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This standard is issued under the fixed designation B762; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of

original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A

superscript epsilon () indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope

Inorganic Coatings

B697 Guide for Selection of Sampling Plans for Inspection

of Electrodeposited Metallic and Inorganic Coatings

2.2 ANSI Standards:3

ANSI/ASQC Z1.9-1979 Sampling Procedures and Tables

for Inspection by Variables for Percent Non-Conformance

ANSI/ASQC Z1.4-1981 Sampling Procedures and Tables

for Inspection by Attributes

2.3 Military Standards:4

MIL-STD-105 Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Attributes

MIL-STD-414 Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Variables for Percent Defective

intended for use in the inspection of metallic and inorganic

coatings on products for the purpose of deciding whether

submitted lots of coated products comply with the specifications applicable to the coating.

1.2 The sampling plans are variables plans. In plans of this

type, several articles of product are drawn from a production

lot. A characteristic of the coating on the drawn articles is

measured. The values obtained are used to estimate the number

of articles in the lot that do not conform to a numerical limit,

for example a minimum thickness. The number is compared to

a maximum allowable.

1.3 Variables plans can only be used when the characteristic

of interest is measurable, the test method gives a numerical

measure of the characteristic, and the specification places a

numerical limit on the measured value. It is also necessary that

the variation of the characteristic from article to article in a

production lot be normally distributed (see Appendix X2).

Each article must be tested in the same way (for example,

coating thickness must be measured at the same location, see

X2.7) so that the values from article to article are comparable.

If one or more of these conditions are not met, a variables plan

cannot be used. Instead, an attributes plan must be used. These

are given in Test Method B602 and Guide B697.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the

safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the

responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

3. Definitions

3.1 destructive testtest that destroys the tested article or

makes it nonconforming to a requirement.

3.2 nondestructive testtest that neither destroys the tested

article nor makes it nonconforming to a requirement.

3.3 inspection lotcollection of articles of the same kind

that is submitted to inspection for acceptance or rejection as a

group.

3.4 samplearticles randomly selected from an inspection

lot whose quality is used to decide whether or not the

inspection lot is of acceptable quality.

3.5 standard deviationmeasure of dispersion equal to the

square root of the mean of the squares of the deviations from

the arithmetic mean of the distribution (see 9.2.6).

4. Summary of Test Method

2. Referenced Documents

4.1 The plans in this test method provide the same protection as the attributes plans in Tables 1, 2, and 3 of Test Method

B602 and are interchangeable with them when the conditions

necessary for variables sampling exist. This method has no

plan comparable to Table 4 of Test Method B602, because

variables plans are subject to an excessive probability of error

when the number of nonconforming articles in a lot is expected

1

This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B08 on Metallic

and Inorganic Coatingsand is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B08.10 on

Test Methods.

Current edition approved April 1, 2010. Published June 2010. Originally

approved in 1986. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as B762 90 (2005).

DOI: 10.1520/B0762-90R10.

2

For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or

contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM

Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on

the ASTM website.

3

Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St.,

4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.

4

Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4,

Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098.

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States

B762 90 (2010)

TABLE 2 Level IISampling Plans for Nondestructive Tests,

Standard Deviation UnknownA

Also for this reason, comparable variables plans are not given

for the smallest lot sizes of Tables 1 and 2 of Test Method

B602. The plans of Table 4, and Tables 1 and 2 in Test Method

B602 are described as Level I, Level II, and Level III

respectively. For consistency, Table 1 and Table 2 of this

method are described as Level II since they are comparable to

Table 1 of Test Method B602, and Table 3 and Table 4 are

described as Level III.

Inspection

Lot Size

91 through

280

281 through

500

501 through

1 200

1 201 through

3 200

3 201 through

10 000

10 001 through

35 000

Over 35 000

an attributes plan is that fewer articles need to be inspected to

obtain the same protection. For example, a sample of 12 using

variables can give the same protection as a sample of 50 using

attributes. On the other hand, more expensive test methods may

be required to yield the measurements required by variables

sampling.

51 through

150

151 through

280

281 through

500

501 through

1 200

1 201 through

3 200

3 201 through

16 000

16 001 through

35 000

Over 35 000

A

Also found there are instructions for the calculation of plans for

needs that are not covered.

5.1 Sampling inspection permits the estimation of the overall quality of a group of product articles through the inspection

of a relatively small number of product articles drawn from the

group.

