You are on page 1of 43

AO DE LA CONSOLIDACIN DEL MAR DE GRAU

TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
REPORT N1
TEACHER: ING. ANDRES SOTIL CHAVEZ, Ph.D.
BLOQUE: FC-PREINGCIV08A1T
GROUP MEMBERS:

CASTILLO ROCA, VICTOR GIANCARLOS

1321173

CONTRERAS TINOCO, KEVIN CELSO

1321319

LAURA CASTILLO, CARLOS HENRY

1321064

MAMANI MESCCO, LISBETH

1321192

RUIZ BERETTA, XIMENA ALESSANDRA

1320030

SALAS HUILLCA, JESIFEER

1321393

LIMA PERU
2016
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction
1.1. Problem Statement
1.2. Problem Identification
1.3. Objectives
1.4. Methodology
1.5. Limitations
2. Theoretical Background
2.1. HCM
2.2. MUTCD
2.3. LOS Definition
2.4. T.S. Coordination
3. Data Collection & Analysis
3.1. El Cortijo street with Manuel Olguin avenue
3.1.1. Peak Day Determination
3.1.1.1.

A.M.

3.1.1.2.

P.M.

3.1.2. Peak Hour Volume


3.1.3. Warrant Analysis
3.2. Manuel Olguin avenue with El Derby avenue
3.2.1. Peak Day Determination
3.2.1.1.

A.M.

3.2.1.2.

P.M.

3.2.2. Peak Hour Volume


3.2.3. Saturated Flow Rate Determination
3.2.4. LOS Determination form
3.3. Aymaras street with El Derby avenue
3.3.1. Peak Day Determination
3.3.1.1.

A.M.

3.3.1.2.

P.M.

3.3.2. Peak Hour Volume


3.3.3. Warrant Analysis
3.4. El Polo avenue with El Derby avenue
3.4.1. Peak Day Determination
3.4.1.1.

A.M.

3.4.1.2.

P.M.

3.4.2. Peak Hour Volume


3.4.3. Saturated Flow Rate Determination
3.4.4. LOS Determination form

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE N1:
FIGURE N2:
FIGURE N3:
FIGURE N4:
FIGURE N5:
FIGURE N6:
FIGURE N7:
FIGURE N8:
.

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE N1:
TABLE N2:
TABLE N3:
TABLE N4:
TABLE N5:
TABLE N5:
TABLE N6:
TABLE N7:
TABLE.

1. INTRODUCTION
Analyze the impact of urban development projects in the area of Traffic
Engineering is important because it allow us to predict, analyze and provide
alternative solutions to the impacts that these in the system, whether positive
or negative.
The presence of shopping malls, department stores, housing complexes,
universities, technology institutes, schools, etc. are major attractors travel
centers and pedestrian traffic; causing saturation in urban road traffic
congestion and public and private transport being a notorious lack of spaces for
pedestrian mobility.
In this sense, urban congestion is a problem of the cities above a certain size,
whether in cities in developed countries or developing. In our country, we have
a tendency higher than other countries in Latin America continued growth, but
this growth is not reflected in the improvement of our Urban Transport System
thus traveling through the streets of Lima at rush hour is very complicated by
traffic congestion you suffer every day.
In the last decade, our capital has grown at an almost exponential rate
investment by foreign state and that is reflected in the construction of new
infrastructure, such as, housing, schools, colleges, universities, shopping
centers, etc. This development is creating certain problems in urban transport
because our existing roads are being overloaded their capacity to actual design.

Today, there are problems of congestion in almost all the streets of Lima, not
having an adequate Control System Transport and Urban Growth our capital is
suffering the problems of road congestion.
Therefore, in addressing the course of Traffic Engineering, it will aim to expose
the basic principles of the elements required to prepare and review a study of
road impact, without trying to cover quite as extensive methodology and
manage travel demand regulating the use of existing transport systems and thus
to participate in social behavior benefiting the road network and users and
pedestrians.

