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UITP: Asia Pacific

International Association of Pu
ubblic Transport
(In association with DIMTS)

Delhi, Youth Parliament: 2010

Public Transport: Delhi


Small Problems, Smart Solutions
Technical Report
Youth Parliament: Delhi 2010

PREFACE
Technical report has been formulated under the guidance of Ms Alessandra
Gorini. Based on certain facts & figures, the report is an attempt to suggest
some smart solutions to our daily faced commuting problems.
The report includes suggestions on various aspects that make up the public
transport system of a city such as infrastructure, operations & management,
funding etc.
This document will be easily accessible on UITP Youth Parliament official
website www.youthforpt.org. Through our efforts we will like to initiate a
formal discussion with the government on the possibility of implementing the
ideas suggested in this report.

The team:

Neeraj Gupta
Meghna Shrivastava
Gaurav Dubey
Michelle
Ragini
Animesh
Ketki
Youth Parliament: Delhi 2010

CONTENTS
Introduction….................................................................................................... 3 
Transportation Systems .................................................................................................. 3 
Modes available ................................................................................................ 3 
Classification of modes of transport:- ......................................................................... 3 
Different Modes of transport used in India are ........................................................ 4 
Present Scenario – Delhi .................................................................................... 4 
Physical characteristics ................................................................................................... 4 
Public Transport System in Delhi................................................................................... 5 
Traffic and Travel Characteristics ................................................................................ 5 
Per Capita Trip Rate (PCTR) ......................................................................................... 6 
Modal Split....................................................................................................................... 6 
Need for Public Transport .................................................................................. 6 
National Urban Transport Policy, 2007 – A
broader perspective ........................................................................................... 7 
Problems in Urban Transport ........................................................................................ 7 
Quality and pricing of Public Transport ..................................................................... 8 
Technologies for Public Transport ................................................................................ 9 
Integrated Public Transport systems ............................................................................ 9 
Financing ......................................................................................................................... 10 
Role of Para-Transit...................................................................................................... 10 
Priority to Non-Motorized transport .......................................................................... 11 
Delhi – Small Problems, Smart Solutions, Big
Implications ..................................................................................................... 11 
User-specific Problems ................................................................................................. 11 
Infrastructure-specific Problems .................................................................................. 12 
Mode-specific Problems ............................................................................................... 12 
Trip-specific Problems .................................................................................................. 13 
Few Smart Solutions ........................................................................................ 14 
Summary ......................................................................................................... 15 
Public Transport: The Need is now ............................................................................. 15 
References ....................................................................................................... 16 

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INTRODUCTION

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
Movement of a person or a commodity from one point to another by a specific
mode is called transportation. And the networks, modes & systems used for the
same are called transportation systems.
It consists of fixed facilities which are the Terminals & Networks and flow
facilities i.e. Modes and the Flow Control systems which permit people and
goods to overcome the friction of geographical space efficiently in order to
participate in a timely manner in some desired activity.
They have 4 basic attributes:-
• Accessibility i.e. ease to move
• Mobility i.e. quantity of travel in terms of Capacity & Speed
• Efficiency i.e. in terms of Cost & Productivity
• Affordability, i.e. in terms of ability to meet the cost of mobility

MODES AVAILABLE
CLASSIFICATION OF MODES OF TRANSPORT:-

Public transport (or public


transportation, public transit or mass
transit)
It comprises passenger transportation
services which are available for use
by the general public, as opposed to
modes for private use such as
automobiles or vehicles for hire. Some
services are free though most charge
some sort of fare.
Hence, in this case both, the route and
the fare are fixed for the passengers.

Paratransit Modes
It is an alternative mode of flexible
passenger transportation that does
not follow fixed routes or schedules.
Typically vans, mini-buses, taxis &
auto rickshaws are used to provide
paratransit service.
Paratransit services may vary
considerably on the degree of
flexibility they provide their
customers. At their simplest they may

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consist of a taxi or small bus that will run along a more or less defined route
and then stop to pick up or discharge passengers on request.
On the other hand, fully demand responsive transport - the most flexible
paratransit systems offer on-demand call-up door-to-door service from any
origin to any destination in a service area.
Paratransit services are operated by public transit agencies, community groups
or not-for-profit corporations, and for-profit private companies or operators.

