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MS 2015: Public Toilets

MS 2015 consists of the following parts, under the general title


Public toilets

Part 1: Minimum design criteria


Part 2: Inspection criteria

Part 3: Rating criteria


Part 4: Code of practice for maintenance

1.1 Objective
The objective of this Malaysian Standard is to

clean, hygienic,
safe and convenient-to-use public
toilet facilities of appropriate design
and quality and to give guidance on the basic
assist in the provision of

care and maintenance of the facilities.

1.4.1 Users of this


standard
local authorities

government departments
providers of public toilets; consultants,
designers, builders, toilet facility provider, toilet
cleaning service provider and those who are
involved in the building industry.

2.Performance requirements
2.2.2 Context of use
2.2.2.1 Public toilets may be found in public
buildings of all types, in urban centres, in rural
locations near scenic attractions and in parks,
highway rest areas and remote locations.

2.2.1 Function
The function of a public toilet is to provide
facilities for the public to use in which they may

urinate, defecate, clean themselves,


groom, perform parenting needs
(where applicable) and otherwise attend to
bodily needs in a clean,

secure, private
and hygienic manner.

2.3.4 Public toilets


Public toilets shall provide:
a) a safe environment.
b) facilities where users may carry out personal
hygiene and grooming tasks in privacy.

c) a hygienic environment unlikely to cause


infection, disease or soiling of clothes.
d) all likely users of any gender, age, or combination
of gender and age including parenting needs.

e) the needs of disabled people and their carers, if any.


f) the requirements and expectations of users.
g) convenient facilities and fittings.
h) construction and fittings that is structurally sound
and materials that are durable.
i) fittings that are vandal resistant.
j) well lighted and good ventilation (natural or
mechanical)
k) where it is deemed necessary parenting unit shall
be provided e.g. shopping complexes, rest and
recreation areas, transport terminals.

3.4 Design considerations


3.4.1 Safety/security
Public toilet facilities and their entrances shall be
obvious to the passing public and shall not be
concealed.

3.4.4 Equality
Public toilets shall cater for all likely users of any
gender and irrespective of physical disability.

3.4.2 Privacy
Users shall be able to carry out personal hygiene
and grooming tasks in private.

3.4.5 Convenience
Convenience of use of public toilets

3.4.3 Hygiene
Users shall be provided with a hygienic
environment unlikely to cause infection, disease or
soiling of clothes.

3.4.6 Vandal resistance


Public toilets shall resist vandalism so as to remain
available for use and to provide pleasant
surroundings.

4. Location
location of public toilets and suggests
areas where toilets might be
provided.

Previously, public toilets have been hidden away


due to perceptions by authorities that people
would be embarrassed to enter them in full view
of others. People now are more likely to use
public toilets where they feel safe, regardless of
whether they are seen entering the toilet.

5. Number of toilet units


5.4 Determination of number of toilet units
required;

By Calculation

By Trial

5.1 General
Factors that affect numbers of toilet units:
The length of stay
the population in the area;
the arrival rate;
the gender ratio; and
the occupancy time.
NOTE. Because of the variability of locations for toilet facilities
guidance, on determining the number of toilet units needed at any
one place can best be given by providing information and examples
for the provider/designer to use.

5.2 Population
For short-term stays, the population at any point
in time is totally dependent on the nature of the
location and the reason for stopping. Coach
tours, for example, typically allow 15 minutes to
30 minutes for 'comfort' stops, but stop for up to
an hour at a scenic spot or other point of
interest.

5.2 Population (contd)


An indication of the likely number of people that may be expected at a
particular location may be obtained by studying the intended catchment
area and by assessing various factors including the following:
a) traffic volumes (pedestrian and vehicular);
b) car parks;
c) shops;
d) bus stops;
e) taxi stands;
f) tourist attractions;
g) sports and major entertainment venues, amusement parks; and
h) places of worship;
in association with:
i) level of use and associated seasonal peaks; and
ii) alternative toilet facilities that may be available.

5.3 Arrival Rate


The arrival rate of the public at a toilet facility
will be different for short-term stay locations to
that for medium and long-term stay locations.

5.4 Short Term Stay Less


than 1 hour
Factors that may have an influence on the arrival rates and
therefore the number of toilet units needed in the short-term
stay situation are:
a) the pattern of arrival of the population;
b) the time from the nearest toilet stop;
c) the nature of the location e.g. type of building and
buildings in the vicinity; and
d) the provision or otherwise of car or bus parking nearby.
Arrival rates of 80 % or more of the population can be
typical.

