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Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9

Quarter 2 Module 1

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9

Second Quarter
Module 1

Quarter 2 Module 1

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


Lesson 1
I.

Competency:
Explain how the Quantum Mechanical Model of an atom describes
the energies and positions of the electrons.
(Learning Competency is given in the Teachers Guide but not
specified in the Curriculum guide)

II.

Objective:
Describe how it is likely to find the electron in an atom by
probability.

III.

Topic: Electronic Structure of Atom


a. Sub-topic: Predicting the probable location of electrons

IV.

Materials/ Resources Needed:


Prepared Powerpoint slides
Projector
Activity sheets
One sheet of short bond paper or half of a short folder
pencil or colored marker with small tip
compass
graphing paper
one-foot ruler
(Note: to manage the time, you can readily prepare a
drawing in a sheet of paper/folder with a dot on the center and 5
concentric circles around the dot with a radius of 1 cm, 3 cm, 5
cm, 7 cm and 9 cm from the dot respectively. It usually takes a
longer time for our student to make this so prepare it before the
activity proper)

V.

References:
a. Teachers Guide: pp. 7-9
b. Learners Guide: pp. 9-14
c. Internet references:
http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/orbitron/AOs/4f/index.html
d. Other references: Science and Technology III pp. 270-271
Science Links Chemistry pp. 70-71
Science and Technology III SEMP 2 pp. 70-73

VI.

Preliminary Activity/Priming:

Quarter 2 Module 1

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


With the pictures posted above let the students answer the following
questions:
o Do you know the persons in the picture?
(Answers may vary)
o What do you think are their occupations?
(Fortune Tellers)
o What do fortune tellers do?
(Give some predictions)
o Do their predictions always come true?
(Not all the time)
Fortune tellers tell about probabilities.
What is PROBABILITY?
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will
occur (Webster).
This time we are going to work on probability. We will be
predicting the probable location of electrons in an atom.
You have learned in your previous activity Flame test that
metal salts emit colors when heated. These colors emitted by the metal
salts are related to the structure of atom as explained by Neils Bohr.
The way around the problem with Bohrs model is that it is insufficient
to describe atoms with more than 1 electron. In our next activity, we will
use an analogy to understand the probability of finding an electron in
an atom.
VII.

Activity:
Title: Predicting the Probable Location of an Electron
Reference: Teachers Guide: pp. 7-9; Learners Guide: pp 9-14
Procedure:
Let students work in pairs if there are enough materials. Felt-tipped
marker is preferable than pencil.
The teacher should demonstrate how the activity will be done. The
center of the circle represents the atoms nucleus and it is the target
when dropping the pencil or marker. The dots represent the
electrons.

1. Working with your group mates, draw a dot on the center of the
sheet of paper or folder.
2. Draw 5 concentric circles around the dot so that the radius of
each circle is 1cm, 3 cm, 5 cm, 7 cm and 9 cm from the dot.
Quarter 2 Module 1

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


3. Tape the paper on the floor so that it will not move.
4. Stand on the opposite side of the target from your partner.(Target
is the center which represent the nucleus of an atom). Hold a pencil
or marker at chest level above the center of the circles you have
drawn.
5. Take turns dropping the pencil or marker so that it will leave 100
dots on the circles drawn on paper or folder.
6. Count the number of dots in each circle and record that number
on the data table.
7. Calculate the number of dots per square centimeter (cm 2).
8. Using a graphing paper, plot the average distance from the
center on the x-axis and number of dots per sq.cm on the y-axis.
Guide Questions:
1. What happens to the number of dots per unit area as the
distance of the dots go farther from the center?
2. Determine the percent probability of finding a dot in each of the
circle drawn on the target by multiplying No. of dots /cm2 (column
D) by the total number of dots (100). For example: In circle 1(A)
Percent probability = No. of dots /cm2 X 100
= [0.1920 / 100 ] X 100 = 19.20%
3. Based on your graph, what is the distance with the highest
probability of finding a dot? Show this in your graph.
4. How many dots are found in the area where there is highest
probability of finding dots?
5. How are your results similar to the distribution of electrons in an
atom?
6. How many dots are found in the area where there is highest
probability of finding dots?
7. How are your results similar to the distribution of electrons in an
atom?
8. Can we determine the exact location of an electron in the atom?
VIII.

