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30 Nov.

2006

WCDMA Radio Network


Dimensioning
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R99 Dimensioning

HSDPA Dimensioning

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Page 2

R99 Dimensioning

F Overview
F R99 Link Budget
F R99 Capacity Dimensioning
F R99 CE Dimensioning
F R99 Iub Dimensioning

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Page 3

Coverage, Capacity, Quality


Capacity & Coverage
Cell Load Cell Coverage
Users Cell Load

Capacity

Capacity & Quality


Quality (BLER ) Capacity

COST
Quality

Coverage

Quality (GoS ) Capacity

Coverage & Quality


Quality (BLER ) Cell Coverage
Cell Breathing

Higher Cell Load


Smaller Coverage Radius
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Page 4

Inputs & Outputs of Dimensioning


Inputs
Capacity Related
Spectrum Available
Subscriber Growth Forecast
Traffic Density

Number of NodeB

Coverage Related

Subs. per NodeB

Cell Radius

Coverage Region
Propagation Condition

CE Configuration

Area Type Information

Iub Configuration

QoS Related
Blocking Probability
Indoor Coverage
Location Probability
Acceptable Delay

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Page 5

R99 Dimensioning Flow


S ta rt

In p u t D a ta

A s s u m e a n u p lin k lo a d

C a lc u la te u p lin k
c a p a c ity

C a lc u la te u p lin k
c o ve ra g e

E s tim a te s ite n u m b e r
fo r c a p a c ity

E s tim a te s ite n u m b e r
fo r c o ve ra g e

No
B a la n c e d ?

Ad ju s t
U L lo a d /C a rrie rs /S ite N u m b e r

Yes
C h e c k d o w n lin k
c a p a c ity/c o v e ra g e
s u ffic ie n t

No
B a la n c e d ?

Ad ju s t
C a rrie rs /S ite N u m b e r

Yes
E nd

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R99 Dimensioning

F Overview
F R99 Link Budget
F R99 Capacity Dimensioning
F R99 CE Dimensioning
F R99 Iub Dimensioning

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Page 7

Coverage Dimensioning Flow


Aim of coverage dimensioning
--- to obtain the cell radius
--- to estimate NodeB number for coverage
Coverage Dimensioning start

Link Budget
PL
Propagation model

Cell Radius

Area =

9
3R 2
8

Area =

3
3R 2
2

NodeB Coverage Area

NodeB number
=Total coverage area/NodeB coverage area

NodeB Number

Coverage Dimensioning End

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Page 8

Uplink: Radio Link Budget


MDC Gain
Slow fading margin
SHO Gain against
Slow fading
SHO Gain against
fast fading

AntennaGain
NodeB Antenna Gain

Fast fading margin


Interference margin
Body Loss
Cable Loss

UE Antenna Gain

Pa
th

UE Transmit Power

Penetration Loss

Lo
ss

UPLINK BUDGET
CableLoss
NodeB
Sensitivity

Antenna Gain

Maximum
allowable path
loss

SHO Gain

Penetration
Loss

Margin
Loss

NodeB reception sensitvity

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Downlink: Radio Link Budget


MDC Gain
Slow fading margin
SHO Gain against
Slow fading
SHO Gain against
fast fading

AntennaGain
NodeB Antenna Gain

Fast fading margin


Interference margin
Body Loss
Cable Loss

UE Antenna Gain

Pa
th

NodeB Transmit Power

Penetration Loss

Lo
ss

DOWNLINK BUDGET

CableLoss
NodeB
Sensitivity

Antenna Gain
SHO Gain

Penetration
Loss

Maximum
allowable path
loss

Margin
Loss

UE reception sensitivity

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Cable Loss in Link Budget


Cable Loss in Link Budget includes:
--- Cables loss b/w NodeB and antenna
--- Jumper Loss b/w NodeB and antenna
Cable Loss

--- Connectors loss b/w NodeB and antenna

7/8 inch cable: 6.29dB/100m@2100MHz


5/4 inch cable: 4.56dB/100m@2100MHz

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Page 11

Path Loss and Fading


Path Loss fading due to propagation distance
Long term (slow) fading caused by shadowing
Short term (fast) fading caused by multipath propagation

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Page 12

Slow Fading Margin


lSlow Fading --- Signal levels obey Log-Normal distribution
lSlow Fading Margin depends on:
--- Area Coverage Probability
--- The higher coverage probability is, the more SFM required
--- Standard Deviation