51 through

150

151 through

280

281 through

500

501 through

1 200

1 201 through

3 200

3 201 through

16 000

16 001 through

35 000

Over 35 000

Standard Deviation KnownA

91 through

280

281 through

500

501 through

1 200

1 201 through

3 200

3 201 through

10 000

10 001 through

35 000

Over 35 000

A

LQL

50/50

Point

AOQL

1.664

1.1

12

4.8

2.4

12

1.649

1.7

10

5.0

2.6

16

1.712

1.7

8.2

4.4

2.3

25

1.704

2.1

7.4

4.4

2.5

36

1.778

2.0

5.9

3.8

2.2

52

1.829

2.0

4.9

3.4

2.1

82

1.893

1.9

4.0

2.9

1.9

50/50

Point

AOQL

16

1.663

1.0

12

4.8

2.4

29

1.649

1.7

10

5.0

2.6

40

1.713

1.7

8.2

4.3

2.2

61

1.704

2.1

7.4

4.4

2.5

92

1.778

2.0

5.9

3.8

2.2

137

1.825

2.0

4.9

3.4

2.0

223

1.893

1.9

4.0

3.0

1.9

AQL

LQL

50/50

Point

AOQL

1.432

1.8

18

7.6

3.8

10

1.411

2.7

16

7.9

4.1

14

1.470

2.8

13

7.1

3.5

23

1.492

3.3

11

6.8

3.8

30

1.551

3.2

9.4

6.0

3.5

44

1.618

3.1

7.7

5.3

3.2

66

1.680

3.0

6.4

4.6

3.0

103

1.719

3.0

5.6

4.4

2.9

Inspection

Lot Size

AQL

LQL

Standard Deviation UnknownA

AQL

Inspection

Lot Size

are considered to be standard for nondestructive testing and

will be used unless the buyer specifies otherwise. Tables 5 and

6 will be used for destructive testing; these plans use smaller

samples to reduce the cost of inspection with a resultant

reduction of the ability to distinguish between conforming and

nonconforming lots.

Standard Deviation KnownA

coating that meets the conditions of a variables plan given in

1.3. For that reason, the plans in this method are designed to be

used when the specification for the characteristic in question is

a minimum value, which is the usual case for coating thickness.

Variables plans can be used when the limit is a maximum and

when there are both a minimum and a maximum. Plans for

these cases are given in the references.

Inspection

Lot Size

AQL

LQL

50/50

Point

AOQL

12

1.433

1.7

19

7.6

3.8

19

1.410

2.6

16

7.9

3.7

29

1.470

2.8

13

7.1

3.8

48

1.494

3.3

11

6.7

3.8

66

1.551

3.2

9.4

6.0

3.5

102

1.618

3.1

7.7

5.3

3.2

159

1.680

3.0

6.4

4.6

3.0

248

1.717

3.0

5.6

4.3

2.9

5.2 The specification of a sampling plan provides purchasers and sellers a means of identifying the minimum quality

level that is considered to be satisfactory.

5.3 Because sampling plans yield estimates of the quality of

a product, the results of the inspection are subject to error.

B762 90 (2010)

TABLE 5 Sampling Plans for Destructive Tests, Standard

Deviation KnownA

Inspection Lot Size

26 through 1 200

1 201 through 35 000

Over 35 000

A

AQL

LQL

50/50

Point

5

10

14

1.262

1.411

1.519

2.3

2.7

2.5

25

16

12

10

7.9

6.5

costs of inspection against the consequences of accepting an

undesirable number of nonconforming articles. There is always

a risk that a random sample will not describe correctly the

characteristics of the lot from which it is drawn, and that an

unacceptable lot will be accepted or an acceptable lot will be

rejected. The larger the sample, the smaller this risk but the

larger the cost of inspection.

an inspection lot conforms to its requirements, every article in

the sample will conform also. Such lots will be accepted (Note

1). If only a few articles in an inspection lot are

nonconforming, the sample probably will indicate that the lot is

acceptable; but there is a small probability that the sample will

indicate that the lot is unacceptable. The larger the proportion

of nonconforming articles in an inspection lot, the more likely

it will be that the sample will indicate that the lot is unacceptable. If every article in an inspection lot is nonconforming, a

sample will always indicate that the lot is unacceptable.

Deviation UnknownA

Inspection Lot Size

26 through 1 200

1 201 through 35 000

Over 35 000

A

AQL

LQL

50/50

Point

9

19

34

1.181

1.412

1.497

2.8

2.5

2.8

27

16

12

12

7.9

6.7

known and controlled.

made in sampling, measurement, and calculation.

made about what to do with a quantity of articles. This quantity

may be a shipment from a supplier, articles that are ready for

a subsequent manufacturing operation, or articles ready for

shipment to a customer.

contains nonconforming items is often described in terms of

the Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) and the Limiting Quality

Level (LQL). The AQL is the quality level that is considered to

be acceptable. The LQL is a quality level that is considered to

be barely tolerable. A sampling plan is selected that has a high

probability of accepting lots of AQL quality and of rejecting

lots of LQL quality. In this method, the AQL given for a

sampling plan is the quality level of lots (expressed as the

percentage of nonconforming articles) that have a 95 % probability of being accepted. The LQL is the quality level of lots

that have a 10 % probability of being accepted or, in other

words, a 90 % probability of being rejected. The tables in this

method give the AQL and LQL of each plan. They also give the

50/50 point, the quality level of a lot that is just as likely to be

accepted as rejected.

articles (the sample) is selected randomly from a larger number

of articles (the inspection lot); the sample is inspected for

conformance to the requirements placed on the articles. Based

on the results, a decision is made whether or not the lot

conforms to the requirements.

