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Designation: B762 90 (Reapproved 2010)

Standard Test Method of

Variables Sampling of Metallic and Inorganic Coatings1


This standard is issued under the fixed designation B762; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon () indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope

B602 Test Method for Attribute Sampling of Metallic and


Inorganic Coatings
B697 Guide for Selection of Sampling Plans for Inspection
of Electrodeposited Metallic and Inorganic Coatings
2.2 ANSI Standards:3
ANSI/ASQC Z1.9-1979 Sampling Procedures and Tables
for Inspection by Variables for Percent Non-Conformance
ANSI/ASQC Z1.4-1981 Sampling Procedures and Tables
for Inspection by Attributes
2.3 Military Standards:4
MIL-STD-105 Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Attributes
MIL-STD-414 Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Variables for Percent Defective

1.1 This test method provides sampling plans that are


intended for use in the inspection of metallic and inorganic
coatings on products for the purpose of deciding whether
submitted lots of coated products comply with the specifications applicable to the coating.
1.2 The sampling plans are variables plans. In plans of this
type, several articles of product are drawn from a production
lot. A characteristic of the coating on the drawn articles is
measured. The values obtained are used to estimate the number
of articles in the lot that do not conform to a numerical limit,
for example a minimum thickness. The number is compared to
a maximum allowable.
1.3 Variables plans can only be used when the characteristic
of interest is measurable, the test method gives a numerical
measure of the characteristic, and the specification places a
numerical limit on the measured value. It is also necessary that
the variation of the characteristic from article to article in a
production lot be normally distributed (see Appendix X2).
Each article must be tested in the same way (for example,
coating thickness must be measured at the same location, see
X2.7) so that the values from article to article are comparable.
If one or more of these conditions are not met, a variables plan
cannot be used. Instead, an attributes plan must be used. These
are given in Test Method B602 and Guide B697.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

3. Definitions
3.1 destructive testtest that destroys the tested article or
makes it nonconforming to a requirement.
3.2 nondestructive testtest that neither destroys the tested
article nor makes it nonconforming to a requirement.
3.3 inspection lotcollection of articles of the same kind
that is submitted to inspection for acceptance or rejection as a
group.
3.4 samplearticles randomly selected from an inspection
lot whose quality is used to decide whether or not the
inspection lot is of acceptable quality.
3.5 standard deviationmeasure of dispersion equal to the
square root of the mean of the squares of the deviations from
the arithmetic mean of the distribution (see 9.2.6).
4. Summary of Test Method

2. Referenced Documents

4.1 The plans in this test method provide the same protection as the attributes plans in Tables 1, 2, and 3 of Test Method
B602 and are interchangeable with them when the conditions
necessary for variables sampling exist. This method has no
plan comparable to Table 4 of Test Method B602, because
variables plans are subject to an excessive probability of error
when the number of nonconforming articles in a lot is expected

2.1 ASTM Standards:2


1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B08 on Metallic
and Inorganic Coatingsand is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B08.10 on
Test Methods.
Current edition approved April 1, 2010. Published June 2010. Originally
approved in 1986. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as B762 90 (2005).
DOI: 10.1520/B0762-90R10.
2
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.

3
Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St.,
4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.
4
Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4,
Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098.

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States

B762 90 (2010)
TABLE 2 Level IISampling Plans for Nondestructive Tests,
Standard Deviation UnknownA

to be approximately 1 % or less as it is for the Table 4 plan.


Also for this reason, comparable variables plans are not given
for the smallest lot sizes of Tables 1 and 2 of Test Method
B602. The plans of Table 4, and Tables 1 and 2 in Test Method
B602 are described as Level I, Level II, and Level III
respectively. For consistency, Table 1 and Table 2 of this
method are described as Level II since they are comparable to
Table 1 of Test Method B602, and Table 3 and Table 4 are
described as Level III.

Inspection
Lot Size
91 through
280
281 through
500
501 through
1 200
1 201 through
3 200
3 201 through
10 000
10 001 through
35 000
Over 35 000

4.2 The main advantage of a variables sampling plan over


an attributes plan is that fewer articles need to be inspected to
obtain the same protection. For example, a sample of 12 using
variables can give the same protection as a sample of 50 using
attributes. On the other hand, more expensive test methods may
be required to yield the measurements required by variables
sampling.

51 through
150
151 through
280
281 through
500
501 through
1 200
1 201 through
3 200
3 201 through
16 000
16 001 through
35 000
Over 35 000
A

4.5 Additional variables plans are given in Appendix X3.


Also found there are instructions for the calculation of plans for
needs that are not covered.

5.1 Sampling inspection permits the estimation of the overall quality of a group of product articles through the inspection
of a relatively small number of product articles drawn from the
group.

