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M u = ( As1fps( d - a/2) + Asffps( d - t/2 )]

640x12 = 0.9[ As1x220( 32 - (21.568As1 - 17.3325)/2) + 0.8036x220( 32 - 4/2)]


8533.33 = 7040 As1- 2372.48 As12 + 1906.575As1 + 5303.76
3229.57 = -2372.48 As12 + 8946.575As1
As12 - 3.77098As1 + 1.36126 = 0
3.77098 + (-3.77098)2 - 4(1.36126)
As1 =
2
= (3.77098 + 2.9623) / 2
= 0.40433 in2

The required area of prestress As:


As = As1 + Asf
= 0.40433 + 0.8036
= 1.20793 in2
Which is very near to the preliminary value of As = 1.346 in2 The trial section will be adopted with the
amount of As = 1.207932.
The web is of course to be designed by shear.
ANCHORAGE ZONE DESIGN
Bursting zones

Spalling zones

b
Idealization of the anchorage zone for
analysis

Tensile stresses at the spalling and


bursting zones

Rational design for the reinforcement for end zones must recognize that horizontal cracking is
likely. If adequate reinforcement is provided, so that the cracks are restricted to a few inches in length
and to 0.01 in. or less in width, these cracks will not be detrimental to the performance of the beam
either at service load or at the overload stage. It should be noted that end-zone stresses in
prestressed concrete beams do not increase in proportion to loads. The failure stress fps in the
tendon at beam failure is attained only at the maximum moment section.
For pretensioned members , a very simple equation has been proposed for end-zone
reinforcement:
Qh
At = 0.021 i
fslt
where

At = total cross-sectional area of stirrups necessary, in2


Qi = initial prestress force, lb.
h = total member depth, in.
fs = allowable stress in stirrups, psi
lt = transfer length, in.
An allowable stress of 20,000 psi has been found in tests to produce acceptably small crack widths..
The required reinforcement having total area At should be distributed over a length equal to h/5
measured from the end face of the beam, and for most efficient crack control the first stirrup should
be placed as close to the end face as practical.
For post-tensioned members, end-zone reinforcement is often designed on the basis of an
equilibrium analysis of the cracked anchorage zone. As shown in the figure, the end region of a posttensioned beam with an initial prestress of Qi applied at an eccentricity e. At some distance l from the
end, the compressive stress distribution is linear and the forces and stresses acting on the free body
are in equilibrium.
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G.P.Ancog

Qi

Qi
e
( 1- 6
)
bh
h

Qi
e
( 1+ 6 )
bh
h

End of beam showing free body location

C
V
2

Qi
0

Qi
e
( 1+ 6 )
bh
h

Forces on free body

Any longitudinal section through the anchorage zone at a distance y from the bottom fiber is
subjected to a bending moment, which can be determined from the forces that are acting on the ends
of the block.
The bending moment may be determined for any longitudinal section as follows. For the end
block shown, two cases can be considered:
1. For y < g:
M = Q ie 2 (
M =
Q ie

2. For y > g:

( yh )

y
M
= 2(
h
Q ie

y
h

y
h

- (3+

y 2
h
)
2e ( h )

h
( 3+ 2e
)

- ( 3+

h
2e

in dimensionless form and considers


clockwise moment as positive.
2

)( yh ) +

h y
h in dimensionless form and considers
(
1)
e h
2e clockwise moment as positive.

In practical cases, moments can be calculated at increments of height, starting from at the
bottom of the beam, and plotted as a function of distance from the bottom. From this analysis, the
total required area of steel reinforcement can be found:
M max
At =
fs( h - x )
where:

fs = the allowable stress in stirrups ( usually taken as 20,000 psi)


x = the distance in inches from the end face to the centroid of the steel
that are within h/2 from end
All other terms are as already defined previously.

G.P.Ancog

End Anchorage Problem

h= 36

8. The figure shows the end portion of a post-tensioned beam. The beam has an interior I-shaped
section and solid rectangular end blocks. The arrangement of the post-tensioning steel is as
shown in the figure. There are six cables anchored at the ends, exerting 60 k each on the beam. It
is required to design the vertical reinforcement for the end block.