Probability Density

--- The higher standard deviation is, the more SFM required

SFM required

Fthreshold

Fmedian (x)

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Coverage
CoverageProbability:
Probability:
PPCOVERAGE (x)
(x)==PP[[F(x)
F(x)>>FFthreshold ]]
COVERAGE

threshold

Received Signal Level [dBm]

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Page 13

SHO Gain against Slow Fading


lSoft Handover --- handovers between NodeBs
lSofter Handover --- handovers between cells in a NodeB
lSlow fading is partly uncorrelated between cells
lSHO reduces slow fading compared to the single cell case
lSHO gain against slow fading can improve the coverage probability
SHO Gain against slow fading
= Slow fading margin without SHO Slow fading margin with SHO

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Fast Fading Margin


lFast power control --- to compensate fast fading
lFast fading margin --- required to guarantee fast power control
FastFadingMargin
= Required received Eb/No without fast PC Required received Eb/No with fast PC

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SHO Gain against Fast Fading


Case 1: One link (no SHO)
larger fast fading margin required

Case 2: More links (SHO)


lower fast fading margin required

The probability of a correctly detected signal increases


due to two radio links between NodeB and UE
SHO Gain against fast fading
= FastFadingMargin(without SHO)-FastFadingMargin(with SHO)

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Page 16

Processing Gain
--- Related to bearer data rate
P G = 1 0 lo g ( 3 8 4 0 / R ( k b p s ))

Processing Gain
AMR12.2k

25 (dB)

PS64k

18 (dB)

PS384k

10 (dB)

Power density (W/Hz)

Reception Sensitivity
R

Signal after despreading

W
Signal after spreading

Frequency (Hz)
Re ceptionSensitivity = N t + N f + Eb / N0 PG

Reception Sensitivity
N t :thermal noise (-108dBm/3.84MHz)
N f :Noise figure of NodeB(2.1dB for NodeB, 7dB for UE)
Eb / No :Bit energy divided by noise spectral density
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Page 17

Macro Diversity Combining Gain


Macro Diversity Combining Gain
Uplink soft handover --- selection combining
Uplink softer handover --- maximal ratio combining
Downlink MDC in UE --- maximal ratio combining
MDC Gain=
Required received Eb/No without SHORequired received Eb/No with SHO

l MDC gain reduces the Eb/No requirement


l MDC leads to a gain for reception sensitivity
l MDC gain exists for both uplink and downlink

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Page 18

Interference Margin
Interference Curve
NoiseRise(dB)

50% UL Load 3dB


60% UL Load 4dB
75% UL Load 6dB
NoiseRise = 10 Log10 (1 UL )
UL Load

M ore Lo ad

La rge r N o ise R is e

M o re Inte rfe ren ce M a rgin

l Higher cell loading leads to heavier interference


l Interference margin affects cell coverage
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Page 19

[dB ]

R99 Dimensioning

F Overview
F R99 Link Budget
F R99 Capacity Dimensioning
F R99 CE Dimensioning
F R99 Iub Dimensioning

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Page 20

Differences between GSM and WCDMA


GSM

WCDMA

l Hard blocking

l Soft blocking

l Capacity --- hardware dependant

l Capacity --- interference dependant

l Single service

l Multi services (CS&PS)

l Symmetrical service

l Asymmetric and symmetric services

l Single GoS and QoS requirement

l Respective quality requirements

l Capacity dimensioning ---ErlangB

l Capacity dimensioning --Multidimensional ErlangB

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CS Capacity Dimensioning (1/2)


CS services
Capacity

--- Real time


--- GoS requirement

Blocking probability

--- Resource sharing


--- Meeting GoS requirement

6
CS

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Cell Loading

MultdimensionalErlangB Model
AM
R1
2 .2
k

......

