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Weld Connections

Shear Plane

Throat = w x Cos 450


= 0.707 w
w

Root

FILLET WELD

Electrodes should be selected to match the base metal.


Use E70XX electrodes with steels that have a yield stress less than 60 ksi.
Use E80XX electrodes with steels that have a yield stress of 60 ksi or 65 ksi.
Nominal load capacity of weld, Rn
Design Strength,
Where

= Fw Aw = [ 0.707 w L ] Fw

Rn = Fw Aw = [ 0.707 w L ] Fw

= 0.75

Where
Fw = nominal strength of the weld metal per unit area = 0.6 FEXX
Fw based on the angle of the load to the longitudinal axis of the weld ( ):

Fw = 0.60 FEXX [1.0 + 0.5 Sin 1.5 ]

Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E.

(Weld Connections - Rev)

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Fillet weld symbols

E70
1/4

1/4

E70

Near side (arrow side)

Other side

1/4
E70

1/4

Both sides

1/4

Weld all around

E70

Field weld
E70
1/4

Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E.

(Weld Connections - Rev)

Page 2 of 7

EXAMPLE 1: Determine the strength of the following welds.

8
(a) 3/4 weld, 8 long, loaded along the weld

8
8
450

(b) 3/4 weld, 8 long, loaded perpendicular to


the weld

(a) Nominal Design Strength,


Where

(c) 3/4 weld, 8 long, loaded at a 450 to


the weld

Rn = Fw Aw = [ 0.707 w L ] Fw

= 0.75

Rn = 0.75 [ 0.707(3/4)(8)](0.6x70) = 133.62 kips


(b)

Fw = 0.60 FEXX [1.0 + 0.5 Sin 1.5 ] = 0.60 FEXX (1.5) { Sin = Sin (900 ) = 1}

Rn = 133.62 x 1.5 = 200.4 kips

(c)

Fw = 0.60 FEXX [1.0 + 0.5 Sin 1.5 ] = 0.60 FEXX (1.292456)

{ = 450 }

Rn = 133.62 x 1.292456 = 172.7 kips

Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E.

(Weld Connections - Rev)

Page 3 of 7

Example 2: Determine the design strength for C-shaped welds. Use E70XX
electrodes and a 3/16 Fillet weld.

PL (A36 Steel)

E70
3/16

PL (A36 Steel)
10

For 3/16 weld, 2-10 long, loaded along the weld


Rw(L) = 0.707(3/16)(2x10)](0.6x70) = 111.35 kips
For 3/16 weld, 8 long, loaded perpendicular to the weld
Rw(T) = 0.707(3/16)(8)](0.6x70) = 44.54 Kips
Without considering the weld and load orientation, Weld Design Strength
AISC Specification, Equation (J2-10a) (AISC Steel Manual 14th Ed.)
Rn = 111.35 + 44.54 = 155.89 Kips
Weld Design Strength considering the added contribution of the transverse welds
while reducing the contribution of the longitudinal welds,
AISC Specification, Equation (J2-10b) (AISC Steel Manual 14th Ed.)
Rn = (0.85)111.35 + (1.5)44.54 = 161.46 Kips
Select the largest one, Rn = (0.75)(161.46) = 121.10 Kips

Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E.

(Weld Connections - Rev)

Page 4 of 7

Example 3: Determine the LRFD design strength of the connection as shown in


Figure. Follow the following steps:
(a) Strength based on yielding in the gross section
(b) Strength based on tensile fracture
(c) Strength based on block shear failure
(d) Weld strength.
(e) What is the design strength of this connection?

PL (A36 Steel)

E70
5/16

PL (A36 Steel)
10

SOLUTION:
(a) Strength based on yielding in the gross section

t Pn = t

Fy Ag

= 0.9 (36 ksi) (8" x 0.5") = 129.6 Kips


(b) Strength based on tensile fracture
Ae = U x An

t Pn = t

Fu Ae

AISC Specification TABLE D3.1, Case 1, U= 1


Ae = (1) (8" x 0.5") = 4 Sq in.

Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E.

(Weld Connections - Rev)

Page 5 of 7

t Pn = t

Fu Ae

= (0.75) (58 ksi) (4 sqin) = 174 Kips.


(c) Strength based on block shear failure
Design Block Shear Strength =

Rn

where =0.75

Rn = 0.6 Fu Anv + Ubs Fu Ant <= 0.6 Fy Agv + Ubs Fu Ant


Agv = (2 x 10")(0.5") = 10 sq in
Anv = 10 sq in
Ant = 8" x 0.5" = 4 sq in
Ubs = 1.0 for uniform tension stress
Rn = 0.6(58 ksi)(10 sq in) + (1)(58 ksi)(4) = 580 kips
Rn = 0.6(36 ksi)(10 sq in) + (1)(58 ksi)(4) = 448 Kips CONTROLS

Rn = 0.75x 448 = 336 kips


(d) Weld strength.
For 5/16 weld, 2-10 long, loaded along the weld
Rw(L) = 0.707(5/16)(2x10)](0.6x70) = 185.59 kips
For 5/16 weld, 8 long, loaded perpendicular to the weld
Rw(T) = 0.707(5/16)(8)](0.6x70) = 74.24 Kips
AISC Specification (AISC Steel Manual 14th Ed.)
Equation (J2-10a): Rn = 185.59 + 74.24 = 259.82 Kips
Equation (J2-10b): Rn = (0.85)185.59 + (1.5)74.24 = 269.10 Kips
Design Wed strength, Rn = (0.75)(269.10) = 201.8 Kips
(e) What is the design strength of this connection?
Based on (a), (b), (c), and (d), Yielding controls (a):
The design Strength = 129.6 Kips.

Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E.

(Weld Connections - Rev)

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Backing bar

Butt Groove Weld

Tee Groove
Weld

Corner Groove
Weld

Fig 1: Complete penetration groove welds

Fig 2: Partial penetration groove welds

Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E.

(Weld Connections - Rev)

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