51 through
150
151 through
280
281 through
500
501 through
1 200
1 201 through
3 200
3 201 through
16 000
16 001 through
35 000
Over 35 000

TABLE 1 Level IISampling Plans for Nondestructive Tests,


Standard Deviation KnownA

91 through
280
281 through
500
501 through
1 200
1 201 through
3 200
3 201 through
10 000
10 001 through
35 000
Over 35 000
A

LQL

50/50
Point

AOQL

1.664

1.1

12

4.8

2.4

12

1.649

1.7

10

5.0

2.6

16

1.712

1.7

8.2

4.4

2.3

25

1.704

2.1

7.4

4.4

2.5

36

1.778

2.0

5.9

3.8

2.2

52

1.829

2.0

4.9

3.4

2.1

82

1.893

1.9

4.0

2.9

1.9

50/50
Point

AOQL

16

1.663

1.0

12

4.8

2.4

29

1.649

1.7

10

5.0

2.6

40

1.713

1.7

8.2

4.3

2.2

61

1.704

2.1

7.4

4.4

2.5

92

1.778

2.0

5.9

3.8

2.2

137

1.825

2.0

4.9

3.4

2.0

223

1.893

1.9

4.0

3.0

1.9

AQL

LQL

50/50
Point

AOQL

1.432

1.8

18

7.6

3.8

10

1.411

2.7

16

7.9

4.1

14

1.470

2.8

13

7.1

3.5

23

1.492

3.3

11

6.8

3.8

30

1.551

3.2

9.4

6.0

3.5

44

1.618

3.1

7.7

5.3

3.2

66

1.680

3.0

6.4

4.6

3.0

103

1.719

3.0

5.6

4.4

2.9

The AQL, LQL, 50/50 Point, and AOQL are in percent.

Inspection
Lot Size

AQL

LQL

TABLE 4 Level IIISampling Plans for Nondestructive Tests,


Standard Deviation UnknownA

5. Significance and Use

AQL

The AQL, LQL, 50/50 Point, and AOQL are in percent.

Inspection
Lot Size

4.4 The sampling plans in Tables 1 and 2 of this test method


are considered to be standard for nondestructive testing and
will be used unless the buyer specifies otherwise. Tables 5 and
6 will be used for destructive testing; these plans use smaller
samples to reduce the cost of inspection with a resultant
reduction of the ability to distinguish between conforming and
nonconforming lots.

TABLE 3 Level IIISampling Plans for Nondestructive Tests,


Standard Deviation KnownA

4.3 Generally, thickness is the only characteristic of a


coating that meets the conditions of a variables plan given in
1.3. For that reason, the plans in this method are designed to be
used when the specification for the characteristic in question is
a minimum value, which is the usual case for coating thickness.
Variables plans can be used when the limit is a maximum and
when there are both a minimum and a maximum. Plans for
these cases are given in the references.

Inspection
Lot Size

AQL

LQL

50/50
Point

AOQL

12

1.433

1.7

19

7.6

3.8

19

1.410

2.6

16

7.9

3.7

29

1.470

2.8

13

7.1

3.8

48

1.494

3.3

11

6.7

3.8

66

1.551

3.2

9.4

6.0

3.5

102

1.618

3.1

7.7

5.3

3.2

159

1.680

3.0

6.4

4.6

3.0

248

1.717

3.0

5.6

4.3

2.9

The AQL, LQL, 50/50 Point, and AOQL are in percent.

5.2 The specification of a sampling plan provides purchasers and sellers a means of identifying the minimum quality
level that is considered to be satisfactory.
5.3 Because sampling plans yield estimates of the quality of
a product, the results of the inspection are subject to error.

The AQL, LQL, 50/50 Point, and AOQL are in percent.

B762 90 (2010)
TABLE 5 Sampling Plans for Destructive Tests, Standard
Deviation KnownA
Inspection Lot Size
26 through 1 200
1 201 through 35 000
Over 35 000
A

AQL

LQL

50/50
Point

5
10
14

1.262
1.411
1.519

2.3
2.7
2.5

25
16
12

10
7.9
6.5

5.9 The use of a sampling plan involves the balancing of the


costs of inspection against the consequences of accepting an
undesirable number of nonconforming articles. There is always
a risk that a random sample will not describe correctly the
characteristics of the lot from which it is drawn, and that an
unacceptable lot will be accepted or an acceptable lot will be
rejected. The larger the sample, the smaller this risk but the
larger the cost of inspection.

The AQL, LQL, and 50/50 Point are in percent.

5.10 To understand the risks, consider that if every article in


an inspection lot conforms to its requirements, every article in
the sample will conform also. Such lots will be accepted (Note
1). If only a few articles in an inspection lot are
nonconforming, the sample probably will indicate that the lot is
acceptable; but there is a small probability that the sample will
indicate that the lot is unacceptable. The larger the proportion
of nonconforming articles in an inspection lot, the more likely
it will be that the sample will indicate that the lot is unacceptable. If every article in an inspection lot is nonconforming, a
sample will always indicate that the lot is unacceptable.

TABLE 6 Sampling Plans for Destructive Tests, Standard


Deviation UnknownA
Inspection Lot Size
26 through 1 200
1 201 through 35 000
Over 35 000
A

AQL

LQL

50/50
Point

9
19
34

1.181
1.412
1.497

2.8
2.5
2.8

27
16
12

12
7.9
6.7

The AQL, LQL, and 50/50 Point are in percent.

Through the selection of a sampling plan, the potential error is


known and controlled.

NOTE 1Throughout this method, it is assumed that no mistakes are


made in sampling, measurement, and calculation.

5.4 Sampling inspection is used when a decision must be


made about what to do with a quantity of articles. This quantity
may be a shipment from a supplier, articles that are ready for
a subsequent manufacturing operation, or articles ready for
shipment to a customer.

5.11 The probability of accepting an inspection lot that


contains nonconforming items is often described in terms of
the Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) and the Limiting Quality
Level (LQL). The AQL is the quality level that is considered to
be acceptable. The LQL is a quality level that is considered to
be barely tolerable. A sampling plan is selected that has a high
probability of accepting lots of AQL quality and of rejecting
lots of LQL quality. In this method, the AQL given for a
sampling plan is the quality level of lots (expressed as the
percentage of nonconforming articles) that have a 95 % probability of being accepted. The LQL is the quality level of lots
that have a 10 % probability of being accepted or, in other
words, a 90 % probability of being rejected. The tables in this
method give the AQL and LQL of each plan. They also give the
50/50 point, the quality level of a lot that is just as likely to be
accepted as rejected.

