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THE LIBRARY
OF
THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA
LOS ANGELES

PHILOLOGICAL

SOCIETY.

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.

BT

E. R.

WHARTON, MA.

PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY.
1889-90.

COUNCIL,

President.

THE

EEV.

RICHARD MORRIS,

LL.D., M.A.

Vice-Presidents.

WHITLEY STOKES, D.C.L., LL.D., M.A.


ALEXANDER JOHN ELLIS, B.A., F.R.S.
HENRY SWEET, M.A., Ph.D.
JAS. A. H. MURRAY, LL.D., B.A.
PRINCE LOUIS-LUCIEN BONAPARTE.
THE REV. PROF. W. W. SKEAT, M.A., LL.D.,
Ordinary/

HENRY BRADLEY,

Mem hers

BRANDRETH,
PROF. TERRIEN DE LACOUPERIE
F. T. ELWORTHY, ESQ.
C. A. M. FENNELL, Litt.Doc.
T. HENDERSON, M.A.

E. L.

of Council.

REV.

ESQ.
ESQ.

REV.

C. S. JERRAM, M.A.
JAMES LECKY, ESQ.
E. L. LUSHINGTON, M.A., LL.D.
PROF. R. MARTINEAU, M.A.

Litt.Doc.

MAYOR, M.A.
MORFILL, M.A.
PROF. NAPIER, M.A., Ph.D.
W.

J. B.

R.

PEILE, M.A., Litt.Doc.


SIR J. A. PICTON.
THEO. G. PINCHES, ESQ.
PROF. J. P. POSTGATE, M.A.
PROF. C. RIEU, Ph.D.
THE REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A.
J.

R. F.

WEYMOUTH,

D.Lit.,

M.A.

Treasurer.

BENJAMIN DAWSON,

B.A., The Mount, Hampatead, London,

N.W.

Hon. Secretary.
F. J.

FURNIVALL,

M.A., Ph.D.,

3, St.

George's Square, Primrose Hill,

N.W.

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I

5 34^

LOAN-WORDS
By

E. R.

IN LATIN,

WHARTON,

iT.A.

{Mead at the Society^s Meeting, Bee. 21, 1888.)

(1)

The percentage

75, in Persian 62, in

of borrowed words in English

Latin 14, in Greek 2|.

is

about

English

is

probably the most composite of all languages: to judge by


the lists at the end of Skeat's dictionary, half our vocabulary

comes from Latin, and a quarter from other foreign sources.


Next in order comes Persian, in which about five-eighths of
the words are Arabic.
In classical Greek, down to 300 B.C.,
there are 41,100 words, of which perhaps 1000 are foreign
:

in classical Latin,

down

to a.d. 117, there are

26,300 words,
of which about 3500 are from Greek and perhaps 300 from

other languages,'
In all these figures Proper Names are
excluded.
These proportions of course refer only to the
CM words as given in a dictionar}-, not to their actual use in

literature

a page of Demosthenes or Cicero taken at random


show no borrowed words at all, a page of a

will probably
-t->

^ modern
^
c3

English novel will contain

onl}'

about 20 per cent.

of Latin words.

For our present purpose it may suffice to consider only


the Latin authors of the first rank (excluding in each case
fragments) viz., in chronological order, Plautus, Terence,
Cicero Caesar Catullus Lucretius Sallust, Yergil Horace
:

Livy Tibullus Propertius Ovid, Persius, Tacitus, Juvenal.


These sixteen authors use 16,900 words, of which 1080 are
from Greek and perhaps 200 from other languages, making
a proportion of about 8 per cent, of loan-words.

The Greek loan-words

in Latin

have been catalogued by

'
The fifjures given in this essav I have arrived at bj' simple countinc:, a task
which, so tar as I know, no one of my predecessors has attempted as Douse says
iu his " Grimm's Law," it is much easier to use statistics than to make them.
:

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.

Tuchhandler

('

De

E.

R,

WHARTON.

vocabulis Graecis

translatis,' 187G), F. O.

in linguam Latinara
Weise ('Die Griechischen Worter im

Latein,' 1882), and Saalfeld ('Tensaurus Italograecus,' 1884).


For Plautine words the late Professor Key's admirable
Some of the uu-Greek loandictionary is often useful.
words in Latin are treated by Yanicek (' Fremdworter im
Griechiscben imd Lateiniscben,' 1878). Of the Greek loan-

words 320 were introduced by Plautus, 200 by Cicero.


(2) I bave not attempted to define what a loan-word is;
and the following sections will show that we may at will
narrow or enlarge our boundaries. A purist might exclude
afira^ Xeyofxeva, of which 130 fall within our province.
In any case we must leave a considerable margin of transition,' as a logician would call it, between genuinel}' foreign
and genuinely native words a margin embracing three
classes of words
those which are reall}- Greek, those which
are really Latin, and those which are
partly Greek and
all

'

partly Latin.

As really Greek, and not loan-words at all, we may


count words directly quoted
by Latin authors from Greek
sources

viz.,

Cicero's

apoproegmenon ardopliyhx aiiloedus hulenterium


corddx coryphaeua exaeresimus gymnasiarclius logica melancholicus

*monogrammiis mystagogiis phUitia physiognomon prodgorus proegmenon prytaneum rho sofer :


Lucretius' homoeomerla 2J>'ester :
Livy's agtma *aglaspides argyraspides *cestrosphendone dromas hemerodromus hepteres hexeres liijipagogus moneres peltasta
phalanglta pry tank sansojihorns synedruii :
Ovid's ai : Persius' chaere : Juvenal's chlronomunfa.

(The asterisk here denotes that the original is not found in


extant Greek literature.)
(3) Our second class consists of words which are really
Latin and not Greek. Such are the
following, cognate with,
but not borrowed from, the corresponding Greek words
:

attdt or dtdt, drraTal.


hardiis

'

by-form of

stupid,'
/3paBv<;.

*/3pa6v<?

(seen

in /3pdaaa)V

'

slower

')

LOAX-WORDS IN LATIX.

K.

WHAKTON.

a figment in Aulularia
a corrupt reading (like murohat/idrii in the

line, for which


*

cincintius

E.

The Doric Kdpoq seems

Vtv'ff, Kr]po<i.

.010 cdriiiarii is

next

curl,'

myrobrecharnis a mere modern conjecture).


KiKivpof (which stand to each other as

tintino to Ti,Taviafi6<i) .
circus,

KpUo^.

dolus, 86Xo<;.

do/a us,

86fj,o(;.

ferefrum, (f)epeTpov in Polybius.


libra

'pound,' Xlrpa (Sicilian, for *\i6pa)

aspiration

cf.

Sicilian kctcov for

llnum, \lvov,

for the

want of

'^(^ltcov.

cf. Xiv-oTrrdofxai.

inutilus, /j,vTi\o<; /itVuXo?.

nemvs,

ve/jLo<;.

pdnnus,

7rf]vo9.

pappus,

TrUTTTTO^.

plleus

felt,' 7rtXo9.

propitius,
'

sclpib

7rpo7rT')]<;.

staff,' aKiTTOiv.

senium 'shield,' (tkvto^ 'hide.'


slmus snubnoscd,' alfi6<; for *aFl^6<i.
'

'

squilla

prawn,' aKtWa.

'

tow,' arvirrj.

sfupa

turba, Tvp^j].

The
are at

following, some of them of doubtful or foreign origin,


any rate unconnected with the Greek word appended

in each case

uyKvXi'i 'hook.'
'javelin'
'
dluciuor prate
aXvKrd^Q) am in distress.'
alicfa 'soft leather'
aXeiTrr?/ 'smeared': aluta, I
acli/s

'

=*r/r/-/7/'rt

suggest,

al as in al-accr
'

blow

'

'

'put on,'
'

'

lively

cf.

would

ad becoming
sharp,' and al-apa

iud-iila ex-uta,

beside accr-bus

'

'

beside apiscor reach.'


small stone, lime
X"A-/|^

pebble,

a could not represent


crdpula 'intoxication'

criplda 'slipper'
'military
chalk

calx

'

dura 'ape'

'

gravel.'

K6Xoupo<i 'dock-tailed.'
KpaiTrdXT):

Kprjiri^

creta

'

'

Kpj'jTr).

boot.'

at.

LOAN-WORDS IN LAIIN.

window

'

fenestra

fides 'lyre'

'

E.

WHARTON.

R,

(^aivw.

ac^iZ-q 'gut.'

fiinda 'sling'
a^evhovrj.
inula ' elecampane
eXeviov.