5.6 Since only a portion of a production lot is inspected, the

quality of the uninspected articles is not known. The possibility

exists that some of the uninspected articles are nonconforming.

Therefore, basic to any sampling inspection plan is the willingness of the buyer to accept lots that contain some nonconforming articles. The number of nonconforming articles in

accepted lots is controlled by the size of the sample and the

criteria of acceptance that are placed on the sample.

beyond the scope of this method because, depending on the

circumstances, lots may be returned to the supplier, kept and

used, put to a different use, scrapped, reworked, or dealt with

in some other way. An alternative is rectifying inspection in

which rejected lots are screened and used.

reasons:

5.7.1 When the cost of inspection is high and the consequences of accepting a nonconforming article are not serious.

5.7.2 When 100 % inspection is fatiguing and boring and,

therefore, likely to result in errors.

5.7.3 When inspection requires a destructive test, sampling

inspection must be used.

rejected, all of the articles in the lot are inspected and

nonconforming ones are removed. They may be replaced with

conforming articles. The now 100 % conforming lot is accepted. With this practice, the average quality level for a series

of lots taken as a whole will be better because of the addition

of the 100 % conforming lots. When the incoming lots are of a

good quality level, the average quality level of a series of lots

will be even better when the rejected lots are screened and

resubmitted. When incoming lots are of a poor quality level,

the average quality of a series of accepted lots will again be

good because many of the incoming lots will be rejected and

upgraded. At intermediate quality levels of incoming lots, the

average quality level of a series of accepted lots will again be

5.8 In acceptance sampling by variables, the coating characteristic of each article in the sample is measured. Using the

arithmetic mean of these values, the standard deviation of the

process, and the factor k that is found in the Tables, a number

is calculated (see 9.3). If this number equals or exceeds the

specified minimum, the inspection lot conforms to the requirements. If it is less, the lot does not conform. If the standard

deviation of the process is not known, the standard deviation of

the sample is calculated and used.

3

B762 90 (2010)

8.2 Nondestructive TestsFor nondestructive testing, the

size of the sample shall be that specified for the sampling plan

level that is required by the purchaser. The sampling plans are

given for Level II in Tables 1 and 2 and for Level III in Tables

3 and 4. If the purchaser does not specify the level, Level II

shall be used. The plans in Table 1 and Table 3 shall be used

when the standard deviation of the coating process is known.

Tables 1 and 2 plans shall be used when the standard deviation

is not known and must be estimated from the sample values.

the above cases; and there will be an intermediate quality level

where the degree of improvement is the least. This improved

quality level is called the Average Outgoing Quality Limit

(AOQL). It is the worst condition that can occur under

rectifying inspection. The tables give the AOQL for each plan.

There is no AOQL for the plans used with destructive tests

because destructive tests cannot be used to screen rejected lots.

NOTE 2The AOQLs given in the tables are strictly correct only when

the sample is small with respect to the lot. If this is not the case, the correct

AOQL will be smaller than the tabulated value. The correct values are

obtained by multiplying the tabulated values by the following equation:

1 2 sample size/lot size

the sample shall be that specified in Table 5 when the standard

deviation of the process is known and Table 6 when it is not

known.

(1)

cost of inspection if the incoming lots are much worse than

AQL quality.

8.4 The sample shall be drawn randomly from the inspection lot, that is, in a manner that ensures each article an equal

chance of being selected regardless of other considerations

such as location in the inspection lot, appearance, quality,

location on a fixture during coating, and chronological relationship to the other articles. Random sampling procedures are

given in the Appendixes.

the purchaser.

6. Ordering Information

6.1 Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, the sampling plans given in Tables 1 and 2 will be used for nondestructive testing, and the plans given in Tables 5 and 6 for

destructive testing.

9. Calculations

9.1 Calculate the arithmetic mean of the measured characteristic by adding the values obtained for the articles and

dividing the number of articles that were tested using the

following equation:

used to inspect an article for conformance to a particular

requirement, the purchaser should specify which test is to be

used. When a test is neither clearly nondestructive nor

destructive, the purchaser should specify which it is considered

to be.

X 5

(X

i51

(2)

where:

X

= arithmetic mean of the measured values,

= measured value,

Xi

n

= sum of the measured values, and

X

NOTE 3The nature of a destructive test can be such that the tested

article can be reclaimed, for example by stripping and reapplying the

coating. Other tests can destroy the coating in nonessential locations, in

which case the article can still be functional. In these instances, the

purchaser needs to decide and state whether the tests are to be considered

destructive or nondestructive.

i51

by the purchaser. When rectifying inspection is used, nonconforming articles will be replaced with conforming ones only

when specified by the purchaser.

known, continue the calculations as directed in 9.3. The

symbol for the standard deviation for the process is . If the

standard deviation for the process is not known, calculate an

estimated value from the measurements obtained from the

sample as directed in 9.2.1 through 9.2.6. The symbol for this

estimated standard deviation is s .