1.1. PROBLEM STATEMENT


This project "Traffic Impact Analysis at intersections of Lima" is made to
identify and explain the steps of a Traffic Impact Analysis, TIA, with the
aim of managing travel demand, also the use of existing transport systems
and thus intervene in social behavior, benefiting pedestrians, drivers and
the road network in general. It requires a number of steps to take to carry
out the methodology of a TIA such as:
1. You have to collect the data in the study area, in other words, the
intersections under study: Recognize the project site detail
according to HCM (2000), the network of roads, addresses
vehicular traffic and their respective permitted and / or protected
movements, traffic control devices, time phase traffic lights,
existing signals, track geometry and location of intersections.

2. It must make a vehicle count and recognition of the current state of


traffic; the existing vehicle count is performed for a certain period
between days.
3. Finally, an analysis of the intersections such as Geometric
Schematic, Available Turn Movements, Vehicle Counts, Traffic
Light Cycle and Level of Service for each intersection according
to their conditions is performed. After this is done an assessment
of the results and recommendations for improvements in transport
management.
First, a capacity of 6 hours per day, in 3 days, 2 useful days and a weekend,
between the months of October and September, in which it is desired to
check the current status of the intersections and make future analysis due
to the installation of a new building that implies a new vehicle demand,
identify potential impacts on the capacity of the roads and see if there is a
collapse vehicular forming queues and discomfort in users.

1.2. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION


One of the problems regarding the traffic is file has exponential growth,
therefore the population grows rather Lima cities begin to expand without
any plan expansion.
We can separate the traffic problem into three broad categories: the culture
of the driver when driving in the city, the excessive number of cars and
the lack of adequate distribution and infrastructure in the country. Both lie
in a huge mess and the excessive time it takes to get from one destination
to another. other problems lime some people are inculcated so that road

rules seek to avoid, such as driving in any way causing accidents


everywhere and without conscience.
Also in Lima there are many informal drivers that make it difficult in
transit, it is very alarming to know that there are way too vehicles for
public transport, cars and joined it to the narrow streets and narrow
avenues turns transport into a real headache, and there are taxi services
any passenger traveling without as many show no security and quality of
service.

I.

INTERSECTIONS
1. El Cortijo Street intersection with Manuel Olguin Avenue
2. El Derby Avenue intersection with Manuel Olguin Avenue
3. Aymaras Street intersection with El Derby Avenue
4. El Polo Avenue intersection with El Derby Avenue
5. El Cortijo Street intersection with Manuel Olguin Avenue

II.MAP OF THE SELECTED INTERSECTIONS

Figure 1. Map of the intersections.

III.

PICTURES , GEOMETRIC SCHEMATICS AND TURN MOVEMENTS


1. INTERSECTION 1

El Derby Avenue with Manuel Olguin Avenue

PICTURE 1

This picture was taken from east of the intersection and shows cars going through,
turning right from El Derby to Manuel Olguin, cars from west that turning left
from El Derby to Manuel Olguin.

PICTURE 2

This picture was taken from south of the intersection and shows cars going through,
turning right from El Cortijo to Manuel Olguin.

GEOMETRIC SCHEMATIC 1

TURN MOVEMENT 1

2. INTERSECTION 2

El Derby Avenue with Aymaras Street

PICTURE 3

This picture was taken from the south of the avenue El Derby and it shows cars
coming from the west and turning left to the Aymaras Street, it also shows cars
coming from the east that are going through.

PICTURE 4
This picture was taken from the west of the intersection and it shows a car turning
left to the Aymaras Street.

GEOMETRIC SCHEMATIC 2

TURN MOVEMENT 2

3. INTERSECTION 3

El Derby Avenue with El Polo Avenue

PICTURE 5
This picture was taken from the south of the intersection and it shows cars going
through El Polo Avenue, it also shows cars going through El Derby Avenue.

