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# Elasticity: Theory, Applications, and Numerics

THIRD EDITION

## Lecture 4: Material Behavior

-Generalized Hookes Law

The discussion of deformation involved only kinematics and geometry without the need to discuss the forces
which might be involved in causing the deformation. On the other hand, the discussion of stress related the
various forces to each other and determined the equations of equilibrium. Now we wish to relate the forces to the
deformations.
Relations that characterize the physical properties of materials are called constitutive equations. Some materials
(e.g., steel), when loaded, obey Hooke's law, which states that the extension is proportional to the force (or stress

where the proportionality constant , which must be experimentally determined, is called Young's modulus or the
modulus of elasticity.
In general three-dimensional elasticity, there are nine components of stress and nine components of strain (of
which, due to symmetry, only six are unique). Thus, the three dimensional generalization of Hooke's law is
referred to as generalized Hooke's law, which states that each component of stress is a linear combination of all
the strain components; i.e., in index notation,

ij cijkl kl

## Clearly, the elasticity tensor has 81 components.

However, the symmetries of the stress tensor implies that
This reduces the number independent components of
ij term and 3 each for the k, l terms.

## Similarly, using the symmetry of the strain tensor

we can show that the
elasticity tensor and we are then left with only 36 components that are independent.
Since the strain energy function should not change when we interchange ij and kl in the
This reduces the number of independent constants to 21 (think of a
symmetric
matrix). These are called the major symmetries of the stiffness tensor.
1
1
strain energy density : w ij ij cijkl ij kl
2
2
ij

w 1
1
1
1
cijkl
kl cijkl ij kl cijkl im jn kl cijkl ij km ln
mn 2
mn
2
mn 2
2
1
1
1
1
cmnkl kl cijmn ij cmnij ij cmnij ij cmnij ij mn
2
2
2
2

ij
2w
cmnij
cmnij ik jl cmnkl
kl mn
kl

2w
cklmn
mn kl

cklmn cmnkl

## In mathematics, Voigt notation or Voigt form in multilinear algebra is a way to represent a

symmetric tensor by reducing its order. There are a few variants and associated names
for this idea: Mandel notation, Mandel-Voigt notation and Nye notation are others found.
Kelvin notation is a revival by Helbig (1994) of old ideas of Lord Kelvin.
The differences here lie in certain weights attached to the selected entries of the tensor.
Nomenclature may vary according to what is traditional in the field of application.
For example, a 22 symmetric tensor X has only three distinct elements, the two on the
diagonal and the other being off-diagonal. Thus it can be expressed as the vector
.
As another example:

## Likewise, a three-dimensional fourth-order tensor can be reduced to a 66 matrix

Voigt notation
To express the general stress-strain relation for a linear elastic material in terms of matrices , we
use what is called the Voigt notation.
In this notation, the stress and strain are expressed as
column vectors and the elasticity
tensor is expressed as a symmetric
matrix as shown below.

11 c1111
c
22 2211
33 c3311

12 c1211
23 c2311

31 c3111

c1122

c1133

c1112

c1123

c2222

c2233

c2212

c2223

c3322

c3333

c3312

c3323

c1222

c1233

c1212

c1223

c2322

c2333

c2312

c2323

c3122

c3133

c3112

c3123

c1131 11
c2231 22
c3331 33

c1231 212
c2331 2 23

c3131 2 31

## Since Cijkl Cklij , matrix of material constants is symmetric.

Thus, the existence of a strain energy function implies that
there are at most 21 independent material constants. That is,
the most general anisotropic homogeneous material has at
most 21 elastic constants.

## Material Symmetry: Orthotropic Materials

For example, a material which is elastically symmetric with respect to the
xy-plane would have elastic constants which are invariant under a
coordinate transformation corresponding to a reflection through the xyplane. That is, the components of a vector x would transform according to
x x

y y
z z

1 0 0
Q 0 1 0
0 0 1

or

1

Qij ai ij no summation on i , where a 1
1

## Cijkl QimQ jnQkpQlqCmnpq

Cijkl aiim a j jn ak kp al lqCmnpq ai a j ak al Cijkl no summation on i, j , k , l
c3111 c3112 c3122 c3211
c3212 c3222 c3331 c3332 0
The number of independent elastic constants reduces from 21 to 13

c1111
c
1122
c
C 1133
c1112
0

c1122

c1133

c1112

c2222

c2233

c2212

c2233

c3333

c3312

c2212

c3312

c1212

c2323

c2331

0
0
0

0
c2331

c3131

c1111
An orthotropic material has
c
three orthogonal planes of
1122
symmetry. Thus, those elastic
c
C 1133
constants having an odd
number of subscripts equal
0
to either 1 or 2 will vanish.
0
An orthotropic material has 9

