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2015 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks

Development of a MATLAB/LabVIEW model for optimal tilt angle and


maximum power generation of a PV module
Siva RamaKrishna Madeti

Zameer Ahmad

Alternate Hydro Energy centre


Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Uttarakhand, India
ramakrishna.iitroorkee@gmail.com

Alternate Hydro Energy centre


Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Uttarakhand, India

Abstract In modern contest the world is moving from


conventional energy sources to the renewable one. Within the
available alternative sources photovoltaic energy shows huge
potential, contribution of solar energy generation has been
increasing very fast as a result cost of solar energy/kWh is falling
rapidly. Solar radiation is one of the important parameter, power
generation vary almost linearly with solar radiation incidence on
active area of PV module. Interception of irradiance on module
depends on two important factors tilt angle and position of modules
which effect the performance of both stand alone and grid
connected PV system. It becomes indispensable to install the PV
panel at optimal tilt angle to harness the maximum energy. In this
paper Matlab/Simulink model is developed to determine the optimal
monthly tilt angle to translate the monthly average global solar
radiation on a tilted surface and also a comprehensive literature
survey for evaluation of estimated models are investigated. The
solar radiation corresponding to optimal tilt angle is fed as input to
LabVIEW model for power generation and indicated on PV curves.
The variation of average monthly solar radiation with tilt angle
from 0 to 90 degree is demonstrated. The developed model can be
helpful to estimate the maximum power generation of a particular
place before installation of a PV system, to satisfy the load demand
since over sized system increases the cost linearly. The effect of
temperature is also incorporated in LabVIEW model.

adding up all the three forms of solar radiations which is shown


in Figure. 1.

Fig. 1. Different form of solar radiation

Sun intensity, atmospheric condition, and how much hours


sunshine will be present will affect the capacity of solar energy
generation. Due to this uncertainty, accurate estimation of solar
radiation is very difficult [2]. In literature various estimation
methods are derived and listed in literature survey section. In this
paper an anisotropic model is developed in MATLAB
environment for estimation of average monthly global solar
irradiance on tilted surface at optimal tilt angle. The
corresponding power generation design was developed in
LabVIEW, using simulation interface toolkit to fetch the data
from Matlab. Firstly, a model is developed for translation of
horizontal solar radiation on tiled surface and determine the
optimal tilt angle at specific location (29.8749 N, 77.8899 E),
India. Then, monthly optimal tilt angle for a PV panel was
extracted using aforementioned model. Lastly the monthly
average global solar radiation on horizontal surface, solar
radiation on tilted surface and corresponding maximum power
generation were calculated and compared.
This paper is organized as follows: Section I presents the
Introduction, Literature survey was given in Section II, Section
III & IV mentioned the methodology (mathematical and
software model ), Section V & VI discusses simulation Results
and Conclusion respectively.

Index Terms LabVIEW, MatLAB, Optimal tilt angle, solar


energy estimation, solar radiation.

I.

INTRODUCTION

In modern contest the world is moving from conventional


energy sources to the renewable one. Within the available
alternative sources photovoltaic energy shows huge potential
contribution of solar energy generation has been increasing
very fast as a result cost of solar energy/kWh is falling rapidly,
the most dominant Distributed Generation (DG) source of new
generation power system. The annual solar energy reaching on
earths surface is 1.51018 kWh [1]. India lies in the northern
hemisphere at latitude 21 deg N and 78 deg E, which has huge
potential to generate electricity to supply the increasing energy
demand.
There are fluctuations in the solar radiation that travels from
extraterrestrial to earth surface due to scattering, absorption,
cloud cover, reflection, and climate result in a diffuse radiation
which is more dominant on tilted solar panel over direct and
reflected radiation. The net solar radiation will be given by
978-1-5090-0076-0/15 $31.00 2015 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/CICN.2015.336

1493

II.

LITERATURE SURVEY

Where Hsc is solar constant defines as radiation incidence on


unit area normal to outside atmosphere at mean sun-earth
distance.

In order to develop an accurate estimation model related to


solar radiation estimation and power generation, a number of
earlier works have been investigated and summarized in Table
I.
III.

