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EKB 4303

Petroleum Refining Engineering


Dr. Yee Kian Fei

School of Science and Engineering


Manipal International University

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Classification of Petroleum
Paraffinic base
Mixed base or Intermediate
Naphthenic base (asphaltic base)

Residue containing
>5% paraffins Paraffinic
2% - 5% paraffins Intermediate
<5% paraffins Naphthenic

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API Gravity

Sp. Gravity of fraction at 15C


API gravity for a mixture
of individual API gravity x corresponding
wt. fraction in the mixture
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U.O.P (Characterization Factor (K))

R Average boiling point


Sp. Gravity of fraction at 15C

Paraffinic base K 12.5


Naphthenic base K10
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Correlation Index

TB Boiling point

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Distillation Characteristics

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Fluid Rheological properties


(How is the fluid flow?)

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Rheological Parameters
Shear Stress
Shear rate
Viscosity
Yield Stress

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Shear Stress (Force / Area)


Shear stress, w is a stress state where the stress is parallel to
the surface of the material, as opposed to normal stress when
the stress is vertical to the surface.

w = F/A

Consider steady state flow of fluid.


In a horizontal circular CSA pipe having ID D.
With average velocity U.
Pressure difference 1 & 2 of distance L is P1-P2
If w = shear stress at pipe wall
*Area of pipe wall = DL
So,
Force acting at pipe wall, F= - ( D L) w
Negative sign force acting in opposite direction
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Shear Stress (Force / Area)


Pressure difference force on fluid,
F=

*Pressure = Force/Area
So, Force = Pressure*Area
And, Area of a circle =

At steady state no acceleration


Net force is equal to 0
Thus, - ( D L) w +

=0

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Shear rate
Consider 2 parallel planes of
area A.
Separated by distance dr and
space between filled with
fluid.
Lower end fixed.
A small Force F is given to
upper plane give velocity dU
in direction of force.
Rate of shear = the difference in velocity between liquid flows close to the pipe
wall and in the middle of the pipe, divided by the relative distance
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If there is no slip between wall and fluid,


Fluid nearer to upper layer velocity dU
Fluid nearer to lower layer - 0
A Uniform velocity gradient dU/dr with shear
force F is uniform across distance dr.
Velocity gradient dU/dr = rate of shear

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Viscosity,
Ability of fluid to flow
Ratio of shear stress and rate of shear
Shear stress shear rate

For lamina flow in pipe friction loss

Hagen-Poiseuille equation

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Which can be rearranged in the form

Therefore, Rate of shear


For laminar flow = 8U/D
For Turbulent flow = (8U/D) * Cf
Cf - Correction factor depends on NRe

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Yield Stress
Ability of fluid to restart its flow after
shutdown of transportation system.
i.e. shear stress required to initiate flow.

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Rheological classification of fluids


Basic behavior patterns of fluids
o Newtonian fluids
o Non-Newtonian fluids
o Time independent non-Newtonian fluids
o Time dependent non-Newtonian fluids
o Viscoelastic fluids

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Rheological classification of fluids


Fluids

NonNewtonian
fluids
Purely
viscous
fluids
Time
Dependent

Thixotropic

Newtonian
fluids

Viscoelastic
fluids

Time
independent

Rheopectic

Pseudo
plastic

Dialtent

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Bingham
plastic

Newtonian Fluids
Fluid whose viscosity is
independent of rate of
shear.
A fluid which obeys
Newton's law of viscosity
i.e., is called Newtonian
fluid. In such fluids shear
stress varies directly as
shear strain.

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Non-Newtonian Fluids
Fluid whose viscosity is
dependent of rate of
shear.
A fluid which does not
obey Newtons law of
viscosity is called nonNewton fluid.

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Time independent
Non-Newtonian Fluids
Shear stress at any rate of
shear is constant with time.
In this case the strain starts
after certain initial stress (t 0)
and then the stress-strain
relationship will be
linear. t 0 is called initial
yield stress. Sometimes they
are also called Binghams
Plastics.

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Time independent
Non-Newtonian Fluids - Thixotropic fluids

These require certain


amount of yield stress to
initiate shear strain.
Afterwards, stress-strain
relationship will be non
linear.

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An introduction to Rheology
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmiII_XwIJY
Refinery Crude Oil Distillation Process
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYnGgre83CI

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