5.5 In sampling inspection, a relatively small number of


articles (the sample) is selected randomly from a larger number
of articles (the inspection lot); the sample is inspected for
conformance to the requirements placed on the articles. Based
on the results, a decision is made whether or not the lot
conforms to the requirements.
5.6 Since only a portion of a production lot is inspected, the
quality of the uninspected articles is not known. The possibility
exists that some of the uninspected articles are nonconforming.
Therefore, basic to any sampling inspection plan is the willingness of the buyer to accept lots that contain some nonconforming articles. The number of nonconforming articles in
accepted lots is controlled by the size of the sample and the
criteria of acceptance that are placed on the sample.

5.12 The disposition of nonconforming inspection lots is


beyond the scope of this method because, depending on the
circumstances, lots may be returned to the supplier, kept and
used, put to a different use, scrapped, reworked, or dealt with
in some other way. An alternative is rectifying inspection in
which rejected lots are screened and used.

5.7 Acceptance sampling plans are used for the following


reasons:
5.7.1 When the cost of inspection is high and the consequences of accepting a nonconforming article are not serious.
5.7.2 When 100 % inspection is fatiguing and boring and,
therefore, likely to result in errors.
5.7.3 When inspection requires a destructive test, sampling
inspection must be used.

5.13 In rectifying inspection, when an inspection lot is


rejected, all of the articles in the lot are inspected and
nonconforming ones are removed. They may be replaced with
conforming articles. The now 100 % conforming lot is accepted. With this practice, the average quality level for a series
of lots taken as a whole will be better because of the addition
of the 100 % conforming lots. When the incoming lots are of a
good quality level, the average quality level of a series of lots
will be even better when the rejected lots are screened and
resubmitted. When incoming lots are of a poor quality level,
the average quality of a series of accepted lots will again be
good because many of the incoming lots will be rejected and
upgraded. At intermediate quality levels of incoming lots, the
average quality level of a series of accepted lots will again be

5.8 In acceptance sampling by variables, the coating characteristic of each article in the sample is measured. Using the
arithmetic mean of these values, the standard deviation of the
process, and the factor k that is found in the Tables, a number
is calculated (see 9.3). If this number equals or exceeds the
specified minimum, the inspection lot conforms to the requirements. If it is less, the lot does not conform. If the standard
deviation of the process is not known, the standard deviation of
the sample is calculated and used.
3

B762 90 (2010)
8.2 Nondestructive TestsFor nondestructive testing, the
size of the sample shall be that specified for the sampling plan
level that is required by the purchaser. The sampling plans are
given for Level II in Tables 1 and 2 and for Level III in Tables
3 and 4. If the purchaser does not specify the level, Level II
shall be used. The plans in Table 1 and Table 3 shall be used
when the standard deviation of the coating process is known.
Tables 1 and 2 plans shall be used when the standard deviation
is not known and must be estimated from the sample values.

improved, but it will not be improved as much as in either of


the above cases; and there will be an intermediate quality level
where the degree of improvement is the least. This improved
quality level is called the Average Outgoing Quality Limit
(AOQL). It is the worst condition that can occur under
rectifying inspection. The tables give the AOQL for each plan.
There is no AOQL for the plans used with destructive tests
because destructive tests cannot be used to screen rejected lots.
NOTE 2The AOQLs given in the tables are strictly correct only when
the sample is small with respect to the lot. If this is not the case, the correct
AOQL will be smaller than the tabulated value. The correct values are
obtained by multiplying the tabulated values by the following equation:
1 2 sample size/lot size

8.3 Destructive TestsFor destructive testing, the size of


the sample shall be that specified in Table 5 when the standard
deviation of the process is known and Table 6 when it is not
known.

(1)

5.14 Rectifying inspection will substantially increase the


cost of inspection if the incoming lots are much worse than
AQL quality.

8.4 The sample shall be drawn randomly from the inspection lot, that is, in a manner that ensures each article an equal
chance of being selected regardless of other considerations
such as location in the inspection lot, appearance, quality,
location on a fixture during coating, and chronological relationship to the other articles. Random sampling procedures are
given in the Appendixes.

5.15 Rectifying inspection is used only when required by


the purchaser.
6. Ordering Information
6.1 Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, the sampling plans given in Tables 1 and 2 will be used for nondestructive testing, and the plans given in Tables 5 and 6 for
destructive testing.

9. Calculations
9.1 Calculate the arithmetic mean of the measured characteristic by adding the values obtained for the articles and
dividing the number of articles that were tested using the
following equation:

6.2 When either a nondestructive or a destructive test can be


used to inspect an article for conformance to a particular
requirement, the purchaser should specify which test is to be
used. When a test is neither clearly nondestructive nor
destructive, the purchaser should specify which it is considered
to be.

X 5

(X

i51

(2)

where:
X
= arithmetic mean of the measured values,
= measured value,
Xi
n
= sum of the measured values, and
X

NOTE 3The nature of a destructive test can be such that the tested
article can be reclaimed, for example by stripping and reapplying the
coating. Other tests can destroy the coating in nonessential locations, in
which case the article can still be functional. In these instances, the
purchaser needs to decide and state whether the tests are to be considered
destructive or nondestructive.