Private / Personalized modes


Private transport, as opposed to public transport, is transport in one's own
vehicle (e.g. car, motorcycle or bicycle), or through self-power (such as
walking).
In this mode there is neither fixed schedule or route nor fixed fare for the trip.

DIFFERENT MODES OF TRANSPORT USED IN INDIA ARE:-


• Private / Passenger Car ( Motorized Personalized mode)
• Scooter / Motor Cycle (Motorized Personalized mode)
• Bicycle ( Non – Motorized Personalized mode)
• Chartered Bus ( Motorized Hired / Paratransit mode)
• Taxi ( Motorized Hired Paratransit mode)
• Auto Rickshaw ( Motorized Hired Paratransit mode)
• Cycle Rickshaw( Non - Motorized Hired Paratransit mode)
• Tanga ( Non - Motorized Hired Paratransit mode)
• Transport Corporation ( Motorized Public Mode)
• Private Bus ( Motorized Public Mode)
• Mini Bus ( Motorized Public Mode)
• Other informal modes

PRESENT SCENARIO – DELHI

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Delhi is emerging as one of the largest cities of the world. It has an area of
1483 Sqms with a population of 13.8 million as per 2001 census. It borders
the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh
on Delhi is surrounded by Uttar
Pradesh on the east and Haryana
on north, east and west. Two
prominent features of the
geography of Delhi are the
Yamuna flood plain and the Delhi
ridge.
Delhi has been experiencing rapid
growth in population size & activity
concentration. The population
increased from 6.22 million in 1981 to 9.42 million in 1991 (with a decadal

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growth rate of 51.4%) to 13.85 million in 2001 (with a decadal growth rate
of 47%) and is projected to increase to 23.49 million in 2031. Population in
2009 was around 18 million. As a consequence of this, there has been a
phenomenal increase in the travel demand within, to, from and through Delhi.
In 2007, a total of 21.98 million passenger trips/day was generated in the
city out of which 14.36 million passengers trips/day were vehicular.
Simultaneously, there has been an explosion of vehicle numbers in the city.
From a low of 2.24 million vehicles in 1994, the numbers have exploded to
5.53 million in 2007 to about 6 million in 2009 with an average annual
growth rate of 7% to10%.
Thus, the alarmingly increasing population and number of private vehicles, etc.
has resulted in increasing congestion on the roads, waiting time at intersections,
declining speed, declining level of service, increasing number of road
accidents and pollution level. In response authorities have taken extensive
transport projects, an important component of which is the proposed
development and operation of Multi Modal Public Mass Transport System
(MMPMTS).The Delhi Metro and Bus Rapid Transport System (BRTS) have been
envisaged as integral components of the proposed MMPMTS which would
include the LRTS, Monorail, Tram System and the City Bus system apart from
the two.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN DELHI


Presently, Public transport in Delhi is provided by buses, auto rickshaws, Taxis
a Metro rail system, Ring Rail and other informal modes.
Buses are the most preferred mode of public transport in Delhi. About 45% of
the daily total vehicle trips are contributed by buses. The Delhi Transport
Corporation (DTC) is responsible for providing bus-based efficient public
transport services in the City. It operates the world's largest fleet of
environmentally-friendly CNG-run buses. Delhi, after Pune, was the second city
in India to have an operational BRTS. The BRT network runs between
Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.