9.2.1 Subtract the arithmetic mean from the first measured

value using the following equation:

7.1 An inspection lot shall be formed from articles that are

of the same kind, that have been produced to the same

specification, and that have been coated by a single supplier at

one time or at approximately the same time under essentially

identical conditions.

X 1 2 X

(3)

homogeneous and that variations between articles in the lot are the result

only of the inherent variation of the production process (see Appendix

X1).

using the following equation:

8. Sampling

9.2.4 Add all of the squares obtained in 9.2.2 and 9.2.3

using the following equation:

~X

inspection lot. If the test method to be used is nondestructive,

the sample size shall be that directed in 8.2. If the test method

is destructive, the sample size shall be that directed in 8.3.

~X

4

2

2 X !

2

2

1 2 X ! 1 ~ X 2 2 X ! 11 X n 2 X

(4)

( ~X

i51

2

2 X !

(5)

B762 90 (2010)

9.2.5 Divide the sum obtained in 9.2.4 by one less than the

number of articles that were tested using the following equation:

n

( ~ X 2 X !

X 2 k

known:

X 2 ks

i51

(6)

n21

s5

( ~ X 2 X !

s5

!(

2

i

10.1 InspectionEach article in the sample shall be inspected as directed in the applicable coating standard.

10.2.1 The number calculated in 9.3 shall be compared to

the minimum number stated in the coating specification. If the

number in 9.3 equals or exceeds the specified minimum, the lot

conforms to the requirements. If it is less than the specified

minimum, the lot does not conform.

10.2.2 When specified by the purchaser, nonconforming lots

shall be 100 % inspected, and nonconforming articles shall be

removed. When required by the purchaser, the nonconforming

articles shall be replaced with conforming articles.

n21

NOTE 5The following equation can also be used:

X

(7)

~ ( X i! 2

n21

(10)

9.2.5 using Eq 6. This is standard deviation, s.

i51

(9)

(8)

9.3 Using the k that is in the table and the standard deviation

from 9.2, calculate the following number when the standard

deviation is known:

APPENDIXES

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. DRAWING OF SAMPLES

follows: the 85s are rejected because they are over 80, and the

second 06 is rejected because it has already appeared. The

sample then consists of articles numbered 31, 20, 8, 26, 53, 65,

64, 46, 22, 6, 41, and 67.

X1.1 The success of acceptance sampling is totally dependent on the sample being drawn from the lot at random.

Random sampling means that the selection of an article for the

sample is totally by chance and that every article in the lot is

equally likely to be selected. If the articles in the inspection lot

are thoroughly mixed, such as barrel-plated articles, a sample

drawn from anywhere in the lot will be random (see X2.5).

Rack-plated articles cannot be sampled this way unless thorough mixing is done before sampling, otherwise a random

sampling procedure must be used. Methods of random sampling are described in the following paragraphs.

regard to quality, such as articles in a tray, a sample can be

drawn by using the constant interval procedure. Here, a

constant interval is maintained between the items drawn for the

sample. For example, every 9th, 19th, or 24th unit is selected.

The first item drawn from the lot can be determined from the

table of random numbers. All other items are then drawn at a

constant interval following the first item. The constant interval

is determined by dividing the lot size by the sample size.

each article in the lot is identified by a different number. If the

units have serial numbers, the serial numbers can be used. The

numbers of the articles that are to be inspected are selected

from a table of random numbers such as Table X1.1. Other

tables of random numbers can be obtained from books on

statistics. Some pocket calculators are designed to generate

random numbers.

inspected. In accordance with Table 3, a sample of 30 items is

to be drawn. The constant interval is 100 (3000 divided by 30).

A random number from 1 to 100 is selected either from a table

or by another appropriate method. After the first item is taken,

the remaining items in the required sample are drawn by

selecting every 100th item from the lot until 30 are selected.

to be selected from an inspection lot of 80 articles. The articles

are numbered 1 through 80. A pencil is allowed to fall blindly

at some number in Table X1.1. Starting at this point, a coin is

tossed to decide whether to go up or down the column; heads,

up; tails, down. If the pencil falls on column 10, line 11, and

the coin is tails; the decision is to read down the column until

12 numbers are chosen. Take the first two digits in each group

of five digits. The selection of random numbers is made as

and procedures on random sampling.

X1.7 The numbers of a random sample can be generated by

the following microsoft BASIC computer program:

5

The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references at the end of

the standard.