240k

12

9
3

3.5

e= 12 5

60k

12

60k

End Block Anchorage Zone

Solution:
Moment at various horizontal planes can be calculated as follows: Q i = 360k, e = 12.5 in., h = 36 in.
For 0 < y < 3 in. :
M = 360x12.5 2 (

y
36

(3+

y
36
)
(
2x12.5 36

from which:
M = - 0.1929y3 + 15.417y2
When 3 < y < 9 :
M = - 0.1929y3 + 15.417y2 - 240y + 720
When 9 < y < 12 :
M = - 0.1929y3 + 15.417y2 -300y +1260
ad when y > 12 :
M = - 0.1929y3 + 15.417y2 - 360y + 1980
The table below shows the moment at various longitudinal sections:
y,
in.
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0

M,
k-in
+15.2
+60.1
+133.5
-56.8
-118.7
-206.7
-270.7
-312.1
-333.1
-391.2
-431.3
-453.3
-518.4
-567.7
-602.3
-623.5
-632.2
-630.0

y,
in.
19.0
20.0
21.0
220.
23.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
27.0
28.0
29.0
30.0
31.0
32.0
33.0
34.0
35.0
36.0

M,
k-in
-617.7
-596.5
-567.7
-532.3
-491.6
-446.6
-398.6
-348.7
-298.1
-247.9
-199.2
-153.3
-111.3
-74.3
-43.5
-20.1
-5.2
0.0
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G.P.Ancog

We can assume that x = 8 in., approximately h/4, and calculate the area of end-zone reinforcement:
M max
At =
fs( h - x )
632.2x1000
=
20,000( 36 - 8 )
= 1.1289 in2
Using #4 closed stirrups, Av = 2x0.20 = 0.40 in2 , total number needed:
n = At/Av = 1.1289/0.40= 2.82, use 3 closed stirrups.
Details of end zone reinforcement is shown below:

12

e= 12 5
3.5

60k
3

12

60k

h= 36

x= 8

6@5.5 = 33

240k
2

l= h= 36

Anchorage Zone

Example Design of Prestressed Composite Section:


The top flange of a composite section is given as a slab 100 mm thick and 1.50 m wide cast in
place. Design a precast section with a total depth of 900 mm (including the slab thickness) to carry
the following moments: MT = 435 kN-m, MG = 55 kN-m, MP = 135 kN-m, MC = 300 kN-m. Allowable
stresses are: ft = -11.00 MPa, fb = -12.40 MPa, ft = +2.00 MPa, fb = + 1.10 MPa. Initial prestress f so =
1030 MPa, effective prestress f se = 860 MPa.
Solution:
To assume the section, make a preliminary design, assuming a lever arm of 0.65h for the
prestressing force in resisting the total moment.

MT
435 x10 3
Q

743.589 kN
0.65h 0.65(900)

Compute Qo:

f so
1030
743.589
890.577 kN
f se
860
For the inverted T-section, the concrete area required can be approximate by:
Qo Q

Q
890.577 x10 3
Ac 1.5
1 .5
107731.08 mm 2
fb
12.40
From this preliminary section, sketch a trial section and proceed to final design.
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G.P.Ancog

in-place portion

1500

100
170.4
cgc
900

484.6

100
cgc

629.6
cgs 315.4
100
355

Beam Trial Section

For the precast portion, the section properties:


100 x 355 = 35500 x 50 = 1775000
700 x 100 = 70000 x 450 = 31500000
Ac = 105500
33275000 / 105500 = 315.40 mm = c b
35500(1002/12 + 265.42) = 2.530x109
70000(7002/12 + 134.62) = 4.126x109
I
= 6.656x109 / 105500 = 63090.047 = r2
kt = r2/cb = 63090.047 / 315.40 = 200.031 mm
kb = r2/ct = 63090.047 / 484.60 = 130.189 mm
For the composite section, the section properties:
100 x 1500 = 150000 x 50.0 = 7500000
105500 x 584.6 = 61675300
Ac = 255500
69175300 / 255500 = 270.74 mm 100 = 170.74 = ct
150000(1002/12 + 220.742) = 7.4339x109
105500(0.00
+ 313.862) = 10.3926x109
I of precast
= _6.6560x109
I = 24.4825x109
I ct
6.656 x10 9 484.6
mt

0.09578
I ' c t ' 24.4825 x10 9 170.74

I cb
6.656 x10 9 315.4
mb

0.5424
I ' c b ' 24.4825 x10 9 629.26
Step 1: Location of cgs.

e1

ft ' I
2.0(6.656 x10 9 )

30.845 mm
c t Qo 484.6(890.577 x10 3 )

