facilitators to the learning process. Active learning strategy is
defined here as a conscious cognitive, affective and psychomotor involvement to maximize
learning.

5. Characterizing
MS Encyclopedia 2009 define characterizing as to describe somebody or something and to be a
representative of somebody or something.
Operationally, characterizing means describing the manifested behavior or features of language
learning and being in the learning zone.

6. Zone
Conceptually, zone means a separate area with particular function, a subsection of a particular
area, and a designate area for something.
Operationally, zone means an unseen learning environment which carries some characteristics.
Zone could be a place of comfort, a place of learning, and a place of fear and stress.
7. Learning Zone
Theoretically, Learning Zone refers to the students best time and place of learning with positive
characteristics that promote activity and retention.

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In this study, Learning Zone means the learners leave the comfort zone and avoid the panic
zone. It is where the learners experience new things and learn from doing it actively with the
teachers active guidance.
8. Grade
Conceptually, grade means a year in school, grade 11 means a mark showing a level, a level in
scale of progression or a rank.
In this study, grade refers to the 11th grade students of the Senior High School particularly of the
Cluster VI in 3rd Congressional District of Quezon.
9. Students
Microsoft Encarta defines student as a person studying and a knowledgeable or interested person.
Operationally, Students refers to the students who wants to learn or enhance their language
macro skills such as listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing. In this study it pertains to
the Grade 11 students of Senior High School.

10. Amelioration
Dictionary define amelioration as a verb which means to improve, to make something or become
better.
In this study amelioration means making each macro skill better through active learning strategy
which happens in their learning zone.

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11. English
Microsoft Encarta define English as a language of U.K., U.S., Canada and other English
language countries.
In this study, English refers to the study of English language and learning each language macro
skill where students perform and create output with this language.
12. Teaching
Conceptually, teaching means providing knowledge and skills to individuals.
Operationally, teaching refers to facilitating the learning process through active learning
strategies with the intention of enhancing their performance in the five macro skills.

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Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This part of the study presents the supporting works and literatures done in the past as
basis of this undertaking. It presents the discussion of variables based on the presented
objectives, theoretical and conceptual framework and the research paradigm.

A. Research Variables
Who does the learning are of course the learners. Much of the factors to be considered by
the school stakeholders falls to the needs of the learners. Each should ask how do they students
learn the best and how can we make that best learning happen with our strategies in English
teaching.
Active Learning Strategies
In tracing the history of our education for active learning we would fall back to
Confucius (551-479 BC), who said, I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I
understand, and Socrates (470-399 BC) who said that "I cannot teach anybody anything. I can
only make them think". Reflecting on the its reality in the classroom, it doesn't really matter what
we do. It only matters what our students do, Joe Bergin (2001). As many theorists mentioned,
truly, there is no substitute for learning-by-doing. In order for students to learn, they must act
physically, mentally, and affectively. In the classroom, where active learning happens, active
learning involves providing opportunities for students to meaningfully talk and listen, write,
read, and reflect on the content, ideas, issues, and concerns of an academic subject. Students do
not learn much just sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged assignments,
and giving out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write reflectively about it,

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relate it to past experiences, engage themselves in learning by doing and apply it to their daily
lives.

Doyle (2011) mentioned that recent research has returned attention to the maxim that the
person doing the teaching is far less important than how students are taught and what they are
expected to do. In fact, the opening chapters of most book on learner-centered teaching focuses
on getting students to do the work, becomes a recurrent theme. According to Columbia
University, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Teaching, (2012), students learn best when
learning is active: When they are mentally involved, when they engage in hands-on activities,
when they are involved in a process of inquiry, discovery, investigation, and interpretation. Thus,
learning is enhanced when students repeat the information in their own words or when they give
examples or make use of the information.

Active learning promotes proper knowledge, attitude and skills among the students. The
basic concept is that students will be able to learn better if they are subjected to active learning
environments

which

also

encourage

learners

to

take

responsibility

for

their

learning. ,Zayapragassarazan and Kumar (2012). Taking responsibility to ones learning would
be facilitated since active learning is a multifaceted and directional approach where various
interactions are welcomed (e.g., teacher-tostudent, student-to-teacher, and student-to-student)
(Grabinger & Dunlap, 2000), and in anything course-related activities all students in a class
session are called upon to do other than simply watching, listening and taking notes, Felder,
20012.

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Generally, active learning is defined as any instructional method and strategies that
engages students in the learning process (Prince, 2004). Active learning is a student-centered
inductive learning process. It engages students by requiring them to do meaningful activities and
think about what they are doing (Bonwell and Eison, 1991). Thus, active learning does not
involve just doing activities; there must be opportunity for students to reflect, evaluate, analyze,
synthesize, and communicate on or about information (Fink, 2003). Research suggests that active
learning leads to a variety of positive outcomes including better student attitudes (BleskeRechek, 2002), greater motivation (Waston, Kessler, Kalla, Kam, and Ueki, 1996),
improvements in students thinking and writing (Bonwell and Eison), memory for information
taught (Cherney, 2008), and improved exam performance (Yoder and Hochevar, 2005, Smith and
Cardiosotto, 2011).

Low Risk and High Risk Active Learning Strategy


Active learning would start with an instructor who is an active learner and active
instructor himself and who can upgrade his knowledge and skills in the time of need. He has to
then identify the needs of the students with reference to changes expected in learning
environment. He then has to balance the students needs with what he thinks is best for the
learning environment. This would lead to the preliminary preparations in collaboration with the
learners and would be followed by gradual, step by step implementation of the new methods and
tools, Naitahani, 2008; Hammer & Giordano, 2012.
The risk of learning and teaching are experience by both the learner and the teacher.
Wentworth (2001) noted a Risk Zone that is the most fertile place for learning. It is where most
people are willing to take some risks, not know everything, or sometimes not know anything at

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all, but clearly know they want to learn and will take the risks necessary to do so. It is where
people open up to other people with curiosity and interest, and where they will consider options
or ideas they havent thought of before.
Bonwell (2000) said, It is believed that there are two primary sets of obstacles that
prevent faculty from using active learning strategies in the classroom. First is the six potential
obstacles such as: we cannot cover as much course content in the time available; devising active
learning strategies takes too much pre-class preparation, (Lammers & Murphy, 2002 as cited by
Huxman, 2005); large class sizes prevents implementation of active learning strategies from
Bonwell and Eison cited by Naithani, 2008, Michael 2007; most instructors think of themselves
as being good lecturers; there is a lack of materials or equipment needed to support active
learning approaches; students resist non-lecture approaches, and second is the fact that using
active learning strategies involves risk

Considering the obstacles, Bonwell, 2000; Hammer & Giordano, 2012; Nasmith and
Steinert, 2001 also noted important considerations saying that the use of active learning
strategies reduces the amount of available lecture time that can be devoted to content coverage
but faculty who regularly use active learning strategies typically find other ways to ensure that
students learn assigned course content (e.g., using reading and writing assignments, through their
classroom examinations, etc.).