Analysis:
1. What happens to the number of dots per unit area as the
distance of the dots go farther from the center?
(answers may vary)
2. Determine the percent probability of finding a dot in each of the
circle drawn on the target by multiplying No. of dots /cm2 (column
D) by the total number of dots (100). For example: In circle 1(A)
Percent probability = No. of dots /cm2 X 100
= [0.1920 / 100 ] X 100
= 19.20%
3. Based on your graph, what is the distance with the highest
probability of finding a dot? Show this in your graph.
(answers may vary)
4. How many dots are found in the area where there is highest
probability of finding dots?
(answers may vary)

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Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


5. How are your results similar to the distribution of electrons in an
atom?
(The results of the activity are similar to the structure of the atom
because the probability of finding an electron (dot) increases
abruptly then decreases as it goes farther from the nucleus
(target).
6. How many dots are found in the area where there is highest
probability of finding dots?
(There are three types of orbitals (s, p, and d) in the principal
energy level three.)
7. How are your results similar to the distribution of electrons in an
atom?
(There are five atomic orbitals in the highest sublevel of the
principal energy level three.)
8. Can we determine the exact location of an electron in the atom?
(There is only a probability that the electron can be found in a
certain volume in space around the nucleus. This volume or
region of space around the nucleus where the electron is most
likely to be found is called an atomic orbital. Thus, we could only
guess the most probable location of electrons)
IX.

Abstraction:
Activity 2 is an analogy to show you that it is not possible to
know the exact position of the electron. So, Bohrs idea that
electrons are found in definite orbits around the nucleus was
rejected. Three physicists led the development of a better model of
the atom. These were Louie de Broglie, Erwin Schrodinger, and
Werner Karl Heisenberg. De Broglie proposed that the electron
(which is thought of as a particle) could also be thought of as a
wave. Schrodinger used this idea to develop a mathematical
equation to describe the hydrogen atom. Heisenberg discovered
that for a very small particle like the electron, its location cannot be
exactly known and how it is moving. This is called the uncertainty
principle.
Instead, these scientists agreed on the same idea that there is
only a probability the electron
can be found in a certain volume in space around the nucleus. This
volume or region of space is what scientists call as atomic orbital.

X.

Application:
How does the agreement between Broglie, Schrodinger and
Heisenberg about the probability of finding an electron in a certain
space around the nucleus affects the concept of atomic model of an
atom?
If you are to make an action and is uncertain of your decisions in
life, what do you usually do; follow your own gut feeling or think and
ask others before you decide? Explain your answer?

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Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


XI.

Assessment:
Direction: Solve the Cross-Word Puzzle
Across
4. Proposed the quantum mechanical model
Down
1. Proposed the uncertainty principle
2. Proposed the Matter-Wave Duality
3. Proposed that atoms electron is in a specific orbit
corresponding to a fixed amount of energy of the
electron.

Key to correction
4. Schroedinger
1. Heisenberg
2. Broglie
3. NeilsBohr
XII.

Agreement:
1. Have some readings about the scientists behind the rules of
filling up atomic orbitals with electrons.
Reference: http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_config.html
2. Bring a periodic table of elements for tomorrows activity.

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Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


Lesson 2
Competency:
Describe how the Bohrs model of the atom improved
Rutherfords atomic model.
Explain how the Quantum Mechanical Model of an atom
describes the energies and positions of the electrons.
(Learning Competency is given in the Teachers Guide but not
specified in the Curriculum guide)
I.

Objective(s):
1. Find out the characteristic colors that metal salts emit
2. Relate the colors emitted by metal salts to the structure of the
atom

II.

Topic: Electronic Structure of Atom


a. Sub-topic: The Flame Test

III.