Multidimensional ErlangB

MDE

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Channels
4k

Page 22

CS Capacity Dimensioning (2/2)


Comparison between ErlangB and Multidimensional ErlangB
ErlangB - Partitioning Resources

Multidimensional ErlangB - Resources shared

High Utilization of resources

Low Utilization of resources

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Page 23

Best Effort for Packet Services

PS Services:

Load

Total Load

CS Peak Load

Load occupied by PS

--- Best Effort


--- Retransmission
--- Bursty Traffic

CS Average Load

Load occupied by CS

Time

TotalLoad = max( Load CS peak , Load CS average + Load PS BE )

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Capacity Dimensioning Flow


LUL i = (1 + f )
LDL i =

Pi
Pmax

1
W
1+
( E b / N o ) i Ri i

Dimensioning Start

Assumed Subscribers
Load per Connection

CS Average Cell Load

CS Peak Cell Load


(MDE)

LCS Avg = Traffici ( Erl ) LoadperConnectioni

Total Cell Load

CellLoad = max{LCS peak , LCS Avg + LPS Avg }

=Target Cell Load?

PS Average Cell Load

LPS Avg = Traffic j ( Erl ) LoadperConnection j


No

Yes
Dimensioning End

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Page 25

R99 Dimensioning

F Overview
F R99 Link Budget
F R99 Capacity Dimensioning
F R99 CE Dimensioning
F R99 Iub Dimensioning

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Page 26

CE Mappings for Bearers


CE Definition: a fundamental base band processing element
Bearers

CE Factor (UL)

CE Factor (DL)

AMR12.2k

CS64k

PS64k

PS128k

PS144k

PS384k

10

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CE Dimensioning

......

MultdimensionalErlangB Model
AM
R1
2 .2
k

CE Resource

Total CE

CE Peak for CS
CE occupied by PS

CE
resources

CE Average for CS

CE occupied by CS

k
64
S
C

Time

TotalCEs = max(CE CS peak , CE CS average + CE PS BE )


l Channel Elements Pool in a NodeB
l CE Resource in a NodeB shared b/w CS and PS
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CE Dimensioning Flow
Dimensioning Start
--Subscribers per NodeB
--Traffic model
--CE factor for various RB

CS Average CE

CECS Avg = Traffici CEFactori


i

CS Peak CE

PS Average CE

(MDE)

Channel Elements per


NodeB

CEPS Avg = Traffic j CEFactor j


j

Dimensioning End
CE R 99 = max{CECS peak , CECS Avg + CEPS Avg }

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Page 29

Huawei CE Dimensioning Strengths


No additional CE required for signaling
No additional CE required for CCH
Channel elements are pooled per NodeB
Low CE resource required for higher data rate
--- PS384kbps: only 8 CE in downlink
--- PS384kbps: only 10 CE in uplink

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Page 30

R99 Dimensioning

F Overview
F R99 Link Budget
F R99 Capacity Dimensioning
F R99 CE Dimensioning
F R99 Iub Dimensioning

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Page 31

Iub Bandwidth for Bearers


Bearers

Iub Bandwidth Required (kbps)

AMR12.2k

22

CS64k

90

PS64k

84

PS128k

164

PS144k

190

PS384k

488

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Iub Dimensioning
--- Dedicated traffic bandwidth
--- Common channels bandwidth

Total Iub Bandw idth

Iub bandwidth

Iub bandwidth includes:

CS Peak Iub
Iub occupied by PS

--- O & M bandwidth

CS Average Iub

Iub dimensioning:
Iub occupied by CS

--- Iub sharing b/w CS and PS


--- CS: Multidimensional ErlangB

Iub occupied by CCH, and NodeB O&M

--- PS: Best Effort

Time

Iub =
max{ IubCS peak , IubPS BE + IubCS average } + IubCCH + IubO & M
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Page 33

R99 Dimensioning

HSDPA Dimensioning

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HSDPA Dimensioning

F HSDPA Link Budget


F HSDPA Capacity Dimensioning
F HSDPA CE Dimensioning
F HSDPA Iub Dimensioning

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Page 35

Link Budget Difference b/w HSDPA &R99


R99 (DCH)

HSDPA (HS-DSCH)

l Based on Target Continuous

l Based on Cell Edge Throughput

Coverage Service

l Hard Handover

l Soft Handover

--- no SHO gain


l No Fast Power Control

--- SHO gain


l Power Control Margin

l High DL Cell Loading

l Low DL Cell Loading

--- High Interference Margin

--- Low Interference Margin

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Page 36

HSDPA Link Budget Principle (1/3)


Aim of HSDPA link budget
--- to obtain cell border throughput
--- based on HS-DSCH power and code allocation

