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Structural notes for Prestress Concrete

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8533.33 = 7040 As1- 2372.48 As12 + 1906.575As1 + 5303.76

3229.57 = -2372.48 As12 + 8946.575As1

As12 - 3.77098As1 + 1.36126 = 0

3.77098 + (-3.77098)2 - 4(1.36126)

As1 =

2

= (3.77098 + 2.9623) / 2

= 0.40433 in2

As = As1 + Asf

= 0.40433 + 0.8036

= 1.20793 in2

Which is very near to the preliminary value of As = 1.346 in2 The trial section will be adopted with the

amount of As = 1.207932.

The web is of course to be designed by shear.

ANCHORAGE ZONE DESIGN

Bursting zones

Spalling zones

b

Idealization of the anchorage zone for

analysis

bursting zones

Rational design for the reinforcement for end zones must recognize that horizontal cracking is

likely. If adequate reinforcement is provided, so that the cracks are restricted to a few inches in length

and to 0.01 in. or less in width, these cracks will not be detrimental to the performance of the beam

either at service load or at the overload stage. It should be noted that end-zone stresses in

prestressed concrete beams do not increase in proportion to loads. The failure stress fps in the

tendon at beam failure is attained only at the maximum moment section.

For pretensioned members , a very simple equation has been proposed for end-zone

reinforcement:

Qh

At = 0.021 i

fslt

where

Qi = initial prestress force, lb.

h = total member depth, in.

fs = allowable stress in stirrups, psi

lt = transfer length, in.

An allowable stress of 20,000 psi has been found in tests to produce acceptably small crack widths..

The required reinforcement having total area At should be distributed over a length equal to h/5

measured from the end face of the beam, and for most efficient crack control the first stirrup should

be placed as close to the end face as practical.

For post-tensioned members, end-zone reinforcement is often designed on the basis of an

equilibrium analysis of the cracked anchorage zone. As shown in the figure, the end region of a posttensioned beam with an initial prestress of Qi applied at an eccentricity e. At some distance l from the

end, the compressive stress distribution is linear and the forces and stresses acting on the free body

are in equilibrium.

1

G.P.Ancog

Qi

Qi

e

( 1- 6

)

bh

h

Qi

e

( 1+ 6 )

bh

h

C

V

2

Qi

0

Qi

e

( 1+ 6 )

bh

h

Any longitudinal section through the anchorage zone at a distance y from the bottom fiber is

subjected to a bending moment, which can be determined from the forces that are acting on the ends

of the block.

The bending moment may be determined for any longitudinal section as follows. For the end

block shown, two cases can be considered:

1. For y < g:

M = Q ie 2 (

M =

Q ie

2. For y > g:

( yh )

y

M

= 2(

h

Q ie

y

h

y

h

- (3+

y 2

h

)

2e ( h )

h

( 3+ 2e

)

- ( 3+

h

2e

clockwise moment as positive.

2

)( yh ) +

h y

h in dimensionless form and considers

(

1)

e h

2e clockwise moment as positive.

In practical cases, moments can be calculated at increments of height, starting from at the

bottom of the beam, and plotted as a function of distance from the bottom. From this analysis, the

total required area of steel reinforcement can be found:

M max

At =

fs( h - x )

where:

x = the distance in inches from the end face to the centroid of the steel

that are within h/2 from end

All other terms are as already defined previously.

G.P.Ancog

h= 36

8. The figure shows the end portion of a post-tensioned beam. The beam has an interior I-shaped

section and solid rectangular end blocks. The arrangement of the post-tensioning steel is as

shown in the figure. There are six cables anchored at the ends, exerting 60 k each on the beam. It

is required to design the vertical reinforcement for the end block.

240k

12

9

3

3.5

e= 12 5

60k

12

60k

Solution:

Moment at various horizontal planes can be calculated as follows: Q i = 360k, e = 12.5 in., h = 36 in.