'

'

water

hjmjiha
its

'

NufX(f)r]

which however h/mpha owes


cf. Oscan Diumpals

to

from *dumpa,

spelling, for ^liimpa

JVymphis.'

norma

'

known

'

norma was a carpenter's


would
square, shaped
(I
suggest) taking its name
from that letter, the ninth in the Faliscan and Etruscan
alphabets, so that nbrma-=^* non-ma *n6ni-ma as carmen germen = *canmen *genimen respectively, cf. Havet in Memoires
well

yvcopi/xoii

like

de la Societe de Linguistique VI.


pessulus 'bolt'

from
*

*2)ed-tus
'

foot

'provided with a
'

'

pyre

^070?

agriculture), see

I would suggest,
the bolt were the

i^fss ?'/?'?,

foot,' as if

'

stilus

'

'

pen

Foy

'

vpa^

scientific

Poenulus 1313

in

XIV.

p.

Goetz

pillar.'

'

water-spider

So KopvXo^;

use a term of

(to

'

crTvXo'^

'

tlpula

silo

in Bezzenberger's Beitrage

shrew-mouse

writes saurex.

'

'

sq.

sorex

tl^vj.

ttXvvtijp irirvlrrjq^ the

corulus linter pltulta, are

rather Latin than Greek


^

p. 31.

TrdaaaXo'i 'peg'-

of the door.^

7-og2(s

41

and

mere

pretended originals of

fiijments.

The

following are

Eoman wit, besides r/dr>m, are


'
'
lisping from ^KaLa6s bandylegged ;
'
redi-vlvus alive again,' i.e. used again ;
rimcina ' plane from rutico ' deprive of hair '
(twigs planed off being compared
to hairs cut off) ;
'
'
Icncino 'tear to pieces (quasi
weigh out ') from lanz scale of a balance' ;
Other instances of

'

llacsus

'

'

'

'

siiffillo

beat black and blue

and, I would suggest,


Cicatrix scar from cic-ur
'

'

hurt);
furca fork
'

porrum

'

'

'

'

from

tame

'

si'<(/d

suck

'

'

(quasi
^^

'

i.e.

draw blood

subduing,'
a>

i.e.

being
the end

an instrument for punishing thieves (fures)


leek' as a slang term fur 'head,' whence
scurf'
7;o;>v'^o

of,.

the

as

'

74 capiti nomen debentia porra

cf.

Moretum

/ow/ _' frame of a bed' quasi the place of 'libation' (ctttoi'S^) preliminary to
going to sleep
lambero tear to pieces quasi lick
up {lambo)
ohturo stop up from taurus (a
stopper compared to a bull, cf. ^ovs
yXciaa^).
See also below on Popular
Etymology.
;

'

'

'

'

'

'

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.
*

ador

akevpov
'

cldssis

Gothic

cf.

spelt,'
*

'

atisk

WHARTON.

R.

E.

cornfield

wheaten flour' (and d from \ quasi


class
not from *K\.dat<i Doric for

from

not

ad, 'addition').

'

KXr]ai<i.

crepldo 'foundation':

why ere-

from

not

'basement'

Kprj-rrl^

(or

?).
*

flemina (Neut, Plur.)


congestion of blood,' cf
*
blotJi
blood
not from cfjXeyfiovj] inflammation.'
'

Gothic

'

htterac, cf. httus

from

'

8L(f}6epat

shore,'

from the idea of

'

'

cutting

not

skins.'
'

posca
vinegar and water from po-td as e-sca from ed-,
edd
not from eTro^u?
sharpish,' with e- dropt through a
'

'

popular connexion with poto.


In the following cases the Greek word
the Latin

is

borrowed from

'

cabbage,' ^pdcrKrj in Hesychius.


bucina 'trumpet,' ^vKuvrj in Polybius.
brassica

cento

'

patchwork,' KevTpwv in Eustathius, as though from

point of a needle.'

Kevrpov

'

'

(and hence, I would suggest, foretopsail,' as


being triangular, like the head of a pike), hoXwv 'stiletto'
(the meaning derived from S6\o9) in Plutarch.
dolo

'

pike

horrcum

'

granary,' <hpecov (quasi from copa

'

season

')

in

Achmes.
perperam 'wrongly' {i.e., I would suggest, 'unsatisfactorily,'
from per- -{-pa rum), irepirepo'i 'vainglorious' in Polybius.
taxus

yew,' rd^o'i in Galen.

Athenaeus 85e TeWlvav.


So the Latin patina
6vo/j,dl^ov(TL.
Cf,

asTraraV;;,

mddrium 'napkin'

/inXov (inUuItun)
appears in Sophron

'Pw/jiaioc

dish

in his

'

contemporary Hermippus

(both of the age of Pericles) as awhdptov Icpus was borrowed


into Sicilian as XeTropt? after the commencement of rhotacism,
:

about 350 b.c, and so other Sicilian words, /caX-rto? KdpKupov


Kdrlvov Kv^LTov vovp,fMo<; ovyKia, were probably borrowed

from the Latin

calceus career eatinus cubit urn

nummus

uncia,

not conversely.

In the following cases the Romans and Greeks borrowed


iudependently from foreign sources (see also sec. 12)
:

balaena 'whale,' (f)d\aiva.

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.

R.

E.

WHARTON.

horse- radisli,' KepaU Theophrastus Hist. Plant. IX.


155 (with a reference to Kepa<;).
crumena 'purse,' "^pvjjLea 'bag.'
'

cluira

'

'

mushroom,' a<p6y<yo^ sponge.'


hinnuleus fawn,' eWXo? (HesychiusJ.

fungus

'

plumbum

'lead,' fioXv/BSo^;.

'

'

tufa,'

tdjj/ius

flnum,

roc{)tcoi'

'

tuffstone quarry

(Heraclean).

olvo<;.

third class consists of words partly Greek and


'
Plautus is fond of coining hybrid words,
partly Latin.
(4)

Our

'

made up

Greek+ Latin

of

manti-cinor 'prophesy,' formed after rdti-dnor

samhucina 'harpist,' i.e. *sambuci-cina, formed after


or, more often, of Latin + Greek

tlhl-cina:

ante-logium 'prologue,' e-log'mm 'inscription' (which latter


passed into general use), and (from a Proper Name) de-

channido

hi-dlniiim
ndriiis)

(after

triclinium),

*semi-zdna

(whence semizo-

ferri-trib-dx 'iron-rubbing,'

from jpl^w

hdm-ibtae 'anglers,' from hdmus 'hook,' with the termination


of cnpaT-vwrat

pJdgipatida 'buffet-bearer, 'a quasi patronymic like Lucretius'


So Cicero invents the quasi Verbal facteon to be
Sclpiadds.
'

done.'

Compounds and Derivatives of Greek loan-words and we


have within our province 30 such Compounds and 140 such
Derivatives cannot properly be called hybrid words: each
contains an element which, though originally Greek, had
been naturalised in Latin. Some of them are formed from

loan-words which must once have existed in Latin but are


not found in extant Latin literature
ahol-la

'

cloak

'

from *ahoJa

(sec.

8
'

aplustrum

*a^\oaTov
ardneus

(sec. 5)

spider

from *ardna,

from ^ardnus,

apd-xyr]
'

'

ring

fin

stern

'

from *aplustum,

'

'

conddlium

"^'aplust-trum)

(i.e.

apaj(yo'; (sec. 7), as

ardnea

(the a, I

would suggest, must be long.

LOAN-WOKUS
and the word a
(Uesyehius)
dioboldrm
'

iantenia

IN'

LATIN.

R.

E.

WHAKION.
*

from *condus,

trisyllable)

knob

kovSo^:

'

'

worth two obols

'

from

'^diohohim, Sico^oXov

lantern' (with termination oi lucenia) irom*ianfer,

XafiTTTrip (sec. 7)

'skiff'

/tiiintcit/ii-s

(of.

from avus) from

avunculus

*/e)ius,

Xrjvo^ 'trough.'

mirmillo

kind

of

*murmurulus, *munnurus,
'

'

for

gladiator
'

fiop/xvpo'i

*)nu)'miirl6
'

a fish

{ixa

from

his crest)

'

from *plangd, irXayycov


planguncula
sandal-bearer
from *sandalum, aavhakov
sandali-gcrula
from
sjnntuniix (sec. 6)
*iiplnter, (nnvdijp
sponddlium 'hymn' from *sj)onda, airovSi] (see p. 4 note).
So
balatro 'jester' ('devourer') from *halatrum for *baratrum
doll

'

'

i.e.

barathrum, ,8dpa9pov (sec. 7)


baxca 'shoe' from *bax, */3a^ a by form
:

Hesychius

(as Sicilian ^aravr] of Trardvr})

(sec.

10) of ird^ in

'

'

from *caiia, ^Kuvrj a byform of Kavvrj reed.'