TRAFFIC AND TRAVEL CHARACTERISTICS


Total number of vehicles in Delhi doubled from 18 lakhs in 1991 to 36 lakhs in
2001. In 2008 there were over 54 lakhs registered vehicles. By 2021, it is
projected to reach the figure of 1 crore.
The registered vehicles in Delhi have increased significantly over the years. In
2009 the city had about 60 Lakh vehicles of which 65% are two wheelers and
30% are cars & jeeps. Share of buses is marginal at 1% and that too is
declining.
Per capita Trip Rate (all modes) : 1.55
Daily Trips (Lakhs) : 245.61
Average Trip Length (Km) : 10.20

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PER CAPITA TRIP RATE (PCTR)


A total of 176 lakh trips were being performed in the NCT of Delhi in the year
2001. The per capita trip rate in the study area was estima atted at 1.27 in
2001 (PCTR of 1.1 in 1993-94). The per capita trip rate for vehicular trips
was observed as 0.87 against a PCTR of 0.76 in 1993-94.
Source: RITES LTD. Primary
Survey, 2001

MODAL SPLIT
About 41% of the trips are
performed on bus & 4% of trips
by metro. Therefore in effect a
total of 46% trips are
dedicated to the public
transpoorrt in Delhi.
Source: RITES LTD. Primary
Survey, 2007-08

NEED FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT

“Public transport is the preferred choice in urban mobility policy decisiio


ons
in order to guarantee quality of life and the sussttainable development of
cities and regions worldwide. It provides an attractive alternative to
individual transport”.
Urban space is a precious commodity and public transport coonnsumes it more
efficiently than a car-oriented society. The vehicles keep moving, keeping the
space freed up for other uses and for all members of society to enjoy: a
journey from home to work by car is between 20 and 90 times more costly
in terms of urban space and communniity financed infrastruuccture than the
same journey made by publiicc transport.

Mobility is the basis of a mood dern societty


y. Economic development relies on a
skilled and mobile workforce. Public transport plays a role as an enabler by
easing access to education, job markets, health services, and economic
activities, to name but a few cco
ore elements.

Traditionally public transport has been organized to provide transport and


mobility to a captive market. While this remains a fundamental value of the
sector, it is time to take up the role of being the mode of choice regardless of
wealth or the purpose of a journey. Availability of a private vehicle indeed
does not guarantee mobility, and the va asst majority of citizens of the growing
and congested urban areas around the world rely on public transport to move.
This is a major cha alllenge in parts of the world wherre e public transport’s image
and service level is poor.

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No city today can function efficiently without a proper public transport system.
Considering the true cost of mobility to the community, public transport is
clearly the most cost-effective mobility solution for all layers of the community
in cities.

Public transport also helps create cohesive communities as it encourages social


contact and an awareness of others. This has both advantages and
disadvantages; but as the world becomes more urbanized, we cannot neglect
the basic fact that we will have to be more tolerant of living in ever
decreasing space, and that this will necessitate more mass and less individual
transport if we are to enjoy similar or equal levels of mobility to those that we
enjoy today.
In terms of safety, one is 10 times more likely to be involved in an accident
travelling by car than by public transport. Therefore, public transport is
clearly a safer mobility choice. A drastic modal shift will significantly
diminish the number of fatal road traffic accidents in urban areas.

NATIONAL URBAN TRANSPORT POLICY,


2007 – A BROADER PERSPECTIVE
For urban areas to be able to support the required level of economic activity,
they must provide for the easy and sustainable flow of goods and people.
Unfortunately, however, such flow of goods and people has been facing
several problems. The National Urban Transport Policy, 2007 has outlined the
following major problems with Urban Transport in Indian Cities.

PROBLEMS IN URBAN TRANSPORT


• Accessing jobs, education, recreation and similar activities is becoming
increasingly time consuming. Billions of man hours are lost with people
“stuck in traffic”. The primary reason for this has been the explosive
growth in the number of motor vehicles, coupled with limitations on the
amount of road space that can be provided.
• The cost of travel, especially for the poor, has increased considerably.
This is largely because the use of cheaper non-motorized modes like
cycling and walking has become extremely risky, since these modes
have to share the same right of way with motorized modes. Further,
with population growth, cities have tended to sprawl and increased
travel distances have made non-motorized modes impossible to use.
This has made access to livelihoods, particularly for the poor, far more
difficult.
• Travel in the city has become more risky with accident rates having
gone up from 1.6 lakh in 1981 to over 3.9 lakh in 2001. The number of
persons killed in road accidents has also gone up from 28,400 to over
80,000 during the same period. This again has tended to impact the