For 0 < y < 3 in. :

M = 360x12.5 2 (

y

36

(3+

y

36

)

(

2x12.5 36

from which:

M = - 0.1929y3 + 15.417y2

When 3 < y < 9 :

M = - 0.1929y3 + 15.417y2 - 240y + 720

When 9 < y < 12 :

M = - 0.1929y3 + 15.417y2 -300y +1260

ad when y > 12 :

M = - 0.1929y3 + 15.417y2 - 360y + 1980

The table below shows the moment at various longitudinal sections:

y,

in.

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

13.0

14.0

15.0

16.0

17.0

18.0

M,

k-in

+15.2

+60.1

+133.5

-56.8

-118.7

-206.7

-270.7

-312.1

-333.1

-391.2

-431.3

-453.3

-518.4

-567.7

-602.3

-623.5

-632.2

-630.0

y,

in.

19.0

20.0

21.0

220.

23.0

24.0

25.0

26.0

27.0

28.0

29.0

30.0

31.0

32.0

33.0

34.0

35.0

36.0

M,

k-in

-617.7

-596.5

-567.7

-532.3

-491.6

-446.6

-398.6

-348.7

-298.1

-247.9

-199.2

-153.3

-111.3

-74.3

-43.5

-20.1

-5.2

0.0

3

G.P.Ancog

We can assume that x = 8 in., approximately h/4, and calculate the area of end-zone reinforcement:

M max

At =

fs( h - x )

632.2x1000

=

20,000( 36 - 8 )

= 1.1289 in2

Using #4 closed stirrups, Av = 2x0.20 = 0.40 in2 , total number needed:

n = At/Av = 1.1289/0.40= 2.82, use 3 closed stirrups.

Details of end zone reinforcement is shown below:

12

e= 12 5

3.5

60k

3

12

60k

h= 36

x= 8

6@5.5 = 33

240k

2

l= h= 36

Anchorage Zone

The top flange of a composite section is given as a slab 100 mm thick and 1.50 m wide cast in

place. Design a precast section with a total depth of 900 mm (including the slab thickness) to carry

the following moments: MT = 435 kN-m, MG = 55 kN-m, MP = 135 kN-m, MC = 300 kN-m. Allowable

stresses are: ft = -11.00 MPa, fb = -12.40 MPa, ft = +2.00 MPa, fb = + 1.10 MPa. Initial prestress f so =

1030 MPa, effective prestress f se = 860 MPa.

Solution:

To assume the section, make a preliminary design, assuming a lever arm of 0.65h for the

prestressing force in resisting the total moment.

MT

435 x10 3

Q

743.589 kN

0.65h 0.65(900)

Compute Qo:

f so

1030

743.589

890.577 kN

f se

860

For the inverted T-section, the concrete area required can be approximate by:

Qo Q

Q

890.577 x10 3

Ac 1.5

1 .5

107731.08 mm 2

fb

12.40

From this preliminary section, sketch a trial section and proceed to final design.

4

G.P.Ancog

in-place portion

1500

100

170.4

cgc

900

484.6

100

cgc

629.6

cgs 315.4

100

355

100 x 355 = 35500 x 50 = 1775000

700 x 100 = 70000 x 450 = 31500000

Ac = 105500

33275000 / 105500 = 315.40 mm = c b

35500(1002/12 + 265.42) = 2.530x109

70000(7002/12 + 134.62) = 4.126x109

I

= 6.656x109 / 105500 = 63090.047 = r2

kt = r2/cb = 63090.047 / 315.40 = 200.031 mm

kb = r2/ct = 63090.047 / 484.60 = 130.189 mm

For the composite section, the section properties:

100 x 1500 = 150000 x 50.0 = 7500000

105500 x 584.6 = 61675300

Ac = 255500

69175300 / 255500 = 270.74 mm 100 = 170.74 = ct

150000(1002/12 + 220.742) = 7.4339x109

105500(0.00

+ 313.862) = 10.3926x109

I of precast

= _6.6560x109

I = 24.4825x109

I ct

6.656 x10 9 484.6

mt

0.09578

I ' c t ' 24.4825 x10 9 170.74

I cb

6.656 x10 9 315.4

mb

0.5424

I ' c b ' 24.4825 x10 9 629.26

Step 1: Location of cgs.