C. Diffuse Radiation
Due to presence of dust particles, water vapors, gaseous
molecules, clouds in the atmosphere the solar radiation get
scattered, reflected and refracted before reaching to the earth
surface is called diffuse solar radiation and is more dominant
on tilted solar panel over direct and reflected radiation which
need more attention for estimation of power. As per the
literature the anisotropic is the more accurate method for solar
radiation estimation as part from aforementioned Rays model
is widely used [28], since it is precise and easy to use.
According to this model diffuse radiation H d can be
formulated as:

MATHEMATICAL MODELING

A. Global Solar Radiation on Tilted surface


There are fluctuations in the solar radiation that travels from
extraterrestrial to earth surface due to scattering, absorption,
cloud cover, reflection, and climate result in a diffuse radiation
which is more dominant on tilted solar panel over direct and
reflected radiation. Thus its needs to be calculated the solar
radiation on tilted surface. The net solar radiation H will be
given by adding up all the three forms of solar radiations i.e.,
beam radiation Hb, Diffuse radiation Hd, and Reflected
radiation Hr. So, hourly collected soar radiation estimated over
tilted surface can be workout as follows:

Hd = H (1.390 4.027[K i ] + 5.531[K i ]2


3.108Ki3 
Where Ki is ratio of global solar radiation to extra terrestrial
solar radiation which is also called clearness index.

 =   +   +  
Where Ht, Hd, H, Hb represents the global solar radiation in
tilted surface, diffuse radiation, global solar radiation in
horizontal surface and beam radiation respectively; R d, Rb, Rr
are termed as the diffuse, beam, and reflected radiation tilt
factor respectively; while represents reflectivity of ground.
The declination of the sun can be defined as the angle
ecliptic and equatorial plane. An approximate formula for
finding out declination of the sun is given by
360

= 23.45 sin

365

D. Beam Radiation
A part of global solar radiation reaches directly to earths
surface is termed as direct radiation or beam radiation. The
equation for calculating the beam radiation is given by
following particular equation.
Hb = (H Hd )
E. Ground Reflected Radiation

(284 + n) 

The reflected radiation depends on reflectivity of ground


and inclination of module; it is an isotropic and can be
computed as

Where is declination angle, n day of the year.

Zenith and azimuthal angle is required to find out the suns


path across the sky whereas working with hour angle is easy,
since it is measured in the plane of the "apparent" orbit of the
sun as it moves across the sky. On the horizontal surface the
sunrise or sunset hour angle (hs) depends on latitude of
particular place and declination angle,
hs = cos

1 [tan

(6)

 =  

Where Rr is reflected factor
 =

1
2

 

tan]
F. Translation of Solar Radiation on Tilted Surface

B. Extra Terrestrial Solar Radiation


While beam solar radiation measure on horizontal surface
can be easily converted into tilted surface by using simple
geometrical relations, but in case of diffuse radiation it is very
difficult to calculate, since these radiations are comes all
around the points of the sky. A number of earlier works have
been investigated and summarized in Table 1. Diffuse and
beam radiations have been translated into tilted surface by
models given in equation 1 and 2 respectively and monthly
variation of different components of solar radiations over
tilted surface is shown in the Figure 2.

The Solar radiation just before entering into atmosphere is


termed as extra terrestrial solar radiation. The approximate
extraterrestrial irradiance is 1367 W/m2 with the variation of
3% as the earth rotates around the sun.
 =

24



1 + 0.033

360 
365

[  +



1494

1
0.5

3
2.5
2
1.5
1

4
3
2
1

5
Ht vs S
Hrt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hbt vs S

4
3

2
1

JUNE
7

Hbt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hrt vs S
Ht vs S

6
5
4
3
2
1

30

40
50
Tilt angle

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

40
50
Tilt Angle

60

70

80

0
0

90

30

40
50
Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

0
0

10

20

30

40
50
Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

40
50
Tilt Angle

OCT

6
Ht vs S
Hrt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hbt vs S

Monthly Avg Irradience (kWh/sqm/day)

Monthly Avg Irradience (kWh/sqm/day)