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poor more severely as many of those killed or injured tend to be


cyclists, pedestrians or pavement dwellers.
• Increased use of personal vehicles has led to increased air pollution.
• Overcrowding & low level of hygiene are increasingly becoming the
reasons for people getting discouraged to use public transport.
• Lesser strict rules & penalizing system for offenders of traffic rules.
• Inefficient multimodal integration in public transport hampering
seamless travel.
Unless the above problems are remedied, poor mobility can become a major
dampener to economic growth and cause the quality of life to deteriorate. A
policy is, therefore, needed on the approach to dealing with this rapidly
growing problem as also offer a clear direction and a framework for future
action. The objective of the NUTP is to ensure safe, affordable, quick,
comfortable, reliable and sustainable access for the growing number of city
residents to jobs, education, recreation and such other needs within our
cities.

The above issues can be addressed under various subheads:

QUALITY AND PRICING OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT


So far, fares for public transport have been set on the premise that this mode
of travel is used by the poor, who have no other means of meeting their travel
needs. As such, fares have been kept low as a measure of social equity. This
has resulted in most public transport systems being unable to recover their
operating costs. It has, in fact, encouraged poorly operated systems that have
been financially sustainable only through serious compromises on the quality of
the service they render.
In the present day context, however, public transport serves another social
purpose. It helps reduce congestion and air pollution, if users of personal
vehicles can be persuaded to shift to public transport.
Their needs are, however, for improved quality and not so much for low fares.
It is, therefore, necessary to think of different types of public transport services
for different segments of commuters. Those who place a premium on cost are
the poorest sections of society and need to be given affordable prices. The
cost of providing public transport for them needs to be subsidized by other
sections of society.
However, there is another segment that values time saved and comfort
more than price. This segment is comparatively better off and would shift
to public transport if high quality systems are available to them.
The cost of providing public transport to them need not be subsidized and can
be met from the fare revenues.
As such, the State Governments should encourage the provision of
different levels of services – a basic service, with subsidized fares and a

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premium service, which is of high quality but charges higher fares and
involves no subsidy.
To facilitate this, the State Governments should offer support for premium
service infrastructure such as improved bus stations and terminals, improved
Passenger Information Systems, use of Intelligent Transport Systems for
monitoring and control, restructuring of State Transport Corporations, etc.
To ensure that the fares charged are fair and reasonable, the government
should set up a regulatory authority to regulate the prices to be charged by
different types of public transport services.

TECHNOLOGIES FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT


There is a wide spectrum of public transport technologies. At one end are high
capacity, but high cost, technologies like underground metro systems and at the
other are low capacity bus systems running on a shared right of way. Within
these extremes are a range of intermediate possibilities, such as buses on
dedicated rights of way, elevated sky bus and monorail systems, electric
trolley buses, etc. While some of them are most effective over high density
trunk corridors others prove useful as feeder systems or subsystems that serve
limited subareas within a city. Each of these technologies has its unique
characteristics and is best suited to a specific situation.
Given the wide range of possibilities, it is not possible to prescribe a particular
technology in a generic policy and such a choice will have to be made as a
part of city specific land use and transport plans. It would also depend on the
kind of city that would need to evolve at the particular location. The
Governments should, therefore, encourage all proven technologies and not
promote any specific technology. In order to facilitate the proper evaluation
of all the available technologies around the world, it should create a
knowledge center that would provide the necessary information required for
taking the right technological decisions for a specific city. Wherever necessary,
support would be provided for techno-economic studies to be conducted by
leading global consultants.

INTEGRATED PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS


All cities have corridors that have varying densities of travel and hence need
technologies that best match the level of demand on the corridor. This often
requires different operators managing such systems. However, a good public
transport system is one that is perceived by the user as a single system and
allows seamless travel between one mode and the other as also between
systems managed by different operators.
Such seamless interchange is possible if proper inter-change infrastructure
is available and users are able to use a single ticket over all such systems.
This also requires that a single agency takes responsibility for coordination
so that there is a common approach to public transport planning and
management.
Accordingly, the governments should expect that investments in public transport
systems would also seek to ensure that such systems are well integrated and
offer a seamless system to the users. The government’s financial support would

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be contingent on appropriate authorities/entities being set up to ensure that a


coordinated and integrated public transport system becomes available.