PICTURE 6
This picture show cars coming from the east of El Derby Avenue and turning left, it
picture also shows cars coming from the west and going through.

GEOMETRIC SCHEMATIC 3

TURN MOVEMENT 3

4. INTERSECTION 4

Manuel Olguin with the El Cortijo Jiron

PICTURE 7

This picture was taken from west of the intersection and shows cars turning
right from El Cortijo to Manuel Olguin.

PICTURE 8

This picture was taken from east of the intersection and shows cars turning left from
El Cortijo to Manuel Olguin.

PICTURE 9

This picture was taken from south of the intersection and shows cars going through,
turning right from Manuel Olguin to El Cortijo and making U turns.

PICTURE 10

This picture was taken from north of the intersection and shows cars turning left
from Manuel Olguin to El Cortijo and going though.

GEOMETRIC SCHEMATIC 4

TURN MOVEMENT 4

1.3. OBJETIVES

1.3.1. General Objectives


One of the general objectives is to determine the current traffic situation in
the intersections we chose. That could be possible just following the HCM.
For un-signalized intersections it will be necessary to use warranties. In
addition to that, we are going to use the theory and all the concepts learned
up to now. Finally, with all the information we collected and analyzed, we
are capable to determine how the traffic situation will be in the next few
years.
1.3.2. Specific Objectives

Be able to determinate the vial impact and the difference of every


intersection. Although they are very close to each other, if there are
different conditions there will be different characteristics and factors.

Determine the level of service for every intersection, analyze them and
determine if it is necessary to improve the intersection and what kind of
solutions we can offer.

21

1.4. METHODOLOGY
The type of methodology to perform is the descriptive because, it seeks to
investigate, measure and evaluate to describe the current transport situation in 4
certain intersections. And, since the required data are obtained by measuring,
collecting data are the quantitative. To carry out this work we have a work
methodology, divided into the following:
Assessment and recognition of the study area.
Prior inspection of the place where the work is performed, compiling
photographic information of the site and application area to determine the study
area and crosses or sections of roads to study.
1.4.1. El Cortijo with Manuel Olguin Avenue
To work in Manuel Olguin Avenue with El Cortijo Street, which is a nonsignalized intersection, two people are needed to perform the respective
count in all directions, as it presented a high traffic flow during peak hours.
1.4.2. Manuel Olguin Avenue with El Derby Avenue
Manuel Olguin avenue with Derby avenue is an intersection with traffic
light, to count the cars coming from all directions is advisable to count with
at least two people as it has 3 phases, plus three of the senses have three
lanes. The method would one count of those coming from the south and
west, the other person counts the east and north.
1.4.3. Aymaras Street with El Derby Avenue
Aymaras street with El Derby Avenue is a non-signalized intersection that
has a major street (El Derby avenue) and a minor street (Aymaras street). To
carry on with the work, we need two people counting on week days because

22

of high traffic flow during the hours we have chosen to count. For weekend
days, only one person is needed.
You stand on the corner of Aymaras street, next to the office building and
start counting. It would be dangerous to stand in the median, because it is
not protected and cars sometimes go really fast so there can be an accident.
1.4.4. El Polo Avenue with El Derby Avenue
El Derby and El Polo Avenue have lots of cars from Monday to Friday.
Because of that, it is necessary to have two people counting cars. The
methodology we used was one person in the corner of El Polo counting cars
from east to west and also the cars that comes from the north and turn right
or left; while the other person is on the other corner counting cars from west
to east and the ones that turns left. Because of the number of cars, both people
have to count the cars that comes from the north and go through.
The situation is different on the weekend because the number of cars is less
than during the week. For the count that we did on the weekend, we only
needed one person.

1.5. LIMITATIONS
We didnt have major problems while we were counting, but there were things
that paused our counts sometimes.
In Aymaras Street there is a huge office building so there are cars coming in
and out all day. When you come from the east (El Derby Avenue) and want
to turn right to Aymaras street, if a car is coming in or out, it causes a waiting
line that interferes with traffic and pause the counts.