= number of articles tested.

i51

6.3 Rectifying inspection will be used only when specified


by the purchaser. When rectifying inspection is used, nonconforming articles will be replaced with conforming ones only
when specified by the purchaser.

9.2 If the standard deviation of the coating process is


known, continue the calculations as directed in 9.3. The
symbol for the standard deviation for the process is . If the
standard deviation for the process is not known, calculate an
estimated value from the measurements obtained from the
sample as directed in 9.2.1 through 9.2.6. The symbol for this
estimated standard deviation is s .
9.2.1 Subtract the arithmetic mean from the first measured
value using the following equation:

7. Formation of Inspection Lot


7.1 An inspection lot shall be formed from articles that are
of the same kind, that have been produced to the same
specification, and that have been coated by a single supplier at
one time or at approximately the same time under essentially
identical conditions.

X 1 2 X

(3)

NOTE 4These requirements are intended to ensure that the lot is


homogeneous and that variations between articles in the lot are the result
only of the inherent variation of the production process (see Appendix
X1).

9.2.2 Calculate the square of the difference obtained in 9.2.1


using the following equation:

8. Sampling

9.2.3 Repeat 9.2.1 and 9.2.2 for each measured value.


9.2.4 Add all of the squares obtained in 9.2.2 and 9.2.3
using the following equation:

~X

8.1 GeneralA sample shall be selected randomly from the


inspection lot. If the test method to be used is nondestructive,
the sample size shall be that directed in 8.2. If the test method
is destructive, the sample size shall be that directed in 8.3.

~X
4

2
2 X !

2
2

1 2 X ! 1 ~ X 2 2 X ! 11 X n 2 X

(4)

( ~X

i51

2
2 X !

(5)

B762 90 (2010)
9.2.5 Divide the sum obtained in 9.2.4 by one less than the
number of articles that were tested using the following equation:
n

( ~ X 2 X !

X 2 k

or, calculate the following when the standard deviation is not


known:

X 2 ks

i51

(6)

n21

s5

( ~ X 2 X !

s5

!(

2
i

10.1 InspectionEach article in the sample shall be inspected as directed in the applicable coating standard.

10.2 Lot Classification:


10.2.1 The number calculated in 9.3 shall be compared to
the minimum number stated in the coating specification. If the
number in 9.3 equals or exceeds the specified minimum, the lot
conforms to the requirements. If it is less than the specified
minimum, the lot does not conform.
10.2.2 When specified by the purchaser, nonconforming lots
shall be 100 % inspected, and nonconforming articles shall be
removed. When required by the purchaser, the nonconforming
articles shall be replaced with conforming articles.

n21
NOTE 5The following equation can also be used:
X

(7)

~ ( X i! 2

n21

(10)

10. Inspection and Lot Classification

9.2.6 Calculate the square root of the value obtained in


9.2.5 using Eq 6. This is standard deviation, s.

i51

(9)

(8)

9.3 Using the k that is in the table and the standard deviation
from 9.2, calculate the following number when the standard
deviation is known:

APPENDIXES
(Nonmandatory Information)
X1. DRAWING OF SAMPLES

follows: the 85s are rejected because they are over 80, and the
second 06 is rejected because it has already appeared. The
sample then consists of articles numbered 31, 20, 8, 26, 53, 65,
64, 46, 22, 6, 41, and 67.

X1.1 The success of acceptance sampling is totally dependent on the sample being drawn from the lot at random.
Random sampling means that the selection of an article for the
sample is totally by chance and that every article in the lot is
equally likely to be selected. If the articles in the inspection lot
are thoroughly mixed, such as barrel-plated articles, a sample
drawn from anywhere in the lot will be random (see X2.5).
Rack-plated articles cannot be sampled this way unless thorough mixing is done before sampling, otherwise a random
sampling procedure must be used. Methods of random sampling are described in the following paragraphs.

X1.4 When product items are arranged in an order without


regard to quality, such as articles in a tray, a sample can be
drawn by using the constant interval procedure. Here, a
constant interval is maintained between the items drawn for the
sample. For example, every 9th, 19th, or 24th unit is selected.
The first item drawn from the lot can be determined from the
table of random numbers. All other items are then drawn at a
constant interval following the first item. The constant interval
is determined by dividing the lot size by the sample size.

X1.2 When random numbers are used to select a sample,


each article in the lot is identified by a different number. If the
units have serial numbers, the serial numbers can be used. The
numbers of the articles that are to be inspected are selected
from a table of random numbers such as Table X1.1. Other
tables of random numbers can be obtained from books on
statistics. Some pocket calculators are designed to generate
random numbers.

X1.5 As an example, assume that a lot of 3000 items is to be


inspected. In accordance with Table 3, a sample of 30 items is
to be drawn. The constant interval is 100 (3000 divided by 30).
A random number from 1 to 100 is selected either from a table
or by another appropriate method. After the first item is taken,
the remaining items in the required sample are drawn by
selecting every 100th item from the lot until 30 are selected.

X1.3 As an example, assume that a sample of 12 articles is


to be selected from an inspection lot of 80 articles. The articles
are numbered 1 through 80. A pencil is allowed to fall blindly
at some number in Table X1.1. Starting at this point, a coin is
tossed to decide whether to go up or down the column; heads,
up; tails, down. If the pencil falls on column 10, line 11, and
the coin is tails; the decision is to read down the column until
12 numbers are chosen. Take the first two digits in each group
of five digits. The selection of random numbers is made as

X1.6 References (1 through 2)5 give additional information


and procedures on random sampling.
X1.7 The numbers of a random sample can be generated by
the following microsoft BASIC computer program:
5
The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references at the end of
the standard.