The amount of pre-class preparation time needed to implement active learning strategies
will be greater than that needed to "recycle old lectures;" it will not necessarily take any more

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time than that needed to create thorough and thoughtful new lectures. (Bonwell, 2000; Quinlan
and Fogel, 2014

Large class size may restrict the use of certain active learning strategies (e.g., it is
difficult to involve all students in discussion in groups larger than 40) but certainly not all. For
example, large classes can be divided into small groups for discussion activities, writing
assignments can be read and critiqued by students instead of the instructor, (Bonwell, 2000;
Quinlan and Fogel, 2014). Such large class are not actually a problem for it could be divided into
small groups where collaborative cooperative learning is always active learning, Bleske-Rechek
(2002).

Most instructors see themselves as good lecturers and therefore see no reason to change.
Though lecturing is potentially a useful means of transmitting information, teaching does not
equal learning; this can be seen clearly in the painful disparity between what we think we have
effectively taught, and what students indicate they have learned on the examination papers that
we grade. More than 250,000 freshmen at nearly 500 universities, 35.6% of the students said that
they were frequently bored in class. (Berk, 2003 and McKeachie, 2006). According to some
recent studies, an instructor generally says 100 - 200 words a minute and a student only hears 50100half. Worse yet, in a typical lecture class, students are attentive just 40 percent of the time.
One study concluded that students retain about 70 of what they hear in the first ten minutes of
classand just 20 percent during the last ten minutes. These stress on the need of active learning
environment in particular when, feedback from students has shown that passive lecture in higher
education is not a preferred method of learning. (Sander et al, 2000 as cited by Huxman, 2005).
Similarly, students resist non-lecturing approaches because active learning alternatives provide a
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sharp contrast to the very familiar passive listening role to which they have become accustomed.
With explicit instruction in how to actively participate and learn in less-traditional modes,
students soon come to favor the new approaches.

Because lecture classes have been the prevailing instructional approach seen most often
by faculty when they were undergraduate and graduate students, many faculty have had limited
personal experience with, and few role models for, active learning alternatives, Bonwell 2000
and McKeachie, 2006).

The lack of materials or equipment needed to support active learning can be a barrier to
the use of some active learning strategies but certainly not all. For example, asking students to
summarize in writing the material they have read or to form pairs to evaluate statements or
assertions does not require any equipment. (Bonwell, 2000; Nasmith and Steinert, 2001;
and Cherney, 2008; Quinlan and Fogel, 2014.)

Other potentially more difficult obstacles to overcome involves increasing one's


willingness to face two types of risks Which are risks that students will not participate actively,
not learn sufficient course content, not use higher order thinking skills, not enjoy the experience;
and the risk as a teacher is they they may/will not feel in control of the class, not feel selfconfident, not possess the needed skills, be viewed by others as teaching in an established
fashion as mentioned by Bonwell (2000).

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Bonwell, 2000 and Hammer & Giordano, 2012, noted that though the classroom use of
active learning strategies will always involve some level of risk, by carefully selecting only those
active learning strategies that are at a personally comfortable risk level, teachers can maximize
the likelihood of success. Bonwell, 2000 classifies the risk to seven dimension namely class
time required, degree of planning, degree of structure, subject matter, potential for controversy,
student prior knowledge of the subject matter, students prior knowledge of the teaching
techniques, instructors prior experience with the teaching techniques and the pattern of
interaction.

Teachers may tend to spend more time on the quantity compared to the quality of
information provided to the students, Armstrong et.al, 2002, which makes the students felt
boredom on classes. Most student in the post-secondary level tend to prefer shortened class over
long class. Due to media influences, accordingly to Sousa (2001), children have become
accustomed to rapid sensory and emotional changes, and respond by engaging in all types of
activities of short duration at home and in the malls. On the other side of the coin some students
prefer to make the class long so that they will not be pushed to remember a lot of things at a
short period, likewise give them more time to process and make learning active, Karmas (2011).

In planning the lesson, teachers could jump from a plan to unplanned activities or games
according to the needs of the students, Zapalska & Brozik, 2001. Modifying a lesson to enhance
students learning is a practice teachers do if students demanded to achieve a planned or
unplanned goal, Zapalska et.al, 2012. Moreover, teachers must student know what to do rather
than telling them what not to do. Make sure directions are easy to understand, model good

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listening skills, sharecontrol, make following directions fun, and share books with predictable
sequences, Miller, 2000.

Beans (2011), suggested that structured goals and activities as best plans so that a definite
output and expectations of the event will be achieved while Drabick et al. (2007) demonstrated
that 5-minute ungraded free-writing/spontaneous activity which gives rise to increased
attendance and improved performance on both factual as well as conceptual multiple-choice
exam questions when compared a control group. Similarly, James Krapfl as mentioned again by
Braid and Long 2010 said that students felt they were free to craft themselves however they
wanted theirselves to be, independent of any preconceived notions with which people in more
familiar environments constrained them, they want self-governance .

Students with relatively concrete topic and instructions would create a more responsible
and creative learners, Karamustafaoglu, 2009. he also added that the use of models, overhead
projectors and animations would help students learn a lot. Similarly, before entering college,
most students demonstrate a preference (by a five to one ratio) for learning activities that are
concrete active rather than abstract reflective (Schroeder as cited by Karmas, 2011). On the
other hand However, Karamustafaoglu also mentioned that for learning to be more permanent,
the subject matter must be relatively abstract, that is to start from the unknown to the known.

