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SNMPnetworkdiscoverprocess

AdministratorHandbook

Tableofcontents

TheSNMPnetworkdiscoverprocess
Introductiontosnmpnetworkdiscover
The main function of the snmp discover process is to find every IP network device connected to your network and and to populate the
directoryandnetworkmap.LoriotProisabletofindallhostsreachablewiththeIPprotocol.Thesnmpdiscoverprocesshasapowerfulalgorithm
baseonastepbystepprogression.Fromnetworkdevicetonetworkdevice,fromroutertorouter,fromhosttohost,thesnmpdiscoverprocess
internallybuildsadetailedviewoftheIPlayertopology.
TheNetworkDiscoverProcess,sincetheversion5ofLoriotPro,usesmanymethodsofinvestigationfordiscoveringnetworkconnectedhosts
anddevices.
Hereunderthelistofdiscoveringmethodsavailable.
DiscoveringofthelocalnetworkstowhichLoriotProisconnectedbyusingtheinternalLoriotProhostconfiguration.Thedefaultrouter
islearnedfromthelocalsettings.
DiscoveringoftheremotenetworksbyanalyzingaccessibleSNMPawarerouters(RequireaccesstoMIB2routingtable)
Discovering of the hosts located in the remote networks by accessing the ARP tables (Host Addresses) of the previously discovered
routers.
DiscoveringofthehostslocatedinthelocalandtheremotenetworksbyscanningIPaddressranges(IPExpert).
Discoveringoftheclient/serverapplicationslocatedonthepreviouslydiscoveredhostsbyscanningTCPportrange(IPExpert).
DiscoveringofanyhostresourcesbyusinganalysisstrategiesbasedonLUAscriptprograms.
Asareminderandaccordingtoourterminology,anetworkismadeofaphysicalsegmentwithanIPaddressingschema,theInterNetworkisa
groupofnetworksconnectedtogetherbyIProuters.
DevicesareanyequipmentwithatleastanetworkphysicalinterfaceconnectedtoanetworkandwhichhasatleastoneassociatedIPaddress.
Forthesnmpdiscoverprocess,arouterisadevice,definedasagroupofhosts,oneforeachnetworkinterface.ArouterallowstheroutingofIP
packetbetweentheseinterfaces.Iftheroutingfunctionisactivatedinadevice,theipForwardingobjectfromtheMIBIIshouldhavethevalue1.
Thesnmpdiscoverprocesswillmanagearouterasindividualhosts.AhostsettingcalledRouterIDisusedtogrouphoststogetherand
virtuallybuildarouterobjectwithinLoriotPro.ThisobjectisusedandmanagedbyanotherprocessofLoriotPro.

"RouterID"hostproperty

Thescreenbelowshowsyouarouterbuiltfromagroupoftwohostswiththereference(RouterID)10.33.10.121.

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routerconfigurationwindow

Remark:RefertothechapterconcerningtheDirectoryrouterobjectfrommoreinformationaboutroutercreation.

Discoveralgorithm(SNMPrequestbased)
There are few algorithms to use for a complete discover of the network devices. These algorithms use either the SNMP protocol or the ICMP
protocolandsometimestheUDPprotocol.
the snmp discover process uses an investigation method only based on the SNMP MIBII information provided by the devices connected to the
InterNetwork. The process makes request to all devices that recognize the MIBII requests, and collects the IPADDTABLE, IPROUTETABLE and
ARPTABLEhosttables.Fromthat,itbuildstheIPtopology.

Discoverprinciple
thesnmpdiscoverprocesslearnsaboutoutthenetworktopologystepbysteporweshouldrathersayhopbyhop,ahopintelecommunication
terminologybeingarouter.
ItusesthediversityoftherouterSNMPinformationtoimaginethestructureofthenetwork.Theroutercouldbelocatedontheoppositesideof
theworld,itdoesntmatter,ifLoriotprocouldspeakwithitinSNMP,itwilldiscovertheremoteIPinfrastructure.
Thismethodisefficientbecauseitisnotnecessarytorequestalldevicesconnectedtothenetworkinordertoknowthattheyarepresentand
active.Ofcoursearemotehostwillonlybediscoveredifithadalreadyexchangedpacketswithitsdefaultrouter,elseitwouldnotbeseen.The
readingoftherouterARPtablegivesonlyvolatileinformation,thetableisflushevery4hours
AhostconfiguredfornotrespondingtoPingrequestoranyotherIPrequestwillbediscoveranyway.TheARPtablegivesMediumAccessLayer
MACinformationsuchasphysicaladdresses,whichisnotpossiblewithasinglePingtoaremotehost.
RemoteheremeansatleastbehindanIProuter.
However,iftheremotedevicedoesnotleaveanytraceinherouteritwillnotbediscovered.
Example
Letusimaginethenetworkbelow.