B762 90 (2010)
10
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160

REMProgram to select random samples for testing


PRINT ENTER LOT SIZE
INPUT L
PRINT ENTER SAMPLE SIZE
INPUT S
DIM A(L)
FOR K = 1 TO L
A(K) = 0
NEXT K
PRINT MATRIX ZEROED
RANDOMIZE PEEK(11)
FOR K = 1 TO L
N = INT(L*RND(1) + 1)
IF A(N)<>0 THEN 140
A(N) = K

170
180
190
200

NEXT K
PRINT MATRIX LOADED
PRINT FOR A LOT SIZE OF ;L:LPRINT FOR A LOT SIZE OF ;L
PRINT AND A SAMPLE SIZE OF ;S:LPRINT AND A SAMPLE SIZE
OF ;S
PRINT THE SAMPLE NUMBERS ARE::LPRINT THE SAMPLE
NUMBERS ARE:
FOR R = 1 TO S
M = INT(L*RND(1) + 1)
IF A(M) = 0 THEN 220
PRINT A(M);,;:LPRINT A(M);,;
NEXT R
PRINT END OF SAMPLE LIST:LPRINT END OF SAMPLE LIST
END

205
210
220
230
240
250
260
270

TABLE X1.1 Table of Random Numbers


Line
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

Column
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

10480
22368
24130
42167
37570
77921
99562
96301
89579
85475
28918
63553
09429
10365
07119
51085
02368
01011
52162
07056
48663
54164
32639
29334
02488
81525
29676
00742
05366
91921
00582
00725
69011
25976
09763
91567
17955
46503
92157
14577
98427
34914
70060
53976
76072
90725
64364
08962
95012
15664
16408
18629
73115
57491
30405
16631
96773

15011
46573
48360
93093
39975
06907
72905
91977
14342
36857
69578
40961
93969
61129
97336
12765
21382
54092
53916
97628
91245
58492
32363
27001
33062
72295
20591
57392
04213
26418
04711
69884
65795
57948
83473
42595
56349
18584
80634
62765
07523
63976
28277
54914
29515
52210
67412
00358
68379
10493
81899
81953
35101
16703
83946
35006
20206

01536
25595
22527
06243
81837
11008
56420
05463
63661
53342
88231
48235
52636
87529
71048
51821
52404
33362
46369
33787
85828
22421
05597
87637
28834
04839
68086
39064
25669
64117
87917
62797
95876
29888
73577
27958
90999
18845
94824
35605
33362
88720
39475
06990
40980
83974
33339
31662
93526
20492
04153
05520
47498
23167
23792
85900
42559

02011
85393
97265
61680
16656
42751
69994
07972
10281
53988
33276
03427
92737
85689
08178
51259
60268
94904
58586
09998
14346
74103
24200
87308
07351
96423
26432
66432
26422
94305
77341
56170
55293
88604
12908
30134
49127
49618
78171
81263
64270
82765
46473
67245
07391
29992
31926
25388
70765
38391
53381
91962
87637
49323
14422
98275
78985

81647
30995
76393
07856
06121
27756
98872
18876
17453
53060
70997
49626
88974
48237
77233
77452
89368
31273
23216
42698
09172
47070
13363
58731
19731
24878
46901
84673
44407
26766
42206
86324
18988
67917
30883
04024
20044
02304
84610
39667
01638
34476
23219
68350
58745
65831
14883
61642
10592
91132
79401
04739
99016
45021
15059
32388
05300

91646
89198
64809
16376
91782
53498
31016
20922
18103
59533
79936
69445
33488
52267
13916
16308
19885
04146
14513
06691
30168
25306
38005
00256
92420
82651
20849
40027
44048
25940
35126
88072
27354
48708
18317
86385
59931
51038
82834
47358
92477
17032
53416
82948
25774
38857
24413
31072
04542
21999
21438
13092
71060
33132
45799
52390
22164

69179
27982
15179
39440
60468
18602
71194
94595
57740
38867
56865
18663
36320
67689
47564
60756
55322
18594
83149
76988
90229
76468
94342
45834
60952
66566
89768
32832
37937
39972
74087
76222
26575
18912
28290
29880
06115
20655
09922
56873
66969
87589
94970
11398
22987
50490
59744
81249
76463
59516
83035
97662
88824
12544
22716
16815
24369

14194
53402
24830
53537
81305
70659
18738
56869
84378
62300
05859
72695
17617
93394
81056
92144
44819
29852
98736
13602
04734
26384
28728
15398
61280
14778
81536
61362
63904
22209
99547
36086
08625
82271
35797
99730
20542
58727
25417
56307
98420
40836
25832
42878
80059
83765
92351
35648
54328
81652
92350
24822
71013
41035
19792
69298
54224

62590
93965
49340
71341
49684
90655
44013
69014
25331
08158
90106
52180
30015
01511
97735
49442
01188
71585
23495
51851
59193
58151
35806
46557
50001
76797
86645
98947
45766
71500
81817
84637
40801
65424
05998
55536
18059
28168
44137
61607
04880
32427
69975
80287
39911
55657
97473
56891
02349
27195
36693
94730
18735
80780
09983
82732
35083