Materials/ Resources Needed:


Prepared Powerpoint slides
Projector
Activity sheets
6 pcs watch glass
10-ml graduated cylinder
1 pc dropper
safety matches
Boric acid
100 mL 95% Ethanol (or ethyl alcohol)
100 mL 3 M hydrochloric acid
0.50 grams of each of the following metal salts:
Calcium chloride
Sodium chloride
Copper(II) sulfate
Potassium chloride
(Note: you may use other compounds of Calcium,
Sodium, Copper and
Potassium as a
substitute material for the given metal salts)

IV.

References:
a. Teachers guide: pp. 4-6
b. Learners guide: pp. 5-9
c. Internet references:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7CB8xc2ICw (Fireworks
display video)
d. Other references: Science Links Chemistry pp. 70-73
Chemistry in the New Millennium pp. 85-88

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Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9

V.

Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Flash a fireworks display video and let the students watch it.
Ask the following questions:
a. Is the fireworks display fascinating to watch?
(answers may vary)
b. What makes the fireworks display fascinating to watch?
(Students should answer because of the different colors it
shows)
c. What causes the fireworks display different colors?
(Students should be able to infer that there are chemicals
used in the fireworks display)
To further answer the question, let us perform an activity entitled
Flame Test.

VI.

Activity:
Title: Flame Test
Reference: Teachers guide: pp. 4-6; Learners guide: pp. 5-9
Procedure:
1. Group the students and check the materials to be used for the
activity
2. Distribute activity sheets and clarify procedures (include the safety
procedures to be observed while handling laboratory equipment and
chemicals)
3. Provide the students with rubrics in grading their laboratory activity
4. Let the students answer the guide questions listed in the activity and
report their laboratory activity in the class
Activity Proper
1. Place each metal salt on a watch glass and add 2 to 3 drops of 3
M hydrochloric acid.
2. Pour about 3 - 5 mL or enough ethyl alcohol to cover the size of a
1 peso-coin in the first watch glass. Light with a match and observe
the color of the flame. (This will serve as reference for comparison
of the flame color). Wait for the flame to be extinguished or put out
on its own.
3. Repeat procedure No. 2 for each salt. Observe the color of the
flame.

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Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


- Write your observation in a table similar to the one below.
Table 1. Color of
flame of metal
salts Metal salt
tested
Boric acid
Calcium chloride
Sodium chloride
Potassium chloride
Copper(II) sulfate

Element
producing color

Color of the flame

boron
calcium
sodium
potassium
copper

Guide Questions:
1. Why do you think there are different colors emitted?
2. What particles in the heated compounds are responsible for
the production of the colored light?
3. How did scientists explain the relationship between the
colors observed and the structure of an atom?
VII.

Analysis:
1. As per stated by the findings of your laboratory activity,
metals salts which have compositions of metals like Boron,
Calcium, Copper, Sodium, and Potassium tend to emit
different colors when lighted by a flame.
2. Why do you think there are different colors emitted?
(Metal salts emitted color due to the absorption of heat from
the flame)
3. What particles in the heated compounds are responsible for
the production of the colored light?
4. The outermost particles (electrons) in the metallic element
are responsible for the production of colored light.
5. How does atom emit light?
6. When an electron absorbed extra energy from an outside
source (flame), the electron moves to a higher orbit. Colored
light is emitted when the electron falls back to a lower orbit.
7. And this is explained by Neils Bohr in his atomic orbital
model of an atom.
8. How did scientists explain the relationship between the
colors observed and the structure of an atom?
(The colors observed is an indication that definite energy
transformations occur inside the atom emitting light. It follows
that electrons must occupy orbits of fixed energy).

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XIII.