20

SEPT

AUG
6

Hbt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hrt vs S
Ht vs S

10

4
3

70

80

0
0

90

10

20

30

40
50
Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

40
50
Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

40
50
Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

10

20

30

30

40
50
Tilt Angle

60

70

80

3.5

Hbt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hrt vs S
Ht vs S

3
2.5
2
1.5
1

90

40
50
Tllt Angle

60

70

80

90

DEC

20

4.5
Ht vs S
Hrt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hbt vs S

0.5
0

10

NOV

Hbt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hrt vs S
Ht vs S

60

Monthly Avg Irradience (kWh/sqm/day)

20

Monthly Avg Irradience (kWh/sqm/day)

10

Monthly Avg Irradience (kWh/sqm/day)

JULY

Ht vs S
Hrt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hbt vs S

0.5

Monthly Avg Irradience (kWh/sqm/day)

MAY

Monthly Avg Irradience (kWh/sqm/day)

2
1.5

3.5

Ht vs S
Hrt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hbt vs S

Monthly Avg Irradience (kWh/sqm/day)

2.5

Monthly Avg Irradience (kWh/sqm/day)

Monthly Avg Irradience (kWh/sqm/day)

Monthly Avg Solar Irradience(kWh/sqm/day)

Ht vs S
Hrt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hbt vs S

Hbt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hrt vs S
Ht vs S

APRIL

MARCH

FEB
5
4.5

Monthly Avg Irradience (kWh/sqm/day)

JAN
4
3.5

3.5

2
1.5
1
0.5
0

10

20

30

40
50
Tilt Angle

60

70

80

Ht vs S
Hrt vs S
Hdt vs S
Hbt vs S

3
2.5

90

10

20

30

40
50
Tilt Angle

60

70

80

90

Fig. 2. Different components of solar radiations (Hb, Ht, Hr, H) over tilted surface

 =   = 

1 + 
2

(9)

provided by the manufacturer given in Table II, for simulation


and obtained I-V and P-V curve as shown in Figure 5.

Hbt = Hb R b  
Hbt = Hb

TABLE II: MODULE SPECIFICATION AT STC

sin sin ()+cos sin h s cos ()


sin sin +cos cos sin h s

IV.



SOFTWARE MODEL

MATLAB model is developed for estimation of average


monthly global solar irradiance on tilted surface at optimal tilt
angle and the LabVIEW simulation model is developed for
maximum power generation corresponding to optimal tilt
angle by using basic equation as mentioned above and
depicted in Figure 3 & 4 respectively.

Sr.
No

Parameters at STC
(S=1000W/m2, Tc=300K, A=1.5)

Values

1.
2.
3.
4
5
6
7
8

Maximum Power (Pmax)


Maximum Power Voltage (Vmpp)
Maximum Power Current (Impp)
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc)
Short Circuit Current (Isc)
Max System Voltage
Temperature Coefficient of (Voc)
Temperature Coefficient of Isc

200W (+10% / -5%)


26.3V
7.61A
32.9V
8.21A
600V
-1.23 10-1 V/C
3.18 10-3 A/C

Fig 3: Simulink block diagram for estimation of solar radiation on


tilted surface

Fig. 5. I-V & P-V curve

B. Monthly Average Global Irradiance on Tilted Surface


Average monthly global solar radiation data on horizontal
surface have been taken from metrological department of
India, feed as an input to the LabVIEW model and derive the
solar radiation data on tilted surface, variation with tilt angle is
shown in Figure 6.
Fig. 4. Block Diagram of LabVIEW model for power generation
Monthly Avg GI on tilted surface(kWh/sqm/day)

V.

SIMULATION AND RESULT

A. Model Validation
To validate the LabVIEW model, using the existing PV
module by KYOCERA- named as KC200GT datasheet

May APR MAR

JUNE

JULY

SEPT

OCT

AUG

FEB
4

JAN
2

10

NOV
15

20

DEC
25

30

35

40 45 50
Tilt angle (s)

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

Fig. 6. Monthly Average Global Irradiance on Tilted Surface

1495

C. Monthly Optimal Tilt Angle

JULY
AUG
SEPT
OCT
NOV
DEC

Solar radiation is one of the important parameter, power


generation vary almost linearly with solar radiation incidence
on active area of PV module. Interception of irradiance on
module depends on two important factors tilt angle and
position of modules which effect the performance of both
stand alone and grid connected PV system. It becomes
indispensable to install the PV module at optimal tilt angle to
harness the maximum energy. In the course of mathematical
model analysis, it is found that optimal tilt angle is different
for every month as depicted in Figure 7. TABLE III shows the
optimal tilt angle for the location Roorkee.