23

There was a drunken man who was bothering one of us. He was disturbing all
the time so he did not allow counting efficiently.
There was a crash between two cars in El Derby avenue with El Polo avenue.
It happened on Monday night at 7 pm approximately. Fortunately, there were
not dead people; the crash was taken charge of by the police, who were near
the accident. It stooped the cars moving freely and it did not permit the
counting of cars in that moment.

2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
2.1. HCM
2.2. MUTCD
2.3. LOS DEFINITION
2.4. T. S. COORDINATION
2.5. UCP

3. DATA COLLECTION & ANALYSIS


3.1. Manuel Olguin Avenue with El Cortijo
3.1.1. Peak Day Determination

AM

TOTAL VOLUME A.M


5000
4000

3890

4154

3000
1994
2000
1000
0
TUESDAY

FRIDAY

SATURDAY

Figure 11 : total volumes for intersection 1 in the morning


24

PM

TOTAL VOLUME P.M


4000
3500

3510
3118

3000

2650

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
TUESDAY

FRIDAY

SATURDAY

Figure 12 : total volumes for intersection 1 in the afternoon

3.1.2. Warrant Analysis

In the analysis made for warrant 1, we obtained that three of the six hours
had inconvenients. We can assume that this warrant will not present
inconvenients.
WARRANT #1
HOURS

SITUATION

6:15 7:15 a.m.

OK

7:15 8:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

8:15 9:15 a.m.

OK

18:15 19:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

19:15 20:15 p.m.

INCONVENIET

20:15 21.15 p.m

OK

Table 1. Warrant 1 for intersection 1

25

In the analysis made for warrant two, we obtained that the three hours we
studied had inconvenients. We will need to study at least three more hours,
such as the prior ant the next hour to say that the warrant complies.
WARRANT #2
HOURS

SITUATION

6:15 7:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

7:15 8:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

8:15 9:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

18:15 19:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

19:15 20:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

20:15 21.15 p.m

OK

Table 2. Warrant 2 for intersection 1

For warrant eight, we have the same situation as in warrant two. So, as the
prior case, we will need to analyze more hours in order to say the warrant
complies.
WARRANT #8
HOURS

SITUATION

6:15 7:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

7:15 8:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

8:15 9:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

18:15 19:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

19:15 20:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

20:15 21.15 p.m.

OK

Table 3. Warrant 8 for intersection 1


26

For warrant nine, we studied two of the four continuous hours required.
Based on our results, we will need to analyze the prior and the next hour
to say the warrant comply.
WARRANT #9
HOURS

SITUATION

6:15 7:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

7:15 8:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

8:15 9:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

18:15 19:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

19:15 20:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

20:15 21:15 p.m.

OK

Table 4. Warrant 9 for intersection 1

For warrant eleven, according to our total volume counts in the A.M. and
the P.M., we need to analyze the peak hour at night, because this is where
the maximum volume occurs. This mean warrant eleven complies.
WARRANT #11
PEAK HOURS

SITUATION

18:30 19:30 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

Table 5. Warrant 11 for intersection 1

Analyzing all the warrants we can say that more hours need to be counted
in order to all the warrants, except the first one, comply.

27

3.2. Manuel Olguin Avenue with El Derby Avenue

Figure 13. intersection 2

3.2.1. Peak Day Determination


3.2.1.1.

AM

Volumes

Total Volume
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Wednesday

Friday

Sunday

days of the week

Figure 14. Total volume of the intersection 2 in the morning

28

3.2.1.2.

PM

Total volume
12000

10000

Volumes

8000
6000
4000
2000
0
Friday

Wednesday

Sunday

Figure 15. Total volume of the intersection 2 in the afternoon

3.2.2. Peak Hour Determination


Av. Manuel Olguin
649.56
838 29 31
57
257 137.67
Av. El Derby

37

250
165.83 34
36
209 47
168.55

Figure 16: Schematic of peak hour volume in the morning.

