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Inverters for Solar PV Systems

(Salient Features, Types, Relative Merits & Usage)

By

N.Ramchander,

M.Tech, (Ph.D)

Project Engineer (Solar Projects),


Sr.Asstistant Professor, EEEDBVRIT.

&
Guest Faculty at
SURABHI
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Presentation Outline
PV System configurations
Solar PV Inverters & Technologies
Selection of Inverters
Typical characteristics
Ratings

Inverters maintenance guidelines


Site Installations
Case study of 100kWp Solar Power Plant
Conclusions

Solar Energy

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How Solar PVs Work


PV cells are made of special materials called
semiconductors and in this case, silicon.
When a photon (a light particle) hits the panel, it has
enough energy to knock an electron loose, allowing it
to flow freely.
The panel then has several electrical fields to force
the electrons to move in a certain direction, creating
a current which can be used to do work.

Schematic of a Solar Cell Structure

Front Contact

Incident Light

AR Coating

n-type silicon
semiconductor

p
p-type silicon
semiconductor

Back contact

Concept of Solar PV
Technology

PV systems are usually used in three main fields:


1) satellite applications, where the solar arrays provide
power to satellites.
2) off-grid applications, where solar arrays are used to power
remote loads that are not connected to the electric grid.
**3) grid-connected applications, in which solar arrays are used
to supply energy to local loads as well as to the electric grid.
The total installed capacity from renewable has reached
51.29 GW as on 14-01-2016.

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Why Solar PV
Abundantly available.
Negligible CO2 footprint.
No moving parts. No noise.
No water consumption.
No emissions.
Less geographical restrictions.

Advantages of Solar

Abundantly available.
Negligible CO2 footprint.
No moving parts. No noise.
No water consumption.
No emissions.
Less geographical restrictions.

Utilizing wasteland for generating power/energy


Possibility of earning/reduction in payable money
Strengthening of distribution level voltage grid
Manage daytime peaks
Savings in T&D losses
Reduction in bill for discom for
Short/long term Purchase

Installation :

Cost about
Rs.75,000
per kWp discovered
benchmark/tendering process
Preference for Consumption Expenditure

through

Grid Connected Rooftop & Small Solar Power Plants Programme


Outlay increased from Rs. 600 cr to Rs. 5,000 cr

Subsidy Pattern for Residential, Institutional & Social Buildings


Max 30% of Benchmark Cost for General category States
Max 70% for Special Category States & Islands (LKD & ANI)
Must Use : Domestic Panels / Modules

various

Solar Radiation
Map of India

Sr. No. State/UT


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

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21
22
23
24
25

Andhra Pradesh
Arunachal
Pradesh
Chhattisgarh
Gujarat
Haryana
Jharkhand
Karnataka
Kerala
Madhya
Pradesh
Maharashtra
Odisha
Punjab
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Telangana
Tripura
Uttar Pradesh
Uttarakhand
West Bengal
Andaman &
Nicobar
Delhi
Lakshadweep
Pondicherry
Chandigarh
Daman & Diu

Total commissioned capacity till 14-01-16


(MW)
357.34
0.265
73.18
1024.15
12.8
16
104.22
12.025
678.58
[3]
378.7
[5]
66.92
200.32
1264.35
418.945
342.39
5
140
5
7.21
5.1
6.712
0.75
0.025
5.041
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[2]

[1]
[4]

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The Government of India has set the ambitious target of


generating 100 GW of solar power by the year 2021-22 under the
National Solar Mission.
It is expected to generate 60 GW ground mounted gridconnected solar power and 40 GW through roof-top grid
interactive solar power to fulfil the 100 GW of solar power.
Govt approves Rs 5050 cr funding to push solar projects on 20 th
January, 2016. The funding will be used for setting up 5,000 MW
capacity of grid linked solar power projects.
Year

Total (Rs crore)

2015-16
2016-17
2017-18
2018-19
2019-20
Total

500
1125
1125
1125
1125
5000

Handling & Monitoring


Total fund
charges for SECI @ 1% (Rs requirement
crore)
(Rs crore)
5
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
50

505
1136.25
1136.25
1136.25
1136.25
5050

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India's solar energy push to generate 1 mn


green jobs
The country will need new skilled workforce & training to
achieve its ambitious national target to add 100 gigawatts
(GW) of installed solar energy by 2022, says a report BS
B2B Bureau | Mumbai February 14, 2016 Last Updated at
16:01 IST

Government to unveil policy to promote


manufacturing in solar energy
The policy is designed to give a boost to the National
Democratic Alliance governments Make in India
programme

MNRE approved 33 solar parks in 21 states


with aggregate capacity of 19,900 MW
India Infoline News Service | Mumbai | February 20, 2016
11:21 IST
Goyal also informed the Members that the installed
capacity of solar power in India crossed the milestone of
5,000 MW in January this year and would achieve target of
18,000 MW by end of next year

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Employment opportunities in Renewable Energy Sector


for next generation..

