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reinforced concrete

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my

ANALYSIS OF SECTION

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increasing load. The load causes the beam to bend and exert a

bending moment as shown in figure below.

The top surface of the beam is seen

to shorten under compression, and

the bottom surface lengthens under

tension.

As the concrete cannot resist

tension, steel reinforcement is

introduces at the bottom surface to

resist tension.

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For continuous beam, the loads also cause the to bend downward

between the support and upward bending over the support.

This will produce tensile zone as shown in figure below. As the

concrete cannot resist flexural tension, steel reinforcement would

be introduced as detail in the figure.

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assumptions are made (See EN 1991: Cl. 6.1 (2) P.)

Plane section through the beam before bending remain plane

after bending.

The strain in bonded reinforcement, whether in tension or

compression is the same as that in the surrounding concrete.

The tensile of the concrete is ignored.

The stresses in the concrete and reinforcement can be derived

from the strain by using stress-strain curve for concrete and

steel.

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bending and the resultant strain and stress distribution in the

concrete.

Top surface of cross section are subjected to compressive stresses

while the bottom surface subjected to tensile stresses.

The line that introduced in between the tensile and compression

zones is known as the neutral axis of the member.

Due to the tensile strength of concrete is very low, all the tensile

stresses at the bottom fibre are taken by reinforcement.

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cc

fcc

Fcc

s = x

x

h

ccfck/c

fcd

d

z

st

fst

Fst

fyd

(1)

(2)

(3)

cc = 0.85, = 0.8, c = 1.5,

fcd = 1.0 x 0.85 x fck / 1.5 = 0.567 fck

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The triangular stress distribution applies when the stress are

very nearly proportional to the strain, which generally occurs at

the loading levels encountered under working load conditions

and is, therefore, used at the serviceability limit state.

The rectangular-parabolic stress block represents the

distribution at failure when the compressive strain are within

the plastic range, and it is associated with the design for

ultimate limit state.

The equivalent rectangular stress block is a simplified alternative

to the rectangular-parabolic distribution.

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That is, the normal strain at any points in a beam section is

proportional to its distance from the neutral axis.

The steel strain in tension st can be determined from the strain

diagram as follows:

e st

e

d -x

= cc e st = e cc

( d - x) x

x

d

x

=

Therefore ;

e

1 + st

e cc

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Introduction

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For steel with fyk = 500 N/mm2 and the yield strain is st = 0.00217.

By substituting cc and st ,

x = 0.617d

depth of neutral axis, x should be less than or equal to 0.617d.

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the linear elastic stage, the concrete strains and stresses enter

the nonlinear stage.

The behavior of the beam in the nonlinear stage depends on

the amount of reinforcement provided.

The reinforcing steel can sustain very high tensile strain

however, the concrete can accommodate compressive strain

much lower compare to it.

So, the final collapse of a normal beam at ultimate limit state

is cause by the crushing of concrete in compression,

regardless of whether the tension steel has yield or not.

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failure may occur in three ways:

Balanced : Concrete crushed and steel yields simultaneously at the ultimate

limit state. The compressive strain of concrete reaches the ultimate strains cu

and the tensile strain of steel reaches the yield strain y simultaneously. The

depth of neutral axis, x = 0.617d.

Under-reinforced : Steel reinforcement yields before concrete crushes. The

area of tension steel provided is less than balance section. The depth of

neutral axis, x < 0.617d. The failure is gradual, giving ample prior warning of

the impending collapse. This mode if failure is preferred in design practice.

Over-reinforced : Concrete fails in compression before steel yields. The area of

steel provided is more than area provided in balance section. The depth of

neutral axis, x > 0.617d. The failure is sudden (without any sign of warning)

and brittle. Over-reinforced are not permitted.

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Introduction

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For a singly reinforced beam EC2 limits the depth to the neutral

axis, x to 0.45d (x 0.45d) for concrete class C50/60 to ensure

that the design is for the under-reinforced case where failure is

gradual, as noted above. For further understanding, see the graph

shown below .