29

AV. Manuel Olguin


680

140

129

Av. Derby

301
346
781

781
665
391
226

132

Figure 17 : Schematic of peak hour volume in the afternoon.

3.2.3. Saturated Flow Rate Determination

Saturation flow rate was determine by using this formula. Taking the characteristics
of the intersection as number of lanes, percentage of trucks, width of the lane, scope
of the terrain. The following table shows the values of each lane.

30

S
1373
1631
1465
1373
1465
1465
1631
1459
1465
1631
1459
1373
1465
1631

LEFT/THRU
THRU ONLY
RIGHT/THRU
LEFT/THRU
RIGHT/THRU
RIGHT/THRU
THRU ONLY
LEFT/THRU/U-TURN
RIGHT/THRU
THRU ONLY
LEFT/THRU/U-TURN
LEFT/THRU
RIGHT/THRU
THRU ONLY

Table 6 : Flow rate saturation of the intersection 2

3.2.4. LOS Determination Form


3.2.4.1.

AM
Av. Manuel Olguin
F

F
C

C
E
F

Av. El Derby

D
F

F
C
D
F

D
F

Figure 16: Level of service of the intersection 2 in the morning

31

Av. Manuel Olguin


F

F
C

C
D
D

Av. El Derby

C
F

F
D
D
F

D
F

Figure 17 : Level of service of the intersection 2 in the afternoon

3.3. Aymaras Street with El Derby Avenue


3.3.1. Peak Day Determination
3.3.1.1.

A.M.

Figure 18: Total volumes for the intersection 3 in the morning

32

3.3.1.2.

P.M.

Figure 19: total volumes for the intersection 3 in the afternoon

3.3.2. Peak Hour Volume


3.3.2.1.

A.M.: Friday from 8:15 a.m. to 9:15 a.m.

Figure 20: total volumes in the afternoon

33

3.3.2.2.

P.M.: Friday from 18:45 p.m. to 19:45 p.m.

Figure 21: total volumes in the afternoon

3.3.3. Warrant Analysis

In the analysis made for warrant 1, we obtained that three of the six hours
had inconvenients. We can assume that this warrant will not present
inconvenients. We can see the complete data and analysis for Warrant
one in the appendices N

WARRANT #1
HOURS

SITUATION

6:15 7:15 a.m.

OK

7:15 8:15 a.m.

OK

8:15 9:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

17:15 18:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

18:15 19:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

19:15 20.15 p.m

OK

Table 7. Warrant 1 for intersection 3


34

In the analysis made for warrant two, we obtained that the six hours we
studied had inconvenients. We will need to study at least four more hours,
such as the prior ant the next hour to say that the warrant complies. We
can see the complete data and analysis for Warrant two in the appendices
N
WARRANT #2
HOURS

SITUATION

6:15 7:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

7:15 8:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

8:15 9:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

17:15 18:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

18:15 19:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

19:15 20.15 p.m

INCONVENIENT

Table 8. Warrant 2 for intersection 3

For warrant eight, we have the same situation as in warrant two. So, as the
prior case, we will need to analyze more hours in order to say the warrant
complies. We can see the complete data and analysis for Warrant eight in
the appendices N

35

WARRANT #8
HOURS

SITUATION

6:15 7:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

7:15 8:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

8:15 9:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

17:15 18:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

18:15 19:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

19:15 20.15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

Table 9. Warrant 8 for intersection 3

For warrant nine, we studied three of the four continuous hours required.
Based on our results, we will need to analyze the prior and the next hour
to say the warrant comply. We can see the complete data and analysis for
Warrant nine in the appendices N
WARRANT #9
HOURS

SITUATION

6:15 7:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

7:15 8:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

8:15 9:15 a.m.