B762 90 (2010)

10

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

PRINT ENTER LOT SIZE

INPUT L

PRINT ENTER SAMPLE SIZE

INPUT S

DIM A(L)

FOR K = 1 TO L

A(K) = 0

NEXT K

PRINT MATRIX ZEROED

RANDOMIZE PEEK(11)

FOR K = 1 TO L

N = INT(L*RND(1) + 1)

IF A(N)<>0 THEN 140

A(N) = K

170

180

190

200

NEXT K

PRINT MATRIX LOADED

PRINT FOR A LOT SIZE OF ;L:LPRINT FOR A LOT SIZE OF ;L

PRINT AND A SAMPLE SIZE OF ;S:LPRINT AND A SAMPLE SIZE

OF ;S

PRINT THE SAMPLE NUMBERS ARE::LPRINT THE SAMPLE

NUMBERS ARE:

FOR R = 1 TO S

M = INT(L*RND(1) + 1)

IF A(M) = 0 THEN 220

PRINT A(M);,;:LPRINT A(M);,;

NEXT R

PRINT END OF SAMPLE LIST:LPRINT END OF SAMPLE LIST

END

205

210

220

230

240

250

260

270

Line

1

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Column

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

10480

22368

24130

42167

37570

77921

99562

96301

89579

85475

28918

63553

09429

10365

07119

51085

02368

01011

52162

07056

48663

54164

32639

29334

02488

81525

29676

00742

05366

91921

00582

00725

69011

25976

09763

91567

17955

46503

92157

14577

98427

34914

70060

53976

76072

90725

64364

08962

95012

15664

16408

18629

73115

57491

30405

16631

96773

15011

46573

48360

93093

39975

06907

72905

91977

14342

36857

69578

40961

93969

61129

97336

12765

21382

54092

53916

97628

91245

58492

32363

27001

33062

72295

20591

57392

04213

26418

04711

69884

65795

57948

83473

42595

56349

18584

80634

62765

07523

63976

28277

54914

29515

52210

67412

00358

68379

10493

81899

81953

35101

16703

83946

35006

20206

01536

25595

22527

06243

81837

11008

56420

05463

63661

53342

88231

48235

52636

87529

71048

51821

52404

33362

46369

33787

85828

22421

05597

87637

28834

04839

68086

39064

25669

64117

87917

62797

95876

29888

73577

27958

90999

18845

94824

35605

33362

88720

39475

06990

40980

83974

33339

31662

93526

20492

04153

05520

47498

23167

23792

85900

42559

02011

85393

97265

61680

16656

42751

69994

07972

10281

53988

33276

03427

92737

85689

08178

51259

60268

94904

58586

09998

14346

74103

24200

87308

07351

96423

26432

66432

26422

94305

77341

56170

55293

88604

12908

30134

49127

49618

78171

81263

64270

82765

46473

67245

07391

29992

31926

25388

70765

38391

53381

91962

87637

49323

14422

98275

78985

81647

30995

76393

07856

06121

27756

98872

18876

17453

53060

70997

49626

88974

48237

77233

77452

89368

31273

23216

42698

09172

47070

13363

58731

19731

24878

46901

84673

44407

26766

42206

86324

18988

67917

30883

04024

20044

02304

84610

39667

01638

34476

23219

68350

58745

65831

14883

61642

10592

91132

79401

04739

99016

45021

15059

32388

05300

91646

89198

64809

16376

91782

53498

31016

20922

18103

59533

79936

69445

33488

52267

13916

16308

19885

04146

14513

06691

30168

25306

38005

00256

92420

82651

20849

40027

44048

25940

35126

88072

27354

48708

18317

86385

59931

51038

82834

47358

92477

17032

53416

82948

25774

38857

24413

31072

04542

21999

21438

13092

71060

33132

45799

52390

22164

69179

27982

15179

39440

60468

18602

71194

94595

57740

38867

56865

18663

36320

67689

47564

60756

55322

18594

83149

76988

90229

76468

94342

45834

60952

66566

89768

32832

37937

39972

74087

76222

26575

18912

28290

29880

06115

20655

09922

56873

66969

87589

94970

11398

22987

50490

59744

81249

76463

59516

83035

97662

88824

12544

22716

16815

24369

14194

53402

24830

53537

81305

70659

18738

56869

84378

62300

05859

72695

17617

93394

81056

92144

44819

29852

98736

13602

04734

26384

28728

15398

61280

14778

81536

61362

63904

22209

99547

36086

08625

82271

35797

99730

20542

58727

25417

56307

98420

40836

25832

42878

80059

83765

92351

35648

54328

81652

92350

24822

71013

41035

19792

69298

54224

62590

93965

49340

71341

49684

90655

44013

69014

25331

08158

90106

52180

30015

01511

97735

49442

01188

71585

23495

51851

59193

58151

35806

46557

50001

76797

86645

98947

45766

71500

81817

84637

40801

65424

05998

55536

18059

28168

44137

61607

04880

32427

69975

80287

39911

55657

97473

56891

02349

27195

36693

94730

18735

80780

09983

82732

35083

36207

34095

32081

57004

60672

15053

48840

60045

12566

17983

31595

20847

08272

26358

85977

53900

65255

85030

64350

46104

22178

06646

06912

41135

67658

14780

12659

96067

66134

64568

42607

93161

59920

69774

41688

84855

02008

15475

48413

49518

45585

70002

94884

88267

96189

14361

89286

69352

17247

48223

31238

06496

20286

45393

74353

38480

19687

20969

52666

30680

00849

14110

21916

63213

18425

58678

16439

01547

12234

84115

85104

29372

70960

64835

51132

94738

88916

30421

21524

17012

10367

32586

13300

92259

64760

75470

91402

43808

76038

29841

33611

34952

29080

73708

56942

25555

89656

46565

70663

19661

47363

41151

31720

35931

48373

28865

46751

59649

35090

23153

44812

68668

73817

11052

99570

19174

19655

74917

06927

81825

21069

84903

44947

11458

85590

90511

27156

20285

74461

63990

44919

01915

17752

19509

61666

15227

64161

07684

86679

87074

57102

64584

66520

42416

76655

65855

80150

54262

37888

09250

83517

53389

21246

20103

04102

88863

72828

46634

14222

57375

04110

45578

14777

22923

91754

04822

72924

12515

30429

32523

91491

91291

39615

63348

97758

01263

44394

10634

42508

05585

18593

91610

33703

30613

29975

28551

75601

05944

92747

35156

25625

99904

96909

18296

36188

50720

79666

80428

96096

34693

07844

62028

77919

12777

85963

38917

79656

36103

20562

35509

77490

46880

77775

00102

06541

60697

56228

23726

78547

62730

32261

72772

86774

35165

98931

70735

41961

60383

90700

99505

58629

16379

54613

42880

12952

32307

56941

64952

78188

90322

74952

89868

90707

40719

55157

64951

35749

58104

32812

44592

22851

18510

94953

95725

25280

98253

90449

69618

76630

88006

48501

03547

88050

73211

42791

87338

20468

18062

45709

69348

66794

97809

59583

41546

51900

81788

92277

85653

02338

98289

43040

91202

25499

44437

19746

B762 90 (2010)