In global sustainability, students must be opened to controversial concept through role


playing and other activities which is a panacea to learning challenges, (Broadwater, 2013;
Conan, 2012; Eison, 2010; Hanford, 2011; Is the Lecture Dead? 2012;

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Udvari-Solner & Kluth, 2008; Levintova & Mueller, 2015. However, the first
step in raising the challenge to the learners and make them really active is to
get them doubt or question what they know and what they think about
themselves and about others that is to be opened to more controversial
issues by which students can become truly productive, (Chaison, 2004;
Jakubowski, 2001, Wahl et al., 2000; and Cherry et.al., 2014). Likewise,
Ahonen et.al. (2015) said, the more controversial the issue is, the more it is
challenging and engaging.

To activate learning, students need to be informed that is anticipating


the kinds of guidance or scaffolding that will be needed, Hunter (2015).
However, being less informed helps a lot, Briggs (2014), suggested to use
suspense and keep it fresh that is to drop hints about a new learning unit
before teachers reveal what it might be, this can activate emotional signals
and keep student interest piqued. Likewise, the chance of committing errors
provide a great opportunity for the students to lead their learning in a less
informed class, Clifford (2012).

In the general planning of learning it is a must to indicate the method or methods to be


used in assessing the success of the lesson, Hunter (2015). It is also a teachers
obligation to plan a lesson before facing the class, rehearsing it on his mind
with the technique to be employed, Escleto (2011). On the other hand, being
unfamiliar with the technique we use in teaching, creates opportunities for
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the learners to maximize learning-centered classroom set-up and creativity


of management for the teacher, Clifford (2012).

Arko-Cobbah (2004), noted that there is a need to maximize student - teacher interaction
to enhance the mastery of the subject matter and a sustained involvement with an authority figure
in front. High quality talk between the teacher and student(s) provides a fertile ground for an
active, highly collaborative and cognitively stimulating learning process leading to improved
learning outcomes. High quality classroom talk is characterised by the use of open and authentic
questions and formative feedback whereby student contributions are probed and elaborated.
Hardman, J. (2016).

Nonetheless, a student to student interaction has a high correlation with the enhancement
of critical thinking skills, generic competencies, and the acquisition of soft skills where they take
responsibility of their own learning, European Student Union (2010). Likewise, without the
authoritative figure of the instructor leading the discussion, students become more comfortable
asking questions to their peers (Arvaja, Salovaara, Hkkinen, & Jrvel, 2007)

The knowing of knowledge is no longer enough to succeed in the increasingly complex,


fluid, and rapidly evolving world in which we live. In order to optimize life-long learning and
potential success it is now widely accepted that young people need to have opportunities to
develop personal capabilities and effective thinking skills to be part of their well-rounded
education, as published about the Northern Island Curriulum, 2007. What the society needs today
are young people who are flexible, creative, and proactive young people who can solve

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problems, make decisions, think critically, communicate ideas effectively and work efficiently
within teams and groups.

Low risk and high risk instructional strategies that favor learning zone.
Jarley 2012, cited from a blog that universities do not teach students to actually take
risks in their professional lives. He urges college administrators to develop mechanisms that
encourage faculty to engage in innovation and risk-taking in the pursuit of instilling these
qualities in our students. Wintrol and Jerenic (2013), noted that if the faculty resist risk taking
then how can we make our students to take risk also. This is because exercising creativity and
risk-taking demands that students challenge academic norms, standards, and sometimes
individuals, Wintrol and Jerenic (2013).

Still, there is a body of scholarship that targets creativity in education and industry. For
example, Ruth Dineen and Weihua Niu, in a 2008 article on their work using Western creative
teaching methods in China, argue that in order to deal with a globalized and technological
future, societies have begun to focus on the importance of flexibility, acceptance of uncertainty,
and the capacity to embrace change, Wintrol and Jerenic (2013). They also mentioned that The
future is uncertain, but clearly we need to venture out from familiar terrain. Creativity, the
conversation suggests, is the quality that will help us navigate these new lands, and educational
institutions must somehow foster, develop, and value it. Likewise, we believe that it is in our
nations best interest to create an educational climate that nurtures risk-taking and creativity in
teachers and students and that by doing this we will encourage critical independent thinkers who
are able to invent new ways to face twenty-first-century challenges.
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Jerenic (2013), concluded that If I want critical analysis from the students, then I have to
design the course and the assignment to elicit it. The process is time-consuming and laborious,
demanding creative risk-taking on my part. Every semester presents new challenges, but the
results have certainly been rewarding. Students have moved out of their comfort zones and into
unfamiliar territory, as revealed in a sample of their evaluations of the assignment.

This risk and creativity must be a reflection of teachers philosophy and strategies in their
classroom teaching. Instructional strategies vary in nature and in use but the active learning
instructional strategies that teachers may use also falls into low risk activities such as the
following: pause procedure, short writes, summarize last lecture, readings, etc., what didnt you
understand?, analytical lists, journal entries, thumbs up/thumbs down response to statement,
surveys or questionnaires, formative (ungraded) quizzes, think-pair-share brainstorming,
pairs/groups develop an outline of the lecture, structured group discussions; and high risk
activities as follows: group discussion (no structure), guided lecture, individual/group
presentations, pairs/groups develop applications related to lecture content, pairs/groups write test
questions related to lecture material, students analyze a problem, poem, photography, etc.,
students work a problem then evaluate each others work, role plays illustrating a concept from
lecture, responsive lecture, Bonwell (2000).

Csikszentmihalyi as cited by Jerenic (2013), if one wishes to inject creativity in the


educational system, the first step might be to help students find out what they truly love, and help
them to immerse themselves in the domain.

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Jozwiak (2015), noted that The advantage of using the short answer option was that it
encouraged students to engage in critical thinking and writing, the latter of which has been
shown to be vitally important for student success.