HSDPA link budget based on simulation result


--- Relationship b/w Ec/Io and throughput

n Simulation Conditions
--- Channel model-TU3
--- 5 codes

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HSDPA Link Budget Principle (2/3)


HSDPA Link Budget Procedure
CoupleLoss

Simulation
Ec/Io at cell border

Cell border
throughput

Ec/Io ===> Throughput

PHS DSCH
Ec
=
Io ( + f ) DL Pmax + DL _ CoupleLoss NF No
CoupleLoss=PathLoss +BPL+CableLoss - Gains

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HSDPA Link Budget Principle (3/3)


What HSDPA link budget can do?
n to calculate cell border throughput
--- based on HS-DSCH power
--- based on cell radius

HS-DSCH
Power

Coverage
Range

n to calculate cell coverage range


--- based on HS-DSCH power
--- based on cell border throughput

Ec/Io=F (coverage radius,HS-DSCH power)

n to calculate required HSDPA Power


--- based on cell border throughput

Simulation Result
Ec/Io

--- based on coverage radius


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Throughput

Impact of HSDPA on R99 Coverage (1/3)


Carrier shared between R99 and HSDPA
Impact of HSDPA on DL cell loading
n Higher power allocation for HSDPA
--- thanks to no power control for HS-DSCH
--- thanks to dynamic power allocation in NodeB

n 90% DL cell loading recommended for HSDPA network


--- typically 75% DL load designed for R99 network
Power

3GPP Release 99

Power

3GPP Release 5

Unused power
HS-DSCH(rate controlled)

Pmax-R99

Dedicated channels (power controlled)

Dedicated channels (power controlled)

Common channels

Common channels
t

Power usage with dedicated channels channels

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t
HS-DSCH with dynamic power allocation

Page 40

Impact of HSDPA on R99 Coverage (2/3)


Carrier shared between R99 and HSDPA
Impact of HSDPA on R99 DL coverage
nLoadNoiseRiseInterference Marin
nDL load from 75% to 90% NoiseRise 0.8dB
R99 DL coverage is not altered if the power increment of
CPICH&DCH equals to noise rise increment.
75%_Load

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addpwr_90%_Load

EcIo (dB)

Page 41

6
-1
6.

-1
6.
4

6
-1

-1
6.
2

-1
5.
8

-1
5.
6

-1
5.
4

-1
5.

-1
5

-1
4.

-1
4.
6

-1
4.

-1
4.
2

thermal noise when downlink load increases from 50% to 90%

-1

-1

thermal noise when downlink load increases from 50% to 75%

-1
3.

Coupling loss(dB)
thermal noise when downlink load increases from 75% to 90%

100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150

-1
3.
6

95

-1
3.

90

90%_Load

100.00%
99.00%
98.00%
97.00%
96.00%
95.00%
94.00%
93.00%
92.00%
91.00%
90.00%
89.00%
88.00%
87.00%
86.00%
85.00%
84.00%
83.00%
82.00%
81.00%
80.00%
79.00%
78.00%
77.00%
76.00%
75.00%
-1
3.
2

2.6
2.4
2.2
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

Coverage Rate

Thermal noise(dB)

Thermal noise increment for downlink load

Impact of HSDPA on R99 Coverage (3/3)


Carrier dedicated for HSDPA
H_Blocked

H_Blocked

H_90%

H_90%

100.00%
100.00%

90.00%
80.00%

80.00%
70.00%

Coverage Rate

Coverage Rate

90.00%

60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%

-40dBm

60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%

10.00%
0.00%

70.00%

-50dBm

-60dBm

-70dBm

-90dBm
-110dBm
-80dBm
-100dBm

10.00%
0.00%

RSCP (dBm)

-2dB -3dB -4dB

-5dB

-6dB -7dB -8dB -9dB -10dB

Ec/Io (dB)

Notes:
(1) H_Blocked means the cell supporting HSDPA is blocked
(2) H_90% means the cell supporting HSDPA is running at 90% cell load.