36207
34095
32081
57004
60672
15053
48840
60045
12566
17983
31595
20847
08272
26358
85977
53900
65255
85030
64350
46104
22178
06646
06912
41135
67658
14780
12659
96067
66134
64568
42607
93161
59920
69774
41688
84855
02008
15475
48413
49518
45585
70002
94884
88267
96189
14361
89286
69352
17247
48223
31238
06496
20286
45393
74353
38480
19687

20969
52666
30680
00849
14110
21916
63213
18425
58678
16439
01547
12234
84115
85104
29372
70960
64835
51132
94738
88916
30421
21524
17012
10367
32586
13300
92259
64760
75470
91402
43808
76038
29841
33611
34952
29080
73708
56942
25555
89656
46565
70663
19661
47363
41151
31720
35931
48373
28865
46751
59649
35090
23153
44812
68668
73817
11052

99570
19174
19655
74917
06927
81825
21069
84903
44947
11458
85590
90511
27156
20285
74461
63990
44919
01915
17752
19509
61666
15227
64161
07684
86679
87074
57102
64584
66520
42416
76655
65855
80150
54262
37888
09250
83517
53389
21246
20103
04102
88863
72828
46634
14222
57375
04110
45578
14777
22923
91754
04822
72924
12515
30429
32523
91491

91291
39615
63348
97758
01263
44394
10634
42508
05585
18593
91610
33703
30613
29975
28551
75601
05944
92747
35156
25625
99904
96909
18296
36188
50720
79666
80428
96096
34693
07844
62028
77919
12777
85963
38917
79656
36103
20562
35509
77490
46880
77775
00102
06541
60697
56228
23726
78547
62730
32261
72772
86774
35165
98931
70735
41961
60383

90700
99505
58629
16379
54613
42880
12952
32307
56941
64952
78188
90322
74952
89868
90707
40719
55157
64951
35749
58104
32812
44592
22851
18510
94953
95725
25280
98253
90449
69618
76630
88006
48501
03547
88050
73211
42791
87338
20468
18062
45709
69348
66794
97809
59583
41546
51900
81788
92277
85653
02338
98289
43040
91202
25499
44437
19746

B762 90 (2010)
TABLE X1.1
Line
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

Continued
Column

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

38935
31624
78919
03931
74426
09066
42238
16153
21457
21581
55612
44657
91340
91227
50001
65390
27504
37169
11508
37449
46515
30986
63798
82486
21885
60336
43937
97656
03299
79626
85636
18039
08362
79556
92608
23982
09915
59037
42488
46764
03237
86591
38534

64202
76384
19474
33309
33278
00903
12426
08002
40742
57802
78095
66999
84979
21199
38140
05224
96131
94851
70225
30362
70331
81223
64995
84846
32906
98782
46891
63175
01221
06486
68335
14367
15656
29068
82674
25835
96306
33300
78077
86273
45430
81482
01715

14349
17403
23632
57047
43972
20795
87025
26504
29820
02050
83197
99324
46949
31935
66321
72958
83944
39117
51111
06694
85922
42416
46583
99254
92431
07408
24010
89303
05418
03574
47539
61337
60627
04142
27072
40055
05908
26695
69882
63003
55417
52667
94964

82674
53363
27889
74211
10119
95452
14267
41744
96783
89728
33732
51281
81973
27022
19924
28609
41575
89632
38351
54690
38329
58353
09785
67632
09060
53458
25560
16275
38982
17668
03129
06117
36478
16268
32534
67006
97901
62247
61657
93017
63282
61582
87288

66523
44167
47914
63445
89917
92648
20979
81959
29400
17937
05810
84463
37949
84067
72163
81406
10573
00959
19444
04052
57015
21532
44160
43218
64297
13564
86355
07100
55758
07785
65651
12143
65648
15387
17075
12293
28395
69927
34136
31204
90816
14972
65680

44133
64486
02584
17361
15665
45454
04508
65642
21840
37621
24813
60563
61023
05462
09538
39147
08619
16487
66499
53115
15765
30502
78128
50076
51674
59089
33941
92063
92237
76020
11977
46609
16764
12856
27698
02753
14186
76123
79180
36692
17349
90053
43772

00697
64758
37680
62825
52872
09552
64535
74240
15035
47075
86902
79312
43997
35216
12151
25549
64482
65536
71945
62757
97161
32305
83991
21361
64126
26445
25786
21942
26759
79924
02510
32989
53412
66227
98204
14827
00821
50842
97526
40202
88298
89534
39560

35552
75366
20801
39908
73823
88815
31355
56302
34537
42080
60397
93454
15263
14486
06878
48542
73923
49071
05422
95348
17869
86482
42865
64816
62570
29789
54990
18611
86367
25651
26113
74014
09013
38358
63863
23235
80703
43834
43092
35275
90183
76036
12918

35970
76554
72152
05607
73144
16553
86064
00033
33310
97403
16489
68876
80644
29891
91903
42627
36152
39782
13442
78662
45349
05174
92520
51202
26123
85205
71899
47348
21216
83325
99447
64708
07832
22478
11951
35071
70426
86654
04098
57306
36600
49199
86537

19124
31601
39339
91284
88662
51125
29472
67107
06116
48626
03264
25471
43942
68607
18749
45233
05184
17095
78675
11163
61796
07901
83531
88124
05155
41001
15475
20203
98442
88428
68645
00533
41574
73373
34648
99704
75647
70959
73571
55543
78406
43716
62738