MG
55 x10 6
e2

61.757 mm
Qo 890.577 x10 3
e e1 e 2 k b 30.845 61.757 130.189 222.791 mm
The cgs can be located at:

cgs cb e 315.40 222.791 92.609 mm from bottom fiber


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G.P.Ancog

Step 2: Compute mt, mb.

mt

I ct
6.656 x10 9 484.6

0.09578
I ' c t ' 24.4825 x10 9 170.74

I cb
6.656 x10 9 315.4
mb

0.5424
I ' c b ' 24.4825 x10 9 629.26
Step 3: Compute the required Q.

M P mb M C f b ' k t Ac
e kt

135 x10 6 0.5424(300 x10 6 ) 1.10(200.031)(105500)


x10 3 649.224kN
222.791 200.031
f so
1030
Qo Q
649.224
777.56 kN
f se
860

For Qo = 777.56 kN instead of 890.577 kN, revise e 1 and e2 as follows:

e1 e1 previous

Qo previous

e 2 e 2 previous

Qo previous

Qo new
Qo new

30.845

890.577
35.328 mm
777.56

61.757

890.577
70.733 mm
777.56

e e1 e 2 k b 35.328 70.733 130.189 236.25 mm


Which indicates that cgs can be located at:

cgs cb e 315.4 236.25 79.15 mm above bottom fiber


Revise Q as:

M P mb M C f b ' k t Ac
e kt

135 x10 6 0.5424(300 x10 6 ) 1.10(200.031)(105500)


x10 3 629.196kN
236.25 200.031
f
1030
Qo Q so 629.196
753.572 kN
f se
860

Step 4: To keep bottom fiber within allowable stress f b.

Q e MG
Qo o

kt

753.572 x10 3 (236.25) 55 x10 6


1
3

753.572 x10
12.40
200.031

Ac

1
fb

110373.67 mm 2

G.P.Ancog

To keep top fiber within allowable f t.

M mt M C Qe
Q P

kb

135 x10 6 0.09578(300 x10 6 ) 629.196 x10 3 (236.25)


1
3

629.196 x10
11.00
130.189

Ac

1
ft

67734.28 mm 2

Ac = 110373.67 mm2 controls and compare to Ac of trial section = 105500.00 mm2, a little difference
but considered acceptable and therefore there is no need to revise the trial section.
Shapes of Concrete Sections
The simplest form is the rectangular shape possessed by all solid slabs and use of some short
span beam. As far as formwork is concerned, the rectangular beam is the most economical. But the
kern distances are small, and the available lever arm for the steel is limited. Concrete near the
centroidal axis and on the tension side is not effective in resisting moment, especially at the ultimate
stage of loading.
Other shapes are frequently used for prestressed concrete:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The symmetrical I-section


The unsymmetrical I-section
The T-section
The inverted T-section
The box section

The suitability of the of these section will depend on the particular requirements. The I-section
is has its concrete concentrated near the extreme fibers where it can most effectively furnish the
compressive force, both at transfer of prestress and under working and ultimate loads. The more the
concrete is concentrated near the extreme fibers, the greater the will be the kern distances and the
greater will be the lever arm furnished for the internal resisting couple. However, this principle of
concentrating the concrete in the extreme fibers cannot be carried too far, because the width and
thickness of the flanges are governed by practical considerations, and for web must have a minimum
thickness to carry the shear, to avoid buckling and to permit proper placement of concrete.
If the MG/MT ratio is sufficiently large, there is the danger of over-stressing the flanges at
transfer, and the concrete in the bottom flange can be accordingly diminished. This will result in an
unsymmetrical I-section, which when carried to the fullest extent becomes a T-section. A T-section is
similar to that for a reinforced beams, is often most economical, since the concrete is concentrated at
the top flange where it is most effective in supplying the compressive force. It may not be
economically used, however, where the MG/MT ratio is small, because the center of pressure at
transfer may lie below the kern point. Then tensile stresses may result in the top flange and high
compressive stress in the bottom section.
The unsymmetrical I-section with a bigger bottom flange, like a rail section is not an
economical one in carrying ultimate moment, since there is relatively little concrete on the
compression flange. However there is a great deal of material to resist initial prestress. It can be
economically used for certain composite sections, where the tension flange is precast and the
compression flange is poured in place. This section requires very little girder moment to bring the
center of pressure within the kern and hence is suitable when the MG/MT ratio is small. When carried
to the extreme, this section becomes an inverted T-beam.
The box section has the same properties of I-section in resisting moments. IN fact, their
section properties are identical.