So the Adverbs duUce eunchetne pancrafice prot/tf/ine precatidiis

'pipe

suppose Adjectives *dulicus *euschemns *pancraficus *profhp)nus


{8ou\Lfc6<i eva'xriixo^ irayKpaTiKO'i rrpodvixos:),

and the Adverb

an Adj.

sijcophantibse
*si)cop)hantwsus from sycophantia {avKothe
Verb
paedicu presujiposes an Adj. *paedicus
(pavTia)
;

from *paes {iraU), uplcndeb an Adj.


no Latin word begins with
and the Compound in-cl/d
a Verb *cil6
reproach

(corresponding- to arnica)

from

*splendus

splen {anfki'jv

'

'

spl-),

point the lip at' (-yeLXoa), sec. II7).


The following Derivatives have no Greek equivalents, and
may most safely be assumed to be pure Latin words, though
the termination does not decide the point
Substantives columba, barbaria, (jerro (jobio pero scorpio
:

Adjectives

bliteus

carba-seus

citrous

myrrlieus tiiyrteus (and probably


ceromaticus cinaedicus colly ricus :

Verbs
ampullor

cachiiiiio

architector

corbno fuco
bacclior

cupresseus galbaueus

inarmoreiis),

hamaxo

graecor

hilaro

bonibi/ciiius,

triutnphd,

nwechor scurror

probably parasitor philosophor stomaclwr).

(and

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.

E.

WHARTON.

R.

"We now leave the Land Debateable, and enter our


proper territory. In the transliteration of Greek words some
Vowels are occasionally modipeculiarities may be noticed.
(5)

as in pure Latin, by the influence of dialect, accent,


adjoining letters, or analogy. First for the short vowels
fied,

Latin Yocalism,' sec. 2) o


(a) In some Latin words (see
becomes u and so in the loan-words amurca (a/xopyr}), bulhus
'

cunlla (kovlXt]), cothurnus (Kodopvo^i), lautumiae

(/3oX/3o9),

(cf.

murra 'porcelain' {e?. /loppla), jjurjmm {iropt^vpa),


tribulus (rpi/doXo'i).
So fungus corresponds to a(f)6yyo<;
aplustrum triumphus are from b^'-forms (sec. 10) *a^\oarov
This u was really u, written i in minnillo,
*Tpioixj)o<;.
Till the time of Cicero v was represented not by
sec. 4.
Xdro/jLiat),

as

y,

later,

but

scutula serjndlum
*tuus, dvo<i)

sec.

o-Lvr)T7v<;,

before

i.e.

10.

by

columhus

astu

ii,

simra spehinca

trutina

ohrussa

cujjressus

so

(and

tus

for

written also

ii,

i, minnillo serpillum
sindpis,
'plebeian' preference of e to i

The

vowel in terminations appears in cdduceum


nausea {vavrla), pasceoliis sec. 9.
Unaccented a in some few loan-words follows the
a

[KrjpvKiov),
(/3)

Latin rule and becomes

written u in scutula {aKurdXri)

ii,

strangulo (aTpayyaXdco),
trutina {jpvTavr]), which

in paelicem

before

i^ir-qXaKa

becomes

sec,
10)
in camera

{Kafidpa) phalerae ((f)dXapa) tessera (reacrapa), as in a close


syllable {i.e. before two consonants) in piaelex {*7rr]Xa^)

So unaccented

talentum (jdXdvTov).
{crKOTreXci).

As

Final

becomes

e,

becomes u in

gausape tapefe

(sec.

scojjulus

10

fin.).

not quite clear why, became ager, so *K6yypo'i


(sec. 10) gave conger; Yarro has onagrus (ovaypo^), Martial
Unaccented i is dropt before a liquid in balneum
onager.
*agros,

it is

In some
beside balineum [^aXaveiov), and troclea (rpoxi'Xia).
a
whole
unaccented
is
(as in
dropt
syllable
polysyllables
dodrans for *d6-quddrans, fastidiwn for *fasti-tidium)

caltha

for *calcantha^^'xaXKdv6rj (sec. 11 7), casteria for *catastateria


z=i*

KaraaTarTjpla (sec. 9).


e before It becomes

(7)

Plautus'

catapulta,

pelt a, TreXTT)).

ii

('

Latin Yocalism,'

KaTaireXTr}^

(as

opposed

sec.

to

yS)

in

Yergil's

LOAX-WORUS IN LATIN.

WHARTON.

R.

E.

'Popular Etymology' sometimes influences vowels.


becomes o in ollcum (eXaiFov) through a popular connexion with o/ens 'fragrant,' and / in indusium {*ivBvaiov)
(5)

Thus

and

exinterd

omitted

(I

*iTr(07rc<i

'boy'

sec.

(i.e.

is

though from

as

in

it is

though from

as

eVcoTr^^)

The lengthening

due

(Koy^^yXca)
o in prblogus

first

9)

in pitppis for *pupis or *pdpis

look-out place,'
the steersman).

('

concliyUa

the

{*^VTepe(o

would suggest)

(I

pruplno prbpbla

piipiis

of the

would suggest)

from

>/

in

to edulia, of

therefore

(and

doubtless in proscaenium protliijme p)rothtpn'uC) to pro : the


diphthong in aurichalcum {*6pi-)(a\Ko<; sec. 9) is due to
aio'um.

Long Towels: The

(6)

y appears in

j':>/^^i

and

tunnus

the

*\ay(ouri,

from

(i.e

in Terence spelt

Compound

tngonus

(Kco\v(f)ia)

form of

prae-Ciceronlan u

(Plautus

ii)

de-pugis,

*Xa'yvvr}

larjbna, as ')(e\vvri

spelt
(which will be

of

for //from

2:>/i//)

in

triifjonus
cbllpJiia

an Aeolic

came, I would

')(^e\wvr))

'

suggest, *h(guna,
sec.

10

fin.)

To

i.e.

show

lagoeita or lagena ('Latin Vocalism


the length of the vowel, e was some-

times (as in laevis raemim) written ae : so in caepe (sec. 8 ^)


paelex (sec. 10 spelt oX&ojyeUex, as though from peUicib) scaeiia
:

'
changes to u (' Latin Vocalism
13) in glauciuna (sec. 8 fin.) puppis (sec. 5 fin.) scurra
e never changes to I in loan-words, in Pocnulus 137
9)

The vowel

scaej)trum.
sec.
(sec.

a worthless conjecture (Goetz reads colhjrae).


the proper Latin shortening of vowel

liroe (XrjpoL) is

In ebus

{rjuioq)

before vowel.

we have

Popular Etymology changes

ii

to e in placenta

'cake' {irXaKovvTo) as though from pJacens, polenta 'pearl


barley' {^'KoXwrr) sec. 9) as though from pollen, and e to ii
in spintuDiix (' a bird which carries charcoal off altars,'
Pliny
X. 36,

So u

from
is

'

'

airivdt^p

shortened to

spark
e

with termination from

in reinulcum

cbtiiniix.

'

'

tow-rope

{pvfxovXKovv

'towing') as though from remulceb 'droop,' to o in ancora


(dyKvpa) on the analogy (as I have suggested) of remora
I
hindrance
(from et) is shortened in adij^- Nom. adeps
'

'

'

'

{aXei^a

fat)

Diphthongs
ei

as

though from

'

adipiscor

acquire.'

before a consonant =;, aliptes p'lrdta, before a vowel

<5,

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.

10

WHARTON.

R.

E.

gynaeceum : Ovid's elegeia is a purism. Some words follow


the Latin rule and shorten the e before another vowel to ^,
conopium graphium, or
balneum chorea platea.
oi^=Loe,

later

o,

e (the

'

'

plebeian

form, sec. 5 a

poena: m in early words =oe, comoedus

fin.),

tragoedits,

edus herous prora.

atz=ae, diaeta ; dialectically

mena murena ptnula.

('

Latin Vocalism

'

sec. 11)

This when unaccented becomes

e,

(as

in exqulrb etc.) in ollvum (eXaiFop) and Achlcl


{'A^acFoi).
a, cidtri {*KXa6pot beside KkfjOpa, sec. 10 fin.).

5=

and av=eu and au respectively,

ev

ovz=u,

durntcus

according-

shortened before final

to

euniic/ius aula.

the

Latin rule this

7n,

heduc]trum-=.7]hvxpovv,
*6aTpovv from oarpeov, remulcum see above.

is

ostnim=.

Onomatopoeic words sometimes keep the diphthongs unchanged eia, oiei, but attatae habae eugepae papae.
:

(7)

by

Consonants in our loan-words are sometimes afiected

dialect,
(a)

The

adjoining

letters, or

dialectic

for

analogy.

d appears in lanrus from *8avpo^ (the

Latin form would he*darvoH), Old-Irish

f/r<r 'oak' (Stokes


in Bezzenberger's Beitrage ix. p. 88)
and, I have suggested,
in Cicero's hirmta beside Plautus' danlsta from Saveiari^'i
;

'money-lender,' as a slang term applied by gladiators to their


trainer.
The Sabine assibilation of di, as in Clausus for

rom for *rodia (*/9oS/a), the rose-growing


Paestum being in Lucania, whose inhabitants the
Samnites were an ofishoot of the Sabines. In Oscan ks or x
became ss, meddlx-nieddiss, cf. Latin acsula-assula (Ellis on
Catullus xvii. 3), axiculus-assiculus coaxd-coasso, naxa-nassa, and
Claudius, appears in

district of

Xerxes-Xerses in Cicero:

so afiv^ov (Ace.) 'tearing' gave


amussim 'carpenter's rule,' named from the scoring of a
In Umbrian and Oscan kt became ht {rehte
straight line.