FINANCING
The Governments should encourage high capacity public transport systems
being set up through the mechanism of Special Purpose Vehicles (SPV) and
would offer financial support either in the form of equity or one time viability
gap financing, subject to a ceiling of 20% of the capital cost of the project,
after evaluating various parameters such as:
• Extent of resources mobilized by the State government through
exploitation of its land resource
• Extent of resources likely from private participation
• Institutional mechanisms set up by the State government to ensure a
well coordinated public transport system
• Willingness to divert funds from projects that add to road capacity
towards public transit systems
• Initiatives taken to promote non-motorized transport and improve safe
access to public transport.
• Willingness to introduce premium public transport systems that are
priced high but offer better quality with a view to limit the subsidy
requirements in normal services.
• Willingness to involve the private sector in operations under the overall
supervision and coordination of a public agency
• Willingness to price public transport systems in such a manner as to be
financially sustainable at the operating stage or depend only
marginally on public budgets
The basic principle in financing such public transport systems would be that the
government should provide the infrastructure but the users (direct and indirect
beneficiaries within the city) must pay for the operating costs and the rolling
stock.
The government’s capital support would take the form of equity participation
or one time viability gap funding and would be subject to a ceiling of 20% of
the capital cost of the project. Preference will be given to those who are able
to demonstrate additional resources for the project through dedicated taxes
and innovative financing methods.

ROLE OF PARA-TRANSIT
Para transit is normally expected to fulfill a need that neither public transport
or personal vehicles are able to fulfill. They normally cater to a category of
occasional trips such as trips to airports or rail stations with excessive
baggage, or emergency trips that have to be undertaken immediately and it
is not possible to wait for public transport. Para transit would not normally be
used for regular commute trips to work or school. However, when the quality of

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public transport deteriorates, para-transit tends to substitute for public


transport. Unfortunately, this has started happening in many Indian cities. As
such, this policy seeks to restore para-transit to its normal role by persuading
the improvement of public transport.

PRIORITY TO NON-MOTORIZED TRANSPORT


With increasing urban sprawl and rising income levels, non-motorized
transport has lost its earlier importance. Statistics show that the share of
bicycle trips out of the total trips in Delhi has declined from 17% in 1981 to
7% in 1994. The longer trip lengths have made cycling more difficult. Further,
non-motorized modes are also exposed to greater risk of accidents as they
share a common right of way with motorized vehicles.
However, non-motorized modes are environmentally friendly and have to be
given their due share in the transport system of a city. The problems being
faced by them would have to be mitigated.
The safety concerns of cyclists and pedestrians have to be addressed by
encouraging the construction of segregated rights of way for bicycles and
pedestrians. Apart from improving safety, the segregation of vehicles moving
at different speeds would help improve traffic flow, increase the average
speed of traffic and reduce emissions resulting from sub-optimal speeds.

DELHI – SMALL PROBLEMS, SMART


SOLUTIONS, BIG IMPLICATIONS
The present Public Transport system in Delhi faces a lot of small problems,
which if sorted out would improve its quality significantly. This part of the
report tries to highlights these problems, with possible solutions for our Policy
Makers to consider. The problems have been identified and classified as User-
specific, Infrastructure-specific, Mode-specific and Trip-specific.

USER-SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
Income wise, the EWS (Economically Weaker Sections) and LIG (Lower Income
Groups) face the problem the cost of mobility is increasing rapidly. Today
the minimum fare for a ride on a Bus is Rs. 5/- and for the Delhi Metro is Rs.
8/-. The MIG (Middle Income Groups) face the problem that the market-
forces are making the private transport increasingly convenient and
affordable for them to leave the Public Transport. Even the Delhi Metro is
losing its charm day by day especially for peak-hour commuters due to
overcrowding. Those of HIG (High Income Groups) population, who would like
to take the Public Transport, suffer from the fact that there is a lack of Public
Transport system that can actually match the convenience level of private
transport at some level.