G.P.Ancog

In summary:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

For economy in steel and concrete, it is best to put the concrete near the
extreme fibers of the compression flange.
When MG/MT ratio is small, more concrete near the tension flange may be
necessary.
When MG/MT ratio is large, there is little danger of overstressing at transfer, and
concrete in the tension flange is required only to house the tendons properly.
If formwork is used only once, it may constitute a major cost of the beam, so that
irregular shapes for the purpose of saving concrete or steel may not be in the interest of
overall economy.
When the forms can be reused repeatedly, more complicated shapes may be
justified.
For plants producing precast elements, it is often economical to construct forms
that can be easily modified to suit different spans and depths

Rectangular Section

Symmetrical I- Section

Unsymmetrical I- Sections

T and Inverted T- Sections

Box Sections

Arrangement of Steel
The arrangement of steel is governed by a basic principle: in order to obtain the maximum
lever arm for the internal resisting moment, it must be placed as near the tensile edge as possible. If
the cgs is very near the tensile edge, and if there is no sufficient girder moment to bring the center of
pressure near or within the kern, the tension flange may be overcompressed at transfer while the
compression flange may be under high tensile stress.
Tension

MG
T

lower kern

C
T
High
compression

Stress Distribution

Section

MG
T1

lower kern

Section

MG + MS
T

C1
T1

Partial Prestress
T1 for MG Only

C
T

Total Prestress
T for MG + MS

Pretensioning in two stages to keep C within kern.


8

G.P.Ancog

A heavy moment is desirable at transfer so that the steel can be placed as near the edge as
possible. However, no economy is achieved by adding unnecessary dead load weight to the structure
in order to enable a bigger lever arm for the steel, because whatever additional moment capacity was
thus obtained would be used in carrying the additional dead load, although some additional reserve
capacity is obtained at ultimate range. Lad that can be eventually carried by the beam can be more
economically put on the structure before transfer rather than after, because moments produced by
such loads will permit the placement of steel nearer the tensile edge.
Another method sometimes used in order to permit placement of steel near the edge is to
prestress the structure in two or more stages; this is known as retensioning. At the first stage, when
the moment on the beam is small, only a portion of the prestress will be applied; the total prestress
will be applied only when additional dead load is placed on the beam producing heavier moment on
the section. thus the center of pressure can be kept within the kern at all times, and the excessive
tension in the compression flange, as well as high compression in the tension flange can be avoided.

top kern
Small
arm

cgs

top kern

Big
arm

T
cgs

Steel in Tension Flange Only

Steel in Both Flanges

Prestressing steel in both flanges reduces lever arm for resisting moment.

For certain sections, the tendons are placed in the compression flange as well as in the
tension flange. Generally speaking, this is not an economical arrangement, because it will move the
cgs nearer to the cgc and thereby decrease the resisting lever arm. At the ultimate range, tendons in
the compressive flange will neutralize some of its compressive capacity, whereas only those in the
tension flange are effective in resisting moment. However, under certain circumstances it may be
necessary to put tendons in both flanges in spite of the resulting disadvantages. These conditions
are:
1.
2.

When the member is to be subject to loads producing both +M and M in the section.
When the member might be subject to unexpected moments of opposite sign, during
handling process.
When the MG/MT ratio is small and the tendons cannot be suitably group near the kern
point. Then the tendons will be placed in both the tension and the compression flanges
with the resulting cgs lying near the kern.

3.

Design Example, Pre-tensioned Cored Section


A pre-tensioned cored section is to be used for roof construction carrying an added dead load
of 10 psf and a design live load of 30 psf on a simple span of 70 ft. It is made of lightweight concrete
at 110 pcf, precast in factory with a transfer strength of f ci = 4000 psi and a minimum 28-day
strength of fc = 5000 psi, Ec = 2.5x106 psi. Design the tendons, using 7/16 in. 7-wire strands with As
= 0.1089 in2 per strand, fs=fsu = 250,000 psi, fi = 175,000 psi, ft = 165,000 psi, and fe = 145,000 psi,
Es = 27x106 psi. Check the loss of prestress, both immediately at transfer and eventually say at the
end of 3 years. Follow PCI Building Code requirements when applicable.
8.00
1.25