Analysis of Section

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section for the ultimate limit state design consideration of

structural elements subjected to bending.

The two common types of reinforced concrete beam section are:

Rectangular section : Singly and doubly reinforced

Flanged section : Singly and doubly reinforced

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reinforced rectangular beam

Fcc

s = 0.8x

x

h

0.567fck

0.0035

Neutral axis

z = d 0.5s

As

Notation:

h

b

As

fck

fyk

st

=

=

=

=

=

Fst

Overall depth

Width of section

Area of tension reinforcement

Characteristic strength of concrete

Characteristic strength of reinforcement

d

s

x

z

=

=

=

=

Effective depth

Depth of stress block

Neutral axis depth

Lever arm

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Fst = Stress x Area = 0.87 f y k As

Compression force of concrete, Fcc

Fcc = Stress x Area = 0.567 f ck (b 0.8x) = 0.454 f ck bx

For equilibrium, total force in the section should be zero.

Fcc = Fst

0.454 f ck bx = 0.87 f yk As

x=

0.87 f yk As

0.454 f ck b

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M = Fcc z

0.454 x d - 0.4 x

2

f ck .b.d

d d

M = K . f ck .b.d 2

M = Fst z

M = 0.87 f y k As (d - 0.4 x )

M

0.87. f yk .(d - 0.4 x)

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to place a limit on the maximum depth of the neutral axis (x). EC2

suggests:

x 0.45d

can be obtained by;

M bal = [0.454. f ck .b(0.45d )].[d - 0.4(0.45d )]

M bal = (0.2043. f ck .b.d ).(0.82d )

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Therefore;

M = K.fck.b.d2

Mbal = Kbal.fck.b.d2

where; Kbal = 0.167

If;

M > Mbal or K > Kbal : Doubly reinforced rectangular beam

(Section requires compression

reinforcement)

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Example 3.1

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stress block diagram and the data given, determine the area and the

number of reinforcement required.

Data:

b = 250 mm

Design moment, MED

= 200 kN.m

fck

= 25 N/mm2

fyk

= 500 N/mm2

d = 450 mm

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M bal = 0.167. f ck .b.d 2

= 0.167(25)(250)(4502 )

Neutral axis depth, x

M = (0.454 f ck bx )(d - 0.4 x )

200 106 = 0.454(25)(250)( x)(450 - 0.4 x)

x 2 - 1125x + 176211.45 = 0

With Wisdom We Explore

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x = 188 mm @ 937 mm

Use x = 188 mm

x 188

Checking;

=

= 0.42 < 0.45

d 450

Lever arm, z = (d 0.4x)

= (450 0.4(188)) = 374.8 mm

Area of reinforcement, As

200 106

M

=

= 1227mm2

As =

0.87(500)(374.8)

0.87 f yk z

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Example 3.2

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Determine the resistance moment for that cross section with the

assistance of a stress block diagram. Given fck= 25 N/mm2 and fyk = 500

N/mm2.

250 mm

450 mm

2H25

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notations.

0.567fck

b = 250

Fcc=0.454fckbx

x s = 0.8x

Neutral axis

d = 450

z = d 0.4x

For equilibrium;

Fst=0.87fykAs

As = 982 mm2

Fcc = Fst

0.454 f ck bx = 0.87 f yk As

x=

0.87 f yk As

0.454 f ck b

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x=

0.87(500)(982)

= 151 mm

0.454(25)(250)

Checking;

x 151

=

= 0.34 < 0.45

d 450

Moment resistance of section;

M = Fcc z

M = Fst z

@

M = (0.454 f ck bx )(d - 0.4 x )

M = (0.454 25 250 151)(450 - 0.4(151))

M = 167 kNm

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When the load applied increases gradually and it will reach a state

that the compressive strength of concrete is not adequate to take

additional compressive stress.