Indirect measures like surveys where students themselves craft their own questionnaires
can be useful in assessing the students degree of assessment than going to lecture class, Jozwiak
(2015). He also added, When discussing public opinion and polling, another way of getting
students engaged in the material was to actually have them construct their own surveys.

Brown, Roediger, and McDaniel (2014); Jozwiak (2015) argue that students who take
low quizzes or engage in other practices that encourage information retrieval tend to retain more
information, do better on exams, and are also better able to apply concepts in different settings

Think-pair-share as a strategy to break in lecture does help increase student engagement


in the activities. It is where students are directed to pair up and reflect the information they
received during a lecture segment to one another, Parmer & Trotter, 2004 Atkinson & Hunt,
2008; Bowen et al., 2011; Killian and Bastas, 2015. Think-Pair-Share, like most other
cooperative learning structures, capitalizes on the principle of simultaneity. Millis (2012) said
many students (50 percent in Think-Pair-Share) are actively vocalizing ideas at the same time as
opposed to a more traditional classroom where the only active individuals are the lecturer or the
one student who is responding to the instructors question.

Kilian and Bastas, 2015 noted a students response in a study, I enjoyed being able to
brainstorm ideas with others and hear/give opinions in small groups where we felt more
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comfortable, while another noted, We had a fun, more relaxe[d], clearer way of understanding
and learning the material every time. Ultimately what these accounts indicate is that active
learning through the TBL processes (class discussion, group work, and peer teaching) made the
class more enjoyable and the discipline more appealing.

Fourth, Lawler et al. (2003) report that, at their institution, students generally favored
having a class with structured/responsive lecture that allows time for the free exchange of
questions compared to classes that were based on pure lecturing. Group lecturing and Team
Based Learning as a particular instructional strategy is designed to support the development of
high performance learning teams provide opportunities to engage in significant learning tasks.
Nelson (2010), summarizes Hakes findings by noting that students taught through active groupwork methods learned two to three times more than students taught through traditional lecture
methods. Similarly, Carl Weiman, a Nobel-winning physicist, as noted by Millis (2012), found
that in nearly identical classes, students learned more from graduate teaching assistants he had
trained to use interactive teaching methods (i.e., small group discussion, in-class quizzes using
personal response systems or clickers, demonstrations, and question-answer sessions) than
they learned from a tenured, highly-esteemed professor using a lecture-only approach (Haak,
HilleRisLambers, Pitre, & Freeman, 2011).

The used of lecture videos / like guided lecture which students tend to watch the most
came to class better prepared than those asked to complete typical pre-class textbook reading
assignments (deGrazia, Falconer, Nicodemus, & Medlin, 2012).

26

Millis (2012), said active learning can involve individual students in doing things and
reflecting on what they have done, or it can involve students working cooperatively in pairs or
groups. Some examples of individual approaches include minute papers (indicating the most
important thing learned and a point that remains unclear); direct paraphrasing (putting a
definition in their own words for a specific audience); application cards (providing a specific
real-world application); and lecture summaries (writing down the key points of material covered
earlier).

Millis (2012), Thinking-Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS) are used to solve case
studies, complex problems, or interpret text, students can pair, with one individual designated as
the explainer and the other as the questioner. The explainers outline the issues at hand and then
begin detailed descriptions of how they would solve the case, problem, or interpretation. The
questioners listen, for the most part, but they can also pose questions or offer helpful hints. At a
given point, the students reverse roles, a process that continues until the exercise concludes
(Felder & Brent, 2009

Three-Step Interview is a common ice breaker or a team-building exercise, this structure,


developed by Kagan (1989) and cited by Millis (2012), also helps students reinforce and
internalize important concept-related information based on lectures or textbook material.

Staley (2003), used Visible Quiz cards which are sometimes called the poor teachers
clickers because they function like personal response systems without the histograms and
recordkeeping. They have the advantage, however, of allowing teachers to identify immediately

27

the groups giving incorrect answers. As Lasry (2008) and Millis (2012) points out, the learning
depends on the peer coaching, not the delivery mode. The immediate feedback also helps
learning.

Like thumbs up and thumbs down, a Value Line (Millis, 2012), ascertains students
opinions in a quick and visual way by asking them to line up according to how strongly they
agree or disagree with a statement or proposition. He added that clear instructions reinforced by
visual aids are particularly important for implementation of a Value Line because many students
are unaccustomed to active learning that involves active movement.

Millis (2012) cited from Kagan and Howard County Maryland Staff Development Center,
Send-Pass a Problem, the starting point is a list of problems, issues, or case studies, which can be
generated by students or can be teacher-selected. In here the problems generated a list of ideas,
then the teams can select the best two solutions. During this activity, students are engaged in the
highest levels of Blooms taxonomy.

Scacco (2007), the use of role play, though difficult, helps the students to appreciate well
what is read, enhance their interaction, understanding, and increase their language skills. Another
benefit of role play that it stretches ones thinking, create powerful thinkers and better arguers
like in a small group or case study writing.

28

Baker (2015), mentioned in his study that visual literacy also promotes language
competencies. Using images and videos in the classroom is one way to enhance the content so
that students interact with language to communicate about a particular concept rather than
memorizing grammar or vocabulary in ways that may seem arbitrary. Images are a form of
authentic material. Just as educators intentionally choose texts they use in the classroom,

Karmas (2011) mentioned in a study that, todays students, especially the concerned
Millennials in the authors writing classes, can be expected to blossom when engaged in group
activities and collaborative exercises that foster a feeling of safety and security. Further, when
students are arranged in groups tasked with activities fostering interdependence, they are
engaged in the collaborative work that, on Silbermans view, leads students to master learning,
Giving different assignments to different students prompts students not only to learn together
but also teach each other.

Many other active learning approaches are available, such as academic games, analysis of
or reactions to videos, student debates, case study discussions, concept mapping, and many more
Best of all, these approaches can be used in classes of any size from the freshman level to
graduate school. Tools such as personal response systems (clickers) or mobile devices are
available for large classes. An interactive suite of tools designed for laptops in large classes has
also shown promising results (Samson, 2010). Many of the activities used for face-to-face active
learning can be adapted to online use through tools such as threaded discussions, blogs, and
wikis, Millis (2012).