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Discoverprincipleworkingexample

SNMPnetworkdiscoverprocess

Inthiscontext,oneoftheCrouterinterfacesisknown,aswellasitsSNMPreadcommunity,thesnmpdiscoverprocesswillfindoutintwostep
thetopologyandthedevicesconnectedtothenetwork.ItwillfindoutiftheB,D,E,FrouterareintheCroutingtableasnexthops.
IftheSNMPcommunityofrouterD,E,Fisknown,hostsS1S2etS3willbediscoveredbyreadingtheARPtableoftheserouter.
thesnmpdiscoverprocessusesakindofvectordistancealgorithmandprocesshopbyhop.Besidethenetworkisdiscoveredinasequential
mannerregardingthedefinedsettingandinthereverseorderofthediscoveredhosts.TheDSNMPprogram,whichisthekerneloftheDirectory,
managesallresourcesofhosttypeinachainedstructurelist.Ascancycleconsistsofcallingthefirsthostofthislist,usingitsconFiguredsetting
andifitsucceeds,todoallscheduleSNMPrequeststoit.Thenexthostinthelististreatedthesamewayandsoon,uptotheendofthelist.

Directoryupdate
Incaseofnewdiscoveredhosts,thesnmpdiscoverprocessaskstotheDSNMPprocesstocreatanewentryinthechainedlistandthussavethe
newhostobjectanditssettings.TheDSNMPprocesssavesitatthebeginningofthelist,whichdoentaffectthecurrentscancycleofthesnmp
discoverprocess.AtthenextDiscovercyclethenewlydiscoveredhostwillbequestionedfirst.
Discoverprocessalgorithm

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Discoverprocessalgorithm

SNMPnetworkdiscoverprocess

Exampleofdiscover
Letusimagineacomplexnetworkasbelow:

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"OnlyNexthops"discover

1. Firstdiscovercycle:thesnmpdiscoverprocesscollectsSNMPinformationfromtheArouter.Itdetectstwootherrouter,BandC.It
findsallhoststhathavealreadyusedtheArouterbyreadingtheARPtableofrouterA.
2. Seconddiscovercycle:thesnmpdiscoverprocesscollectsSNMPinformationfromtheC,BandArouterandfindsthreenewrouters
D,EandFaswellasnewhosts.
3. Thirddiscovercycle:thesnmpdiscoverprocesscollectsSNMPinformationfromtheF,E,D,B,CetAanddiscoversnewhosts.

Discoverprocessconfiguration
Thesnmpdiscoverprocessisfullyconfigurableandcouldbefinetunetoyourexpectation.Theconfigurationwindowsisaccessiblefromthemain
menu:
Configure>DiscoverProcess

ConFigureoptionofthemainmenu

thesnmpdiscoverprocesswindowisadialogboxcontainingalladjustablesettings.

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Discoverprocesswindow

Remark: Remember, the snmp discover process works as a background task of the LoriotPro kernel and this window is only a configuration
window.
A lot of configuration options are available to finely tune the snmp discoverprocess. It could be necessary to limit the number of discovery
methodsandconsequentlyreducethetrafficgeneratedbythesnmpdiscoverprocess.
To perform the scanning cycles, the snmp discover process uses thehosts settings stored in the Directory and a few others allowing a more
preciseanalysis.

