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GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

The word "geothermal" comes from the


Greek words geo, meaning earth,
and therme, meaning "heat."
3 main layers of the earth
The earth's core
o Outer core
o Inner core
Mantle- made up of magma
Crust
Geothermal energy is thermal energy
buried beneath earths crust; a network of
pipe is used to bring this steam into the
surface for energy conversion.
HISTORY OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
Many ancient peoples, including the
Romans, Chinese, and Native
Americans, used hot mineral springs
for bathing, cooking, and heating.
Water from hot springs is now used
world-wide in spas, for heating
buildings, and for agricultural and
industrial uses.
Using geothermal energy to produce
electricity is a relatively new industry.
It was initiated by a group of Italians
who built an electric generator at
Larderello in 1904. Their generator
was powered by the natural steam
erupting from the earth.
The first attempt to develop
geothermal power in the United States
came in 1922 at The Geysers steam
field in northern California.
Later, a small but successful
hydrothermal plant opened at the
Geysers in 1960. Today 28 plants are
operating there.
GEOTHERMMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT
IN THE PHILIPPINES
Exploration of geothermal energy in
the country started somewhere in the
1950s under the helm of Professor
Arturo Alcaraz, who headed the
Commission of Volcanology.
The new power source commenced in
Tiwi in 1979. It was later named as the
first water dominated geothermal

system that can produce more than


160 megawatts.

TYPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT


Dry Steam Geothermal power plant
Flash steam Geothermal power plant
Binary cycle Geothermal power plant

HOW DOES GEOTHERMAL


POWERPLANTS WORK?
RANKINE CYCLE APPLICATION
1. Constant pressure addition of heat
2. Constant entropy
3. Constant pressure rejection of heat
4. Constant entropy
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENTS OF A
GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT
TURBINE
GENERATOR
GEOTHERMAL VENT
SEPARATOR
HEAT EXCHANGER CONDENSER
GAS EXTRACTOR - STEAM EJECTOR
GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
Central operation centers
Observation of machinery
Security
Operation supplies (chemical for
cooling water, inhibitors, oil, filters for
air cleaning, cleaning products, binary
fluid)
Maintenance work (cooling tower
and buildings)
Maintenance supplies
Drilling for maintaining steam depends
on the geothermal field
Monitoring of the reservoir and area
Lower T & P than conventional power
plants gives less age dependence (no
creep)
Large makeovers at certain time
intervals
Rotor renewal and generator
maintenance every 10-15 years

FACTORS THAT AFFECTS THE COST OF A


GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT
SIZE OF PLANT
POWER PLANT TECHNOLOGY
KNOWLEDGE about the RESOURCE
TEMPERATURE OF THE RESOURCE
CHEMISTRY OF THE GEOTHERMAL
WATER
RESOURCE DEPTH AND PERMEABILITY
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES
TAX INCENTIVES
MARKETS
FINANCING OPTIONS AND COST
TIME DELAYS
POWER COSTING
- The Philippines is the second highest
producer, with 1,904 MW in 2010.
- The Montelago Geothermal Power
Plant will be put up in Barangays
Montelago, Montemayor and Melgar-B
in Naujan, Oriental Mindoro. The first
20MW will be available to Occidental
Mindoro while the other 20MW to
Oriental Mindoro by mid-2016.
- According to EPI, the power facility is
expected to bring electricity rates
down by 40% from the current rate of
P11 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) to P6.58
per kWh by 2016. This means some
P2.1 billion worth of savings in 4 years,
EPI estimated.
CONTRIBUTION OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERS
Plant construction

Pipe design, housing, equipment


installation
Exploitation
Testing, production, and utilization
SPECIFIC SKILLS REQUIREMENTS FOR
GEOTHERMAL ENGINEERS
Equipment selection
Technology design
Systems evaluation
Operation monitoring
Problem sensitivity
System analysis
Operation analysis
Mechanical
Equipment maintenance
ADVANTAGES
Environment Friendly, and Global
Warming Mitigation Effects
No Fuel Cost
Predictable, 24/7 Power
High Load Factor
No Pollution and Deaths
DISADVANTAGES
Long Gestation Time Leading to Cost
Overruns
Slow Technology Improvement
Financing
Regulations
Limited Locations