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Indian Streams Research Journal

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Volume 2, Issue. 9, Oct 2012

ISSN:-2230-7850
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

A Study On Parental Anxiety Among Visually


Impaired And Normal Children
Nivedha Lakshmi and Zahida Jabeen
Department of PG and Research Studies in Human Science ,
Justice Basheer Ahmed Sayeed College for Women (Autonomous), Chennai
Abstract:
The objective of the study is to find out the parental anxiety among the visually
impaired children and normal children. In the present investigation, 120 visually
impaired children and normal children and their parents were selected. Equal number of
60 subjects belonged to the group of visually impaired children and normal children. Of
which 30 were males and females in each group. Both fathers and mothers of these
children were selected for the present study. The results of the present study revealed that
parents of both male and female visually impaired children experienced more anxiety
than the parents of normal children. Gender did not have any effect on parental anxiety
among visually impaired children and normal children. With regard to the difference
between fathers and mothers in experiencing anxiety towards their male and female
children, no significant difference was observed among visually impaired children. But,
mothers with male normal children experienced more anxiety compared to fathers with
male normal children. But no significant difference was observed between fathers and
mothers in experiencing anxiety towards their female normal children.
KEYWORD:
Parental Anxiety, Visually, Children, Matriculation, Normal.
INTRODUCTION
Visual impairment or vision impairment is vision loss that constitutes a significant limitation of
visual capability resulting from disease, trauma or a congenital or degenerative condition that cannot be
corrected by conventional means, including refractive correction, medication, or surgery. Serious visual
impairment has a variety of causes. Most visual impairment is caused by disease and malnutrition. The
most common causes of blindness around the world are cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, age-related macular
degeneration, trachoma, corneal opacity and diabetic retinopathy (1).
Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional and behavioural
components. These components combine to create the feelings which are recognized as fear, apprehension
or worry (2). Anxiety is often accompanied by physical sensations such as heart palpitations, nausea, chest
pain, shortness of breath or headache. Anxiety is a bodily response to a perceived threat or danger. It is
triggered by a combination of biochemical changes in the body, the patients personal history and memory
and the social situation. Freud thought that anxiety results from a person's internal conflicts. It is important
to distinguish between anxiety as a feeling or experience and an anxiety disorder as a psychiatric diagnosis.
A person may feel anxious without having an anxiety disorder. Also, a person facing a clear and present
danger or a realistic fear is not usually considered to be in a state of anxiety.
Parenting is the process of raising and educating a child from birth until adulthood. Parental
anxiety has always been an inevitable part of parenting. The most common causes of parental anxiety
include that anxiety often finds its roots in hereditary, brain chemistry, personality in which people who
have low self-esteem and poor coping skills may be more prone to anxiety, life experiences, negative selftalk which is a habit of always telling ourselves that the worst will happen. It is regarded that anxiety in adult
Please cite this Article as :Nivedha Lakshmi and Zahida Jabeen , A Study On Parental Anxiety Among
VisuallyImpaired And Normal Children : Indian Streams Research Journal (Oct. ; 2012)

A Study On Parental Anxiety Among VisuallyImpaired And Normal Children

life as a residue of childhood memories of dependency.


It is anxious to become from time to time. Worrying about everything or classifying all problems
as catastrophic indicates lack of control over oneself. Vacillatory worrying when parents are indecisive
unless they are completely positive about the choice may pose problems. Parents who are not confident
about meeting the child's needs derive less pleasure from parenting and are less likely to interact with them
weakening the bonds they have with their children. They can pass their anxiety to the children and in turn
make them tensed or socially anxious. (3).
METHODOLOGY
SAMPLE
The sample for the present study was obtained from schools for visually impaired children and
normal children in Chennai city. The schools were Little Flower Matriculation School for Blind and Deaf
children, St.Louis Matriculation Higher Secondary School for Blind and Deaf children and Alpha
Matriculation Higher Secondary School. The Children both males and females of age group ranging
between 12-17 years were selected from two different groups such as visually impaired children and
normal children and their parents both father and mother were selected for the present study.
TOOLS
The tool IPAT Anxiety Scale devised by Catell in the year 1957 was used to assess the anxiety of
the parents of visually impaired children and normal children. It consists of 40 items with always, some
times and never type of answers. The items are in forms of simple statements which express the different
ways in which people think, feel and behave in life situations.
PROCEDURE
It was necessary to obtain permission from the head mistress of the schools. The teachers were
very co-operative to help the investigator in collecting the data from the parents of visually impaired
children and normal children. Tool was administered individually to each parent. Scoring was done and the
results were statistically analyzed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results were discussed with respect to their mean scores, standard deviation and 't' test.
PARENTAL ANXIETY AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED AND NORMAL CHILDREN
The following Table-1 represents the anxiety experienced by fathers and mothers of male visually
impaired children and normal children. Student 't' test was performed and the results are tabulated.
TABLE-1
Comparison of anxiety experienced by fathers and mothers of male visually impaired children
and normal children.
Variable