2 fillet

20
2.5

2.5

9.60
cgc
10.40

1.0

Dynacore Section
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G.P.Ancog

Compute for bending moments:


wG L2 358 x70 2

219,000 ft lb
8
8
w L2 (8 x10) x70 2
MS S

49,000 ft lb
8
8
w L L2 (8 x30) x70 2
ML

147,000 ft lb
8
8
M D M G M S 219,000 49,000 268,000 ft lb
MG

M T M D M L 268,000 147,000 415,000 ft lb

Elastic Design Method:


Compute top and bottom kerns.
I
27100
r2 c
57.5 in 2
Ac
470
kt

r 2 57.5

5.53 in
c b 10.4

kb

r 2 57.5

5.99 in
ct
9 .6

M G 219,000

0.5277 l arg e ratio


M T 415,000
Since the girder load is relatively heavy, the cgs can be placed as low as possible. Assuming a clear
concrete protection of 1.5 in for fire resistance and a protection of cgs of 2.4 in, the total available
from cgs to top kern:
h = cb cover + kt = 10.4 2.4 + 5.53 = 13.53 in.
This will give a resisting moment MR = Feh up to zero tension in bottom fiber.
Allowing a maximum tension of 6 f c ' 6 5000 423 psi PCI Code, we have the resisting
moment from zero tension to 423 psi tension:

fI 423x 27100 1

x 91,600 ft lb
c
10.4
12
This value in moment of 91,600 ft-lb may be found to be too high since its constitutes 22% of the total
moment of 415,000 ft-lb. If fully utilized in design, it will appreciably reduce the required amount of
prestressing steel and hence the ultimate moment. Furthermore, we will be using a great deal of
tension in the bottom flange concrete, which once cracked, may not be able to resist that tension.
Hence it would be well to use perhaps only half of that value in our first attempt to determine the
required prestress; thus:
M

h
1
91,600
Fe M T M 415,000
12
2
2
Fe 318,000 lbs
As

Fe 318,000

2.2 in 2
f e 145,000

7
in strands required = 2.20/Ao = 2.20/0.1089 = 20.2 pcs. Using 20 strands, we can check
16
the stresses at transfer and under total load as follows.
No. of

10

G.P.Ancog

Ft = 20(0.1089)(165,000) = 359,000 lb
Fe = 20(0.1089)(145,000) = 316,000 lb
e = cb - cover = 10.4 2.4 = 8.00 in.
Stresses at transfer:
F F ec M c
f t t G
Ac
Ic
Ic

359000 359000(8)(9.6 or 10.4) 219000 x12(9.6 or 10.4)

470
27100
27100

Top fiber:
fT = 763.829 1017.387 + 930.952 = 677.394 psi compression
Bottom fiber:
fB = 763.829 + 1102.169 1008.531 = 857.467 psi compression
These stresses indicate a near rectangular stress block, and a small amount of camber under the
girders own weight, which is usually desirable.
Under total design load:
F
F ec M c
f e e T
Ac
Ic
Ic

316000 316000(8)(9.6 or 10.4) 415000 x12(9.6 or 10.4)

470
27100
27100

Top fiber:
fT = 672.340 895.527 + 1764.132 = 1540.845 psi compression
Bottom fiber:
fB = 672.340 + 970.154 1911.143 = -268.649 psi tension
The top fiber compression is well within the allowable 0.45fc = 2250 psi, and the bottom fiber tension
is also less than the permissible 423 psi; this is expected when choosing 20 7/16 in. strands.
To locate the strands at the end of the section, we assume that the strands are spaced at a
minimum of 1 in c.c. Depending on the hardware available and the practice at the plant, this
spacing may vary considerably. Further we will assume that one point harping is preferred for
simplicity of production (actually it frequently happens that 2-point or 3-poinrt harping may be used,
then the profile may be easily arranged both for camber control and for stress control along the entire
length of the span), then we can make a tentative arrangement. IN order to produce no tension in the
top, the cgs at the ends should be within the kern. In order to produce a rectangular stress block at
the ends, the cgs should be at the cgc. In order not to have the intermediate points control the design
cgs should be located within a limiting zone. The cgs at the end should also be located so as to
produce the best camber effect. Taking all this into consideration and using 4 strands for each web, a
tentative arrangement is shown below.

cgs

3 @1 3/4
=5 1/4

6 5/8

4
2 3/8
1 1/2 clear
cgs Location

4 @7/16 =1
Strand Location

Strand and cgs location


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G.P.Ancog