Age-wise and Gender-wise, the Senior Citizens and Women suffer from a
lack of civic sense of commuters in general which coupled with lack of
adequately enforced provisions for separate seating for them, makes the
Public Transport an unattractive option for travel. Further, there are security

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issues for Women as well, although that does not totally all under the purview
of Public Transport.

Purpose-wise, the School-going and College-going students face the


problem that adequate attention is not given to them, despite the fact that
they form a significant portion of the overall commuters of the day and the
fact that their expectations from level of service for Public Transport are not
very big and small improvements specifically targeted for them would
significantly increase their usage of the public transport system in the city.

Ability-wise, the Physically Challenged category of commuters suffers from


the usual problem of getting into the bus. Although, the new low-floor buses
have been provided keeping this problem in mind, still the buses more often
than not do not stand at the bus bay designated for them, and even if they do,
there remains a significant gap between the pavement and bus landing.

INFRASTRUCTURE-SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
The new Bus Stops being installed in the city, despite having aesthetic value,
do not protect the commuters waiting inside from either sun or rain, and
thus fail in their primary purpose. Further the number of bus stops and bus
bays at places in the City doesn’t seem to match the demand.

MODE-SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
The City Bus System faces the problem of what is termed as “Bunching”. It is
a very common sight to see 2 and sometimes 3 buses of the same route running
right one after another. This leads to two problems, on one hand the commuter
does not get buses coming after a regular frequency, and on the other hand
the DTC goes in losses. This is a very serious problem that needs to be
immediately tackled.

There, is presently no Passenger Information System integrated with the City


Bus System. Thus, the commuter has no clue how much time will it take him to
reach a place even after he has reached the bus stop, because he does not
know the time in which the bus of his concerned route will come. This brings
down the reliability of the City Bus System to a large extent.

There is absolute Chaos at many major bus-stops with people waiting for the
buses at all places except the Bus shelter.

The Auto-Rickshaws are in perhaps, one of the most unorganized and


unregulated state in the city, as compared to other metropolitan cities in the
country. It is time, their role in overall Public Transport system of a city was
recognized and their potential to provide for a good-feeder system noted
and utilized.

The cycle-rickshaws, again, face a similar problem of ignorance in overall


transport planning of a city. They have traditionally been under informal

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sector and thus their potential to cater to the last-mile trip of the commuter
remains unrealized.

TRIP-SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
The commuters of peak-hour trips face the biggest problem of overcrowding,
which is common to the City Bus System and Delhi Metro. On the other hand,
those of non-peak hour trips face the problem of less and very less
frequency for certain routes, especially for the City Bus System.

Four Traits of a good Public Transport System – Reliability, Affordability,


Convenience and Imageability
All the above mentioned problems take away something from one of the four
traits of a good Public Transport System, rendering its overall quality low.
These can be grouped under as follows:

Reliability
• No Passenger Information System for the City Bus System
• Less-frequency in non Peak-hour trips
Affordability
• Cost of Mobility getting higher by the day
Convenience
• Overcrowding in Peak-hour
• Market forces making private transport increasingly attractive for them
• Lack of Public Transport system to match the convenience of the level of
private transport
• Lack of civic sense coupled with lack of
adequately enforced provisions for
separate seating for Women and
Senior Citizens
• Lack of adequate attention to student
commuters
• System of level boarding not working
for Buses
• Bus Stops not protecting from sun and
ra i n
• Unregulated system of Auto-Rickshaws
and Cycle Rickshaws in the city
Imageability
• No. of bus Stops and Bus Bays do not match with the demand
• Chaos at the Bus Stops

