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01 | A Brief History of Microbiology

THE MODERN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY




Fields of microbiology:


Basic Research



Microbe Centered

- Bacteriology:

Bacteria and Archaea

- Phycology:

Algae

- Mycology:

Fungi

- Protozoology:

Protozoa

- Parasitology:

Parasitic Protozoa and parasitic animals

- virology:

Viruses

Process Centered

- Microbial Metabolism:

Biochemistry: Chemical reactions with cells

- Microbial genetics

Functions of DNA and RNA

- Environmental Microbiology:

Relationships between microbes and among microbes, other


organisms, and their environment.

Applied Microbiology

Medical Microbiology:

- Serology:

Antibodies in blood serum, particularly as an indicator of infection

- Immunology:

Body's defenses against specific diseases

- Epidemiology:

Cause of diseases

- Infection control:

Hygiene in health care settings and control of nosocomial infections

- Chemotherapy:

Development and use of drugs to rate infectious diseases

Applied Environmental microbiology:

- Bioremediation:

Use of microbes to remove pollutants

- Public health microbiology:

Sewage treatment, water purification, and control of insects that


spread diseases

- Agricultural microbiology:

The use of microbes to control insect pests

Industrial Microbiology (biotechnology):

- Food and beverage technology:

Reduction or elimination of harmful microbes in food and drink

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01 | A Brief History of Microbiology

- Pharmaceutical microbiology:

Manufacture of vaccines and antibiotics

- Recombinant DNA technology:

Alteration of microbial genes to synthesize useful products.

WHAT ARE THE BASIC CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF LIFE?


Biochemistry:

The study of metabolism - the chemical reactions that occur in living


organisms.

HWO DO GENES WORK?

Microbial Genetics

Genetics:

The scientific study of inheritance.

Genes are contained in molecules of DNA

A gene's activity is related to the function of the specific protein coded by that
gene.

Molecular Biology
Molecular Biology:

Combines aspects of biochemistry, cell biology, and genetics to explain cell


function at the molecular level.

Particularly concerned with genome sequencing.

Recombinant DNA Technology


Recombinant DNA Technology:

The joining together of DNA molecule from two dierent species that are
inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations that are
value to science, medicine, agriculture, etc.

Gene Therapy:
Gene Therapy:

A process that involves inserting a missing gene or repairing a defective one in


human cells.

1.19 List 4 major questions that drive microbiological investigations today

1: How can we develop successful programs that either control or eradicate


infectious disease?

Campaign to have more people aware of how to prevent the spread of a

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01 | A Brief History of Microbiology

disease. Scientists are discovering new medicine and vaccines to biologically


prevent he spread of disease. Scientists are working to discover alternative to
antibiotics that can eradicate antibiotic resistant pathogens.

2: Why can we identify microorganisms by their DNA, but are unable to culture
them in the lab?

This prevents further study. Without culture in the lab, we cannot test new
drugs to fight the infection. Scientists want to find ways to cutler all
discovered bacteria to study them further.

3: Can we use microorganisms in nanotechnology?

Scientists are interested in using microbes in nanotechnology, such as in


circuit boards.

Scientists want to know if it is possible to harness the natural processes in


bacteria to power microscopic electronics.

4: What are the positive eects of microbial communities?

Understanding microbial communication can help humans prevent diseases,


degrease pollutants and further understand aspects of our ecosystem.

5: How can we combats antibiotic resistance?

Scientists are working to discover new alternatives to antibiotics to combat


these infections.

WHAT ROLES DO MICROORGANISMS PLAY IN THE ENVIRNOMENT?

Microbial communities also play an essential role in the decay of dead organisms and
the recycling of chemicals such as C, N, S.

Another role of microbes in the environment is the causation of disease

Environmental Microbiology:

The study of microorganisms in the environment

Their characteristics and the diseases microbes cause as well as the steps we can
take to limit their abundance and control their spread in the environment, such a s
sewage treatment, water purification, disinfection, pasteurization, and sterilization.

HOW DO WE DEFEND AGAINST DISEASE?

The work of Jenner and Pasteur on vaccines showed that he body can protect itself
from repeated diseases by the same organism.

Existence in the blood of chemicals and cells that fight infection.

Serology:

The study of blood serum

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01 | A Brief History of Microbiology

Immunology:

The study of the body's defense against specific pathogens.

1.20 Identify the field of microbiology that studies the role of microorganisms in the
environment.

The field that studies the role of microorganisms in the environment is Called
environmental microbiology.

Microbes are responsible for breaking down organic material and recycling
nutrients. Microorganisms also cause disease in the environment.

Through public health research, scientists try to control the eh spread of


environmental microbes through sewage treatment, water purification, disinfection,
pasteurization, sterilization. Microbes are everywhere in our environment and
impact our ecosystems and our health.

1.21 Name the fastest-growing scientific disciplines in microbiology today.

The fastest-growing fields in microbiology today are:

Biochemistry:

The study of metabolism, or processing of energy in cells

genetics:

The study of genome, or the to a DNA in an organism

molecular biology:

The study of how cells work at a molecular level.

recombinant DNA technology (biotechnology):

genetic engineering. Genes from one species are cut and pasted into
another species and expressed in that organism.

gene therapy:

Focuses on repairing mutated ends in humans through genetic


engineering

environmental microbiology:

The study of microorganisms in the environment.

EMERGING DISEASE CASE STUDY:


Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) "mad cow disease" because most
humans with the condition acquired the pathogen from eating infected beef.

b/c vCJD aects the brain by slowly eroding nervous tissue and leaving the brain
full of spongelike holes, the signs and symptoms of vCJD are neurological.

- disease starts with insomnia, depression, and confusion, but eventually it led
to uncontrollable emotional and verbal outbursts, inability to coordinate
movements, coma, and death.

- Typically the disease lasts about a year, and there is no treatment.

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01 | A Brief History of Microbiology

vCJD occurs by abnormal folding of normal protein forming prions, found in brain
tissue of diseased animals. Prions lead to formation of tiny sponge-line holes on
brain tissue showing its deterioration.

Prions are not lie bacteria or viruses but ar abnormal proteins that turn to be
infectious.

1. The vCJD pathogen is primarily transmitted when a person or animal consumes


nervous tissue (brain). How could cattle become infected?

The cattle is feed meat or bone that are infected with BSE (bovine spongiform
encephalopathy leads to vCJD (prion contaminated meat)

2. Why is vCJD called variant?

Because there are variable forms of CJD having dierent origins and are not all
related. vCJD is however related to CJD as the infection that causes mad cow
disease in cows is the same as the casual of vCJD in humans.

3. What eect does this pathogen have on cattle?

The infection mostly aects various parts of the brain such a s cerebellum or
the brain stem. There are characteristic changes due to the prions that cause
the formation of tiny sponge like holes in brain tissue, indicating gradual
deterioration of the brain... Spreading to the whole body and ultimately to
death.

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