29

Observe the manifested language behavior as sign of being in the learning zone as to the ff:
Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing, and Viewing
Successful language learning involves viewing, listening, speaking, reading and writing
activities, Malone (2006) and K-12 Curriculum Guide in English, 2013.

30

Teacher and Student Perception of Learning and Their Relationship


Teacher and student perception of learning have comparisons and contrasts. Some
teachers perceive learning to happen when students respond even in the most minimal way, show
enjoyment of class and appreciation of others or having high scores in evaluation. On the other
hand, most students perceive learning when they do something new even with high or low
scores.

Learning is, something we all do from the moment of birth, so most of us


likely take this very complex process for granted. How many of you have
spent time trying to understand the meaning of learning, or how it occurs?
Although many of us have a general sense of what it means to learn, there
are often many assumptions involved. Teachers often assume that, because
they are teaching, students must be learning. Students assume that,
because they have read their text and memorized facts, they have learned
something, Wirth and Perkins (2008). Moreover, they also mentioned that students
are less likely to articulate their perception in learning but it would be worthwhile for teachers to
talk with their fellow teachers about the students learning expectations in English. While
students definition of educational success is getting good marks in school and passing national
exams, while not denying teachers own need to improve and innovate in EFL classroom,
teachers need to take into account the students perception of their needs.

Centra and Gaubatz (2015) cited from former studies that, More comprehensive
indicators of student learning would go beyond a single exam score, which typically reflects only

31

narrowly defined course objectives. Such indicators might include student perceptions of their
increase in interest in the subject, critical thinking skills, interpersonal outcomes (e.g.
cooperative abilities), intrapersonal outcomes (e.g. self-understanding) and other broad course
outcomes. In fact one study found that student perceptions of learning in a course correlated
much higher with student ratings of instruction than did differences in pre- and post-test scores
similarly, student perceptions of learning were highly correlated with their overall ratings of
teaching effectiveness. From this, it implied that the true measurement of learning is when the
students perception and teachers perception of learning met.
Moving from comfort zone to learning zone

Wentworth (2001) said that The Comfort Zone is usually a place where we feel at
ease, with no tension, have a good grip on the topic, like to hear from others about the topic,
know how to navigate occasional rough spots with ease. It is also a place to retreat to from the
Danger Zone.
How do we make them leave this place of comfort? Miller (2012), noted that As
Educators how do we teach children about growth, challenge and stepping outside the comfort
zone? On a daily basis we are actually allowing children the opportunities to step outside their
comfort zone, be it trying to skip with the other kids or making a new friend. We must lead by
example, and the best inspiration to remind us to do this is the children in our care who are
confronting change on a daily basis as they learn and grow.
From the study of Barnet (No Date), Learners experience being in the learning edge
where they are at the edge of comfort zone and experience the feelings of annoyance, anger,
anxiousness, surprise, confusion, or defensiveness. These reactions are signs that our way of

32

seeing things is being challenged. If we retreat to our comfort zone, by dismissing whatever we
encounter that does not agree with our way of seeing the world, we lose an opportunity to expand
our understanding. The challenge is to recognize the learning edge and stay there with the
discomfort to see what can be learned. Being in the learning edge could be supported with the
use of triggers.

Avoiding the panic zone.


Wentworth (2001), mentioned that the panic zone/danger zone is an, area so full of
defenses, fears, red-lights, desire for escape, etc, that it requires too much energy and time to
accomplish anything from that Zone. The best way to work when you find yourself there is to
own that it is a Danger Zone and work on some strategies to move into the Risk Zone (either on
your own or with colleagues). It is a time where you or the students ask themselves calmly of
the benefit of the action they are to do, then make the student reflect until that student becomes
rational in thinking and retrieved his mental, emotional and physical balance.

Holthoff (2011), cited that, The panic zone is an area which should never be reached in
our pedagogical interactions, as it has traumatising effects and hinders future learning.
Furthermore it is very likely that it will also have a negative effect on our relationship to the
young person, as our actions have led the young person into this level. It is here where the
reflective practitioner is urgently required, as such situations can be influenced and guided
through good professional preparation, observation and empathic responses and by this an
escalation into the panic zone can be prevented.

33

Teachers Action to be in the Learning Zone


A number of studies becomes basis or evidence which suggests that classroom features
influence how students learn and how instructors teach (Brown & Long, 2006; Chism, 2006;
Chism & Bickford, 2002; Lomas & Oblinger, 2006; Oblinger, 2006). Studies show that the ALCs
have a positive impact on student learning outcomes (Brooks, 2010; Walker et al, 2011;
Whiteside, Brooks & Walker, 2010), enhance students conceptual understanding, improve their
problem solving skills and attitudes, increase motivation (Beichner et al, 2007; Dori et al, 2003),
and enable instructors to align their teaching methods with classroom features accordingly
(Walker et al, 2011; Whiteside et al, 2010).
Aside from the learning environment, the simplest idea yet hard to realize for the learners
to be in learning zone is an assessment of their emotional status. From the study of Maor, D.
(2004), the intrapersonal skills such as self-regard, emotional self-awareness, assertiveness,
independence and self-actualization; interpersonal skills which are empathy, social responsibility,
and interpersonal relationship; stress management like stress tolerance and impulse control;
adaptability such as reality testing, flexibility and problem solving; and General mood like
optimism and happiness, are used as measurement for assessment of students success.
Moreover, in his study, he concluded that when participants have established a safe zone in
which to learn, they are more willing to voluntarily move outside their comfort zone and support
others who are willing to do the same. In here, coaching one another is a key factor.
To facilitate bringing our students to that learning zone, Holthoff (2011) said When
looking at the construction of everyday life and specific activities it should actually be the young
people we should talk to for guidance in our decisions, as they are the experts for their lives and
are giving a clear message what has most value to them.