Lat. rede, saahtum^=.\ju,t. sanctum), which in some Latin dialect


was written tt, bractea-brattea, nacta-natta (=^*vdKTT)<;), salpictasaJpitta {^^a-akiriKTr}^) , strictkeUa-strittiviUa

(cf.

Pliny xxvii.

'

135 thalictrum or thalitrum meadow-rue '), or, after a long


vowel or diphthong, t, virtctum-urttuni, auctor-autor, cf. nlxns
(i.e.

*nlct-tus) beside nlsus

(i.e.

*nlt-tus)

so cocturnlx

'

'

quail

LOAN-WORUS

German

WHAKTON.

R.

E.

11

Mem,

Ilavet in

Soc. Ling. vi.


*cotfunnx, written cblurnlc, and from this

Iligli

(01(1

IN LATIN.

tvnhfala,

became
came Ovid's coturnlx through a popular
p. 23-4 sq.)

connexion with

would suggest,
for
booted
fighting.
artificially
came to
Shortly before Cicero's time the Greek aspirates
be represented in Latin by a Tenuis A, and two new letters
'

cothunim

{Kodopvos:)

buskin,' quails being, I

were added

to the

But some words

to represent v and ^.
retained the older transliteration (on

end of the alphabet

still

that of V see sec. 5 a

and

mcaltha sec. 5

')(^=c

6)

/3 fin.,

Sinionides 174, from X'^P^^


{avKxo^).
6=zt in halatro sec.

4,

'

codea

dance

clafrl

{Ko-x^.la'i),
'),

sec.

corona {yopwvo'^

in-cllo sec.

fin.,

fin.,

menta

soccus

(/ilvOo),

tunmis, tus.
<!}=]) in

aplustrum

i.e.

ampul-la
sec.

*ampor-la from *ampora

4, j-jr/e^^/rt

{(f)atv6\7]<;), pasceoliis

{dfKpopeixi),
(0acr/ca)Xo?),

sec. 6.
(iropipupa), spinter (see below), spi)ifunnx

purpura

the
l^=ss in niu-sma {/xd^a), purpurismm [iropcfivpi^ov), and
moechmo
iJialaci-s-^o
cdmh'^or
atticmo
Verbs
cijatlii>i>i6 graecisao
mus.so patrisNO

modern

pi/tmo sicelmd {drTLKL^o)

etc.).

So in Plautus

editors write badissd {/BaBi^o)) tarpesslta (MSS. trapezlta,


and, for initial ^, s, sdmia sona {^n/j,ia ^covij).

TpaTre^t'rr;?),

earlier Latin

In

initial

resina riscus rosa ruta

rhomphaca

p was represented by r, raphanus


by rJi, (as in a Corcyraean in-

later

= /aoato-i),

PHOFAIZI

scription

rln'tbr

rhinoceros

rhombus

rh/jf/imicus.

The slang
recognition

sometimes distorted words almost beyond

dialect
:

'

'

calicndruin

wig

for *cal!iiifrum. from

'

KuWvvTpov

ment

would suggest, for *sancaliha from


bed
cf. Laconian aKxaXi^ap
(on
*a;^aXt')3?;9,
'

sandapila

bier,'

'

'

*a7;^aA,iy87;9

the

'

orna-

'

'

see sec. 10.) in Hesychius.


In pure Latin c cannot stand before a nasal so in
borrowed words (1) in early times we have in such

Atfrication

(/8)

some

cases either dvdTTTv^t<i,

SpaxM,

drachuma (better written dracuma)

lucinus=Xvxvo<i,

techina

(better tecina)=Texvri\ or,

12

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.
the unaccented third

in

lengthening, ardnea

later, c

(2)

In

as Progue^^Tlpoicvr}.
so in exanclo (i^avrXeco)

g, ci/g>n(s=KVKvo'i

becomes
t,

c,

and

than cedrus

citrus is older

a dental,

with vowel-

before n becomes

Latin

d before

before

becomes
Between a nasal and
:

droj^t, e.g. in quindus-quintiis,

so spinier ^acficjKryjp, lanter-na=.\an7nrjp.


Latins sometimes object to r in two syllables of the same
:

tempto-tento

The

{KSpo<;).

and p are sometimes

of

loss

syllable,

= apd')(VT)

WHARTON.

R.

E.

word, compare giirgulio with

r./ap'^/apeoiv

sec. 4,

^dpaOpov
ergastulum=^*epyaaTpov
(7) Popular Etymology changes
^ in plagusia
'
from plaga ' net
c to

'

a fish

'

so balatro beside

sec. 9.

{*7r\aKovaLa sec. 9), as though

g to c in amiirca (d/xopyr]), spelunca (o-7n]Xvyya sec. 8 fin.),


because Latin had an ending -ca [fabrica juvenca pedica), but

no ending -ga
t

io c

va.

though from
2)

to

scrihhta
'

scrlho,

cheesecake

{^arpel3\lT7}^ sec. 9), as

marked, notched

in ahsinthiuhi

'

'
:

{d^Lvdiov), obsonium

though from ab and ob :


I
to d in adeps
{aKei(^a

sec.

6)

r to

{oyjrooviov),

as

d in cdduceum

(KTjpvKLov) apparently (as I have suggested) as though from


cdducum, a stick of fallen wood
A to s in serpgUum {epirvXKov) through the etymological
'

'

connexion of serpb and epirco.


consonant is omitted, I would suggest, in laena for
*claena {')(\aiva) as though from Idna 'wool,' and in Idterna

beside lanterna as though from Idta 'carried': Metathesis


'
in pistrix ' sea-monster
(beside ptristis, Trplarc^) as though

from pzso
(8)

'

pound, crush.'

Analogy

aifects especially the

for the
words
sec. 471-507.
:

Nouns show
(a)

formed

-a

ordinary changes

see

Roby's

three favourite terminations

caepa (beside carpe)

after

terminations of borrowed

herba, pausa

arglUa {dpylWo<i)

sc, terra,

(KpoKoiTo^) sc. testis.

and

[iravaL^)

cerintha
after

corona (p^opwfo?)

Grammar

[KrjpLvOov) are

causa;
sc.

we have

taenia, crocbta

LOAN-WORUS
-/-

(/3)

conoids

IN LA'llN.

and

{K6'y)(o<i)

E.

K.

WHARTON.

(Messapian

jidnis

13

irdvos;)

are

formed after Adjectives in -is hilaris (beside hilariis, iKapos:)


and dapsilis (SaylnXi]<;) after fa cilis caepe for *caepium {*Ki]7riov
from Ac^TTo?, cf. Ilesychius' KuTria garlic '), and sirpe for
;

'

*sirpiHm

{*(Tip(^i,ov sec. 10),

-r,

(7)

Neuter

mannor

hnccar (*/3dKKapt, sec. 10)

after

Neuters like

turjye nie.

formed after aequor,


(TreVe/Dt) have lost a final

{fiup/xapo^) is

and

^j//jc;'

vowel and follow the analogy of ciccr papdrcr, and so on the


analogy of mcl Gen. mellis Yergil forms from p.e\i, a vtel
Gen. melis and uses 'melis phylla' ixs=/j.eXi(l>uWa 'balm.'
'
Similarly ce/ux yacht' (/ceA.???) takes the termination ofvel-bx,
enge {eir^e) that of pulcre : draconeni konem beside BpuKovra
XiovTU are formed from the Nominatives (h'oco led.

All loan Verbs from the Greek

are of the first conjuga-

when

the Greek form corresponds with the


Latin, boo gitberiiu harpagd {*dp7raydQ)) stranyulo subo {*av/3doi)

tion, not only

coinans (from Ko/ideo), but also from Verbs in


exanclo cxinfero i^i^evrepew) obsoiio 2)aratrar/oed6 ther-eo)
:

mopoto
-^co

{*6epfj,o7roTCii)

atUciHHo etc., badissu, see sec. 7

-vco: propliiu {TrpoTTlvw).