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FEW SMART SOLUTIONS


• As the utmost priority, the City Bus System should be equipped with
Passssenger Information System. This will increase its reliability and
patronage significantly and also tackle few other problems to some
extent, for e.g. even if the frequency of the buses in non-peak hour is
low, the user will know the time in which he is going to get the bus and
can plan his trip accordinng
gly.
• Differential fare system for peak hour and non-peak hour period should
be adopted. This will shift the
non-compulsory trips to non-
peak hours and thus lessen
overcrowding and also help
justiiffy greater frequency during
non-peak hours.
• To tackle the issue of increasing
no space for w orking
cost of mobility the follllowing cl ass comm uters durin g
mu
measures can be tried: peak hour s
9 Find new and innovative
ways to fund public transport, such as Road Pricing, Surcharge on Fuel
for private vehicles, etc.
9 Issue passes for EWS and LIG commuters.
• Involve the Traffic Police/Special Traffic Marssh
halls/Commuters to give
real-time information to the DTC about buses running in “bunches”.
• Make it a rule that any other person will
have to vacate his seat to a Senior Citizen
or female person, if asked. The conductor problem of
bunching to b e
to be responsible and accountablle e for solved
enforcing the rule, with the person not
complying haviinng to pay a fine.
• Create small cycle stands at ALL major bus
stops in the city, meant especiallly y for
students. Create a consolidated systte em of
issuing student passes to students of all
recognized schools and colleges. These
schools and colleges to issue travelling
passes compulsorily to all students. Prro
omote
usage of Public Transport
for students in schools and
colleges through suitable
innccentives.
• Pay adequa atte attention to
Auto-Rickshaws and Cycle
Rickshaws in transport
The long last mile ride
often proves to be a planning for the city.
deterrent for using PT Partially absorb them into
the formal sector and use

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them as feeder system for the City Bus System and the Delhi Metro.
Integrate Auto-Rickshaws with ITS and enforce laws strictly.
• Develop and adopt a Parking Policy for the entire city, with very high
parking charges for areas well-served by Public Transport, such as
Connaught Place. This will not only restrict private vehicle usage but also
generate significant revenues. Eliminate the system of free parking in the
entire city.
• Use other means to curb private vehicular usage, such as Area Licensing
and Congestion Charging for places such as Connaught Place and Walled
City.
• Develop community-level high-class bus-based PT system to serve HIG
Commuters. Involve RWAs for planning such systems.
• Promote 4-6 seater semi-open/closed electric feeder vehicles in residential
and commercial/institutional areas to connect them to the nearest bus-stops
/ metro stations on a massive scale. This and the above mentioned strategy
can effectively help achieve a modal shift for the HIG commuters.
• Bring changes in the current design of Bus-stops to make them
protective against sun and rain. Try changes in Bus-design for
retractable foot steps to help physically challenged commuters.
• Make the buses come and stand only in the designated bus bay. Use
technology to enforce, if needed.
• Go for mass propaganda and advertisement in favour of public transport
available in the city and against usage of private transport.

SUMMARY
PUBLIC TRANSPORT: THE NEED IS NOW
Throughout the country, public transportation is undergoing a renaissance.
Steady increases in transit investment have dramatically improved and
expanded public transportation services, attracting record numbers of riders
on state-of-the-art systems in metropolitan, small urban and rural areas alike.
Through improved mobility, safety, security, economic opportunity and
environmental quality, public transportation will benefits every segment of
human society- individuals, families, businesses, industries and
communities -and supports important national goals and policies.
The revitalization of public transportation will be a critically important part
of Delhi’s future, providing more capacity, creating more choices and
helping address the needs of a growing and changing population.

15 : Youth for Public Transport


Youth Parliament: Delhi 2010

REFERENCES
• National Urban Transport Policy, Ministry of Urban Development, Govt.
of India, 2007

• “Public transport, the green and smart solution” A new frontier:


double market shares by 2025, UITP Report

• “Critical Appraisal of Delhi BRT System” Study 2009, unpublished


report, Transport Planning Department, School of Planning & Architecture

• Transport Demand Forecast Study & Development of an Integrated


Road cum Multi-Modal Public Transport Network for NCT of Delhi –
RITES Ltd (January 2008)

16 : Youth for Public Transport