e1

ft ' I

2.0(6.656 x10 9 )

30.845 mm

c t Qo 484.6(890.577 x10 3 )

MG

55 x10 6

e2

61.757 mm

Qo 890.577 x10 3

e e1 e 2 k b 30.845 61.757 130.189 222.791 mm

The cgs can be located at:

5

G.P.Ancog

mt

I ct

6.656 x10 9 484.6

0.09578

I ' c t ' 24.4825 x10 9 170.74

I cb

6.656 x10 9 315.4

mb

0.5424

I ' c b ' 24.4825 x10 9 629.26

Step 3: Compute the required Q.

M P mb M C f b ' k t Ac

e kt

x10 3 649.224kN

222.791 200.031

f so

1030

Qo Q

649.224

777.56 kN

f se

860

e1 e1 previous

Qo previous

e 2 e 2 previous

Qo previous

Qo new

Qo new

30.845

890.577

35.328 mm

777.56

61.757

890.577

70.733 mm

777.56

Which indicates that cgs can be located at:

Revise Q as:

M P mb M C f b ' k t Ac

e kt

x10 3 629.196kN

236.25 200.031

f

1030

Qo Q so 629.196

753.572 kN

f se

860

Q e MG

Qo o

kt

1

3

753.572 x10

12.40

200.031

Ac

1

fb

110373.67 mm 2

G.P.Ancog

M mt M C Qe

Q P

kb

1

3

629.196 x10

11.00

130.189

Ac

1

ft

67734.28 mm 2

Ac = 110373.67 mm2 controls and compare to Ac of trial section = 105500.00 mm2, a little difference

but considered acceptable and therefore there is no need to revise the trial section.

Shapes of Concrete Sections

The simplest form is the rectangular shape possessed by all solid slabs and use of some short

span beam. As far as formwork is concerned, the rectangular beam is the most economical. But the

kern distances are small, and the available lever arm for the steel is limited. Concrete near the

centroidal axis and on the tension side is not effective in resisting moment, especially at the ultimate

stage of loading.

Other shapes are frequently used for prestressed concrete:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The unsymmetrical I-section

The T-section

The inverted T-section

The box section

The suitability of the of these section will depend on the particular requirements. The I-section

is has its concrete concentrated near the extreme fibers where it can most effectively furnish the

compressive force, both at transfer of prestress and under working and ultimate loads. The more the

concrete is concentrated near the extreme fibers, the greater the will be the kern distances and the

greater will be the lever arm furnished for the internal resisting couple. However, this principle of

concentrating the concrete in the extreme fibers cannot be carried too far, because the width and

thickness of the flanges are governed by practical considerations, and for web must have a minimum

thickness to carry the shear, to avoid buckling and to permit proper placement of concrete.

If the MG/MT ratio is sufficiently large, there is the danger of over-stressing the flanges at

transfer, and the concrete in the bottom flange can be accordingly diminished. This will result in an

unsymmetrical I-section, which when carried to the fullest extent becomes a T-section. A T-section is

similar to that for a reinforced beams, is often most economical, since the concrete is concentrated at

the top flange where it is most effective in supplying the compressive force. It may not be

economically used, however, where the MG/MT ratio is small, because the center of pressure at

transfer may lie below the kern point. Then tensile stresses may result in the top flange and high

compressive stress in the bottom section.

The unsymmetrical I-section with a bigger bottom flange, like a rail section is not an

economical one in carrying ultimate moment, since there is relatively little concrete on the

compression flange. However there is a great deal of material to resist initial prestress. It can be

economically used for certain composite sections, where the tension flange is precast and the

compression flange is poured in place. This section requires very little girder moment to bring the

center of pressure within the kern and hence is suitable when the MG/MT ratio is small. When carried

to the extreme, this section becomes an inverted T-beam.

The box section has the same properties of I-section in resisting moments. IN fact, their

section properties are identical.

G.P.Ancog

In summary:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

For economy in steel and concrete, it is best to put the concrete near the

extreme fibers of the compression flange.

