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"Universal Gravitation"

Disusun Oleh :

Alfido Fauzy Z

(130210102110)

Fakultas Keguruan Dan Ilmu Pendidikan

Pendidikan Fisika

Universitas Jember

Tahun Ajaran 2013 -2014

Newton's theory of

"Universal Gravitation"

Sir Isaac Newton was an mathematician and physicist who lived from

1642-1727.The legend is that Newton discovered Gravity when he saw a falling

apple while thinking about the forces of nature. Whatever really happened,

Newton realized that some force must be acting on falling objects like apples

because otherwise they would not start moving from rest.

Newton also realized that the moon would fly off away from Earth in a

straight line tangent to its orbit if some force was not causing it to fall toward the

Earth. The moon is only a projectile circling around the Earth under the attraction

of Gravity. Newton called this force "gravity" and determined that gravitational

forces exist between all objects.

Gravity is a force of attraction that exists between any two objects. There

is a force of gravity between the sun and the Earth, between the Earth and us, and

even between two marbles. Projectiles, satellites, planets, galaxies, and clusters of

galaxies are all influenced by Gravity.Gravity is the weakest of the four known

forces of nature, yet the most dominant force. Even though it's the weakest force,

Gravity holds together entire solar systems and galaxies.

The law of universal gravitation says that every object attracts every other

object with a force that, for any two objects, is directly proportional to the mass of

each object and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the

two objects.

Source : http://www.stanford.edu/~buzzt/gravity.html

proposed that a "universal" force of gravitation F existed between any two masses

m and M, directed from each to the other, proportional to each of them and

inversely proportional to the square of their separation distance r. In a formula

(ignoring for now the vector character of the force):

Suppose M is the mass of the Earth, R its radius and m is the mass of some falling

object near the Earth's surface. Then one may write

From this

number we need to know in order to calculate the gravitational attraction between,

say, two spheres of 1 kilogram each. Unlike the attraction of the Earth, which has

a huge mass M, such a force is quite small, and the number G is likewise very,

very small. Measuring that small force in the lab is a delicate and difficult feat.

Source : http://www.phy6.org/stargaze/Sgravity.htm

Exercise :

What is the gravitational force that the sun exerts on the earth? The earth on the

sun? In what direction do these act? ( G= 6,6710-11 Nm2/kg2 , Me = 5.981024kg,

M s = 1.991030kg and the earth-sun distance is 150109 meters).

First, consider the directions. The force acts along the direction such that it attracts

each body radially along a line towards their common center of mass. For most

practical purposes, this means a line connecting the center of the sun to the center

of the earth. The magnitude of both forces is the same, as we would expect from

Newton's Third Law, and they act in opposite directions, both attracting each other

mutually. The magnitude is given by:

1. Calculate the mass of the Earth

have been obtained from the Cavendish experiment. Think of the

Earth's mass M and radius R = 6.37 earth 10 6 m (earth

considered perfectly round). Based on the formula of the earth's

gravitational acceleration, we can calculate the mass of the earth.

We know that the radius of Earth's orbit mean rB = 1.5

10 m and the period of the earth around the sun TB = 1 year = 3

107 s. Based on these, we can be estimated mass of the sun.

11

3.

mass, such as the moon (satellite of the earth). Many artificial satellites

launched for the purpose of communications, military, and technological

research. Calculate the speed of the satellite can be used in two ways, the law

of gravity and centrifugal force. Calculating speed satellite we can using the

law of gravity, Earth's mass (M) and the radius of the earth (R). Based on

Newton's second law formula, we can determine the speed of the satellite.

We can calculating the distance of Earths Orbit Satellites by

sentripental force formula and gravitation forse formula :

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