63318
12614
34806
68833
88970
79375
47689
77510
95240
68995
88525
93911
89203
41867
34405
57202
94142
02330
84081
81651
66345
54339
80377
41870
59194
12535
95434
18534
08303
85076
34327
35398
17639
88732
88022
37543
76310
79725
80799
53203
06216
97548
19636

29686
33072
08930
25570
74492
97596
05974
70625
15957
43805
42786
25650
71795
14951
56087
94617
25299
73401
66938
50245
81073
58861
35909
52689
52799
12133
98227
03862
56613
72811
15152
58408
82163
09443
56148
11601
88717
93872
76536
18098
95787
04379
51132

03387
60332
85001
38818
51805
16296
52468
28725
16572
33386
05269
12682
99533
91696
82790
23772
84387
00275
93654
34971
49106
74818
81250
51275
28225
14645
21824
78095
91511
22717
55230
13261
60859
82558
34925
35503
37890
28117
71255
47625
42579
46370
25739

59846
92325
87820
46920
99378
66092
16834
34191
06004
21597
92532
73572
50501
85065
70925
07896
34925
48280
59894
52924
79860
46942
54238
83556
85762
23541
19585
50136
75928
50585
93448
47908
75567
05250
57031
85171
40129
19233
64239
88684
90730
28672
56947

X2. NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

X2.1 Articles produced by a manufacturing process are


never identical. Minor variations in the process occur that
affect the characteristics of the articles. Such variations often
occur at random and tend to cancel each other out. Under these
conditions, the articles are quite similar to each other. Less
often, the chance variations do not cancel out as expected and
some articles will differ from the typical. As a result, it often is
the case that most of the articles produced by a controlled
process are closely grouped around an average condition, while
smaller numbers deviate more from the average, and the
greater the deviation the fewer articles there are. Frequently
this distribution of the articles can be closely described by a
mathematical equation which, when plotted, gives the bellshaped curve shown in Fig. X2.1. This is called a normal or
Gaussian distribution.

variation and, thus, of little consequence.

X2.2 Along the horizontal, Xaxis in Fig. X2.1 is plotted the


numerical value of the characteristic that is being considered,
for example, the thickness of the coating. The area beneath the
curve and above the Xaxis represents all of the articles in a
production lot. The arithmetic mean thickness isX, which is at
the middle of the curve. The vertical line atXdivides the curve
in half so that half of the area is to the left, thicknesses less than
the mean, and half is to the right, thicknesses greater than the
mean. It can be seen that if a plating thickness specification is
given as a minimum value, and if the mean thickness of the lot
equals the specification value, the thickness of the plating on
half of the parts will be below the specification limit; that is,
half of the article will be nonconforming. Usually, it is required
that most of the articles be conforming, which means that the
mean thickness has to exceed the specified minimum. The

NOTE X2.1There is also a random variation introduced by the


measurement method. This normally is small relative to the product

B762 90 (2010)

FIG. X2.1 Normal Distribution

variables plan based on the normal curve will give invalid


results. Therefore, statistical tests should be made of a process
to confirm that the product characteristic is approximately
normally distributed before a variables plan is used in the
sampling inspection of the product. Tests for normality are
described in Ref. (3).

standard deviation can be used to determine by how much.


X2.3 If the mean thickness is one standard deviation higher
than the specified minimum thickness, the thickness will be
less than the specified minimum on 16 % of the articles. If the
mean is two standard deviations above the specification value,
there will be about 2.3 % nonconforming articles in the lot.
Hence, if the standard deviation of the process is known, a
mean thickness can be calculated that will ensure that no more
than a given percentage (for example, the AQL) of a lot will be
nonconforming. Once a lot of articles is produced, a random
sample of the articles can be inspected and their mean
calculated. If the mean is equal to or larger than the required
mean, it is known that the percentage of nonconforming
articles in the lot is no more than the AQL. Actually, the mean
of the sample can be different from that of the lot. In variables
plans, an additional factor is placed in the calculation to allow
for this. In processes where the standard deviation is not known
and the sample standard deviation is used in the calculation,
there is another potential error. This is guarded against by using
larger samples.

X2.5 The distribution of plating thickness on barrel-plated


articles tends to be normal, provided good barrel plating
practices are observed. A production lot that consists of several
barrel loads will also be normal if the loads are produced under
essentially the same conditions. But if two or more loads that
have different average thicknesses are mixed, the mixed lot
may not conform to the normal distribution.
X2.6 The distribution of coating thickness on products that
are processed on racks may or may not be normal. Tests of
normality are required to determine if a variables plan can be
used in these cases.
X2.7 The thickness of the coating must be measured at the
same location on every article in the sample. If this is not done,
the variation in thickness that occurs naturally over the surface
of a product will result in invalid values for the average and the
standard deviation.

X2.4 It is important to remember that variables sampling


plans are based on the normal curve. If the product of a
manufacturing process is not distributed normally, the use of a

B762 90 (2010)
X3. ADDITIONAL SAMPLING PLANS

X3.2 The plans in Table X3.1 and Table X3.2 provide


AQLs of 1, 2, 5, and 10 % and LQLs of 5, 10, 15, 20, and
25 %. To select a plan, go to the table, find the column headed
with the desired AQL, read down to the row headed by the
desired LQL, and note the sample size (n) andk.

X3.1 Table X3.1 and Table X3.2 provide additional sampling plans that may be useful in situations where the standard
plans of Tables 2-6 are unsuitable. The plans of Table X3.1 are
to be used when the standard deviation of the process is known.
The plans of Table X3.2 are to be used when the standard
deviation is not known.