UnattendedMode
TheEnableDiscoverProcessoptionallowsyoutodoperiodicdiscoveratregularintervals.ThesettingDiscoverProcessRunningInterval
definesthetimebetweeneachdiscovercycle.
Warning:Ifyoucheckthe"EnableDiscoverProcess"option,aninformationwindowremindsyouthatyouwillsendSNMPrequeststoall
ofyournetworkhostsandthatlinkswillbeused.Itcouldarisethatondemandlinkswillbeopened and will be payable for time utilization.
Activatingthesnmpdiscoverprocesscouldopentheselinksandgenerateunwantedcosts.

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snmpdiscoverwarning

Warningwindow

IfyouanswerYes,youwillbeabletoconFigurethediscovercycleoccurrences.

'RunScanningProcessEvery'option

Remark:Inourprecedingexample,threecycleswerenecessarytodiscoverthenetwork.Ifthediscovercyclefrequencyissetat100seconds,it
willtakeatleast300secondestodiscoverthenetwork.Ifthefrequencyusedislowerthanthetimeneededtodoacompletediscover,thesnmp
discoverprocesswillruncontinuously.
TheprocessautomaticallyswitchestotheSNMPversionandselectstherightreadcommunityofthecurrentscannedhost.BydefaulttheSNMP
version1isusedwhentheprocessinterrogatesanewhostbutversion2crequestcouldalsobeuseincaseofnoresponseinversion1.

Networkcontainercreation
Remark: By default the snmp discover process creates new discovered networks under the root (World) of the Directory tree. It is possible to
modifythisoptionandlocatetheNetworksinacontainerofyourchoice.Todothat,selectthedesiredcontainerinthetreeandusethemenu
option'SetHomeContainer'ofthesubmenu'DiscoverAnchor'.
Toresetthisoptioninthedefaultrootvalue,selecttheResetHomeToRootinthesamesubmenu.
Warning:ThisoptionisautomaticallysettorooteachtimeyourestartLoriotpro

SNMPtablediscoveroptions
Aswealreadymention,thesnmpdiscoverprocessreadsSNMPtablesinthehostinordertobuilditsvisionofthenetworktopology.
Theseoptionsareselectableintheconfigurationdialogbox.

TableofoptionsofSNMPscanningtable
Options

Functions

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Options

Functions

AddallnetworksfromSNMProute
table

ScantheIpRouteEntrytableandgatherinformationiproutedestandtiproutemaskforbuildingnetwork
objectsintheDirectory.
Warning:Ifpourrouterisconnectedtoanexternalnetwork(ExtranetorInternet)itcould
bepossiblethatyouwillseeunneedednetworks.

Addhostsfoundwithnoregistered
network

thesnmpdiscoverprocessinsertsthehostintheDirectoryevenifnonetworkobjectsareavailablefor
them.

AddhostsfoundinSNMProutetable

thesnmpdiscoverprocessinsertsthenexthophostsoftheroutingtableintheDirectoryorthehosts
definedwithrouteshavingamaskof255.255.255.255.

AddhostfoundinSNMPARPtable

thesnmpdiscoverprocessusestheSNMPIpAddEntrytable(AddressResolutionProtocolARP)to
discoverallhoststhatareonthesamephysicalnetwork.
Remark:Dontusethisoptionifyouwanttodiscoveronlytherouters.

IPaddressrangediscover
ItispossibletolimitthescanrangetoasetofIPaddresses.IfyouchecktheSetanduseIPRangecaseanewwindowappearsallowingyouto
specifythisrange.

Checkbox'SetanduseIPrange'

Intheexamplebelow,onlyhostsintheDirectoryhavingaddressesbetween10.33.10.121and10.33.10.130arescanned.

IPaddressrangeconfigurationwindow

Warning:Thisrangeshouldbecontiguous.
Theboxisnowcheckedandnotifiesyouthattherangeissetup.
ThetextdisplayedintheinformationzoneremindsyouthatanIPaddressrangeisused.

Duringthescanningcycle,thetextinformsyouaboutthecurrentscannedaddress.

IPExpertOptions
TheIPExpertoptionsprovideadvancedanalysisoftheclient/serversapplicationsrunningonthediscoveredhosts.
IfthediscoveredhostsareansweringtoSNMPrequests,theIPExpertcanalsoprovideanyinformationonthehostsresources.
TheIPExpert uses in that case script programs. Scripts are already available for in deep hosts resources analysis and furthermore you can
extendthelibraryofavailablewithyourownscript.
IntheDiscoverProcessconfigurationwindow,youcansetupfewoptionforactivatingtheIPExpertprocess.