TABLE X1.1

Line

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

Continued

Column

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

38935

31624

78919

03931

74426

09066

42238

16153

21457

21581

55612

44657

91340

91227

50001

65390

27504

37169

11508

37449

46515

30986

63798

82486

21885

60336

43937

97656

03299

79626

85636

18039

08362

79556

92608

23982

09915

59037

42488

46764

03237

86591

38534

64202

76384

19474

33309

33278

00903

12426

08002

40742

57802

78095

66999

84979

21199

38140

05224

96131

94851

70225

30362

70331

81223

64995

84846

32906

98782

46891

63175

01221

06486

68335

14367

15656

29068

82674

25835

96306

33300

78077

86273

45430

81482

01715

14349

17403

23632

57047

43972

20795

87025

26504

29820

02050

83197

99324

46949

31935

66321

72958

83944

39117

51111

06694

85922

42416

46583

99254

92431

07408

24010

89303

05418

03574

47539

61337

60627

04142

27072

40055

05908

26695

69882

63003

55417

52667

94964

82674

53363

27889

74211

10119

95452

14267

41744

96783

89728

33732

51281

81973

27022

19924

28609

41575

89632

38351

54690

38329

58353

09785

67632

09060

53458

25560

16275

38982

17668

03129

06117

36478

16268

32534

67006

97901

62247

61657

93017

63282

61582

87288

66523

44167

47914

63445

89917

92648

20979

81959

29400

17937

05810

84463

37949

84067

72163

81406

10573

00959

19444

04052

57015

21532

44160

43218

64297

13564

86355

07100

55758

07785

65651

12143

65648

15387

17075

12293

28395

69927

34136

31204

90816

14972

65680

44133

64486

02584

17361

15665

45454

04508

65642

21840

37621

24813

60563

61023

05462

09538

39147

08619

16487

66499

53115

15765

30502

78128

50076

51674

59089

33941

92063

92237

76020

11977

46609

16764

12856

27698

02753

14186

76123

79180

36692

17349

90053

43772

00697

64758

37680

62825

52872

09552

64535

74240

15035

47075

86902

79312

43997

35216

12151

25549

64482

65536

71945

62757

97161

32305

83991

21361

64126

26445

25786

21942

26759

79924

02510

32989

53412

66227

98204

14827

00821

50842

97526

40202

88298

89534

39560

35552

75366

20801

39908

73823

88815

31355

56302

34537

42080

60397

93454

15263

14486

06878

48542

73923

49071

05422

95348

17869

86482

42865

64816

62570

29789

54990

18611

86367

25651

26113

74014

09013

38358

63863

23235

80703

43834

43092

35275

90183

76036

12918

35970

76554

72152

05607

73144

16553

86064

00033

33310

97403

16489

68876

80644

29891

91903

42627

36152

39782

13442

78662

45349

05174

92520

51202

26123

85205

71899

47348

21216

83325

99447

64708

07832

22478

11951

35071

70426

86654

04098

57306

36600

49199

86537

19124

31601

39339

91284

88662

51125

29472

67107

06116

48626

03264

25471

43942

68607

18749

45233

05184

17095

78675

11163

61796

07901

83531

88124

05155

41001

15475

20203

98442

88428

68645

00533

41574

73373

34648

99704

75647

70959

73571

55543

78406

43716

62738

63318

12614

34806

68833

88970

79375

47689

77510

95240

68995

88525

93911

89203

41867

34405

57202

94142

02330

84081

81651

66345

54339

80377

41870

59194

12535

95434

18534

08303

85076

34327

35398

17639

88732

88022

37543

76310

79725

80799

53203

06216

97548

19636

29686

33072

08930

25570

74492

97596

05974

70625

15957

43805

42786

25650

71795

14951

56087

94617

25299

73401

66938

50245

81073

58861

35909

52689

52799

12133

98227

03862

56613

72811

15152

58408

82163

09443

56148

11601

88717

93872

76536

18098

95787

04379

51132

03387

60332

85001

38818

51805

16296

52468

28725

16572

33386

05269

12682

99533

91696

82790

23772

84387

00275

93654

34971

49106

74818

81250

51275

28225

14645

21824

78095

91511

22717

55230

13261

60859

82558

34925

35503

37890

28117

71255

47625

42579

46370

25739

59846

92325

87820

46920

99378

66092

16834

34191

06004

21597

92532

73572

50501

85065

70925

07896

34925

48280

59894

52924

79860

46942

54238

83556

85762

23541

19585

50136

75928

50585

93448

47908

75567

05250

57031

85171

40129

19233

64239

88684

90730

28672

56947

never identical. Minor variations in the process occur that

affect the characteristics of the articles. Such variations often

occur at random and tend to cancel each other out. Under these

conditions, the articles are quite similar to each other. Less