Abstraction:
1. Now look at the picture of Neils Bohr atomic orbital model. Bohr
discovered electrons as particles moving around the nucleus in
fixed circular orbits. It is something worth more precise
judgement than Ernest Rutherfords model illustrating the
presence of a dense nucleus at the center of the atom. Neils
Bohrs atomic orbital model had shown that there are particles
surrounding this dense nucleus. Each of which has their definite
distances from the nucleus. These circular orbits were also
called as energy levels. When an electron of an element
absorbed extra energy (from a flame or electric arc), this
electron moves to a higher energy level.
2. At this point the electron is at its excited state. Once excited, the
atom is unstable. The same electron can return to any of the
lower energy levels releasing energy in
the form of light with a particular color a nd a definite energy or
wavelength.
These energy absorbed through heat makes atom to be
quantized.

3. Which illustration below represents the energy of the electron as


described by Bohr? Explain your answer.
A.
B.

- The energy levels of electrons are like the steps of a ladder. The
lowest step of the ladder corresponds to the lowest energy level. A person
can climb up and down by going from step to step. Similarly, the electrons can
move from one energy level to another by absorbing or releasing energy.
Energy levels in an atom are not equally spaced which mea ns that the
amount of energy is not the same. The higher energy levels are closer
together. If an electron occupies a higher energy level, it will take less
energy for it to move to the next higher energy level. As a result of the Bohr
model, electrons are described as occupying fixed energy levels at a certain
distance from the nucleus of an atom.
IX.

Application:
After a rain, you will see rainbow. Why do you see lines of different
colors in a rainbow?

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X.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

XI.

Assessment:
Directions: Read each question/statement carefully. Choose the letter
of the correct answer.
Which combination describes the flame color of the compound when
heated?
A. Sodium chloride red
C. Potassium chloride blue
B. Copper (II) sulfate violet
D. Boric acid green
Which statement is incorrect?
A. Orbital is a region in an atom where an electron can be found.
B. An electron can emit energy when it jumps to a higher energy
level.
C. An electron can absorb energy when it jumps to a higher energy
level.
D. Filling of electrons in an atom starts from a low energy level to the
highest energy level.
Which explain the spectral line given off by an atom of a substance
when heat is applied directly to it?
A. The electron is removed from the atom.
B. The electron moves faster around its orbit.
C. The electron absorbs energy and jumps to a higher energy states.
D. The electrons which jumped to a higher energy state returns to
a lower energy state.
What do the atomic spectra of elements prove about the atom?
A. That atom is charged
B. That atom contains a nucleus
C. That atom has electrons that are negatively charged.
D. That atom has electrons that are found in definite energy
levels.
Which requires absorption of energy?
A. an electron coming nearer the nucleus
B. The electron going farther to the nucleus
C. an electron moving around the nucleus in its normal path.
D. None of the above.
Agreement:
Bring the following materials for tomorrows activity:
One sheet of short bond paper or half of a short folder
pencil or colored marker with small tip
compass
graphing paper
one-foot ruler

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Lesson 3
Competency:
Explain how the Quantum Mechanical Model of an atom describes the
energies and positions of the electrons.
(Learning Competency is given in the Teachers Guide but not
specified in the Curriculum Guide)
I.

Objective(s):
1. Identify energy levels, sub levels and orbitals
2. Analyze the maximum number of electrons an energy level,
sub level and orbital can hold

II.

Topic: Electronic Structure of Atom


a. Sub-topic: Filling up atomic orbitals with electrons

III.

Materials/ Resources Needed:


Pen and Paper
Periodic table
Speaker
Projector
Laptop

IV.

References:
a. Teachers guide:
b. Learners guide:
c. Internet references:
http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_config.html
d. Other references: Science and Technology SEMP 2 pp. 70-74
Science Links Chemistry pp. 71-75
FUSE CONSTEC volume 2 pp. 143-147

V.

Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Look at the picture posted on the board.

1. What does the person in each picture is doing?


( Distributing newspapers, mails and boxes)
2. Do they have their own pattern of distributing the goods that
they are carrying?
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( Yes, they have. They follow a specific route in order to avoid
confusion and to manage time of delivery)
Today, we are going to do some distribution not of newspapers,
mails and boxes but of Electrons.
3. Where are we going to distribute electrons?
(Let the students derive their answers from the previous activity
about probable location of electron (ans. Atomic orbital)
4. Do you have any idea on what do scientist call this
distribution of electrons in an atom?
(This is what scientists call as ELECTRON CONFIGURATION)
Before we proceed in distributing electrons in an atom, we
should have first an idea on where to distribute them and how
many electrons can we put in them.
VI.