RunIPExpertonDirectoryNetworkObjects:Ifthisoptionischecked,theIPExpertprocesswillanalyzealltheNetworkobjects(scanthe
networkandlaunchdiscoverstrategyscripts).ThescanisperformedonlyiftheNetworkObjectpropertysettingsallowit.
IntheNetworkObjectpropertybesurethatthe"Makeanewscanofthisnetworkatthenextdiscoverprocess"ischecked

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RunIPExpertonDirectoryHostObjects:Ifthisoptionischecked,theIPExpertprocesswill analyze all the Host objects (scan host TCP


ports).ThescanisperformedonlyiftheHostObjectpropertysettingsallowit.
IntheHostObjectPropertiesbesurethattheRunATNextDiscoverCycleischecked.Seeexamplebelow

AssignhostparametersfromIPExpertInformations(ExtendedEdition):IftheIPexpertusediscoverstrategiesbasedonscriptthehost
parameterscanbeassigneddirectlybyscriptfunctions.ThisoptionsallowsthisfeaturesonlyavailablewiththeExtendedEditionofLoriotPro.
AclickontheSetIPExpertbuttonopentheIPExpertConsolewindow.ReadtheIPExpertConsoledocumentationforthenextconfiguration
steps.

Discoveronlyroutersoption(nexthophosts)
thesnmpdiscoverprocessidentifiesthehoststhatarerouters(nexthops)whenperformingadiscover.nexthopIPaddressesarecollectedinthe
tableentrycalledIpRouteNextHopoftheSNMPIpRouteEntrytableobjectwhichistheroutingtable.

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iproutenexthop

TableIpRouteEntry

Thisoptioncouldbeforcedintheadvancedhostsetting.
Warning:Itisnotpossibletogetridofthishostoptionwithcertitudeforarealnexthopbecausethesnmpdiscoverprocess
dynamicallysetsitupifitsmissing.Ifthisoptionismanuallysetupbyerrorthesnmpdiscoverprocesswontdiscardit.
This option is useful to limit the discovery perimeter and to predefined next hop hosts (routers) therefore restricting the SNMP information
collectiontothesehostsonly.

Discoveroption

IfthediscoveronlyroutersoptionisnotcheckedthesnmpdiscoverprocessscansalldiscoveredhostsrespondingornottoSNMPrequests.

Discoveronlyactifhostsoption
Ifthediscoveronlyactifhostsischecked,onlydeviceswiththeSNMPpollingoptionactivatedandhavingagoodpollingstatus(greencolor)
arescanned.

Discoveronlyroutersoptionandhosts.
Ifbothmodesarechecked,onlydevicesofnexthosttypewiththeSNMPpollingoptionactiveandhavingagoodpollingstatus(greencolor)are
scanned.

Alloptionsremoved
thesnmpdiscoverprocessscansallhostsoftheDirectoryexceptthosewiththe
Enablediscoveroptionnotchecked.

Preventingaspecifichosttobeanalyzedbythediscoverprocess
ThescanofahostcouldbepreventedbyuncheckingtheoptionEnablediscoverscanningforthishostinthehostconfigurationwindow

"EnableDiscoverscanningforthishost"Option

Limittherouterhopcountdepth
TheMaximumrouterhopstodiscoveroptionlimitsthenumberofroutersthatthesnmpdiscoverprocesscouldcrossduringdiscoverycycles.

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Warning:Bydefaultthevalueissetto100,whichisobviouslyalargenetwork.Withthisdefaultvalue,youmightdiscovernetworksfrom
extranetorInternet

Usinganalternatecommunity
AsecondReadOnlycommunitycouldbesetupfornewlydiscoveredhoststhatarepresentintheDirectory.

SecondCommunitysetup

Defaultvaluesassignedtonewlydiscoveredhosts
Wheneverthesnmpdiscoverprocessfindsanewhost,itusesthepredefinedsettingsforsettingupitsprofile.Ifyouwishthatnewdiscovered
hostsbesupervisedbySNMPorICMPatapredefinedfrequency,youcanchangethedefaultassignedsettings.