Optimal tilt angle


40
30
20
10
3
0

Month
July
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec

Optimal tilt angle


4
10
14
20
30
40

5.27
5.25
5.32
4.96
3.90
3.26

5.04
5.07
5.27
5.12
4.24
3.68

5.27
5.25
5.32
4.96
3.90
3.26

5.37
5.25
5.40
5.14
4.31
3.71

1.86
0
1.48
3.50
9.51
12.12

E. Estimated Power
In order to harness the maximum solar energy optimal tilt
angle is one of the important parameter. Improper installation
of solar module can cause loss power by the of power and
economy. The variation of generated module which is
installed at both horizontally and optimal tilt angle is given in
TABLE V and Figure 9 shows the maximum power
generation corresponding to optimal tilt angle.

50
45

Monthly optimal tilt angle(deg)

5.27
5.25
5.32
4.96
3.90
3.26

Fig. 8. Solar Irradiance at Horizontal, Latitude, Optimal tilt angle

TABLE III: MONTHLY OPTIMAL TILT ANGLE


Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June

5.27
5.25
5.32
4.96
3.90
3.26

40
35
30
25
20
15
10

TABLE V: ESTIMATED POWER

5
0

6
7
Months

10

11

Month

Day
of
year
(n)

Average
montly
H on
horizont
al
surface
W/m2

JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUG
SEPT
OCT
NOV
DEC

15
45
75
105
135
165
195
225
255
285
315
345

131.6
184.6
244
284.5
307.2
269.3
234.7
224.2
220.3
213.6
159.6
133.79

12

Fig. 7 Monthly Optimal Tilt Angle

D. Solar Irradiance at Horizontal, Latitude, Optimal tilt


angle.
As shown in Figure 7 the optimal tilt angle is different for
every month. So it is crucial to analyze the amount of solar
irradiation loss occurs owing to improper tilting of PV panels.
As per the literature it is concluded that the most suitable
yearly tilt angle can be the latitude of location. An analysis on
the loss of monthly horizontal solar irradiance over a tilted
surface is done. During the month of December maximum
irradiance loss is occurred about 12% (Figure 8 ) value was
given in the TABLE IV, which shows irradiation losses for
monthly data which will be very large if considered for a year
or a couple of years.

Pmax
at tilt
angle
S=0o

23
33
45
53
58
50
43
41
40
39
28
23

Tilt
angl
e S
opti
mal
in
degr
ee
48
38
25
13
7
5
6
10
18
31
44
50

TABLE IV: SOLAR IRRADIANCE AT HORIZONTAL, LATITUDE,


OPTIMAL TILT ANGLE
At tilt angle
At tilt angle
At optimal
% Loss
s=latitude (deg)
tilt angle
Months s=0 deg
of Hloss
H
Ht
H
Ht
H
Ht
JAN
3.43
3.43
3.43
3.82
3.43
3.83
10.44
FEB
4.66
4.66
4.66
4.93
4.66
4.90
4.89
MAR
6.04
6.04
6.04
6.05
6.04
6.15
1.78
APR
6.85
6.85
6.85
6.69
6.85
6.88
0.43
MAY
7.03
7.03
7.03
6.75
7.03
7.03
0
JUNE
6.30
6.30
6.30
6.02
6.30
6.03
-4.47

Fig. 9. Estimated Power

1496

Average
monthly
Ht on
optimal
tilted
surface
W/m2

Pmax
at
optim
al tilt
angle
S

154
201.3
251
286.5
307.7
269.5
235
225
224
226
181
161

27
37
47
54
58
51
43
41
40
41.5
33
29

VI.