often, the chance variations do not cancel out as expected and

some articles will differ from the typical. As a result, it often is

the case that most of the articles produced by a controlled

process are closely grouped around an average condition, while

smaller numbers deviate more from the average, and the

greater the deviation the fewer articles there are. Frequently

this distribution of the articles can be closely described by a

mathematical equation which, when plotted, gives the bellshaped curve shown in Fig. X2.1. This is called a normal or

Gaussian distribution.

numerical value of the characteristic that is being considered,

for example, the thickness of the coating. The area beneath the

curve and above the Xaxis represents all of the articles in a

production lot. The arithmetic mean thickness isX, which is at

the middle of the curve. The vertical line atXdivides the curve

in half so that half of the area is to the left, thicknesses less than

the mean, and half is to the right, thicknesses greater than the

mean. It can be seen that if a plating thickness specification is

given as a minimum value, and if the mean thickness of the lot

equals the specification value, the thickness of the plating on

half of the parts will be below the specification limit; that is,

half of the article will be nonconforming. Usually, it is required

that most of the articles be conforming, which means that the

mean thickness has to exceed the specified minimum. The

measurement method. This normally is small relative to the product

B762 90 (2010)

results. Therefore, statistical tests should be made of a process

to confirm that the product characteristic is approximately

normally distributed before a variables plan is used in the

sampling inspection of the product. Tests for normality are

described in Ref. (3).

X2.3 If the mean thickness is one standard deviation higher

than the specified minimum thickness, the thickness will be

less than the specified minimum on 16 % of the articles. If the

mean is two standard deviations above the specification value,

there will be about 2.3 % nonconforming articles in the lot.

Hence, if the standard deviation of the process is known, a

mean thickness can be calculated that will ensure that no more

than a given percentage (for example, the AQL) of a lot will be

nonconforming. Once a lot of articles is produced, a random

sample of the articles can be inspected and their mean

calculated. If the mean is equal to or larger than the required

mean, it is known that the percentage of nonconforming

articles in the lot is no more than the AQL. Actually, the mean

of the sample can be different from that of the lot. In variables

plans, an additional factor is placed in the calculation to allow

for this. In processes where the standard deviation is not known

and the sample standard deviation is used in the calculation,

there is another potential error. This is guarded against by using

larger samples.

articles tends to be normal, provided good barrel plating

practices are observed. A production lot that consists of several

barrel loads will also be normal if the loads are produced under

essentially the same conditions. But if two or more loads that

have different average thicknesses are mixed, the mixed lot

may not conform to the normal distribution.

X2.6 The distribution of coating thickness on products that

are processed on racks may or may not be normal. Tests of

normality are required to determine if a variables plan can be

used in these cases.

X2.7 The thickness of the coating must be measured at the

same location on every article in the sample. If this is not done,

the variation in thickness that occurs naturally over the surface

of a product will result in invalid values for the average and the

standard deviation.

plans are based on the normal curve. If the product of a

manufacturing process is not distributed normally, the use of a

B762 90 (2010)

X3. ADDITIONAL SAMPLING PLANS

AQLs of 1, 2, 5, and 10 % and LQLs of 5, 10, 15, 20, and

25 %. To select a plan, go to the table, find the column headed

with the desired AQL, read down to the row headed by the

desired LQL, and note the sample size (n) andk.

X3.1 Table X3.1 and Table X3.2 provide additional sampling plans that may be useful in situations where the standard

plans of Tables 2-6 are unsuitable. The plans of Table X3.1 are

to be used when the standard deviation of the process is known.

The plans of Table X3.2 are to be used when the standard

deviation is not known.