TableofDefaultSettings
Options

Functions

CommunityRO

ThisCommunityisusesfornewhosts,ifthehostrespondstoSNMPquery.
AllsubsequentfoundhostswillhavethisROcommunity.

SecondCommunityRO

Ifthepreviouscommunitygetsnoanswer,thesecondoneisused.
AllsubsequentfoundhostswillhavethisROcommunity.

CommunityRW

ThisRWcommunityisassignedtonewhosts.

Polling

LapollingfrequencyusedbyICMPorSNMP,assignedtonewhost.
60secondsisthedefaultvalue.

Snmppolling

IfthisoptionischeckedallnewdiscoveredhostswillbepolledwithSNMPatregularintervalsdefinedinthepolling
field

Pingpolling

IfthisoptionischeckedallnewdiscoveredhostswillbepolledwithICMP(Ping)atregularintervalsdefinedinthe
pollingfield.

CheckForSNMPV2c

IfthisoptionischeckedtheDiscoverprocesswilltrytouseSNMPversion1requests.Ifunsuccessful,itwilltry
withSNMPversion2crequests.Ifthesecondrequestissuccessful,subsequentrequeststothishostwillbemade
inversion2c.

Nameresolutionofdiscoveredhosts
Bydefault,thesnmpdiscoverprocessusestheSNMPSysnameobjectvalueasobjectnameintheDirectory.Thisistrueifthenameisdefinedin
theagentandifthehostanswerstotheSNMPquery.

IfyoucheckAssignDNStohostnamethenameresolutioniscarriedouttotheNameServer
IfyoucheckScanandAssignNetbiostohostnamethenameresolutioniscarriedouttotheWINS
Remark:IfyoucheckAssignDNStohostnametheDiscovercyclewillbesloweddownbecauseDNSrequestsaresometimesslow.

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Ifthenamecouldnotberesolvedbyalltheseways,thehostnamewillbebuiltfromtheIPaddressanda>willbeaddedfirst
Example
Ifthehostaddressis10.3.4.5andifthesnmpdiscoverprocessisnotabletofindanameeitherwithSNMP,DNSorNetbiostheassignedname
willbe:
>10.3.4.5

Discoveringremotearchitecture
TheDiscoverprocesscanbestartmanuallyanddiscoverremotenetworkarchitecture.
Thisdiscoversmethodrequiresthataremoterouter(theipaddressofoneofitsinterface)isaccessiblethroughthenetworkandthatthisrouter
isansweringtoSNMPrequests.
Theremoterouterreadonlycommunityshouldbespecifiedtoo.
TodoaremotenetworkdiscoveraddanIPaddressintheDiscoveringfromaremotehost(Router)area(seebelow).

Whendoneclickonthestartbutton(Warning:theunattendedmodeshouldbeoff).

HostDefaultSettings
Hostadvancedsettings,alreadyseeninpreviouschapter,couldaffectthebehaviorofthesnmpdiscoverprocessforthisparticularhost.

Hostadvancedsettings

Advancedpropertydefinitions
TheSNMP"polling"optionisusedinrelationwiththeScanonlyactivehostsoption.

Extractofthehostproperties

TheThishostisarouter(NextHop)optionforcesthesnmpdiscoverprocesstoconsideranonnexthophostasanexthop.
TheEnablediscoverscanningforthishostoptioncoulddisablethescanofthishostbythesnmpdiscoverprocess.

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snmphosttype

Hostproperties

Standardpropertiesaffectingthesnmpdiscoverprocess.
Whencreatinganewentryinthelist,youmaydefinethefollowingsettings
inserthost

Hostcreationwindow

Tableofstandardoptions
Options

Impactonthesnmpdiscoverprocess

PingPolling

ThissettingisusedtodotheICMPpollingandhasnoeffectonthesnmpdiscoverprocess.Ifthedeviceis
polledsuccessfully,itsstatusis1anditscolorblue.

SnmpPolling

thesnmpdiscoverprocessusesthissettingiftheScanonlyactivehostsoptionischecked.Ifthedeviceis
polledsuccessfully,itsstatusis2anditscolorgreen.Ifbothoptionsarecheckedandifthestatusis2then
theSNMPscanningofthishostisperformed.