0
independent material
constants.

c1122

c1133

c2222

c2233

c2233

c3333

c1212

c2323

0
0
0

0
0

c3131

## Material Symmetry: Complete Symmetry-Isotropic Materials

Cijkl ij kl ik jl il jk

Cijkl ij kl ik jl il jk
ij Cijkl kl ij kl kl ik jl il jk kl
kk ij ij ji kk ij 2 ij
For stable isotropic materials state,

K 0

E 0 and 1< 1/ 2

11 2

2

22

2
33

0
0
12 0
23 0
0
0

0
0
31 0

0 11
0 22
0 33

0 212
0 2 23

2 31

E: Youngs modulus;
v: Poisions ratio;
G: Shear modulus
K: Bulk modulus (or modulus of compression)

3 2
E

E
1 1 2

E
G
2 1
2
K

E
3 1 2

## Stress-Strain Relation for Isotropic Materials

ij kkij 2 ij
ii 3 2 ii
ij

11 2

2

22
33

0
0
12 0
23 0
0
0

0
0
31 0

0 11
0 22
0 33

0 212
0 2 23

2 31

kk
1
1

1 ij kk ij

or

ij
ij
ij
kk
ij
ij
ij

2
E
1
E

3 2

& .
: , ,
=

=
,

=
,

: = 0, = 0, = 0, , , 0
, :

1/
/
/
=
0
0
0

/
1/
/
0
0
0

/
/
1/
0
0
0

0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1/
0
0
0
1/
0
0
0
1/

1/

/
= /

/
1/
/
0

0
0
0
1/

1 2
=
1 2
0

1 2

1 2
0

+
1 2

=
+
1 2
=

= G

: 2 , ,
:
=

2 1+

## An orthotropic material usually has three mutually orthogonal planes of

symmetry so that its mechanical properties are, in general, different along each
axis. Orthotropic materials are thus anisotropic; their properties depend on the
direction in which they are measured ( e.g. wood, fiber-reinforced composites).

## Rubber, glass and steel are examples of isotropic materials.

The physical properties of amorphous solids are identical in all
directions along any axis so they are said to have isotropic properties.

ij kkij 2 ij

ij

1
2

kk
ij ij

3 2

## Physical Meaning of Elastic Moduli

Principle of Superposition
ij , j bi ui
ij , j bi 0
ij Cijkl kl
ij 2 ij + kk ij
ij
ij ,kl

1
ui, j u j ,i
2
kl ,ij lj ,ki ki ,lj 0

ti ij n j ti

## balance of linear momemtum

equilibrium equations : 3 equations
Hooke ' s law for linear elasticity
Hooke ' s law for linear elastic isotropic materials : 6 equations
strain - displacement equations : 6 equations
compatibility equations
traction boundary conditions

## For a given problem domain, if the state ij , ij , ui is a solution to the fundamental

(1)
elasticity equations with prescribed body forces Fi (1) and surface tractions Ti ,
and the if the state ij(2) , ij(2) , ui(2) is a solution to the fundamental elasticity equations
with prescribed body forces Fi (2) and surface tractions Ti (2) ,
Then the state ij(1) + ij(2) , ij(1) + ij(2) , ui(1) ui(2) will be a solution to the problem with body
force Fi (1) Fi (2) and surface traction Ti (1) Ti (2)
(1)

(1)

(1)

Saint-Venant Principle
The stress, strain and displacement fields caused by two different statically
equivalent force distributions on parts of the body far away from the loading points
are approximately the same.

Saint-Venant (1797-1886)
French mathematician
and mechanician

End effect

## What are three basic elements of Mechanics of Materials ?

(1) Equilibrium (stress),
(2) Kinematics or Compatibility (strain), and
(3) Stress-Strain Relations (constitutive relations)
ij , j bi ui
ij , j bi 0
ij Cijkl kl
ij 2 ij + kk ij
1

ij kk ij
E
E
1
ij ui , j u j ,i
2
ij ,kl kl ,ij lj ,ki ki ,lj 0

ij

ti ij n j ti

## balance of linear momemtum

equilibrium equations : 3 equations
Hooke ' s law for linear elasticity
Hooke ' s law for linear elastic isotropic materials : 6 equations
Hooke ' s law for linear elastic isotropic materials : 6 equations
strain - displacement equations : 6 equations
compatibility equations
traction boundary conditions