When MG/MT ratio is small, more concrete near the tension flange may be

necessary.

When MG/MT ratio is large, there is little danger of overstressing at transfer, and

concrete in the tension flange is required only to house the tendons properly.

If formwork is used only once, it may constitute a major cost of the beam, so that

irregular shapes for the purpose of saving concrete or steel may not be in the interest of

overall economy.

When the forms can be reused repeatedly, more complicated shapes may be

justified.

For plants producing precast elements, it is often economical to construct forms

that can be easily modified to suit different spans and depths

Rectangular Section

Symmetrical I- Section

Unsymmetrical I- Sections

Box Sections

Arrangement of Steel

The arrangement of steel is governed by a basic principle: in order to obtain the maximum

lever arm for the internal resisting moment, it must be placed as near the tensile edge as possible. If

the cgs is very near the tensile edge, and if there is no sufficient girder moment to bring the center of

pressure near or within the kern, the tension flange may be overcompressed at transfer while the

compression flange may be under high tensile stress.

Tension

MG

T

lower kern

C

T

High

compression

Stress Distribution

Section

MG

T1

lower kern

Section

MG + MS

T

C1

T1

Partial Prestress

T1 for MG Only

C

T

Total Prestress

T for MG + MS

8

G.P.Ancog

A heavy moment is desirable at transfer so that the steel can be placed as near the edge as

possible. However, no economy is achieved by adding unnecessary dead load weight to the structure

in order to enable a bigger lever arm for the steel, because whatever additional moment capacity was

thus obtained would be used in carrying the additional dead load, although some additional reserve

capacity is obtained at ultimate range. Lad that can be eventually carried by the beam can be more

economically put on the structure before transfer rather than after, because moments produced by

such loads will permit the placement of steel nearer the tensile edge.

Another method sometimes used in order to permit placement of steel near the edge is to

prestress the structure in two or more stages; this is known as retensioning. At the first stage, when

the moment on the beam is small, only a portion of the prestress will be applied; the total prestress

will be applied only when additional dead load is placed on the beam producing heavier moment on

the section. thus the center of pressure can be kept within the kern at all times, and the excessive

tension in the compression flange, as well as high compression in the tension flange can be avoided.

top kern

Small

arm

cgs

top kern

Big

arm

T

cgs

Prestressing steel in both flanges reduces lever arm for resisting moment.

For certain sections, the tendons are placed in the compression flange as well as in the

tension flange. Generally speaking, this is not an economical arrangement, because it will move the

cgs nearer to the cgc and thereby decrease the resisting lever arm. At the ultimate range, tendons in

the compressive flange will neutralize some of its compressive capacity, whereas only those in the

tension flange are effective in resisting moment. However, under certain circumstances it may be

necessary to put tendons in both flanges in spite of the resulting disadvantages. These conditions

are:

1.

2.

When the member is to be subject to loads producing both +M and M in the section.

When the member might be subject to unexpected moments of opposite sign, during

handling process.

When the MG/MT ratio is small and the tendons cannot be suitably group near the kern

point. Then the tendons will be placed in both the tension and the compression flanges

with the resulting cgs lying near the kern.

3.

A pre-tensioned cored section is to be used for roof construction carrying an added dead load

of 10 psf and a design live load of 30 psf on a simple span of 70 ft. It is made of lightweight concrete

at 110 pcf, precast in factory with a transfer strength of f ci = 4000 psi and a minimum 28-day

strength of fc = 5000 psi, Ec = 2.5x106 psi. Design the tendons, using 7/16 in. 7-wire strands with As

= 0.1089 in2 per strand, fs=fsu = 250,000 psi, fi = 175,000 psi, ft = 165,000 psi, and fe = 145,000 psi,

Es = 27x106 psi. Check the loss of prestress, both immediately at transfer and eventually say at the

end of 3 years. Follow PCI Building Code requirements when applicable.