34

We cannot teach, what we do not have. Is a clich in education which suggest that
teaching and learning almost follows the same step to be productive. Mintz (2009) suggest steps
to be taken which she termed to become experts in anything. First, make the students focus on
the right questions, second, make them or help them gather information, third is to ask
classmates or friends for learning strategies or materials, fourth, encourage the learners to read
the course books and articles before the class begins.
If something new is taught to the class, give them some tips like avoiding to fret, bargain
on the topic or task, plan backward like a teacher does, dont over prepare, spend some time
early in the area within your knowledge, make them driven not by grades but by curiosity, dont
make a student shoulder a lot of burden in class activity, suggest an activity instead of too much
lecture, keep accurate records of performance and development.
In teaching controversial subjects, a teacher must strive to create an open, inclusive,
respectful learning environment, emphasize dialogue rather than debate, model dialogic
questioning and reasoning, academize controversies, and moderate sensitivity to criticism and
over-attachments to ideas.

35

Comfort
Zone

ulati
ve

Cum
m
ila
im

at
m
or
sf

e
ti v

e
iv

Common Third

Afective
Filter

an
Tr

INTERNAL
CONDITIONS
Disposition
Subj. Situation
Life Age

APPLICATION
Pedagogy
Learning Policy

Learning Style

Lewinian-Experiential

Figure 1

Rational
Cognitive

Illeris (2009), cited that Learning is also a very complex matter, and there is no

generally accepted definition of the concept. On the contrary, a great number of more-or-less
special or overlapping theories of learning are constantly being developed, some of them

referring back to more traditional understandings, others trying to explore new possibilities and

ctivism

36

EXTERNAL CONDITIONS

ive

Acco
mo d

B. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

s
As

ative

Learning

Learning Space
Society
Obj. Situation

BAS

Biolog
Psychol
Social Sci

Social Co
g

Cons

ways of thinking. It is also worth noting that whereas learning traditionally has been understood
mainly as the acquisition of knowledge and skills, today the concept covers a much larger field
that includes
emotional, social and societal dimensions.

In a whole learning can broadly be defined as any process that in living organisms leads
to permanent capacity change and which is not solely due to biological maturation or ageing
(Illeris 2007).

This whole study is anchored on the following theories and concepts in learning. It is an
elaborated learning model of Illeris (2007), where the researcher include the notion of Tom
Sennigers Learning Zone Model and the Theories that support the Active Learning Strategies
and Language Acquisition.

To have knowledge and understanding of learning, one must include all the
psychological, biological and social conditions which are involved in learning. On the top of
placed the general basis of learning, under this is the central box depicting the four types of
learning which are assimilative, cumulative, accommodative, and transformative, not shown in
the paradigm are the processes and dimensions, different learning types and learning barriers,
which are the central elements of the understanding of learning. In the center the box is a grey
hole which is the learning zone where the learners have mastered competencies they do not want
to leave. Beyond the learning box are seemingly overlapped black areas which learning does not
happen, the panic zone. Further there are the specific internal and external conditions which are

37

not only influencing but also directly involved in learning. And finally, the possible applications
of learning are also involved.
The first important condition to realize is that all learning implies the integration of two
very different processes, namely which are external-interaction process between the learner and
his or her social, cultural or material environment, and an internal psychological process of
elaboration and acquisition. This doesnt cover the entire process of learning but it seems evident
that both processes must be actively involved if any learning is to take place.

Central to understanding the framework is the general basis, as mentioned by Illeris


(2007), all learners are human, compose of biological entities, with inherent characteristics
which are affected by the natural, environmental, and human nurturing. This further influence
each individuals unique psychology. As Piaget mentioned Actually, learning begins with the
body and takes place through the brain. What is perceived by the body is of course from the
social environment.

Down this general basis, are two downward arrows branching towards Internal
Conditions and External Conditions. Internally, it is hard to define what happens or how the
general basis grow. Individually, each learner develop its pattern of disposition, standards,
degrees of likes and dislikes as he/she ages in life. This creates a personal criteria for judging
situations and conditions. On the other side, the External Conditions suggests that learning
happens in the wide/narrow environment of individuals, the formality and informality of learning
events including the quality and quantity of inputs that are being process from the outside source.

38

These factors develop in each learner an unbiased criteria for judging the situation to go along
with the demands of society.
The learner/s, with the influence of both the Internal and External Conditions, respond
distinctively on the teaching-learning process where the learning policy might be adhered to or
transgressed. Each learners application varies depending on the internal and external conditions
that influence it.

At the center of the framework is learning. Learners vary in background knowledge and
its degree. They vary in learning styles, whether visual, aural, or tactile etc. But all experiences
have varying barriers in language learning as well. Generally, learning could be any of the four
types. Illeris (2007), When a scheme or pattern is established, it is a case of cumulative or
mechanical learning. This type of learning is characterized by being an isolated formation,
something new that is not a part of anything else. Therefore, cumulative learning is most frequent
during the first years of life, but later occurs only in special situations where one must learn
something with no context of meaning or personal significance. The most common type of
learning is termed assimilative or learning by addition, meaning that the new element is linked
as an addition to a scheme or pattern that is already established. One typical example could be
learning in school subjects that are usually built up by means of constant additions to what has
already been learned, but assimilative learning also takes place in all contexts where one
gradually develops ones capacities. The results of learning are characterized by being linked to
the scheme or pattern in question in such a manner that it is relatively easy to recall and apply
them when one is mentally oriented towards the field in question. However, in some cases,
situations occur where something takes place that is difficult to immediately relate to any
existing scheme or pattern. This is experienced as something one cannot really understand or
39

relate to. But if it seems important or interesting, if it is something one is determined to acquire,
this can take place by means of accommodative or transcendent learning. This type of learning
implies that one breaks down (parts of) an existing scheme and transforms it so that the new
situation can be linked in. Thus one both relinquishes and reconstructs something, and this can be
experienced as demanding or even painful, because it is something that requires a strong supply
of mental energy. The last of the four is transformative learning which is both profound and
extensive, it demands a lot of mental energy and when accomplished it can often be experienced
physically, typically as a feeling of relief or relaxation. This learning implies what could be
termed personality changes, or changes in the organization of the self, and is characterized by
simultaneous restructuring of a whole cluster of schemes and patterns in all of the three learning
dimensions a break of orientation that typically occurs as the result of a crisis-like situation
caused by challenges experienced as urgent and unavoidable, making it necessary to change
oneself in order to get any further, Illeris (2007).
At the bottom of Learning in the framework is non-learning, the Comfort Zone. Where
what has been learned remained stagnant and never grow. It is everyones place of safely. But
outside learning lies another area of non-learning, where fear and stressed happens, the panic
zone.