Activity
Title: Analyzing Main energy levels, Sub levels and Orbitals
Reference: Not found on LG and TG (Proposed Activity)
Procedure:
You have learned in your previous activity the quantum
mechanical model of an atom that views an electron as a cloud of
negative charge having a certain geometrical shape. This model shows
how likely an electron could be found in various locations around t he
nucleus. This probable location of electron is coined as atomic orbital.
However, the model does not give any information about how the
electron are distributed around the nucleus.
Let us find out by doing the activity for today.
WORD DRILL

What are the words decoded in the activity?


Main Energy Level
Sub level
Orbital
Electron
The words that we get from the activity are all regions
surrounding the nucleus where electrons are distributed. The
next activity will tell us how many electrons will each region may
contain.

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Procedure:
Analyze the table below, and answer the following questions.

1. The 1st main energy level has how many sublevels?


- 1 (1s sub level)
2. How many sub levels are there in the 2 nd main energy level?
- 2 ( 2s and 2p sub level)
3. What sub level/s is/are found in the 3 rd main energy level?
- 3s sub level, 3p sub level and 3d sub level
4. How many orbitals are there in the s sub level? p sub level? d
sub level? f sub level?
- 1, 3, 5, 7
5. What is the maximum number of electrons can each orbital
hold?
-2
VII.

Analysis:
Ask the following questions
1. If s sub level has 1 orbital and the maximum number of
electrons that an orbital can hold is two, how many electrons
can fill up 1s sub level?
-2
2. If p sub level has 3 orbitals, what is the maximum number of
electrons can p sub level hold?
- 6
3. 2nd main energy level has 2s sub level and 2 p sub level.
How many electrons in total can 2 nd main energy level be
filled?
-8
4. If f sub level has 7 orbitals, each orbital can be filled up by
how many electrons?
- 14
5. 4th main energy level occupies 4s,4p,4d and 4f sub levels.
What is the maximum number of electrons that 4 th main
energy level can hold?
- 32

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VIII.

Abstraction:
Electrons occupy only definite energy levels with specific values.
Principal/Main energy levels are assigned principal quantum
numbers starting with 1 for the level with the lowest energy,
followed by 2 for the next higher, and so on. Each principal level
has sublevels. Principal energy level 1 has one sublevel; level 2
has two sublevels and so on. Sublevels are labeled s, p, d and f
corresponding to an atomic orbital type. Sublevel s is lowest in
energy, followed by the p sublevel, and so on. S sub level is
spherical shaped, p sub level is dumbbell shaped while d and f has
complex shapes. The s sublevel has only one atomic orbital; the p
sublevel, three atomic orbitals; the d sublevel, five atomic orbitals;
and the f sublevel, seven atomic orbitals. Each atomic orbital has a
full occupancy when filled with two electrons; thus, the s, p, d, and f
sublevels can take a maximum of 2, 6, 10, and 14 electrons,
respectively.

IX.

Application:
Fill the atomic orbitals of the given element below with a
maximum no of electrons it can hold. Each circle represents
Principal/Main energy levels.

X.

Assessment:
Directions: Read each question/statement carefully. Choose the letter
of the correct answer.
1. If the first and second energy levels of an atom are full, then what
would be the total number of electrons in the atom?
A. 6
B. 8
C. 10
D.18
2. Which of the following sublevels is correctly designated?
A. 1p5
B. 3f9
C. 2p6
D. 3d11
3. Each sublevel has its maximum number of orbitals. How many
orbitals are in the third principal energy level?
A. 3
B. 6
C. 9
D. 12
4. What are the orbitals present in the fifth principal energy level?
A. s orbital B. s, p orbitals
C. s, p, d orbitals
D. s, p, d, and
f orbitals

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5. Which of the following main energy levels of an atom can
accommodate a maximum of 18 electrons?
A.
1st E-level B. 2nd E-level
C. 3rd E-level
E-level
6. How many orbitals are present in the 4p sublevel?
A. 7
B. 5
C. 4
D. 3
XI.