CONCLUSION

sky

Developed models have been divided into two stages, first


stage using Matlab Simulink model to translate the monthly
average global horizontal solar irradiance into tilted surface,
while in second stage SIT interfaced LabVIEW model
converts tilted surface solar radiation into power. Then
monthly optimal tilt angle was extracted for a particular
location in Roorkee, India (29.8749 N, 77.8899 E). A
comparison of solar energy at three important tilt angles, (i)
tilt angle=0degree, (ii) tilt angle = latitude and (iii) tilt angle=
optimal have been carried out and found that if orientation of
PV panel is equal to latitude of a place instead of optimal tilt
angle a energy loss of about 12% occur for the months
December and January. Monthly variation of different
components of solar irradiance (i) Beam radiation H bt, (ii)
Diffuse radiation Hdt and (iii) Reflecteted radiation Hrt on
tilted surface with tilt angle was demonstrated in Fig.2 Result
obtained from the developed model show that installation of
solar module at optimal tilt angle becomes indispensable to
harness the maximum solar energy. Although, it is simulated
to obtained monthly optimal tilt angle and corresponding
power generation for Roorkee, but it can be applied to any
place just by changing the astronomical and geographical data.
Model result is validated by comparing with the data provided
by metrological department [29] and manufacturer of module
under consideration.

The original
Hay and the
alternative
Hay model
[10].
The Ma and
Iqbal model
[11]

The Skartveit
and Olseth
Model [12]

The Reindl
model
Reindl et al
[13]

The
Gueymard
Model [14][15]

The Muneer
model [16][17]

TABLE I: ESTIMATION MODELS


Authors

Estimation model

Remarks

The isotropic models and pseudo-isotropic models.


Assumed
uniform
1
diffuse radiation and
Liu & Jordan
, =  (1 + )
approximates the cloudy
model[3]
2
sky conditions.
Assumed 66.7% of the
Koronakis
1
total sky domes diffuse
[4]
, =  (2 + )
solar radiation.
3
Jimenez and
Castro [5]

Considered 20% of
global radiation as a
diffuse radiation

The Perez
model [18][20]

1
, = 0.2(1 + )
2
Z.J. Chu[21]

The anisotropic models.


Diffused component is
taken as beam radiation
The
and it holds good to
circumsolar
clear sky condition.
model [6].

, =  
Guihua
Li[22]

,
The Bugler
model [7]

Temps and
Coulson [8]
The Klucher
model [9]

Introduce a corrective
term to correct the
isotropic model

= 
, 1 + 
"
#
!
2
+ 0.05, 
0.05

Modified Liu & Jordan


model and introduce
two terms P1&P2
Including a revising
function F to evaluate
the magnitude of clear

1
, =  $1 $2
2




%0.51+ 2 "%1+& 3 '*1+& 2 
2

1497

Modified circumsolar
and introduced term
FHay.

,
= /&:; 
+ [(1 + )/2]1 &:; }
,

Proposed a model called


HSM-MI
Identified gloomy skies
as part of diffuse
radiation and
introduced
a
Z
correction factor

=  %>? 

+ (1 >? ) 2 '
2
,
= @&:;  + A
+ *1 &:; A-(1
+ /2) B(C D )E
,

Added
a
horizon
brightening diffuse term
to the Hay model.

Pointed out that the


irradiance for unclear
skies is a linear
combination of values
for cloudy skies Rd,
and for clear skies Rdo
Taken care of the
shaded
and
sunny
surfaces separately and
further
differentiated
between cloudy and
non-cloudy conditions
of the bright surface.

It is widely used model,


includes all three subcomponents to account
for circum solar diffuse,
horizon diffuse and
isotropic diffuse
irradiation

=  %*1 &:; -(1



+ /2) 1 + F3 "
2
+ &:;  '

,
=  [(1 GI ) + GI 1 ]

,

=  J 2 L M2N
+ 2M (3 + 2) O

 2 L M2N"P

,
= 
(1 &1 )(1 + /2)
+ &1 L:MN + &2 

Neural Network-based
Model for Estimation of
Solar Power Generating
Capacity
Pointed out that Liu and
Jordan method is only
suitable to estimate
daily
or
annual
collectible
beam
radiation on a tilted
surface with an azimuth
angle less than 15o,

Liu
Xianping[23]

Calculated optimal tilt


angle for collector by
using Hays model.