Fathers
Anxiety

Mothers
Anxiety

Group
Visually
impaired
children
Normal
children
Visually
impaired
children
Normal
children

Mean

Standard
Deviation

30

48.27

4.59

30

39.53

5.98

30

47.90

5.70

30

43.53

Indian Streams Research Journal Volume 2 Issue 9 Oct 2012

t value

Level of
Significance

6.34

0.01

2.66

0.01

6.94

A Study On Parental Anxiety Among VisuallyImpaired And Normal Children

It is observed from Table-1 that there existed a significant difference between the anxiety
experienced by fathers of male visually impaired children and normal children. As the calculated 't' value
(t=6.34) was greater than the table value 2.58, hence it was significant at 1% of level of significance. From
the mean scores it was found that the fathers of male visually impaired children

It was found that there was a significant difference between the mothers of male visually impaired children
and normal children in their anxious behaviour. The mean values of anxiety experienced by mothers of
male visually impaired children was ( =47.90) and normal children was
( =43.53). Mothers of male visually impaired children were more anxious and worried about their children than the mothers of
normal children. As the calculated t value (t=2.66) was greater than the table value 2.58, it was significant at 1% level of
significance.

It is a fact that both the fathers and mothers normally experience anxiety when raising a child, but
the anxiety is more when raising a child particularly male handicapped child.
Table-2 shows the anxiety experienced by fathers and mothers of female visually impaired
children and normal children.
TABLE-2
Comparison of anxiety experienced by fathers and mothers of female visually impaired children
and normal children.

Variable

Fathers
Anxiety

Mothers
Anxiety

Group
Visually
impaired
children
Normal
children
Visually
impaired
children
Normal
children

Mean

Standard
Deviation

30

48.17

4.97

30

40.70

5.97

30

47.23

6.57

30

41.60

t value

Level of
Significance

5.25

0.01

3.22

0.01

6.95

From Table-2 it is seen that there existed a significant difference between the anxiety experienced
by fathers of female visually impaired children and normal children. As the calculated 't' value (t=5.25) was
greater than the table value 2.58, it was significant at 1% level of significance. From the mean scores it was
found that fathers of female visually impaired children ( ( =48.17) were more anxious
than the fathers of normal children ( =40.70).
The mean values of anxiety experienced by mothers of female visually impaired children was ( =47.23)
and normal children was (

=41.60)

It is found that a significant difference existed between the mothers of female visually impaired
children and normal children in their anxious behaviour. As the calculated 't' value (t=3.22) was greater than
the table value 2.58, it was significant at 1% level of significance. Mothers of female visually impaired
children showed more anxiety than the mothers of female normal children.
Indian Streams Research Journal Volume 2 Issue 9 Oct 2012

A Study On Parental Anxiety Among VisuallyImpaired And Normal Children

The reason attributed to the above findings is that female children are already regarded as
commodity and burden in few families and if a female child is handicap, especially blind, parents are much
worried about upbringing of the child.
PARENTAL ANXIETY AND GENDER
The following Table-3 represents the anxiety experienced by fathers and mothers of male and
female visually impaired children. Student 't' test was performed and the results are tabulated.
TABLE-3

Variable

Group

Male
Fathers
Anxiety
Female
Mothers
Male
Anxiety
Female
Note:- NS-Not Significant.

Mean

30
30
30
30

48.27
48.17
47.90
47.23

Standard
Deviation
4.59
4.97
5.70
6.57

t value

Level of
Significance

0.08

NS

0.41

NS

A perusal of Table-3 reveals the mean values for anxiety experienced by fathers of male visually impaired
children to be (( =48.27) and female visually impaired children to be
( ( =48.17). As the calculated t value (t=0.08) was less than the table value 1.96 at 5% level of significance,
it was not significant. Thus no significant difference existed among fathers in experiencing anxiety with
their male and female visually impaired children.

The mean values for anxiety experienced by mothers of male visually impaired children was ( =47.90)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCyKAbz56gc&feature=player_detailpage
and female visually impaired children was ( =47.23)
As the calculated 't' value (t=0.41) was less than the table value 1.96 at 5% level of significance, it
was not significant. Mothers did not show any difference in experiencing anxiety with male and female
visually impaired children.
It can be inferred from the above results, irrespective of whether the child is male or female,
parents are anxious and worried in raising up a blind child.
Table-4 shows the anxiety experienced by fathers and mothers of male and female normal
children.
TABLE-4
Comparison of anxiety experienced by fathers and mothers of male and female normal children.