TABLE X3.1 Sampling Plans, Standard Deviation Known


AQL, %
LQL,
%
5
10
15
20
25

50/50
Point

18
8
5
4
3

1.943
1.740
1.600
1.493
1.396

2.6
4.1
5.5
6.8
8.1

AOQL

1.4
2.0
2.8
3.4
4.2

51
14
8
6
5

50/50
Point

AOQL

1.824
1.619
1.481
1.373
1.283

3.4
5.3
6.9
8.5
10

2.1
2.8
3.5
4.3
5.0

...
65
23
13
7

10

50/50
Point

AOQL

50/50
Point

AOQL

...
1.441
1.303
1.193
1.009

...
7.5
9.6
12
14

...
4.9
5.6
6.3
6.9

...
...
142
44
23

...
...
1.144
1.034
0.940

...
...
13
15
17

...
...
9.5
9.9
11

X4. CALCULATIONS OF VARIABLES SAMPLING PLANS


TABLE X3.2 Sampling Plans, Standard Deviation Unknown
AQL, %
LQL,
%
5
10
15
20
25

50/50
Point

53
20
14
8
6

1.943
1.739
1.601
1.492
1.398

2.6
4.1
5.5
6.8
8.1

AOQL

1.4
2.1
2.7
3.5
4.3

136
33
17
11
8

50/50
Point

AOQL

1.824
1.620
1.482
1.372
1.278

3.4
5.3
6.9
8.5
10

2.1
2.7
3.5
4.3
5.0

...
132
43
23
15

AOQL

50/50
Point

AOQL

...
1.441
1.303
1.193
1.099

...
7.5
9.6
12
14

...
4.9
5.6
6.3
7.1

...
...
236
68
34

...
...
1.144
1.034
0.940

...
...
13
15
17

...
...
9.5
10
11

TABLE X4.1 Values of z Used in Designing Variables Sampling


Plans

X4.1 The equations in this appendix can be used to calculate


the sample size (n) and thekvalue of variables sampling plans
where:
X4.1.1 The coating requirement is stated as a lower limit;
X4.1.2 The probability of accepting product of AQL quality
is 0.95 (95 %); and
X4.1.3 The probability of accepting product of LQL quality
is 0.10 (10 %).
X4.2 First, select the AQL and LQL values. Next, go to
Table X4.1 and find the values of zthat correspond to the AQL
and LQL. For AQLs and LQLs that are not given in the table,
thezs can be calculated by interpolation. Thezcorresponding to
the AQL isz1, and the one corresponding to the LQL isz2.
X4.3 Using z1and z2, calculate nandk. Round the value of
nto the nearest whole number. Use Eq X4.1 and Eq X4.2 when
the standard deviation is known and Eq X4.3 and Eq X4.4
when the standard deviation is not known. The equations are
derived in Ref(3), Chapters 11 and 12.

AQL or LQL
%Nonconforming

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12.5
15
20
25

2.326
2.054
1.889
1.751
1.645
1.555
1.476
1.405
1.341
1.282
1.150
1.036
0.8416
0.6745

k5

~ =n ~ z 1z
1

! 2 0.3633! /2 =n

X4.3.2 Standard deviation unknown:


k 5 0.4379 z 1 10.5621 z

(X4.2)

Use the rounded value of n to calculatek.

X4.3.1 Standard deviation known:


5 8.564/ ~ z 1 2 z

10
50/50
Point

n 5 4.2822 ~ 21k ! / ~ z 1 2 z

(X4.1)

(X4.3)

(X4.4)

B762 90 (2010)
X4.4 Sample calculations are as follows:
Desired AQL = 2 %
Desired LQL = 10 %
Standard Deviation of Process Known
Select zs from Table X4.1
For AQL of 2 %z1 = 2.054
For LQL of 10 %z2 = 1.282

n 5 8.564/ ~ 2.054 5 1.282! 2 5 14.4

(X4.5)

Round to 14.
X4.4.2 Calculate k as follows:
k5

~ =14 ~ 2.05411.282! 2 0.3633! /2 =14 5 1.619

(X4.6)

X4.4.3 Note that these are the values of nandk given in


Table X4.1 for an AQL of 2 %, an LQL of 10 %, and a known
standard deviation.

X4.4.1 Calculate n as follows:

REFERENCES
(1) Military Handbook MIL-HDBK-53, Guide for Sampling Inspection.
(2) Manual on Presentation of Data and Control Chart Analysis, ASTM
STP15D, ASTM, 1983.
(3) Duncan, Acheson, J., Quality Control and Industrial Statistics, 4th
Edition, Richard D. Irwin, Inc., Homewood, IL, 1976 .
(4) General Services Administration Handbook FSS P4440.1, Guide for
the Use of MIL-STD-105.
(5) Duncan, Acheson J., Acceptance Sampling Plans, Standardization
News, ASTM, Vol 3, No. 9, September 1975, pp. 89.

(6) Duncan, Acheson, J., An Introduction to Acceptance Sampling


Plans, ibid, pp. 1014.
(7) Duncan, Acheson, J., What Sampling Plan to Use, ibid, pp. 1519.
(8) Reynolds, John, H., Sampling Plans for Mandatory Standards,
Standardization News, ASTM, Vol 5, No. 3, March 1977, pp. 812.
(9) Dodge, H. F., and Romig, H. G., Sampling Inspection Tables, Single
and Double Sampling, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New
York, NY, 1959.
(10) Bowker, A. H., and Goode, H. P., Sampling Inspection by Variables,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY, 1952.

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