Anu
George[24]

Theoretically estimated
optimal tilt angle using
geographic
factor
method, clearness index

Concluded that the


geographic factor method is
the best.

Meteorologie et Energies Renouvelables, AFME, Valbonne,


France, pp. 303- 314, 1984.
[15].C. Gueymard, "Radiation on tilted planes: a physical model
adaptable to any computational time-step", presented at
INTERSOL85, pp. 2463-2467, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY,
1986.
[16].T. Muneer, "Solar radiation modelling for the United Kingdom",
PhD thesis, CNAA, London, 1987.
[17].T. Muneer, "Solar radiation model for Europe", Building
Services Engineering Research and Technology, 11(4), pp. 153163, 1990.
[18].R. Perez, R. Stewart, R. Arbogast, J. Seals and J. Scott. "An
anisotropic hourly diffuse radiation model for surfaces:
description, performance validation, site dependency
evaluation", Solar Energy, 36(6), pp. 481- 497, 1986
[19].R. Perez, R. Seals, P. Ineichen, R. Stewart and D. Menicucci, "A
new simplified version of the Perez diffuse irradiance model for
tilted surfaces", Solar Energy, 39(3), pp. 221-231, 1987.
[20].R. Perez, P. Ineichen, R. Seals, J. Michalsky and R. Stewart,
"Modeling daylight availability and irradiance components from
direct and global irradiance", Solar Energy; 44(5), pp. 271-289,
1990.
[21].Chu, Z.J.; Srinivasan, D.; Jirutitijaroen, P., "Neural networkbased model for estimation of solar power generating capacity,"
TENCON 2009 - 2009 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no.,
pp.1,7, 23-26 Jan. 2009
[22].Guihua Li; Yuqin Yang; Runsheng Tang, "On the estimation of
daily beam radiation on tilted surfaces," Electrical and Control
Engineering (ICECE), 2011 International Conference on , vol.,
no., pp.3552,3555, 16-18 Sept. 2011
[23].Xianping Liu, "Calculation and Analysis of Optimal Tilt Angle
for PV/T Hybrid Collector," Intelligent System Design and
Engineering Application (ISDEA), 2012 Second International
Conference on , vol., no., pp.791,795, 6-7 Jan. 2012
[24].George, A.; Anto, R., "Analytical and experimental analysis of
optimal tilt angle of solar photovoltaic systems," Green
Technologies (ICGT), 2012 International Conference on , vol.,
no., pp.234,239, 18-20 Dec. 2012
[25].Qian Zhao; Peng Wang; Goel, L., "Optimal PV panel tilt angle
based on solar radiation prediction," Probabilistic Methods
Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS), 2010 IEEE 11th
International Conference on , vol., no., pp.425,430, 14-17 June
2010
[26].Ying-Pin Chang; Lieh-Dai Yang, "Optimal tilt angle for PV
modules considering the uncertainty of temperature and solar
radiation," Renewable Energy Research and Applications
(ICRERA), 2012 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,6,
11-14 Nov. 2012
[27].Weibin Yang; Bin Fang; Yuan Yan Tang; Jiye Qian; Xudong
Qin; Wenhua Yao, "A Robust Inclinometer System With
Accurate Calibration of Tilt and Azimuth Angles," Sensors
Journal, IEEE , vol.13, no.6, pp.2313,2321, June 2013.
[28].Jia Youjian, Nie Linru, Huang Shihua. "Review of the two types
of correlations on calculating the daily and monthly diffuse
radiation on the horizontal surfaces. Journal of Kunming
University of science and technology (science and technology),
2005, 25(5): pp.40-42.
[29].Solar Radiation Data (Monthly average, Lat/Long basis).
Internet: http://mnre.gov.in/sec/solar-assmnt.htm [April, 25,
2015]

method and declination


angle method.

Qian
Zhao[25]

Ying-Pin
Chang[26]

Weibin[27]

One year data were used


to build the solar
Radiation
prediction
model.
Presented the hybrid
differential
evolution
(HDE) in determining
the tilt angle for
PV
module
Proposes
a
robust
inclinometer system

Provides a simple model

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