Sometimes the meaning of the Greek ending was misunderstood

(a) the Neuter >}toi? was taken for Masculine (Plant, cetum
Ace), the Neuters yXavKcofxa axvi^<^ for Feminine (Plant.

schemam Ace), the Neuters Plural oarpea j3a\avela


jeppa (f)d\apa for Fern. Sing, (whence ostrca Sing., balineae
gJauciimani

gerrae phalerae Plur.)


the Accusatives
(/3)
:

fyv-\lrov

kokkov kocttov

fieBi/xvov fxvOov

^varov *6piy^a\Kov (sec. 9) TTeirXov adXov (nrdprov


(ToopaKov were turned into Nominatives Neuter, gypsum etc.; the
Accusatives KpdT?]pa irdvOripa TrXaKovvra (sec. G) cnrifKirfia
(see note)

ararripa <pd\ayya into Nominatives Feminine, crufira etc.


*dl3o\i} *d/j.(f)opci, Ace. of d^o\ev<;
Sing., plialiingac Plur.
into
the
Nominatives
*aboIa (sec. 4) amphora.
d/j,(f)opev^,
;

'
Except apage, an Inipfvative, psallo with its piinly Greek bejjinning, and
purpurissum wrongly formed from the Participle irop(pvpiCov muttio trom muttum
(fivdov, Havct in Mem. Soc. Ling. vi. p. 210 sq.) and punio from poena
:

(ttoivii)

are pure Latin, as also dtpsd.

14

LOAX-WORDS IN LATIN.

R.

E.

WHARTON.

(9) Our loan-words prove that the following 93 words,


though found in no extant Greek author, were once living
Greek words:

Substantives

market

'salt

aXw^opa

'

halagova (Plaut.).
informer' halophanta (Plaut.).

a\o(f)dvT7]<i 'salt

'carter' Jiamaxagoga (Plaut.).

a.fxa^ayw^/rj'i
'

'

boaster

dperdXoyo';

aretdlogus (Juv.).
'

'

harpago (Plaut.).
aproKpea^ 'distribution of meat' artocreas (Persius).
'
'
avarpo<i south wind aiisfer, from avco 'kindle.'

grappling-hook

apira'^/wv

from ^aWi^w

^aXkLarrj<i 'catapult' hallida,


about.'

^ovKepo^

/3ovK6pi,o<i

'

tree

Savpo^

'of oxen' bucerus bucerius,


bOlttifs, cf. /3o)XIt7]<;

laurus^ sec. 7.

(below).

workhouse ergastnlum, sec. 7 /3.


'mule' hemicilhis (Cic), from KiXKo<;

'ass.'

'tavern' thermopblium (Plaut.).

OeppLOTTOikLov

'

'

cuddy

KaTaa-TaT7)pia

casteria (Plaut.), sec. 5

/3.

'

'

Karaajr)

catasta.

stage
'

'

'

'

from

dimple

KlKKO'i 'doit
'

'

'

from

cachinnus,

laugh

Ka')(lvo<i

ye\a(xlvo<;

*pr)hr)

'

'

rj/iLKLX\o<;

/3ovKepco<;.

(Galen).

'

iiTL-prjOLov 'trace' ejnredium, from


i7rci)7rl<; puppis, sec. 5 S.

epyaarpov

cf.

'jump

'

mushroom

'

/ScdXt^to?

(Sicilian)

/ca;\^a^&)

to

'

as

laugh

'yeXdco.

ClCCUS (Plaut.), cf. KLKKa^Oq.


'

cinnamon

cinnamiim, cf Ktvvdfj.a)fj,ov.
KoXuTia 'ripe figs coliitea Persa 88, cf. Kokwrpa (Athenaeus).
'
Kopiavhpov coriander coriandnim, cf. Kopiavvov (in Varro
KLvvapLov

'

'

L. L.

V.

103 Spengel reads KoXiavBpov).


'

'

KpoToKiaTpia castanet-dancer crotalistria (Propertius)


Kv^ata 'transport' cybaea (Cic), from Kv^r) as a by-form of
.

'

KVfijBr}

boat.'
'

'

KV7rpe(Tao<;

cypress

cv.pressus,

from Hebrew

Tibpher,

cf.

KxrirdpLcrao^.
'

'

grouse

\aycoi<;

Xdrpwv
guardian

cf. Xdrpit;, from Hebrew


natrum
from Hebrew nether).
Xlrpov

hireling
'

'

lagois (Hor.).
'

'

latrb,

'

(as

'

uoier

LOAN-WORDS

IN I-ATIN.

E.

WHARTON.

K.

XavTOfiiat 'stone-quarries' lautumiae,

from

15

*\aOTO/iiat, cf.

Xdrofxiai.
'

'

miasma

/ie^m?

'

mephitis (Verg.)

derivation

unknown.

table with one leg' monopodiuni (Livy).

fjbovoTToStop

'

cf.

murra,

fioppa 'porcelain

[xoppia (Pausanias).
'

'

mulberry-tree

(Fern.)

fjL(bpo<;

cf. fiopov

;>?or2(.s,

'mulberry/

foreign.
'

'

neiitn, cf. vr^viarov

dirge

vrjvia

'

(Ilipponax), Phrygian.

'

copper ore

6pi')(^a\Ko<i

orichalcum,

cf. 6peLX'^'\.Ko<;.

'

'

pa fa glum, foreign.

Trarayehv gold edging


'
nrXuKovaia a fish pUKjima (Plant.), from ifKaKou^
'

'

formed

after

flat.'

poppy stna (Juv.).

clucking

iroTnTvajjia

look-out

7rpq)p/]rrj<i

'

'

'

man
'

7rpv/jivi]T7]<i

'

cf. Trpcppdrrj^

2)^'oreta (Plant.),

steersman.'

'

tasting pijtisma (Juv.).


'
chariot raeda
Gaulish, sec. 12.

irvTcafia
'

p^Sr)

'

poBia

rosetree

'

rosa,

from poSov.
'

'

craKKOTnjpiov

-pocket

sacciperiii7n

from

(Plaut.),

o-a/t/co?-}-

'TTijpa.

and

auvvr} 'grimace' sanna,

aavvlcov 'buffoon' sannio, cf.

acivva^.

'buffoon

(jKcopd<i

'

Hcnrra

i.e.

*scura sec.

6,

from

*a/cu)p-(f)d'yo<i

name) from' Ep/xoSoopo'i.


'ear-drop' stalaymium (Plaut.), from aTaXajfioi;

(our 'toadeater') as 'Epfxd'i (a slave's


(TTa\djfx.iov
'

dropping.'
'

aropla

mat'
'

arpe^XiTJj'i
twisted.'

siorea,

cheesecake

a(piKTpLa<i spintria,

TOKvX\iQ)v

'

TOTTta

'

from

'

'

spread.'

'

scrib/lta sec.

7,

from

o-Tpe/3Xo?

'

a-cpLyyco

press.'

'

tocuUio (Cic), from *tokvWlov


'
interest (as ^vv\Xiov of ^evo<i).

usurer

inutive of T0/C09

from aTopuvfit

ornamental gardening

'

foj>ia,

from

Dim-

to'tto?

place.'

TpayoKOjfKpSia 'tragicomedy' tragicomoedia (Plant.).


Tpvjovo'i 'sting- ray' trugonus (Plant.), cf rpvycov.
'

'

TvpiiTavoTpC^ri^
'

timbrel-player

fi/iNpanofriba (Plant.).

'

so
pasceolus (Plant.), cf. <})daKcoXo<i
purse
Dioscorides has (f)aaLoXo<i (Columella's phaseolus) for (f)dar]Xo'i
(^acr/cioXof

'

bean.'

LOAN-WORDS

16

'

IN LATIN.

WHARTON.

R.

'

embroiderer

(})pvyia)v

E.

sec.

phyrgib (Plaut.),

10,

from

^pvyia.
'

(pv\aKiaW]<i 'jailer

2)hylacista (Plaut.),

'

from

(jivXaKL^co

im-

prison.'
'

'

family banquet

')(api(Tria

'

from

charistia,

'xapl^oixai

in-

dulge.'

'gout' cheragva, from

-y^epaypa

')(ep-

\-aypa,

cf.

'^^eipdypa

(late Greek.)

Diminutives

'

from eXeyo^ elegy.'


evhvaiov 'smock' indusium sec. 5 fin., from evhvafi 'dress'
iXeyelSLov elegldium (Persius)

(Septuagint).
fiupod/jiccov myrotJieciuni

(Cic.)

from

'

/jLvpod)]Krj

unguent-

case.'

vd^Xiov nabiium (Ovid) from vd/3\a 'harp,' Hebrew nebhel


'flute.'

Adjectives

'

aSafidvTeio<;

'

of steel
'

dKOivovor}To<i

witbout

adamanteus (Ovid).

common

sense

'

acoenonoetiis

Juv.

yii. 218.
'

witb large breasts' bumastus (Yerg.).


'eastern'
eiirous (Yerg.).
evpojo<;
6a\aaaLK6<i 'of the sea' t/ialassicus (Plaut.).

jBovixaaro'i

'

Kr,p6ei<;

like wax,'
'

'

Fem. Kripovaaa cermm 'white

lead.'