Compression reinforcement is required to take the additional

compressive stress.

This section is named as doubly reinforced section.

b

As

h

d

As

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0.567fck

0.0035

b

d

As

h

sc

s = 0.8x

Neutral axis

Fsc

Fcc

z1 = d d

z = d 0.4x

As

Fst

st

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Internal force;

Fcc = 0.454 f ck bx

Fst = 0.87 f yk As

and

Lever arms;

z = d - 0.4 x

z1 = d - d '

0.87 f yk As = 0.454 f ck bx + 0.87 f yk As '

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M = (0.454 f ck bx).(d - 0.4 x) + (0.87 f yk As ' ).(d - d ' )

For design purpose, x = 0.45d

= M bal + (0.87 f yk As ' ).(d - d ' )

The area of compression reinforcement, As

( M - M bal )

As ' =

0.87 f yk (d - d ' )

or

( K - K bal ) f ck bd 2

As ' =

0.87 f yk (d - d ' )

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Multiplied equilibrium internal force equation by z ,

Limiting x = 0.45d and z = d 0.4(0.45d) = 0.82d

0.87 f yk As z = 0.454 f ck b(0.45d )(0.82d ) + 0.87 f yk As ' z

0.87 f yk As z = 0.167 f ck bd 2 + 0.87 f yk As ' z

K bal f ck bd 2

0.167 f ck bd 2

or

As =

+ As '

As =

+ As '

0

.

87

f

z

0.87 f yk z

yk

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The derivation of design formula for doubly reinforced section

assumed that the compression reinforcement reaches the design

strength of 0.87fyk at ultimate limit state.

From the strain diagram as shown in figure below.

0.0035

(x - d ')

d

As

h

e sc

sc

0.0035

x

e sc

(x - d ')

=

x

0.0035

d'

e sc

= 1-

x

0.0035

As

st

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e sc =

0.87 f yk

Es

0.87(500)

= 0.002175

3

200 10

'

d

0.002175

= 1-

= 0.38

x

0

.

0035

assumed reach the design strength of 0.87fyk. If d/x > 0.38, a reduced

stress should be used.

f sc = Es .e sc

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Example 3.3

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the data given, determine the area and the number of reinforcement

required.

b = 250 mm

Data:

Design moment, MED

fck

fyk

d

= 450 kN.m

= 25 N/mm2

= 500 N/mm2

= 50 mm

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= 0.167(25)(250)(5002 )(10-6 )

= 260.94kNm < M = 450kNm

Compression reinforcement is required

Area of compression reinforcement, As

As ' = (M - M bal ) / 0.87 f yk (d - d ' )

= 966mm2

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d = 500 mm

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d ' / x = 50 / 225 = 0.22 < 0.38

Compression steel achieved it design strength at 0.87fyk

Area of tension steel, As

6

M bal

260

.

94

10

+ As ' =

As =

+ 966

0.87 f z

0

.

87

500

(

0

.

82

500

)

yk

= 2429mm2

Provide 2H25 (As Prov. = 982 mm2) Compression reinforcement

5H25 (As Prov. = 2454 mm2) Tension reinforcement

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Example 3.4

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in figure below. Given fck= 30 N/mm2 and fyk = 500 N/m2.

b = 250 mm

d = 50 mm

3H20

d = 500 mm

5H25

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notations

b = 250 mm

d = 50 mm

Fsc = 0.87fykAs

3H20

d = 500 mm

x 0.8x

5H25

Fcc = 0.454fckbx

Neutral Axis

Z1

Fst = 0.87fykAs

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Neutral axis depth, x

x=

0.87 f yk ( As - As ' )

0.454 f ck b

0.87(500)(2455 - 943)

0.454(30)(250)

x = 193mm

Checking the stress of steel

d ' / x = 50 / 193 = 0.26 < 0.38

Steel achieved it design strength 0.87fy as assumed

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= 0.87 f yk As ' (d - d ' ) + 0.454 f ck bx(d - 0.4 x)

= 0.87(500)(943)(500 - 50)

= 462kNm

Flange Beam

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Flanged beams occur when beams are cast integrally with and

support a continuous floor slab.