8.00

1.25

2 fillet

20

2.5

2.5

9.60

cgc

10.40

1.0

Dynacore Section

9

G.P.Ancog

wG L2 358 x70 2

219,000 ft lb

8

8

w L2 (8 x10) x70 2

MS S

49,000 ft lb

8

8

w L L2 (8 x30) x70 2

ML

147,000 ft lb

8

8

M D M G M S 219,000 49,000 268,000 ft lb

MG

Compute top and bottom kerns.

I

27100

r2 c

57.5 in 2

Ac

470

kt

r 2 57.5

5.53 in

c b 10.4

kb

r 2 57.5

5.99 in

ct

9 .6

M G 219,000

M T 415,000

Since the girder load is relatively heavy, the cgs can be placed as low as possible. Assuming a clear

concrete protection of 1.5 in for fire resistance and a protection of cgs of 2.4 in, the total available

from cgs to top kern:

h = cb cover + kt = 10.4 2.4 + 5.53 = 13.53 in.

This will give a resisting moment MR = Feh up to zero tension in bottom fiber.

Allowing a maximum tension of 6 f c ' 6 5000 423 psi PCI Code, we have the resisting

moment from zero tension to 423 psi tension:

fI 423x 27100 1

x 91,600 ft lb

c

10.4

12

This value in moment of 91,600 ft-lb may be found to be too high since its constitutes 22% of the total

moment of 415,000 ft-lb. If fully utilized in design, it will appreciably reduce the required amount of

prestressing steel and hence the ultimate moment. Furthermore, we will be using a great deal of

tension in the bottom flange concrete, which once cracked, may not be able to resist that tension.

Hence it would be well to use perhaps only half of that value in our first attempt to determine the

required prestress; thus:

M

h

1

91,600

Fe M T M 415,000

12

2

2

Fe 318,000 lbs

As

Fe 318,000

2.2 in 2

f e 145,000

7

in strands required = 2.20/Ao = 2.20/0.1089 = 20.2 pcs. Using 20 strands, we can check

16

the stresses at transfer and under total load as follows.

No. of

10

G.P.Ancog

Ft = 20(0.1089)(165,000) = 359,000 lb

Fe = 20(0.1089)(145,000) = 316,000 lb

e = cb - cover = 10.4 2.4 = 8.00 in.

Stresses at transfer:

F F ec M c

f t t G

Ac

Ic

Ic

470

27100

27100

Top fiber:

fT = 763.829 1017.387 + 930.952 = 677.394 psi compression

Bottom fiber:

fB = 763.829 + 1102.169 1008.531 = 857.467 psi compression

These stresses indicate a near rectangular stress block, and a small amount of camber under the

girders own weight, which is usually desirable.

Under total design load:

F

F ec M c

f e e T

Ac

Ic

Ic

470

27100

27100

Top fiber:

fT = 672.340 895.527 + 1764.132 = 1540.845 psi compression

Bottom fiber:

fB = 672.340 + 970.154 1911.143 = -268.649 psi tension

The top fiber compression is well within the allowable 0.45fc = 2250 psi, and the bottom fiber tension

is also less than the permissible 423 psi; this is expected when choosing 20 7/16 in. strands.

To locate the strands at the end of the section, we assume that the strands are spaced at a

minimum of 1 in c.c. Depending on the hardware available and the practice at the plant, this

spacing may vary considerably. Further we will assume that one point harping is preferred for

simplicity of production (actually it frequently happens that 2-point or 3-poinrt harping may be used,

then the profile may be easily arranged both for camber control and for stress control along the entire

length of the span), then we can make a tentative arrangement. IN order to produce no tension in the

top, the cgs at the ends should be within the kern. In order to produce a rectangular stress block at

the ends, the cgs should be at the cgc. In order not to have the intermediate points control the design

cgs should be located within a limiting zone. The cgs at the end should also be located so as to

produce the best camber effect. Taking all this into consideration and using 4 strands for each web, a

tentative arrangement is shown below.

cgs

3 @1 3/4

=5 1/4

6 5/8

4

2 3/8

1 1/2 clear

cgs Location

4 @7/16 =1

Strand Location

11

G.P.Ancog

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