INCONVENIENT

17:15 18:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

18:15 19:15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

19:15 20.15 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

Table 10. Warrant 9 for intersection 3

36

For warrant eleven, according to our total volume counts in the A.M. and
the P.M., we need to analyze the peak hour at night, because this is where
the maximum volume occurs. This mean warrant eleven complies. We can
see the complete data and analysis for Warrant eleven in the appendices
N
WARRANT #11
PEAK HOURS

SITUATION

18:45 19:45 p.m.

INCONVENIENT

Table 11. Warrant 11 for intersection 3

Analyzing all the warrants we can say that more hours need to be counted
in order to all the warrants, except the first one, comply.

3.4. El Polo Avenue with El Derby Avenue


This is a cross-shaped intersection which is located at the avenues El Polo and El
Derby; the main avenue is El Derby which has three lanes coming from the east,
but just two coming from the west. On the other hand, there are three lanes
coming from the north. Every lane length is 3.5 meters, as shown in the figure ().
El Derby Avenue has something special: there are three lanes from the east but
they become in two after the intersection. There is a space for pedestrians which
means that if it is necessary, this part that have only two lanes could have three.

Intersection El Derby with El Polo

37

Figure 22 . Intersection 4, El Polo with EL Derby

Traffic light cycle

Figure 23. Phases and cycles of the intersection 4

Geometric Schematic

Figure 24. Geometric schematic for intersection 4


38

3.4.1. Peak Day Determination


The counts were done on Friday 26th August, Sunday 25th September and
26th September.
The values found in Figure 1 are the sum total of the number of cars in
each day, so the maximum number represents the day of the week that have
more density than the other ones, that will have the numbers that we have
to use to represent a critical situation on our intersection. In this way, our
results will be approximated to a realistic situation
As shown in figure () and () the day, of the ones we count, which has the
highest volume of cars was on Friday.
3.4.1.1.

Peak day determination: A.M.

MORNING
Monday

Friday

Sunday

7937

8424

2352

Table 13. Total volume of the peak day in the morning for
the intersection 4

Volume in the Morning


VOLUME OF CARS

10000

8000

7937

8424

6000
4000

2352

2000
0
Monday

Friday

Sunday

DAY OF THE WEEK

Figure 25. Total volumes in the morning for the


intersection 4.

39

3.4.1.2.

Peak day determination PM


AFTERNOON
Monday

Friday

Sunday

8134

8768

6768

Table 14. Total volume of the peak day in the afternoon for
the intersection 4

Volume in the Afternoon


10000

VOLUME OF CARS

8134

8768

8000

6768

6000
4000
2000
0
Monday

Friday

Sunday

DAY OF THE WEEK

Figure 26 . Total volumes in the afternoon for the intersection


4.

3.4.2. Peak Hour Determination


To determine the peak hour is necessary know all the counts and the
maximum value in one hour of the day selected before.

40

3.4.2.1. AM
JR. El Polo
557 546 325

Av. Derby

209
209
281

310
644

3.4.2.2.

PM
JR. El Polo
379 478 334

Av. Derby

115
115
157

609
865

41

3.4.3. Saturated Flow Rate Determination

APPROACH

MOVEMENTS

PHASE

LEFT/THRU
THRU ONLY
RIGHT/THRU
RIGHT/THRU
U-TURN/THRU
LEFT/THRU/U-TURN
THRU ONLY

N
W
E

Volume (V)

Saturation flow
(s)

334
478
379
865
609
157
230

1214
1699
1456
1659
1540
668
2674

A
A
A
B
B
B
B

TABLE . Saturation flow rate from the intersection 4

3.4.4. LOS Determination Form


3.4.4.1.

AM
JR. El Polo

B
B

B
B
B
C

Av. Derby

1234

B
B
B
C

3.4.4.2.

PM

42

JR. El Polo

B
B

B
B
B
B

Av. Derby

1234

C
C
D
E

43