'

comdtns, from

hair, foliage.'
/co/i?;
koixt]t6<=;
leafy
'
Xa^vpivOeio^ of the labyrinth' labyrintheiis (Catullus).
of the Muses' musaeiis (Lucr.), cf. fxovaio<;.
fjbovaalo'^
'

'carried by eight men' odbphorus (Cic).


patlikus from 7rd6o<; passion.'
TraA-yz'To?
sprinkled,' v^hence j)olenta sec. 6 from Trakivco.
oKr(>j)opo<i

'

ira9iK6<i

'

7r\aTa\eo<;

from

'broad,'

whence

j^Iatalea

'spoonbill'

(Cic.)

;-

TrXuTV'i.

1
"Words are so seldom coined absolutely de novo (Plautus' titivillitium is the
only indubitable instance in Latin) that the seven spice-names in Pseudolus
831-836 must have had an oritrin, though we cannot fully trace it.
Thus,
'

from o7raA.aJs o-n-rav roast moderately,' KarapaKTpta catarfrom KarapaKTris rushing down as it is sprinkled cepoJendrum (the first
element :=K7)7ros) clcilendrum cicimandrum draw their termination from coriandrum : y.i.KKi% maccis (cf. Dioscorides' fiaKep) and cravKawTis saucaptis must be of
un- Greek origin.

a7raAoi|/JS hapalopf^ifs is

actria

'

'

LOAN-WORDS

IN LATIN.

K.

R.

17

WHARTON.

'

7ro\To0a7O9

i)u\se-e'dt'mg^ piilliphrif/Hs (Plaut,).


'

7rTrjvo6r]piK(j<i

of birds and beasts


'

'

(if

Goetz

right in

is

Poenulus 471

in

pugna ptenotherica

conjecturing

'

MSS.

pentethronica).

from crvficpoypia.
avfx^oyvtaKO'i 'singing' s//mp/iu>iiaciis (Cic),
'
salt
fish
and
'of cheese
fi/rofarlc/ios (Cic).
rvpoTapix^'i
Xa^v^ijio-i 'of steel' clialijheiHS (Ovid), from -xciXv^.

Interjections

euaf euax (Plaut.) from

evol, as TroTraf

from

euyeiral eur/cpae (Plaut.)

Miles Gloriosus 1406,

oltl oiei

Yerbs

eir/e

from

ttqttol.

(iraJTral.

cf. olol.

apTTaydco 'steal' karpagd (Plaut.) from apirayrj 'plunder.'


i^evrepio) 'eviscerate' exinterd (Plaut.), cf. e^evrept^w (Dioacorides).
eua'o)

shout,' euans Participle (pure Latin ovans).

'

'

'

warm drink (cf. \^v)(^poTrork(ii drink


thevmopoto 'warm with drink' (Plant.), from
*

OepfxoTToreQ}

cold water')

drink

(Athenaeus).

Oep/xoTTOTT]^

KcofMi^o) coDtissor,

from

Ko>fxo<i 'revel,'

as Kco/xd^o)

from

/cco/xt;

'

village.'
'

TTOTp/^o)

'

take

after

the

father

'

'

(Plaut.),

2Jcifrissd

cf.

TraTptd^o) (Pollux).

av/Sdw

from av^a<i

lewd

(Ilesychius).
(10) Dialectic variations proved by our loan-words to
have once existed in Greek are the following, 57 in number:^
(a)

stibd,

a for o

(cf.

(whence kvXi^,
(b)

poefa
Ionic t; for d:
insult

irrjXaKlt.ai

for Ionic

*KXa6poi

KdXd

5 a

The forms
;

(cf.

*'cd\i^ calix for *k6\l^

Lat. mola)

iroiew-Troew)

paclex sec. 5

')=Doric TrdXXa^ 'boy'

or, as it

*TT6T]fxapoe)a,

(seen in irpo-

/S

Doric KaXXd

(cf.

should be written, Kt]Xd)


*KdpvKiov

cdduccum

cldtrl sec. 6, *SetXdu6<; sildnus sec.

si nap is sec.
*

*/j,6X7},

*'7r)]Xa^

Doric original d:

(d)

'

'

asterisk

from

vowel

for 01 before a

*TrorjT)](;

(c)

/jLaXaxil'M-oXoxv)

cf. fivXr)

11

sec.

fin.,

fin.,

*aLvd'iTv<t

so substantiated are here, to


sec. 9 was not necessary.

avoid confusion, marked with an

which in

18

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.

= Ionic

Doric

(e)

for

ov

E.

WHARTON.

R.

*KcopdXiov cdralinm

^poK^o'^ for ^po^o<i)


*^paK-)(iov hracchlum (vowel shortened before vowel), beside

if)

K"^

cf.

('Affrication,'

;!^

^pa-)(laiv:
((/)

Ionic

for t before

*vavaia nausea,

realna,

*pr}alvr)

So *aaivo^ asiniis (cf.


aaiXXa yoke Simonides 163) presupposes a Doric *aTivo<{
from Hebrew atJion she-ass,' while ovo'i must be a different
*(f)pevr]cn'i

phrenesis (beside ^pevlrL<;).


'

'

'

word

(//)

preserved

before

*6r]vaavp6^ ihensaurus

Cretan

(cf.

irdvad^^^irdad'i):

Metathesis with p (cf. Kaphia-Kpahirj)


*Tap'ire^lT'q<i
tarpesslta sec. 7 (in Plautus the metre sometimes requires
:

(i)

and never excludes it). So in the un-Greek words


more original form than KpoKcoro';, from
Hebrew karkom saffron'), *(f)vp'yicov p/ii/rgio {*<ppv'ylaiv sec. 9,
tarp-,

*KopKcoT6^ corcbta (a
'

Wagner's Aulularia
{j)
p.

345
(k)

for

^/j,

preserved

*eXaiFov olivum, *^oFd(o bovo

cf.

for

a,

*d(f)X.oaTov apluHtrum {d<^\acnov)

see below) sec. Oa, or for

{6piap.^o<;,

{<TVK-)(os:)

e for

(jreTrepL

were

trmmp/iKS

(c)

*euol euhoe (euol), *evio^

*/ipyetFot Arglvi, ^^^(aLFol Aclnvl.


especially in words which in Greek itself

()

(b)

Catullus

Ellis'

zmaragdas,

Medial

foreign

soccus

*^/jidpaySo<i

Medial aspiration preserved

(Ennius),

So

eiihius (evio<;)
(/)

p. Ixii)

a/jL:

t,

sec.

K for

*fxev6a menta (fiivOa).

{y'opvT6<i)

7,

*a6K)(^o<i

Sanskrit pippalT)

^rplofKpo'i
v,

for

e,

*7rLTrpi

piper

cory (us

*K6jypo^ conger (7677/: 09) *K(opvT6^

7 for

K, *7y9a/3aT09
grdhatns {/cpdl3dT0<i) *yv^pvdci)
guherno {KvjSepvdw) *'yu>/3i6<; gohius {kw^lo^). So /3 for tt,
*j3v^o<i huxus (ttu^o?) *Kdp/3aao^ carhnsus (KapTraaoi;)

(d)

(e)

for

*Kav6i]pio^
sec. 8)

(cf.

cantherius

Kpl ^avo<;-K\r l3avo<;


{Kav6y'j\Lo<i)

aTpyL<i-aTe\yL<;)

*aip(piov

conversely *\ei\iov hlium {Xeiptov)

sirpe

[aCk^iov,

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.

R.

E.

WHARTON.

19

(/) Initial aspiration preserved, *^euo<i hehenm

from TIebrow hobnim).


:

(fxirvT])

Sometimes the
;

stems in

(a)

transposed

(e^vo<;

(of.

irddvri-

(riutt/phus (see above).

*Tpio/j,(f)o<i

in termination

Aspiration

sugrffested

we

infer

and the extant Greek form

differ

from Latin the existence of

-o- beside

consonant stems

*a^aKo^ abacus

*dp)(^iTKTo<; archifecftis *^pd')(lov hracchiuin *8eX(f)lvo<; delp/iinus


*iXe(f)q^vTO'i

eXecfid^

elephantus beside d/Ba^ dp'^^ireKTcov ^pa-)(loov heX^li/

Masc. beside Neut.,

(b)

Fern, beside

Masc,

*KXf}6poi

^Tutycovr}

lacjbna

datri beside KXf]9pa


*Xayvvr] lagoena sec. 6
;

beside Xdyvvo<; Neut. beside Masc, * fiapydplTov marganhun


beside fiapyaptTi]'?, or Fem., *dpTt]piov arteriuni *auXa2ou
;

aulaeum *oiav7rov oesi/pum beside dpTrjpid avXald olcrinrr)


*l3dKKapc baccar
(c) Neuter stems in -t- beside others:
:

sec.

8 7 ^yavaaTTi (jaumpe *Td7rr]Ti tapete

^dKKapi<; yavcraTTO^

sec.