5.5 Medium term and


long term stay
For medium and long-term stays, the arrival
rates are generally in the percentage as shown
in Table below.
Length of Stay

Arrival rate (% population)

Medium (1h 2h)


Long (> 2h)

5-10
10-15

5.5 Medium term and


long term stay (contd)
Arrival rates are usually determined as an average
peak arrival rate over a 15 minute period. This length
of time can be varied to suit the location and a 30minute or 60 minute period could be more
appropriate.
The figures in Table C1 may be used as a guide for
arrival rates in cases where there is no toilet facility
from which to establish a measurement. However,
the use of these factors cannot replace the accuracy
of determining the average peak arrival rate for the
particular location.

5.6 Occupancy Time


Toilet Feature

Mean Occupancy Time (s)


Females

Males

Toilet pan

90

210

Urinal

35

Hand basin

60

40

5.7 Design occupancy time


The overall design occupancy times in Table C3 is based
on Table C2. An adjustment was made that took account
of the proportion of the population using the toilet
facilities solely for urination, plus the addition of an
allowance for use of a hand basin.
C2.4.2.2 For males the design occupancy time is based on
a combined toilet pan/urinal toilet facility taking into
account the proportion of males using pans and urinals
and the time taken to use each. For females, the design
occupancy time is based on recording toilet pan
occupancy times, which already take account of the
proportion of females using the facility for urination.

Situation

Gender

Design Occupancy
Time
(s)

No 'interval effect'

Females

Total = Use time + hand


basin time
150
(90 + 60)
100
(60 + 40)

Males

Limited opportunity to
use toilet - the 'interval
effect

Females

130
90

(70 + 60)
(50 + 40)

Males

NOTES:
a The figures are based on the longer occupancy times recorded in the survey and
are therefore relatively conservative.
b The male occupancy time is the estimated average of toilet pan to urinal use of 1:6.
Where there was a limited opportunity to use the toilet (the interval effect), e.g. at a
theatre, stadium, swimming pool, then the average design occupancy time is less than
in other situations. This is due to a greater proportion of the population using the
toilet solely for urination.

Table C3

5.8 All Gender Facilities


C3.1.1 All-gender facilities require the provision of a toilet pan and a
basin as a minimum within the unit.

The design occupancy times used for calculating the numbers of allgender toilet units therefore include the use of the hand basin (see
Table C3).
C3.1.2 Since occupancy times differ for males and females, the
design occupancy time should take into account gender ratios.
C3.2 Gender-specific facilities
For gender-specific toilet facilities, using all-gender toilet units the
design occupancy time will be the same as in C3.1.

5.9 Urinals
Urinals have the advantage of being able to service a
high arrival rate and a larger number of people due
to the low occupancy times. A decision to install
urinals should be governed by the gender ratio of the
population in the area, and consideration of the
privacy of the urinal users. The mean occupancy
time for urinal usage is given in Table C2.
C3.3.2 The number of toilet pans required when
urinals are provided is much the same as when no
urinals are provided.

5.10 Calculations
Given sufficient base data on population, arrival
rates, gender ratios and occupancy times, it is
possible to calculate the numbers of toilet units
required.

5.11 Preliminary Estimate


Preliminary estimate
The calculation example below will provide an initial estimate of the
required number of all- gender toilet units. However the calculation:
a) does not take into account gender ratio of the population; and
b) assumes a conservative occupancy time of 3 minutes (180 s).
For gender-specific toilet facilities, the number of toilet units needs
to be calculated as in C4.1.2, which takes into account the gender
ratio.
EXAMPLE: A 50 seat bus stopping for up to 30 minutes with the next
stop being an hour or so later. 80 % of the passengers wish to use
the toilet facilities (this situation provides 40 users in 30 minutes.)

5.11 Preliminary Estimate


(contd)

5.12 Detailed Calculations


Calculations using the formula below take into
account the gender ratio of the population using the
toilet facility.
The formula is:
N=PxAxGxO
where;
N is the number of toilet units required
P is the peak population per minute
A is the peak arrival rate
G is the gender ratio
O is the occupancy time in minutes

5.12 Detailed Calculations


(contd)
It shall be noted that if the gender ratio is
determined to be up to 80 % female and up to 60
% male then on the occasions when there are 80
% females present there will be only 20 % males.
Conversely, when there are 60 % males present
there will be 40 % females. The number of toilet
units required would be the worst-case scenario
calculated for each gender ratio combination.

5.13 Short Term Stay


Observed data
Five buses each with 50 seats arrive at a location in
30 minutes.
80 % of passengers wish to use a toilet unit.
Buses carry on average up to 80 % females and up to 60 %
males.
Calculation

From

the
data
the
basic
factors
Population = 250 people in 30 minutes;
Arrival rate = 80 %; and
Gender ratio = up to 80 % female, up to 60 % male.

are:

5.13 Short Term Stay


(contd)
a) All-gender toilet facility requirements

The toilet unit occupancy time (Table C3) is 130


seconds for female and 90 seconds for male
users. It includes an allowance for hand basin
usage.

5.13 Short Term Stay


(contd)

5.13 Short Term Stay


(contd)

An all-gender toilet facility would require at least 13.6, i.e. 14


units.