Thishostisarouter(NextHop)

Thissettingisautomaticallysetupbythesnmpdiscoverprocessandcouldonlybemanuallyforcedtotrue.
Iftheoptionscanonlyrouters(nexthophosts)issetthenthisdevicewillbescannedbythesnmp
discoverprocessindifferenttoitsstatusortothetwoprevioussettings.

Enablethesnmpdiscover
processtoscanthishost

Thissettingcoulddisablethescanofthishostinallcases.

CommunityRO

ThisisthecommunityusedbythesnmpdiscoverprocessforSNMPscanning.

Discoverprocessgeneratedevents
Eachtimeahostoranetworkisdiscoveredbythesnmpdiscoverprocess,aneventnotificationissenttoanLoriotProEventmanager.Thisevent
managercouldbelocalorremote.

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Eventsdistributedmanagement

Thecurrentversionofthesnmpdiscoverprocessgeneratesonlytwotypesofevents
Eventnumber

Description

"Newhost"

"Newnetwork"

Theeventsaresenttothelocalorremotemanagementandthiscouldtriggeranaction.
Thefollowingdrawingdescribestheconceptofeventmanagement.
snmpdiscovereventfilter

Principlesofeventmanagementandeventfiltering

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DiscoverAlarmmanagement

Exampleofeventfromthesnmpdiscoverprocess

Itispossibletofiltereventsbymodifyingthefiletrapfilter.txt.
Extractoftrapfilter.txtfile
event20.0.0.00.0.0.02wave"wave/newnetwork.wav"
event110.0.0.0255.0.0.01wave"wave/ding.wav"
event10.0.0.00.0.0.01wave"wave/newhost.wav"
ConFiguredfiltersaregraphicallydisplayedintheEventwindowsunderthefilterstab.
snmpdiscoverfilter

Filterstab

Remark:Afullchapterisdedicatedtoeventmanagementandfilters.

Warningaboutthesnmpdiscoverprocess
Whendiscoveringnewhosts,thesnmpdiscoverprocesschecksthe"EnableDiscoverScanningforthishost"optionbydefaultandthusfindsout
alldevicesconnectedtothenetwork.TheLoriotProadministratorshouldmodifythispropertyifhedoesnotwishtoscanspecifichosts.
Itisrecommendedtoproceedstepbystep.Initiallyitissimpletoletthesnmpdiscoverprocessdoitsjobbygivingitenoughtimetorunmultiple
scancycles.Next,youcansetupthehoststhatshouldnotbescannedbythesnmpdiscoverprocess.
thesnmpdiscoverprocessshouldbeusedwithextremecautionwhennetworkarchitecturehasondemandorISDNlink.Itdoesntdistinguish
betweenafreeresourcelikeanEthernetsegmentandapayableonelikeabackupline.
Toavoidtheopeningofsuchlink,youshoulddisabletheEnablethediscoverprocesstoscanthishostofthenexthop(router)providingthis
link.
Warning: Hosts located behind such nexthops could be used by the snmp discover process to continue its scanning. You should carefully
conFigureallhostremotelylocatedanddoafineadjustementofthesnmpdiscoverprocesssettingofthepollingsetting.
Ifyournetworkisespeciallymeshed,wesuggestyoutodisabletheEnableDiscoverscanningforthishostoptionforallIPaddresses of the
routerinvolved.Dontforgetthatthesnmpdiscoverprocessconsidersarouterasindividualhosts.
Oncethetopologyisdiscovered,increasetheperiodbetweentwoscancycles.Ifyournetworkisstableandthenumberofhostsandnetworks
doesntevolve,stopthesnmpdiscoverprocessanduseonlytheclassicalpolling.
Remark:Itispossibletosupervise"polling"adeviceinSNMPandpreventitsscanningbythesnmpdiscoverprocess.Thepollingprocessistotally
independentofthesnmpdiscoverprocess.

Copyright2004LUTEUSSARL.Allrightsreserved.ThisdocumentationiscopyrightedbyLUTEUSSARL.Nopartofthispublicationmay
bereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopyingorotherwise,
withoutthepriorexpresswrittenpermissionofLUTEUSSARL

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