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SECOND EDITION

AERODYNAMICS,
AERONAUTICS, AND
FLIGHT MECHANICS
Barnes W. McCormick, Ph.D.
The Pennsylvania State University
Department of Aerospace Engineering

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.

CONTENTS
Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

A Brief History
1
Airplane Geometry
6
Instrument Panel
13
Airplane Performance
15
Problems
References
Chapter 2

20
21

FLUID MECHANICS

22

Fluid Statics and the Atmosphere


Fluid Dynamics
26
Potential Flow
40
Elementary Flow Functions
43
Summary
54
Problems
References
Chapter 3

22

54
55

LIFT

56

Wing Geometry
56
Airfoils
58
Airfoil Families
66
Modern Airfoil Developments
68
Thin Airfoil Theory
73
Maximum Lift
85
The Lifting Characteristics of a Finite Wing
109
The Lifting Line Model
112
Lifting Surface Model
119
The Maximum Lift of a Finite Wing
121
Basic and Additional Lift
124
Uncertainties in the Calculation of CLmax
125
Airfoil Characteristics at Low Reynolds Numbers
Problems
References
Chapter 4

139

146
148

DRAG

Skin Friction Drag


152
Form Drag
156
Drag of Streamlined Shapes
Interference Drag
165
Induced Drag
168

151^

160

ix

CONTENTS

Drag Breakdown and Equivalent Flat-Plate Area


Drag Counts
176
Average Skin Friction Coefficients
176
Example Estimates of Drag Breakdown
178
Trim Drag
181

Cooling Drag

175

183

Drag Reduction
186
Drag Cleanup
206
Total Airplane Drag
207
Problems
References
Chapter 5

209
210

LIFT AND DRAG A T HIGH MACH NUMBERS

Qualitative Behavior of Airfoils as a Function of Mach Number


Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics
218
Transonic Airfoils
232
Supersonic Airfoils
236
Linearized Compressible Potential Flow
240
Three-Dimensional Wings
245
Supersonic Wings
259
Effect of Mach Number on the Zero-Lift Drag of Two- and ThreeDimensional Shapes
268
Problems
References
Chapter 6

212
212

281
282

THE PRODUCTION

OF THRUST

284

A Brief History of the Piston Engine


284
Piston Engine Characteristics
285
Propeller Analysis
291
Propeller Selection
316
Design of a New Propeller
317
A Brief History of the Turbojet
319
Description of the Gas Turbine Engine
320
Engine Ratings
324
Some Considerations Relating to Gas Turbine Performance
325
Qualitative Comparison of the Performance of Turbojet, Turbofan,
and Turboprop Engines
328
Specific Engine Characteristics and Performance
331
Trends in Aircraft Propulsion
350
Problems
References
Chapter 7

355
356

AIRPLA NE PER FOR MA NCE

Introduction
357
Takeoff
357
Rate of Climb, Time to Climb, and Ceilings
Range
378
Maximum Endurance
385

357_

369

CONTENTS

Descent
386
Landing 386
Range Payload 389
Operating Limitations 394
Energy Methods for Optimal Trajectories
Stealth
402
The Art of Estimating and Scaling
405
Problems 408
References 409
Chapter 8

XI

399

HELICOPTERS AND V/STOL AIRCRAFT

410

Helicopters 410
Helicopter Performance 428
V/STOL 432
Basic V/STOL Aerodynamics 442
Summary 470
Problems 470
References 471
Chapter 9

STATIC STABILITY AND CONTROL

473

Introduction 473
Coordinate System: Forces, Moments, and Velocities
Longitudinal Static Stability
474

Longitudinal Control

484

Lateral-Directional Static Stability and Control


Problems 534
References 537
Chapter 10

513

OPEN-LOOP DYNAMIC STABILITY AND CONTROL

Introduction 538
Equations of Motion
538
Longitudinal Motion
542
Lateral-Directional Motion
Flying Qualities 571
Spinning 577
Problems 582
References 586
Chapter 11

473

538

560

CONTROLLED MOTION AND AUTOMATIC STABILITY

Response to a Control Input


588
Transfer Functions 588
Impulsive Admittance 589
Indical Admittance 591
Convolution Integral (Duhamel's Integral)
Frequency Response 592
Automatic Stability
595
Feedback 596

591

588

XII

CONTENTS

Lateral Motion with Feedback


597
System and Parameter Identification
Summary
600
Problems
References

600

600
601

Appendix A THE SI SYSTEM

603

Appendix B STANDARD ATMOSPHERE


Appendix C CHEROKEE 180 DA TA

605
607

Appendix D SOLUTION OF NTH-ORDER LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL


EQUATIONS WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS
AppendixE THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION
AppendixF AIRPLANEDATA

614

616

Appendix G NOMENCLATURE, ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS


INDEX

639

610

628