The theories explains how learning could possibly be happening regarding the influences
of the direct and indirect factors. Though, many of these theories have overlapping features the
common denominator is that learning happens.

40

Constructivism (Piaget and Vygotsky) is a psychological and philosophical perspective


contending that individuals form or construct much of what they learn and understand (Bruning
et al., 2004). Constructivist accounts of learning and development highlight the contributions of
individuals to what is learned. Social constructivist models further emphasize the importance of
social interactions in acquisition of skills and knowledge. Constructivism highlights the
interaction of persons and situations in the acquisition and refinement of skills and knowledge.
Schunk (2012) mentioned in his study that, A key assumption of constructivism is that people
are active learners and develop knowledge for themselves. Another constructivist assumption is
that teachers should not teach in the traditional sense of delivering instruction to a group of
students. Rather, they should structure situations such that learners become actively involved
with content through manipulation of materials and social interaction.

Pragmatism is a theory of learning for the future that advocates the teaching of a
preparedness to respond in a creative way to difference and otherness, Illeris (2007). This
includes an ability to act imaginatively in situations of uncertainties. John Deweys pragmatism
holds the key to such a learning theory and reflects his view of the continuous meetings of
individuals and environments as experimental and playful. He insisted that philosophy must be
practically useful in peoples lives rather than a purely intellectual endeavor. In his view, the
promise of a better world rests upon peoples ability to respond in an intelligent way to difficult
situations that need to be resolved.
Howard Gardner defined Learning Style as an approach to learning which emphasizes the
fact that individuals perceive and process information in very different ways. The learning styles
theory implies that how much individuals learn has more to do with whether the educational
41

experience is geared toward their particular style of learning than whether or not they are
smart. In fact, educators should not ask, Is this student smart? but rather How is this student
smart? The concept of learning styles is rooted in the classification of psychological types. The
learning styles theory is based on research demonstrating that, as the result of heredity,
upbringing, and current environmental demands, different individuals have a tendency to both
perceive and process information differently.

According to Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Theory stresses the idea that much human
learning occurs in a social environment. By observing others, people acquire knowledge, rules,
skills, strategies, beliefs, and attitudes. Individuals also learn from models the usefulness and
appropriateness of behaviors and the consequences of modeled behaviors, and they act in
accordance with beliefs about their capabilities and the expected outcomes of their actions.
Another distinctive feature of social cognitive theory is the central role it assigns to selfregulatory
functions. People do not behave just to suit the preferences of others. Much of their behavior is
motivated and regulated by internal standards and self-evaluative reactions to their own actions.
After personal standards have been adopted, discrepancies between a performance and the
standard against which it is measured activate evaluative self-reactions, which serve to influence
subsequent behavior. An act, therefore, includes among its determinants self-produced
influences.

Rational Cognitive Theory considers human species to be the source and initiator of all
acts; link to this are silent way approach, natural approach, and humanistic approach. Since
human are endowed with the ability to think and process information and analyze the
42

environment or situation, the learner becomes responsible for his actions almost similar to
existentialism.

Kolbs theory (Illeries 2007), is best known for its model of experiential learning, which
he calls the Lewinian Experiential Learning Model. Kolb stressed two aspects in his learning
cycle. First, concrete and immediate experiences are valuable for creating meaning in learning
and for validating the learning process: Immediate personal experience is the focal point for
learning, giving life, texture, and subjective personal meaning to abstract concepts and at the
same time providing a concrete, publicly shared reference point for testing the implications and
validity of ideas created during the learning process.

The Common Third highlights that doing something together is a brilliant opportunity
to get to know each other, to develop strong relationships. The important thing here is the
process, not the product. Keeping this in mind is essential for the setting or atmosphere, which
we as practitioners want to create around such situations. Interactions where the Common Third
is at the centre of focus should be underpinned by a strong sense of equality between the
participating parties, by awareness that all parties are sharing the same life-space and that the
Common Third should be something enjoyed by all involved. This model was developed by the
Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and describes how learning develops in the interaction
between the individual, culture and nature. Vygotsky talks about situations that the child or
young person can master and then about situations that the child or young person could
potentially master this area of potential forms the Zone of Proximal Development. By this he
means that the human being, thus not only a young person, can extend his own learning horizon

43

through socially interacting with another person that has a further understanding in a specific

PROCESS

area of knowledge or skill.

FEEDBACK

Affective Filter Hypothesis of Stephen Krashen asserts that individual language learners
find it hard to acquire and learn language, comprehend input and do language processes if they

INPUT

Preparing the Necessary Papers and Permits


Development and Distribution of Lesson Plan
are uneasy,
too of
much
or overwhelmed with something. Hyland (2005), noted that
Development
andnervous,
Validation
the happy
Questionnaires
Distribution of the Questionnaires
Gathering
- Retrieving
the cognitive
Questionnaires
otherData
researches
are notand
justCollection
concernedofwith
factors, but also with social and affective
Analysis of Data
Statistical
Treatment
elements,
and this moves analysis beyond an interest in just the ideational dimension of language
Interpretation of Results
Creatioin of the booklet

and texts to the ways they function interpersonally. Affective Filter plays a very important role in
the success of language interaction in the classroom.