D. 4th

Agreement:
1. Model Making
Ask the students to make models of the s and p orbitals
using recyclable materials at home like old newspapers and old
plastic products. What is important in this activity is that they
visualize the shapes and orientation of the orbitals.
2. Memorize the mnemonic device used in writing electron
configuration of atoms.

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Lesson 4
Competency:
Explain how the Quantum Mechanical Model of an atom describes the
energies and positions of the electrons.
(Learning Competency is given in the Teachers Guide but not
specified in the Curriculum guide)
I. Objective(s):
1. Identify the principles/rules involved in the pattern of filling atomic
orbitals
2. Apply the rules in filling atomic orbitals
II. Topic: Electronic Structure of Atom
Sub-topic: Rules in Electron Configuration
III. Materials/ Resources Needed:
Pen and Paper
Periodic table
Speaker
Projector
Laptop
IV. References:
a. Teachers guide:
b. Learners guide:
c. Internet references:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B3Q5a3q_5b0
http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_config.html
d. Other references: Science Links Chemistry pp. 73-77
Chemistry for the New Millennium pp. 106
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Review of the Past lesson
1. How many sub levels are there in the 1 st main energy level? 2nd?
3rd? 4th?
1, 2, 3, 4,
2. What are the four sub energy levels?
S, P, D, F
3. How many orbitals are there in S sub level? P? D? F?
1, 3, 5, 7
4. What is the maximum number of electrons that an orbital can
hold?
2
5. How many electrons can occupy S sub level? P? D? F?
2, 6, 10, 14

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Now that you know the maximum numbers that energy levels,
sub levels and orbitals can hold. This time we are going to fill up each
one of them with electrons following the rules proposed by scientists.
In an atom, electrons and the nucleus interact to make the most
stable arrangement possible.
The way in which electrons are distributed in the different orbitals
around the nucleus of an atom is called ELECTRON
CONFIGURATION.
Activity:
Title: Rules in Electron Configuration
Reference: Not found on LG and TG (Proposed Activity)
Procedure
Since the objective of this activity is identifying rules in electron
configuration, let the students have some information about the rules
proposed by Neils Bohr, Friedrich Hund and Wolfgang Pauli.
Ask
the
students
to
watch
the
video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B3Q5a3q_5b0
Tell the students to jot down notes to help them answer questions
regarding the video.
- Ask the following questions to the students:
o What are the names of the scientist given in the video
presentation?
Neils Bohr, Friedrich Hund, Wolfgang Pauli
o What are the contributions of these scientists to the
electronic structure of an atom?
They provided principles and rules to follow in filling
up electrons in an atom.
o What are the principles and rules that you have seen in the
video?
Aufbau principle, Hunds rule and Paulis
Exclusion Principle
- Now let us have a much deeper understanding about these rules by
continuing to the next activity.
- Guide the students while doing the activity.
- Provide the table showing the electron configuration of elements
found on the third row of the periodic table and let the students
analyze it.
- Instruct the students the following
o Arrows represent electron/s that fill/s each orbital.
o In 1s1, the number 1 before the letter s represents main
energy level, the letter s represents sub level and the
exponent represents the number of the electrons that occupy
that specific orbital in the s sub level.