Conclusion: No impact of HSDPA on R99 coverage


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Page 42

HSDPA Dimensioning

F HSDPA Link Budget


F HSDPA Capacity Dimensioning
F HSDPA CE Dimensioning
F HSDPA Iub Dimensioning

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Page 43

HSDPA Capacity Dimensioning (1/2)


HSDPA

Capacity Dimensioning

--- to obtain the average cell throughput


--- based on HSDPA simulation result
--- based on static power allocation
--- based on static codes resource allocation
--- based on HSDPA scheduling algorithm
D L M ax P ow er
Target P ower

SF=1
Pow er oc cupied by H S D P A

SF=2
SF=4
SF=8
P ower occupied by D C H

SF=16
P ower occupied by C C H

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8 codes for HSDPA

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Page 44

HSDPA Capacity Dimensioning (2/2)


Capacity Based on Simulation

--- to simulate cell edge throughput


based on Ec/Io distribution in the cell

3.50%
3.00%
2.50%
2.00%
1.50%
1.00%
0.50%
0.00%
4.22
2.98
2.04
1.39
0.96
0.66
0.45
0.31
0.21
0.14
0.1
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0
0
0
0

network with certain cell range

Distribution probability

--- to simulate Ior/Ioc distribution in the

DU Cell coverage Radius=300m

4.00%

Ioc/Ior

Dimensioning Procedures
Conditions of Simulation
Channel model-TU3
5 codes

Cell coverage
radius
Simulation

Ior/Ioc distribution

Ec/Io distribution

Ec/Io =>throughput

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Cell average
throughput

Page 45

Impact of HSDPA on R99 Capacity


Dedicated carrier for HSDPA
---No impact on R99 capacity

Carrier shared by HSDPA&R99


--- R99 capacity decreases if cell load kept unaltered

Downlink Cell Load

Load increase 15%

nCase 1
Only R99
Total DL load=75%
Load for CCH=20%

80%
60%

Capacity decrease 4.4%


40%

68
equivalent users

65
equivalent users

nCase 2
R99+HSDPA
Total DL Load=90%
Load for R99=75%
Load for CCH=20%

20%

R99 75% load

R99 75% load +HSDPA 15% load

Case 1
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Case 2
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Page 46

---HSDPA efficiency higher


than R99

4.7Mbps
Gain=1.67

Spectrum Efficiency

DL pole capacity

Impact of HSDPA on System Capacity

2.8Mbps

Total Capacity
--- System capacity will
increase after introducing
HSDPA

Capacity Gain
--- higher capacity gain available
for high-end HSDPA terminals

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R99
HSDPA
Scenario: Indoor
R99:
PS384k
HSDPA: Category 12

Page 47

HSDPA Dimensioning

F HSDPA Link Budget


F HSDPA Capacity Dimensioning
F HSDPA CE Dimensioning
F HSDPA Iub Dimensioning

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Page 48

HSDPA CE Dimensioning (1/2)


Uplink CE consumption
--- One HSDPA link consumes 3 Channel Elements in Uplink
--- Recommend uplink PS64k for HSDPA link

Downlink CE consumption
--- No additional CE needed for HS-DSCH
--- One HSDPA link requires one DL A-DCH
--- One DL A-DCH(SF=256) consumes one CE
Associated D ed icated
C hannels
HS

HS
HS

-D

-S

-D

SC

CC

PC

CH

S ite 1

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S ite 2

HUAWEI Confidential

Page 49

HSDPA CE Dimensioning (2/2)


Simultaneous HSDPA Connections
--- based on system throughput for HSDPA
--- based on HSDPA GBR (Guaranteed Bit Rate)

Simultaneous HSDPA connections


= HSDPA throughput per NodeB / GBR

Total CE consumed by R99 and HSDPA


Total CE per NodeB =CER99+CEHSDPA

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HUAWEI Confidential

Page 50

HSDPA Dimensioning

F HSDPA Link Budget


F HSDPA Capacity Dimensioning
F HSDPA CE Dimensioning
F HSDPA Iub Dimensioning

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HUAWEI Confidential

Page 51

HSDPA Iub Dimensioning


Factors affecting Iub
--- FP Overhead
--- AAL2 Overhead

Iub bandwidth for HSDPA


--- 35% overhead over HSDPA
Cell throughput

--- ATM Overhead

Iub bandwidth for HSDPA

--- PS Retransmission

= Average HSDPA throughput


* (1+ 35%)

--- PS Burstiness

Total Iub bandwidth including HSDPA and R99


TotalIub =
max{IubCS peak , IubPS BE + IubHSDPA + IubCS average } + IubCCH + IubO & M

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd.


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HUAWEI Confidential

Page 52

Thank you
www.huawei.com

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