Developed bookl
of active learnin
strategies that characterizes the learning zone of Grade II studen
of being in the learning zone for listening, speaking, reading, writing and viewing from teacher and learners view
Ameliorated English Teachi
he manifestation of language behavior as sign of being in the learning zone by the teacher and learner.
C. Research Paradigm

ort zone to learning zone and avoid being in the panic zone

44

The research paradigm follows the input to process to output procedure. The input
includes
identifying the active learning strategies, low risk or high risk that prompts the learning zone,
classifying the low risk and high risk instructional strategies that favor learning zone, pointing
out the manifested language behavior as sign of being in the learning zone for listening,
speaking, reading, writing and viewing from teacher and learners view, realizing the relationship
that exist or do not exist in the manifestation of language behavior as sign of being in the
learning zone by the teacher and learner, and enumerating ways for the students to move from
comfort zone to learning zone and avoid being in the panic zone.
After the input, it will be processed which include the preparation of necessary papers
and permits, development and distribution of active learning lesson plan, development and
validation of the questionnaires, distribution of the questionnaires, gathering of data - retrieving
and collection of the questionnaires, analysis of data, statistical treatment, interpretation of
results, and creation of the booklet.
Then the expected output from the process is a booklet of active learning strategies that
characterizes the learning zone of Grade XI students for amelioration of English teaching.

45

Chapter III
METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the local of the study, research design, population and sampling,
instruments, data gathering procedure and statistical treatment is discussed.

A. Locale of the study


The study will be conducted in cluster six of the 3rd Congressional District of Quezon,
with 13 secondary schools all throughout Macalelon, General Luna, and Catanuan in Quezon
Province. The included schools are as follows: Calantas NHS, Catanuan NHS, Doongan Ilaya
NHS, Malaya NHS, Matandang Sabang NHS, Olongtao NHS, San Isidro NHS-Catanuan, San
Isidro NHS-General Luna, San Jose NHS, San Roque NHS, San Vicente NHS, Tagabas NHS,
and Tagbacan NHS. All of the schools mentioned are public schools and which some are in the
farflung area.

B. Research Design
This study employs a non-experimental mixed method approach to triangulate
quantitative and qualitative data (Patton, 2002). Quantitative findings through questionnaires will
be combined with the qualitative data from structured interview and observation checklist. This
is done since conducting the experiment design would be too difficult and the independent
variable could hardly been manipulated. Particularly, it uses the second simple case of nonexperimental quantitative research with the hyperlinked audio-comics as the independent
variable and the reading comprehension as the dependent variable.

46

C. Population and Sampling

The number of respondents will be determined through a sloven formula which is


approximately 300 from 2000 students in the cluster (data not yet computed, needs permit to get
actual data from each district). After determining the number of needed respondents, Fishbowl
will be used to determine who will be the actual respondents of the study.
The respondents are selected through a two-stage cluster random sampling in which 325
grade 10 respondents whether male or female students in the whole cluster with approximately 2
sections in each of the thirteen secondary schools. With these assumptions, the researcher will
have to choose only 25 from any of the available sections in every school in the time of
implementation. This sampling is effective to minimize the spending and maximize the time.

D. Instrument

The researcher use a triangulation method to get a complete view of the situation and
answer the problems without biases. First, the results of the pre-test and post-test which will be
compared to know the difference. Second, the survey checklist following a 4 ranked likert scale
given to the students. And then an observation guide to be answered and filled-up by the
demonstration teachers.
This study will use a triangulation method to get a complete view of the situation and
attain the objectives without biases. First, a questionnaire using a 4 ranked Likert scale will be
used for identifying the active learning strategies, low risk or high risk that prompts the learning
zone, for classifying the low risk and high risk instructional strategies that favor learning zone,
47

and from pointing out the manifested language behavior as sign of being in the learning zone for
listening, speaking, reading, writing and viewing from teacher and learners view. These will be
combined with the structured interview and observation checklist to enumerating ways for the
students to move from comfort zone to learning zone and avoid being in the panic zone.

E. Data Gathering Procedure


The permit to conduct the study will be asked and signed by Division Superintendent,
followed by the District Supervisors, then by the principals, teachers and a request and waiver to
the respondent students. The researcher will have to go personally to the schools and talk to the
involve authorities and respondents for the orientation and conduct of the study.
The English teachers of Grade XI will receive a copy of the lesson plan to be
implemented in the second quarter of the semester. After the finals examination, the instruments
(questionnaires and observation checklist will be distributed to the respondents, and interview
will be conducted. Afterwards, the instruments will be gathered; data will be organized and
tabulated using tables and figures both manually and through MS Office applications.

F. Statistical Treatment
In analyzing the results statistically, a simple mean and percentage is used to get the
average scores in the three materials discussed in the instrument sections. Thus the formula
below is utilized.

48

Mean=

x = 1+ 2+ 3+4 +5+6+7 +8+9+10


n

10

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Chapter IV
Results and Discussion

Chapter V
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

Bibliography
A.
B.
C.
D.

Books
Periodical, Journal and Magazine
Unpublished Materials
Electronic References

Appendices
Letter
Documents
Curriculum Vitae

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Objective 1:
The most often, more efficient and fun for the students means much more effort for
teachers in terms of preparation and attention during the session than a traditional lecture style
session. As mentioned by Bergin et.al (2007), The most important aspect of course planning is
in knowing what the students will be doing throughout the course. Remember that teachers job
is not to give the students information. It isn't really even showing them ways to find
information. Their real job is to turn them into builders of new information structures so they
will be able to solve the problems of their days. This is an inherently active process,
When an instructor employs active learning strategies, he or she will typically spend
greater proportion of time helping students develop their understanding and skills (promoting
deep learning) and a lesser proportion of time transmitting information (i.e., supporting surface
learning). In addition, the instructor will provide opportunities for students to apply and
demonstrate what they are learning and to receive immediate feedback from peers and/or the
instructor Jim Eison (2010)
Bergin et.al (2007) suggest that teacher must consider inviting students to suggest
exercises on their own -- let the students decide. Teacher might allow each participant to choose
among a variety of exercises so that he can solve those that he thinks will be most beneficial.
Doing this means that everyone has the opportunity to be successful and motivation is kept high.
Also, as Joseph Bergin (2001) suggest that if teacher wants to maximize student learning, and
have active students, then encourage the students to be responsible for each other's learning.
active learning does not happen automatically; effective instructional design strategies are needed to make active
learning happen. Xun Ge et.al (2013)

Active learning involves designing, implementing, maintaining and promoting,


within and outside classroom, an environment for learning, through creating
opportunities for active engagement with the subject matter. It strives for higherorder thinking and in-depth comprehension of the learner, Naithani (2008)

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