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Guide Questions
1. Did you observe some patterns in writing electronic
configuration?
2. What patterns did you see?
VI. Analysis:
Pre Analysis
(Analysis of the guide questions in the activity)
1. Did you observe some patterns in writing electronic
configuration?
- (Yes)
2. What patterns did you see?
- An orbital has a maximum of two opposite spins.
(represented by arrows up and down)
- An orbital in the same sublevel is filled with one spin before
pairing.
- Filling the orbitals with electron starts from the lowest
energy level to
the highest energy level. (1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d
5p)
Post Analysis
1. Element Helium (He) has 2 electrons since it has an atomic
number 2. How many electron does its 1s orbital have?
- 2 (An orbital can hold a maximum of 2 numbers of
electrons)
2. Boron (B) has 5 electrons. How are these electrons arranged
in their orbitals?
- lowest energy level is filled up with electrons first before the
higher energy level
3. Element Nitrogen (N) has how many electrons in its 2p sub
level? How are these electrons arranged in its 2p orbital?
- The 3 orbitals of the 2p sub level are filled up with one
electrons each.

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VIII.

Abstraction:
Electron configuration shows patterns like
- Sublevels are labeled s, p, d and f corresponding to an atomic
orbital type. Sublevel s is lowest in energy, followed by the p
sublevel, and so on.
- The s sublevel has only one atomic orbital; the p sublevel,
three atomic orbitals; the d sublevel, five atomic orbitals; and the f
sublevel, seven atomic orbitals.
- Each atomic orbital has a full occupancy when filled with two
electrons; thus, the s, p, d, and f sublevels can take a maximum of
2, 6, 10, and 14 electrons respectively.
- Electrons normally occupy the lowest available energy level.
An atom with two electrons would have both electrons in the 1s
sublevel of principal energy level 1. Another with five electrons
would have two electrons in the 1s sublevel, two electrons in the 2s
sublevel and one electron in the 2p sublevel. Single electrons must
occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons can
occupy the same orbitals.
- Electrons can be thought of obeying three basic rules when it
comes to their location within an atom. Match the following rules
with the answers that you have given in the previous questions.
Example. Your answer in Post Analysis question no 1 matches
the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Write the answer on the opposite
column in the table below.
Rule

Matches
which letter?

Hunds Rule
Single electrons must occupy
each equal-energy orbital before
additional electrons can occupy the
same orbitals.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
A maximum of two electrons may
occupy a single orbital.
The Aufbau Principle
Each electron occupies the lowest
energy orbital
first before the higher energy orbitals.
IX.

Application:
For reflection, ask the students these questions:
a. In what places are there set of rules to follow?
b. Why is it important to follow a set of rules?
c. Relate the importance of following a set of rules in filling up the
atomic orbitals with electrons.

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Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


X.

Assessment:
Complete the table below. Apply the knowledge that you have
gained in the previous activity.
Example Completed Table
Atom

Atomic
Number
6

Carbon
Energy
Subshell
level
1, 2, 3,
s, p, d or f
1
s
2
s
2
p
Electron Configuration:

# of electrons
6
# of electrons
2
2
2

1s2 2s2 2p2


XI. Agreement:
- Memorize the mnemonic device used in writing electron
configuration of atoms.
- Follow up activity
o Ask the students to perform the interactive activity in the
link provided below.
https://www.learner.org/interactives/periodic/elementary
interactive.html
Atomic
Number

# of
electrons

Energy level

Subshell

# of
electrons

1, 2, 3,

s, p, d or f

Atom
Beryllium

Electron Configuration:

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Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


Lesson 5
Competency:

Explain how the Quantum Mechanical Model of an atom describes the


energies and positions of the electrons.
(Learning Competency is given in the Teachers Guide but not
specified in the Curriculum guide)

I. Objective:
Write the electron configuration of atoms/elements
II. Topic: Electronic Structure of Atom
Sub-topic: Writing Electron Configuration
III. Materials/ Resources Needed:
Prepared Powerpoint presentation
Projector
Worksheets
Paper and pen
IV. References:
a. Teachers guide:
b. Learners guide:
c. Other references: Science Links Chemistry pg 73-77
Chemistry for the New Millennium pg 106
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
- Have some review of the previous lesson through this activity.
Direction: Unscramble the letters to form the phrase that state a rule
in writing electron configurations of atoms.

What rule is applied in the phrase?


What other rules are needed in writing the electron configurations of
atoms?
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Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


VI.