Variable

Group

Male
Fathers
Anxiety
Female
Mothers
Male
Anxiety
Female
Note: NS Not Significant

Mean

30
30
30
30

39.53
40.70
43.53
41.60

Standard
Deviation
5.98
5.97
6.94
6.95

t value

Level of
Significance

0.75

NS

1.07

NS

Table-4 indicates the mean scores of the anxiety experienced by fathers of male and female normal children
to be =39.53) and ((
( =40.70) respectively. As the calculated t value (t=0.75) was less than the

Indian Streams Research Journal Volume 2 Issue 9 Oct 2012

A Study On Parental Anxiety Among VisuallyImpaired And Normal Children

table value 1.96 at 5% level of significance, it was not significant. Thus no significant difference existed
among fathers in experiencing anxiety with their male and female normal children.
The mean values for anxiety experienced by mothers of male normal children was
( =43.53) and of female normal children was
(( =41.60). As the calculated t value (t=1.07) was less than the table value 1.96 at 5% level of significance,
it was not significant. Mothers experienced no difference in their anxious behaviour towards their male
and female normal children.

The reason attributed to the above findings is that parents do not show any difference in their
anxious behaviour with their male or female normal children.
DIFFERENCE IN ANXIETY EXPERIENCED BY FATHERS AND MOTHERS
Table-5 represents the difference in anxiety experienced by fathers and mothers towards their
male and female visually impaired children. Students 't' test was carried out and the results are tabulated.
TABLE-5
Difference in anxiety experienced by fathers and mothers towards their male and female visually
impaired children.

Variable

Group

Anxiety
Father
towards
male
Mother
children
Anxiety
Male
towards
female
Female
children
Note: NS Not significant

Mean

Standard
Deviation

30

48.27

4.59

30

47.90

5.70

30

48.17

4.97

30

47.23

6.57

t value

Level of
Significance

0.27

NS

0.62

NS

Table-5 reveals the mean scores of anxiety experienced by fathers as ( ( =48.27) and by mothers as
(( =47.90). As the calculated t value (t=0.27) was less than the table value 1.96 at 5% level of significant, it
was not significant. Fathers and mothers did not show any significant difference in experiencing anxiety
towards their male visually impaired children.

The mean scores of anxiety experienced by fathers was ( =48.17) and by mothers was
(( =47.23). As the calculated t value (t=0.62) was less than the table value 1.96 at 5% level of significance,
it was not significant. Fathers and mothers did not show any difference in their anxious behaviour towards
their female visually impaired children.

It is interesting to note that both fathers and mothers are equally anxious about their male and
female visually impaired children, since these children need extra care, affection and protection from their
parents.
Table-6 shows the difference in anxiety experienced by fathers and mothers towards their male
and female normal children.

Indian Streams Research Journal Volume 2 Issue 9 Oct 2012

A Study On Parental Anxiety Among VisuallyImpaired And Normal Children

TABLE-6
Difference in anxiety experienced by fathers and mothers towards their male and female normal
children.

Variable

Group

Anxiety
Father
towards
male
Mother
children
Anxiety
Male
towards
female
Female
children
Note: NS Not significant

Mean

Standard
Deviation

30

39.53

5.98

30

43.53

6.94

30

40.70

5.97

30

41.60

t value

Level of
Significance

2.39

0.05

0.53

NS

6.95

A perusal of table-6 reveals the mean scores of anxiety experienced by fathers to be (


by mothers (

=39.53) and

=43.53)

As the calculated 't' value (t=2.39) was greater than the table value 1.96 at 5% level of significance, it was
significant. Hence, there existed a significant difference in anxiety experienced by both fathers and mothers
of male normal children. It can be inferred from the findings that mothers by nature are usually worried
about their male normal children than the fathers.
No significant difference was observed in anxiety experienced by both fathers and mothers of female
normal children. The mean scores of anxiety experienced by fathers was ( =40.70) and by mothers was
( =41.60). As the calculated t value (t=0.53) was less than the table value 1.96 at 5% level of significance,
it was not significant.

The reason attributed to the above findings is that both fathers and mothers who have female normal
children are anxious and worried about their children.
CONCLUSION
The conclusion arrived from the present study revealed that parents of both male and female
visually impaired children experienced more anxiety compared to normal children. Moreover gender had
no influence on parental anxiety among visually impaired children and normal children. Whereas, no
significant difference in anxiety existed between fathers and mothers towards their male and female
visually impaired children. But, with regard to normal children mothers showed more anxiety towards their
male children than the fathers. Both fathers and mothers were equally anxious about their female normal
children.
REFERENCES
1.The American Psychiatric Association (1994). Anxiety Disorders. In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
and Mental Disorders. Washington.
2.Seligman, M.E; Walker, E.F. & Rosenhan, D.L. (2001). Abnormal Psychology. New York: Norton &
Company.
3.Hock, E; Eberly, M. & Haring, B.S. (2001). Separation Anxiety in parents of adolescents: theoretical
significance and scale development. Child Development, 72(1), 284-98.

Indian Streams Research Journal Volume 2 Issue 9 Oct 2012

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