AQL, %

LQL,

%

5

10

15

20

25

50/50

Point

18

8

5

4

3

1.943

1.740

1.600

1.493

1.396

2.6

4.1

5.5

6.8

8.1

AOQL

1.4

2.0

2.8

3.4

4.2

51

14

8

6

5

50/50

Point

AOQL

1.824

1.619

1.481

1.373

1.283

3.4

5.3

6.9

8.5

10

2.1

2.8

3.5

4.3

5.0

...

65

23

13

7

10

50/50

Point

AOQL

50/50

Point

AOQL

...

1.441

1.303

1.193

1.009

...

7.5

9.6

12

14

...

4.9

5.6

6.3

6.9

...

...

142

44

23

...

...

1.144

1.034

0.940

...

...

13

15

17

...

...

9.5

9.9

11

TABLE X3.2 Sampling Plans, Standard Deviation Unknown

AQL, %

LQL,

%

5

10

15

20

25

50/50

Point

53

20

14

8

6

1.943

1.739

1.601

1.492

1.398

2.6

4.1

5.5

6.8

8.1

AOQL

1.4

2.1

2.7

3.5

4.3

136

33

17

11

8

50/50

Point

AOQL

1.824

1.620

1.482

1.372

1.278

3.4

5.3

6.9

8.5

10

2.1

2.7

3.5

4.3

5.0

...

132

43

23

15

AOQL

50/50

Point

AOQL

...

1.441

1.303

1.193

1.099

...

7.5

9.6

12

14

...

4.9

5.6

6.3

7.1

...

...

236

68

34

...

...

1.144

1.034

0.940

...

...

13

15

17

...

...

9.5

10

11

Plans

the sample size (n) and thekvalue of variables sampling plans

where:

X4.1.1 The coating requirement is stated as a lower limit;

X4.1.2 The probability of accepting product of AQL quality

is 0.95 (95 %); and

X4.1.3 The probability of accepting product of LQL quality

is 0.10 (10 %).

X4.2 First, select the AQL and LQL values. Next, go to

Table X4.1 and find the values of zthat correspond to the AQL

and LQL. For AQLs and LQLs that are not given in the table,

thezs can be calculated by interpolation. Thezcorresponding to

the AQL isz1, and the one corresponding to the LQL isz2.

X4.3 Using z1and z2, calculate nandk. Round the value of

nto the nearest whole number. Use Eq X4.1 and Eq X4.2 when

the standard deviation is known and Eq X4.3 and Eq X4.4

when the standard deviation is not known. The equations are

derived in Ref(3), Chapters 11 and 12.

AQL or LQL

%Nonconforming

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

12.5

15

20

25

2.326

2.054

1.889

1.751

1.645

1.555

1.476

1.405

1.341

1.282

1.150

1.036

0.8416

0.6745

k5

~ =n ~ z 1z

1

! 2 0.3633! /2 =n

k 5 0.4379 z 1 10.5621 z

(X4.2)

5 8.564/ ~ z 1 2 z

10

50/50

Point

n 5 4.2822 ~ 21k ! / ~ z 1 2 z

(X4.1)

(X4.3)

(X4.4)

B762 90 (2010)

X4.4 Sample calculations are as follows:

Desired AQL = 2 %

Desired LQL = 10 %

Standard Deviation of Process Known

Select zs from Table X4.1

For AQL of 2 %z1 = 2.054

For LQL of 10 %z2 = 1.282

(X4.5)

Round to 14.

X4.4.2 Calculate k as follows:

k5

(X4.6)

Table X4.1 for an AQL of 2 %, an LQL of 10 %, and a known

standard deviation.

REFERENCES

(1) Military Handbook MIL-HDBK-53, Guide for Sampling Inspection.

(2) Manual on Presentation of Data and Control Chart Analysis, ASTM

STP15D, ASTM, 1983.

(3) Duncan, Acheson, J., Quality Control and Industrial Statistics, 4th

Edition, Richard D. Irwin, Inc., Homewood, IL, 1976 .

(4) General Services Administration Handbook FSS P4440.1, Guide for

the Use of MIL-STD-105.

(5) Duncan, Acheson J., Acceptance Sampling Plans, Standardization

News, ASTM, Vol 3, No. 9, September 1975, pp. 89.

Plans, ibid, pp. 1014.

(7) Duncan, Acheson, J., What Sampling Plan to Use, ibid, pp. 1519.

(8) Reynolds, John, H., Sampling Plans for Mandatory Standards,

Standardization News, ASTM, Vol 5, No. 3, March 1977, pp. 812.

(9) Dodge, H. F., and Romig, H. G., Sampling Inspection Tables, Single

and Double Sampling, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New

York, NY, 1959.

(10) Bowker, A. H., and Goode, H. P., Sampling Inspection by Variables,

McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY, 1952.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned

in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk

of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and

if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards

and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the

responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should

make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,

United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above

address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website

(www.astm.org). Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website (www.astm.org/

COPYRIGHT/).

10

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