Activity:

Title: Writing Electron Configuration


Reference: Not found on LG and TG (Proposed Activity)
Procedure:
Now that you are fully equipped with the knowledge of energy levels,
sub levels, orbitals and rules governing distribution of electrons let us
now moved on to writing electron configuration of elements.
We have agreed yesterday in our class that you need to memorize the
mnemonic device that you see in the periodic table of elements.
What is a MNEMONIC DEVICE?
(A mnemonic device is a sentence that helps us to memorize a
string of words)
The mnemonic device that you see in a periodic table helps you to
memorize the order of filling up atomic orbitals with electrons.
Ask the following questions.
1. What are found in a mnemonic device used in electron
configuration?
- numbers before the letters s,p,d,f are energy level,
- letters s,p,d,f are the sub levels
- super script numbers refers to number of electrons
2. When 1s orbital is already filled up, what orbital is next to fill?
3. Ask the student to recite the mnemonic device used in
writing electron configuration.
4. Complete the table below.
a.
Atom
Atomic Number
Carbon
6
Energy level Subshell
1, 2, 3,
s, p, d or f
1
S
2
S
2
P
Electron Configuration:

# of electrons
6
# of electrons
2
2
2

1s2 2s2 2p2


b.
Atom
Atomic Number # of electrons
Neon
10
Energy level Subshell
# of electrons
1, 2, 3,
s, p, d or f
1
2
2
Electron Configuration:

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Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


c.
Atom
Atomic Number # of electrons
Aluminum
13
Energy level Subshell
# of electrons
1, 2, 3,
s, p, d or f
1
2
2
3
Electron Configuration:

VII.

Analysis:
Get your Periodic Table of Elements. Compare your answer to
the written electronic configuration of the element in the periodic table.
Check your answer:
1. How did you get the correct electron configuration?
(with the help of the previous class discussion and the
mnemonic device)
2. What served as your guide in writing the electron
configuration of elements?
(mnemonic device)
3. Why is it that your answer is wrong?
(havent followed the mnemonic device)
4. What leads you to wrong writing of electronic configuration?
(not following the rules and the guides)

VIII. Abstraction:
In writing electron configuration of atoms, we make use of
guides to follow. Mnemonic device gives us the chronological order of
filling up orbitals of an atom. This will give you a correct writing of
electron configuration of elements. With the help of the rules given by
scientist and the mnemonic device as well, we can write a correct
electron configuration of an element.
IX.

Application:
Analyze the given electron configuration of elements given
below.What is wrong in the given electron configuration? Justify
your answer.
1.
2.
3.

Na (11) 1s22s23s22p6
Al (13) 1s12s23s22p64s2
N (7) 1s22s23s3

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Lesson Guide in Science Grade 9


X. Assessment
For items 1 ad 2, refer to the table below showing the electron
configuration of the Group VIIIA elements

Atom
He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn

1
2
2
2
2
2
2

Energy Levels
3
4
5

8
8
8
8
8

8
18
18
18

8
18
32

8
18

1. Using the table, what is the electron configuration of Argon?


A. 1s22s 22p6
C. 1s22s 22p63s2
B. 1s22s22p63s 1
D. 1s22s22p63s2 3p6
2. Which atom has an electron configuration of 1s 22s22p63s2 3p6?
A. He
B. Ne
C. Ar
D. Xe
3.
A.
B.
C.
D.

What is the electron configuration of Gallium, 31Ga?


1s22s22p63s23p54s23d104p1
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d94p2
1s22s22p63s23p54s23d104p2

4.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Which one of the following electron configurations is INCORRECT?


1s22s22p63s23p6
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d94p2
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p3
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5

XI. Agreement:
1. Sing an Element Song
One way of memorizing the elements in the periodic table
is by singing them. Have you heard of Tom Lehrers Element
Song? This is a good mnemonic device although the song was
done in 1959, when there were 15 fewer elements. Your
challenge here is to compose your own elements song and
perform it in class.
2. Do some research about valence shells and valence
electrons.
3. Bring Periodic Table of Elements.

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