/3

beside

Ttt7r7;9.

(11) Many of our loan-words prove that the Greek equivalents


had once a larger meaning than appears in extant Greek
literature

(a) the following,

Substantives

Masc.

Adjectives in Greek, are used in Latin as

of shellfish.
KoyxtTT]<; shelly, conchlta catcher

supplying, parochus purveyor.


TTvpcoTToq fiery, pyropus bronze.
'n-dpo')(o<i

aapKo^dyo<; carnivorous, sarcophagus


TpaTTr)T6<i

Fem.

newly

coflln.

pressed, frapetus oil mill.

St/3a(/)09

double-dyed, dibaphus purple robe.

two-eared, diofa jar.


the footrace, endromis wrap.
ivSpo/xl<i for
Sio)TO<i

KVKXd<i lying around, eyclas robe.


wine.
fivppivT] of myrrh, niurrina spiced
obrussa test.
ojBpv^r] pure,
depfiai

warm, thermae baths.

^rjpafjLTreXivai scarlet,

xerampelinae scarlet robes.

20

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.

Neut.

E.

WHARTON.

R.

avajKatov necessary, anancaeum cup drained on a wager.


BiKpoTov double-oared, dicrotimi bireme.
fiaKpoKcoXov long-legged, macrocblum a kind of paper.
IxrjKivov yellow, melinum yellow robe.

vdphivov of nard, nardinum spiced wine.


TrXdyiov crooked, plagium kidnapping.
a-rjrdvLov of this year, setanium medlar.

^^

afxedvanva of amethyst, amethi/stina purple robes.


Krjpiva wax-coloured, cerina yellow robes,
reaaapa four, tessera tally, each side being a square.
Tpe')(ehei7rva

to dinner, trechedlpna light robes.

running

Conversely the following. Substantives in Greek, are used


in Latin as Adjectives
:

eirUpoKov a garment, epicrocum transparent.

palm branch, sj^ddix brown.


the
(/3)
following, abstract in meaning in Greek, are in
Latin concrete
oTrdSl^

d/jiv^iv,

amussim

sec.

a.

fyeveai^ birth, genesis birth-star.

e\e7%09 refutation, eknchiis ear-pendant (why?).


cnrovh'), sponda sec. 3 note.
Conversely the following, concrete in meaning in Greek,
are in Latin abstract
:

r^eppa

wickerwork, gerrae nonsense.


stomach, stomachus displeasure.

aTo/xa'^o';
')(ppr)^Lov

(7)

dancing-school, choregimn preparing a chorus.

the

differently

etymologically

possible

meaning

comes

out

'thrown

/ji^6\Lov

in

'= javelin, emboUum

interlude (Aris-

totle's i/x/36\i/xov).

= finale of a tragedy, exodium farce.


= grebe, colmnhus pigeon.
k6Xv/x/3o<; 'ducking
= stage, logeum archives.
words
of
Xoyetov 'place
=
softness
fjLokaKLa
effeminacy, malacia dead calm.
=
sailors
vavrla 'of
seasickness, nautea bilgewater.
quicksigh ted = eagle, ophthalmias a kind
6(f)6aXfila<;
'

i^ohiov

exit

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

fish.

'

of

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.
'

TTT^jfia

'

')(a\Kdvdr]

(sec.

= surround

'

'use a

21

'

bronze-flower

marigold.
'Xeikodi

WHARTON.

R.

E.

= framework, pC'fjma bookcase, stage.


= sulphate of copper, calt/ta

'

fixture

lip

with

a rim,

in-cild

pot-

grin

fin.).

the Latin meaning is extended from the Greek (on


/Q\at<709 hlcBSHS see sec. 3 note)
(8)

ypa(f)i,K6<;

picturesque, graphicus exquisite.

6pLa/j,/3o<;

hymn

to

Bacchus, triumphus procession.

Ki<no(^6po<i chest-bearer, cisiophorus a coin.

Xdrpt^ hired servant, latro robber.


trough, lenunculiis skiff.
ovv^ onyx, ouyx casket made of onyx.
rrapdeviKy') maiden, j^nii/ienice a plant.
XT]v6<i

TToBiov little foot,


(TTe/xfia

podium balcony.
wreath, stemma pedigree, from wreaths

hung on

images of ancestors.
^daijko^ bean, phaseliis boat, from its shape.
SeiXrjvo'i Silenus, sildnus fountain with a head of Silenus.
^iXnnro<; Philip, philippus a coin.
Conversely pifhecium in Latin means
in (late)

Greek

We

(12)

'

little ape,' 7n6)]Kiop

a machine.'

may now

turn to the un-Greek loan-words within

The following 90 words, if no more, seem


though we cannot tell where they came from ac/i/s

our province.
foreign,

(sec. 3) d/ea dice

'

'

pickle

andnhata

blindfolded gladiator

asllm beta 'beet' hracfen 'gold-leaf brassica buri-s 'plough'


'
cdseus caupo cibus clniex
caliga cdJo soldier's servant
'
cort'ma
colontra
crdpula (sec. 3) cuspis dolium
cippiis
biestings

beam

'

'

'

ebuhim

dwarf elder' epulae excetra

fiscm fuscina gnlbinm

'

snake faex falx

man'

'

gdnca

green

gladius grdvastellm 'old

'

'

'

fetidles

underground room

'

heUtio hibrida hirnea 'jug' horia


'

'
'fishing-smack' Ilex jiiba jubar lappa Idrua ghost, mask later
'
'
*
llxa
Inus lemures lessum wailing liber inner bark
brick
'

'

'

'

sutler

worm

'

lodix

'

Itirco

'badger' miles
'

'

'

blanket

'

'

glutton

naucum

lorea

'

lutuDi

after- wine
'

woad

'

'

ofa

lutnbricus

marra

'

hoe

'

'

earthmeles

orea 'jar' paliimbes


'
assistant
popular preciae
priest's

'trifle' ocrca

pantex paunch pirum papa

'

'

22
*

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.

a grape-vine

silex shiiim

'

tlnus

'

bowl

a plant

E.

'

proeliiim rdna 7"una


situla

woodworm

'

tarmes

'

'

'

bucket

'

'

iaxillus

WHARTON.

R.

dart

'

sagitta sepelio serra

'

spolium sudis sulfur taeda


'

die

tzpula

(sec.

titulus trichila

tiro

3)

wine

'

bower

'

'

temetum

taxua

'

'

tugurium vagina.

The following may with some confidence be referred to


about 69 are from Aryan and 32 from nonAryan languages.
A. Aryan
definite sources

(a)

Umbro-Sabellian

Umbrian

2 1 words

'

'

arbitratu
witness/ cf. Umbr. a^pufrafi
second vowel of each word is ii, Latin Yocalism ' sec. 2
arbiter

'

(the

'

from ad

a root gret

'

rufus

red,' cf.

'

fin.),

speak,' Gothic qithan, Eng. quoth.


'
'
rofa rufas : the Roman form would

Umbr.

be *rubus.
sili-cernium
*

cenati

'
:

the

'

feast at

first

Oscan (which the


bos,

cf

/3o{}<?

which they

element

the

is

gersnatur

sedeo.

Roman grammarians often call Sabine)


Roman form would be ^'vos from *vous.

'

crepusculum

twilight

curis 'spear,'

quoted by Ovid.

cf.

(Varro),

'

meddzx

Umbr.

sat,' cf.

Latin

magistrate

creper below.

also

(Festus),

written metd{ix) or

meddiss, sec. 7a.

muhta

'fine' (Yarro).

'

sheep,' cf. 6L<i i.e. oFa


to remain in avena ' oats.'
oris

strena 'health

'

the

Roman form

(Lydus de mensibus

*avis is said

iv. 4).

sublica 'stake,' Volscian (Festus).

supparniii 'smock, topsail' (Varro),


(the first vowel of each word is ii).

tesqua 'wastes' (Scholiast

term

in Oscan,
trabea
i.

'

i. 14.
19) an augural
did not, as in other positions

become^.
state robe,' introduced

by

Numa

(Lj^dus ut supra

19).

Adjectives
'

slparium 'curtain'

on Hor. Epp.

proves that qu after

it

cf.

evil,' sollus

'

caseus

'

old,' catus

whole,' are said

by

'

'

sharp,' croper

the

dark,' dirus

Roman grammarians

to

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.
be Sabine

'

'

tutlcun

public

Campanian (Livy).
Verb haeto (also

E.

WHARTON.

R.

Gothic theuda

(of.

'

spelt beto or hlto)

'

go,' cf.

23

people

Oscan

')

is

haiteis

comest.'
Celtic

(/3)

Gaulish

names

(1)

perhaps 43 words, some also quoted in Greek

wheeled vehicles

for

carpentum (Florus).
carrus (Irish carr).

petor-ritum (Festus

cf.