Part of the slab adjacent to the beam is counted as acting in

compression to form T- and L-beams as shown in figure below.

beff

hf

beff

bw

T-Beam

bw

L-Beam

Where;

beff = effective flange

width

bw = breadth of the web

of the beam.

hf = thickness of the

flange.

Flange Beam

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beff should be based on the distance lo between points of zero

moment as shown in figure below.

Flange Beam

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derived as:

Where

beff = Sbeff ,i + bw b

Example 3.5

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beam B/1-3.

1

200 x 500

200 x 500

200 x 500

200 x 500

2500

4000

200 x 500

200 x 500

4500

200 x 500

200 x 500

200 x 500

3000

Solution

D of Example 3.5

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3000 mm

4500 mm

4500) = 1125 mm

= 2550 mm

lo = 0.85 x 4500

= 3825 mm

beff = Sbeff ,i + bw b

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beff

beff,1

beff,2

bw = 200 mm

4000

2500

b1 = 2500/2 = 1250

b2 = 4000/2 = 2000

Span 1-2

beff1 = 0.2(1250) + 0.1(2550) = 505 mm < 0.2lo = 510 mm < b1 = 1250 mm

beff2 = 0.2(2000) + 0.1(2550) = 655 mm > 0.2lo = 510 mm < b2 = 2000 mm

beff = (505 + 510) + 200 = 1215 mm < 3250 mm

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beff

beff,1

beff,2

bw = 200 mm

4000

2500

b1 = 2500/2 = 1250

b2 = 4000/2 = 2000

Span 2-3

beff1 = 0.2(1250) + 0.1(3825) = 632.5 mm < 0.2lo = 765 mm < b1 = 1250 mm

beff2 = 0.2(2000) + 0.1(3825) = 782.5 mm > 0.2lo = 765 mm < b2 = 2000 mm

beff = (632.5 + 765) + 200 = 1597.5 mm < 3250 mm

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Span 1-2

Span 2-3

beff = 1215mm

beff = 1598 mm

hf = 150 mm

bw = 200 mm

hf = 150 mm

bw = 200 mm

Flange Beam

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neutral axis lies. The neutral axis may lie in the flange or in the

web.

In other word, there are three cases that should be considered.

Neutral axis lies in flange (M < Mf)

Neutral axis lies in web (M > Mf but < Mbal)

Neutral axis lies in web (M > Mbal)

beff

beff

Flange Beam

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This condition occur when the depth of stress block (0.8 x) less

then the thickness of flange, hf as shown in figure below.

0.567fck

beff

hf

Fcc

0.8x

d

Z = d 0.4x

As

Fst

bw

Flange Beam

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For this case, maximum depth of stress block, 0.8x are equal to hf

M = Fcc z

M = (0.567 f cu beff 0.8x )(d - 0.4 x )

M = M f = (0.567 f ck bh f )(d - h f / 2)

Therefore, if M Mf the neutral axis lies in flange and the design

can be treated as rectangular singly reinforced beam.

As =

M

0.87 f yk z

or

As =

M

0.87 f yk (d - 0.4 x)

Example 3.6

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design moment, M = 250 kNm. If fck = 30 N/mm2 and fyk = 500 N/mm2

have been used, determine the area and number of reinforcement

required.

beff = 1450 mm

hf = 100 mm

d = 320 mm

As

bw = 250 mm

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Since M < Mf, Neutral axis lies in flange

Compression reinforcement is not required

250 106 = 0.454(30)(1450)( x)(320 - 0.4 x)

x 2 - 800 x + 31647.2 = 0

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Flange Beam

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Checking

x 41.74

=

= 0.13 < 0.45

d

320

Lever arm,z

250 106

M

As =

=

0.87 f yk z 0.87(500)(303.3)

= 1895mm2

Provide 4H25 (Asprov = 1964 mm2)

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Flange Beam

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in the web as shown in figure below.