Manufacturing
Training
Demonstration

Maintenance of systems

R &D Activity
& designing
new systems

Marketing

Employment
Opportunities in
Renewable energy sector

Implementation of
projects at field level

Consultancy
services viz.
surveys,
system design etc

Establishment of
Renewable Energy
Power Plants

Future Homes

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A typical residential Grid connected PV system

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What is an Inverter?

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Inverter: Converts battery or PV array DC power


into AC Power

Inverter is a switching and control circuitry device.


Output of the Inverter can be a square wave or
sinusoidal wave or modified sinusoidal wave.
Rating of inverter ranges from several Watts to MWs

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Types of waveforms in Inverters


Square wave inverter

Quasi sine wave inverter

Pure sine wave inverter

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Factors to be considered while selecting an Inverter:

Auto-Wakeup
Input voltage Range
Output voltage Range and type of wave form
Efficiency
Maximum Power Point Tracking(MPPT)
DC Bus Over Voltage handling capability
DC Bus Over Current handling capability
Internal Temperature generation
Self power consumption
Out put frequency
Power consumption at stand-by
Environmental Protection
Grid-code(as per installation country) & certification
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Classification of Solar Inverters


Solar Inverters are classified as below as per their
application
Grid Connected Inverters
Stand Alone Inverters
Hybrid Inverters

Grid connected Solar Inverters are further classified


as below as per their rated capacity
Central Inverters
String Inverters

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PV inverter topologies
PV inverters with low frequency (LF) transformer

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PV inverters without transformer (Transformer less)

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Grid Connected Inverters


A Grid-Tie Inverter takes the electricity generated by the renewable
energy system and sends it to the power distribution panel in your
home or office. From there the power maybe used by loads within
your home or if not needed it will redirected to the utility grid. When
there is no energy generated, utility power is pulled from the grid to
provide power to your home.

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Grid Connected Inverters

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Types of on- grid Inverters


1. Central Inverters

2. String Inverters

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Centralized Technology
Central inverters are designed for applications such as large arrays
installed on buildings, industrial facilities as well as field installations they are basically just a very large string inverter.

Advantages
1. Low capital price per watt
2. High efficiency
3. Comparative ease of installation - a
single unit in some scenarios

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String Inverters
A string inverter is the type most commonly used in home and
commercial solar power systems. It is a large box that is often situated
some distance away from the solar array. Depending on the size of the
installation, there may be more than one string inverter present.
String inverter advantages:
1. Allows for high design flexibility
2. High efficiency
3. Robust
4. 3 -phase variations available
5. Low cost
6. Well supported (if buying
trusted brands)
7. Remote system monitoring
capabilities
8. System efficiency is improved at
partial shade condition
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Stand Alone Inverters


Stand-alone inverter or off-grid inverter is designed for remote stand-alone
application or off-grid power system with battery backup where the
inverter draws its DC power from batteries charged by PV array and
converts to AC power. Stand-alone inverters provide variety of size and
output waveform depending on your applications.
For the best output, the pure
sine inverter is required.
It suits for solar home
system, rural electrification,
village electrification in
remote area where the utility
grid is not available.

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Stand Alone Inverters

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Types of Stand Alone Inverters:


1. Pure Off Grid Inverters:
2. Hybrid Inverters

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Parameters for Stand -Alone Inverters:


1. Must have good efficiency
2. Load can be varying
3. It should have good conversion efficiency
4. Must be having no load loss
5. Auto shut down should be there when there is no load
(auto load detection)
6. Inverter must be able to handle various power factors

Size of the inverters:


1. It Should weigh less
2. It Should be as small as possible
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PV Grid Hybrid Inverters

Hybrid Inverter

Combination of
off grid and on
grid inverter is
called Hybrid
Inverters
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PV Wind Hybrid Inverters

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Micro Inverters

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Enecsys micro-inverter

Site Installations

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PV modules installed in
MW scale

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String inverter with


disconnector

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Central Inverters
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Cooling System In Central Inverters

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Ducting for Heat Evacuation

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Simplified diagram of a photovoltaic system

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Connectors found on inverter bottom and their labels

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Data Transmission Options

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Typical Inverter Input Ratings

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Typical Inverter Output Ratings

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Efficiency Curve

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Central Solar Inverters

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Solar String Inverters

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Installation of Inverter

The inverters should be installed in a location where faultless operation is


guaranteed.
Factors to be consider are :
Ambient temperature, Humidity, Ventilation
Heat dissipation capability, Noise emission
possible ingress of dust, water and pests
Must be easily accessible with sufficient space around for maintenance and
servicing.
Inverters mounted on ground or wall should be at a height convenient for reading
its display.
Ensure adequate open space around ventilation panels for heat dissipation.
The string inverter installed outdoors should be have IP65 rated.
The string/central inverter installed in semi-controlled environment should be
IP54 rated.
The central inverters installed in control environment are have typically IP21
rating.
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Thank you
Email: ramchander.nirudi@gmail.com
Mobile : 9247798832

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