Welsh

^)ef/<ra;'

'four

'

+ Old- Irish

rith 'course').

raeda

ing

9 (Quintilian

*pi]Sr] sec.

cf.

Old-Irish rlad 'journey-

').

also cw/2^/>i and sarrdc urn ; with. j)ld.i'cn ton 'wagonbox (Catullus xcvii. 6) and, I would suggest, the cognate
word plaaslrum wagon,' i.e. *plaux-tn(m from a root qlaug-s,
Celtic *2y^o(j, whence owv jjlough.

Probably
'

'

terms

(2) military

Welsh amaeth husbandman,'


with
Latin
ambisent about.'
Hence Gothic
+
agd,
cognate
amhadus

'

'vassal' (Festus), cf.

'

andbahts
*

'

servant,' the first sjdlable of

it

as

though from and

towards.'
'

bard or vclrd
(.Tahn

caterva

cath

soldier's servant,' Scholiast

on Persius

138

v.

Biicheler omits the passage).


'

troop,' see Isidore's Origines ix. 3. 4G, cf. Old-Irish

'

fight.'
*

harnessed combatants,' quoted by Tacitus.


matara or madaris pike (Hesychius).
cnippelldn'i

'

'

'

ponto 'punt

sagum

(Caesar)
*

adyo'i

from

military cloak

it
'

comes the Eng. word.


Eng. sail from

(Isidore)

saguliim.
soldurii a-iXoSovpot,

'

quoted by Caesar.

retainers,'

(3) other words


amellus
starwort,' loved by bees, for *ampcllm
see
Stokes
in Bezz. Beitr. ix. p. 194.
apis)
:

'

(cf.

Lat.

brdcac

'

breeches

from Teutonic,

cf.

'

(Diodorus Siculus)

German

britch

cucuUus 'hood,' whence Eng.

'

said to be borrowed

trowsers.'

coicl:

Santonic, Juv.

viii.

145.

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.

24

omasum

R.

E.

WHARTON.

'

'

(Philoxenus).
'
fur pelisse (Yarro).
'
saliunca Celtic nard,' Dioscorides' aXiovdaKa.
rend

triple

'

tucetum 'beef (Isidore), TJmbrian toco.


ovpo<i 'wild ox' (Macrobius): said to be borrowed from

urus

cf.

Teutonic,

German

mier-ochs

'

'

wild ox,' auer-hahn

black-

cock.'

volaeimis (Adj.)

'

'

'

fine

I would (Servius),
add
warden-pears.'
aquipenser

first

element

whence Vergil's volaema

aKKLTn^aia (i.e. *dKfL7n]v<no^) 'sturgeon':


cognate with Lat. aqua.

the

is

'

cabailiis /ca^dXXrj'i

whence French

horse,'

cheval,

Welsh

ceffyl

Latin form would be

vdtes (the

'

'

ovdT6L'i

priests

278

p.

seer,

poet,' Celtic

Irish faith

(Strabo),

Hibbert Lectures

'

*rdfes)

Rhys'

prophet,'

a shepherds' term, Yerg. Buc.

ix. 34.

Probably also bdsiiim gingiva

saliva, all

three introduced by

Catullus, a native of Transpadane Gaul,

Belgic

covinnus 'war-chariot'

with Lat.

(Lucan), for *co-reg-nos,

Welsh

co--\-veho, cf.

cognate

'

cy-icain

convey.'

essedum 'war-chariot' (Yerg.).


British
:

'

hascauda

Welsh

'

tub

(nothing to do with our basket, whence

basged).

Spanish (which the Greeks


'

caetra Kairpia

shield

'

suggest,

little
'

faldrica

dog,'

'

'

(Aelian)

properly, I would

Kvva.

fiery arrow,' used


'

gaesum

wheel (Quintilian).

rabbit

cf.

(Hesychius).

cantJius Kav66<i 'tire' of a

cunlculus KvvtK\o<i

call Iberian)

'

ryaiao<;

'javelin

by the Saguntines,
(Athenaeus), Old Irish

whence Eng. launch.


(Isidore), whence mantelum

gai.

lancea 'spear' (Yarro),

mantum
mantele

'

cloak

'

'

mantle

'

and

'

napkin.'

minium 'vermilion' (Propertius),

now Minho.

cf.

the river- name

iI//'>i/?(5,

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.
'

pllentim
p. 399.

chariot

'

R.

25

WHARTON.

See Diefenbach's Origines Europaeae

'

'

whence

E.

5 words
war cry (Tacitus),

Teutonic

(7)

harditus

'

irepdoo

perliaps from a root hherdh,


v. p.
ravage,' Stokes in Mem, Soc. Ling.

420.
'

'

(Verg.

spear

cateja

according to Servius Gaulish),

framea 'spear' (Tacitus).


glaesiim 'amber' (Pliny), Anglosaxon
spams spear,' Anglosaxon spar, Eng,

glaere.

spar.

above.

brCicae urns, see

Perhaps, originally, also


B. Non-Aryan
:

perhaps 13 words:
dtrium 'hall' (Yarro) cf. the Etruscan town-name Atria (and
the relation of fxiyapov hall to Meyapa).

Etruscan

(a)

'

'

halteus

'

belt

(Varro),

'helmet' (Isidore).

cassis

catamlfus, Etrusc. eatmite

from

'EtrxxBC.

*Kard[XL(j6o<i

venal.*

falandum 'sky.'

fala 'pillar' (Festus),


'
'
histrio actor
(Livy), Etrusc. hister.
'

middle of the month,' Etrusc. itits (Yarro


alphabet having no d).
lituus trumpet,' an Etruscan invention.
Jdiis

their

'

'

ohba obiia

110

cup,' Etrusc.

tijlea,

Bugge

in Bezz. Beitr. x. p,

sq.
^

satelks foWovrer,' Etrusc, zatlad,

a bodyguard

Bugge

ut supra xi. p. 1 sq.

introduced by Tarquinius Superbus, an

first

Etruscan by origin.

Perhaps
histrio)

also tensa

car for images of gods,' and (besides

Bugge
(/3)

stage

'

'

(Festus), poliuceo

'

ofier

ut supra p. 43 connects with Etrusc. pultace

(which
'

sacrifi-

').

Basque

for grundio,
tennite),
(7)

'

'

pulpitum

(Hesychius), lanlsta (Isidore)

she-goat

spendthrift

ncp)bs

actors' pay,'

'

'

7,

cavit

'

the scenic words Uicar

but hardly capra


sec.

cf.

mannus

'

cob,' dialectic for

*mandus

Miles Gloriosus 1407 dispennite

Basque mando

Phoenician

'

mule,'

13 words

'wrA 22

grunnio

(as
,

et dis-

LOAN-WORDS IN LATIN.

26

amhuhaja fluteplaver,'
though from Lat. amhi-.
fucus

cf.

'

R.

AVHARTON.

Syrian dvuvo 'pipe'

Hebrew ^mkh

'rock-lichen,'

(]\Iasc.)

also <^vKo<i (Xeut.)

E.

formed as

whence

'paint,'

seaweed.'
'

(whence vtv/3ov) endive/ Arabic hindihd.


alia
'huts/ Heb. mdgor 'habitation/ whence also /jbejapov.
mag
intibus

'

mastruca manstruga (Poenulus 1313, Goetz)


sheepskin,'
Sardinian (Quintilian).
palma palm-tree,' Heb. tamar : for the inserted / cf.
'

adkafidvhpa beside Persian semender, ^dXa-afMov from Heb.


besem.
'

pdvo

whence

peacock,' Arabic fdus,

raw?

also

for the

the preceding.

cf.

Heb.

sufes 'consul,'

tunica

Heb.

'

shirt,'

s/iofet

'judge.'

whence

k^tJionetk,

Punic: mapdlia 'huts'

(Fe&in?,),

also

')(LTOi)v.

mappa 'napkin' (Quin-

(Columella), and perhaps crux


instrument
of punishment).
(a Carthaginian

tilian), tilpicum 'leek'

hut

'

'

'

nepa

(first

cross'

scorpion (Festus), and perhaps attegia


'
'
xiv. 196), Idserplcium
Juv.
silphium
(Maurorum,
grown at Cyrene, PKny xvi. 143). Egyptian ebur

African

(S)
'

'

'ivory' (Egyptian db).


Indian (but not Aryan): barrus 'elephant' (Isidore).
(e)

Syllabus of Contents.
Loan-words in
(a) Greek

classical

Latin

(sec. 1)

"Words really Greek

(sec. 2), really

Greek and partly Latin

Latin

(sec. 3),

partly

(sec. 4).

Transliteration of short vowels (sec. 5), long vowels and


diphthongs (sec. 6), consonants (sec. 7) terminations
:

(sec. 8).

Lost words
(/3)

(sec. 9),

Un-Greek

by-forms

(sec. 12).

(sec. 10),

meanings

(sec. 11).

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