0.567fck

beff

2

Fcc2

Fcc1

hf

x

0.8x

z2

As

Fst

bw

z1

Flange Beam

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Fcc 2 = (0.567 f ck )(beff - bw )h f

Fst = 0.87 f yk As

Lever arms, z

z2 = d - 0.5h f

z1 = d - 0.4 x

Moment resistance, M

= (0.454 f ck bw x )(d - 0.4 x ) + (0.567 f ck )(beff - bw )h f (d - 0.5h f )

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Flange Beam

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+ (0.567 f ck )(beff - bw )h f (d - 0.5h f )

Divide both side by fckbeffd2, then;

hf

M bal

bw

= 0.167

+ 0.567

f ck beff d 2

beff

d

1 - bw

b

eff

M bal

= bf

f ck beff d 2

2

Therefore; M bal = b f f ck beff d

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h

1 - f

2d

Flange Beam

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If applied moment M < Mbal, then compression reinforcement are not required.

Area of tension reinforcement can be calculate as follows by taking moment at

Fcc2.

As =

0.87 f yk (d - 0.5h f )

Using; x = 0.45d

As =

M + 0.1 f c k bw d [0.36d - h f ]

0.87 f yk (d - 0.5h f )

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Example 3.7

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design moment, M = 670 kNm. If fck = 30 N/mm2 and fyk = 500 N/mm2

have been used, determine the area and number of reinforcement

required.

beff = 1450 mm

hf = 100 mm

d = 320 mm

bw = 250 mm

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= (0.567 30 1450 100)(320 - 100 / 2)10-6

Since M > Mf, Neutral axis lies in web

M bal = b f f ck beff d 2

250

100

250

100

= 0.153

+ 0.567

1 1 1450

320 1450 2(320)

= 0.153(30)(1450)(3202 ) 10-6 = 682kNm

b f = 0.167

M bal

With Wisdom We Explore

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Area of tension reinforcement, As

As =

M + 0.1 f c k bw d [0.36d - h f ]

0.87 f yk (d - 0.5h f )

=

0.87(500)(320 - 50)

= 5736mm2

Provide 8H32 (Asprov = 6433 mm2)

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Flange Beam

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If the applied moment M is greater than Mbal the neutral axis lies in

the web and the compression reinforcement should be provided.

The stress block are shown in figure below.

0.567fck

beff

2

As

Fsc

hf

Fcc2

Fcc1

0.8x

z3

z2

z1

As

Fst

bw

Flange Beam

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Fcc1 = (0.567 f ck )(bw .0.8x) = 0.454 f ck bw x

Fst = 0.87 f yk As

Lever arms, z

z1 = d - 0.4 x

z2 = d - 0.5h f

Moment resistance, M

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z3 = d - d '

Flange Beam

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+ 0.87 f yk As ' (d - d ' )

When x = 0.45d, then

Area of compression reinforcement, As

As ' =

M - M bal

0.87 f yk (d - d ' )

Flange Beam

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0.87 f yk As = 0.454 f ck bw (0.45d ) + 0.567 f ck (beff - bw ) + 0.87 f yk As '

Area of tension reinforcement, As

As =

0.87 f yk

+ As '

Design Formula

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Supposed the design bending moment is M, beam section is b x d,

concrete strength is fck and steel strength is fyk, to determine the area

of reinforcement, proceed as follows.

Design Formula

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Design Formula

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Design Formula

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Supposed the design bending moment is M, beam section is b x d,

concrete strength is fck and steel strength is fyk, to determine the area

of reinforcement, proceed as follows.

Design Formula

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Design Formula

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