5.13 Short Term Stay


(contd)
b) Gender-specific toilet facility requirements
From Table C3 the toilet unit occupancy time is the
same as in a) above and the calculation applies. It
includes an allowance for hand basin usage within
the self-contained cubicle.

The calculation shows that a gender-specific toilet


facility requires 11.6 i.e. 12 units for females and 6
units for males in order to cope with the expected
gender ratios, i.e. a total of 18 units are required.

5.14 Medium/Long Term


stay
Observed data

Peak population at a beach is 1 000 with an


assumed 60/60 gender ratio and assumed arrival
rate of 10 %.

5.14 Medium/Long Term


stay (contd)
From the data the basic factors are:
Population = 1 000;
Arrival rate = 10 %; and
Genderratio = 60% female, 60% male.
This not a limited opportunity' situation and the 'no
interval effect' section of Table C3, applies.

5.14 Medium/Long Term


stay (contd)
a) All-gender toilet facility requirements
The toilet unit occupancy time (Table C3) is 150 s for female
and 100 s for male users. It includes an allowance for hand
basin usage.

5.14 Medium/Long Term


stay (contd)

An all-gender toilet facility would require at least 3.4, i.e. 4 units.

5.14 Medium/Long Term


stay (contd)
b) Gender-specific toilet facility requirements
From Table C3 the toilet unit occupancy time is the
same as in a) above and the calculation applies. It
includes an allowance for hand basin usage within
the self-contained cubicles.
The calculation shows that a gender-specific toilet
facility requires 3 units for females and 1.7, i.e. 2
toilet units for males in order to cope with the
expected gender ratios, i.e. a total of 5 units are
required.

5.15 Notes
The following shall be considered when calculating the number of toilet
units required:
a) The provision of all-gender toilet facilities reduces the number of
toilet units required due to the greater usage rate of the toilet
facility.
b) The provision of a new toilet facility in one area can substantially
affect the use of 'adjacent' toilet facilities, particularly if provision is
made for tourist and/or coach parking nearby.
c) If an existing facility is to be upgraded the current peak arrival rates,
occupancy times and typical 'time of stay in the area' should be
determined by survey.
d) At least one toilet unit should be an accessible all-gender unit, see
Clause 5.
NOTE. This shall enable providers to plan for fewer toilet units but of
enhanced dimensions and quality.

5.16 Accuracy
The accuracy of the calculation will be affected by a number of factors:
a) Calculating the number of toilet units required on the basis of peak
arrival rates will give a 'conservative' estimate for the number of
toilet units needed for those times outside of the peak times of
arrival.
b) There is a tendency to conservatism in the design occupancy figures
used in the calculations.
c) Generally the rate of arrival of females at a toilet facility can be
generally considered to be 30 % higher than for males. This factor
has not been used in the example calculations.
d) It is suggested that the design occupancy figures of Table C3 are
used in calculations and any rounding up of toilet unit numbers is
done at the conclusion of the exercise.

Good Practice #1
Typical pedestal W.C. cubicle without drop
with grab bar

Good Practice #2
Typical wash basin (under counter) with
seamless counter top for adult

Good Practice #3
Accessible toilet unit
Grab bar on both
side of the wash
basin

Good Example #4
Complete turn for
wheelchair in
accessible toilet.

Good Example #5
Adult Urinal ( Concealed Flush System )

Good Example #6
Typical squatting W.C cubicle with drop and
rear ventilation.

Acknowledgements
Jabatan Standards Malaysia
Prof Madya Dr Ar Asiah Abdul Rahim (Chairperson)
Encik Ahmad Zalane Alias (Secretary) Ir Patrick C. Augustin
Dr Mohd Nizar Zakaria
Ar Hassan Haji Hamzah
Encik Tan Ah Cheun/
Encik David Nicholas White
Ir Fong Tian Yong/Encik Razaman Udin Puan Zawidatul Asma Ghazali/
Puan Monaliza Mohd Hassan Puan Hasnor Salwa Harun Puan Roslina Sailan
Encik Alakumurugan Chelliah Ar Lim Peng Keang/
Ar Wan Sofiah Wan Ishak
Dr Mohd Jamil Sulaiman/ Encik Yusdi Yusoff
Ir Hussein Rahmat/Ir G.R. Dhanagunan
Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia
SIRIM Berhad
Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia
Centre for Cleaning Science and Technology Sdn Bhd
Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur
Goh Ban Huat Berhad
Jabatan Kerajaan Tempatan Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia
Majlis Perbandaran Subang Jaya Malaysia Airports Management and Technical Services Sdn Bhd
Malaysian Association of Standard Users Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia
SIRIM Berhad, Jabatan Pengurusan Harta The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia

THANK YOU
arasiah@iium.edu.my/ar_asiah02
@yahoo.com