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# Tercera

## Errors in an experimental transmission channel are found when the transmission

is checked by a certifier that detects missing pulses. The number of errors found
in an eight-bit byte is a random variable with the following distribution:
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Determine each of the following probabilities:
(a) P(X 4) (b) P(X > 7) (c) P(X 5)
(d) P(X > 4) (e) P(X 2)
The thickness of wood paneling (in inches) that a customer orders is a random
variable with the following cumulative distribution function:

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Determine the following probabilities:
(a) P(X 1/18) (b) P(X 1/ 4) (c) P(X 5 /16)
(d) P(X > 1/ 4) (e) P(X 1/ 2)
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An electronic product contains 40 integrated circuits. The probability that any
integrated circuit is defective is 0,01, and the integrated circuits are independent.
The product operates only if there are no defective integrated circuits. What is the
probability that the product operates?
The data from 200 endothermic reactions involving sodium bicarbonate are
summarized as follows:
Final Temperature Conditions Number of Reactions
266 K 48
271 K 60
274 K 92
A total of 20 independent reactions are to be conducted.
(a) What is the probability that exactly 12 reactions result in a final temperature
less than 272 K?

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(b) What is the probability that at least 19 reactions result in a final temperature
less than 272 K?
(c) What is the probability that at least 18 reactions result in a final temperature
less than 272 K?
(d) What is the expected number of reactions that result in a final temperature of
less than 272 K?
Final Temperature Conditions Number of Reactions
266 K 48
271 K 60
274 K 92
(a) What is the probability that the first reaction to result in a final temperature
less than 272 K is the tenth reaction?

(b) What is the mean number of reactions until the first final temperature is less
than 272 K?
(c) What is the probability that the first reaction to result in a final temperature
less than 272 K occurs within three or fewer reactions?
A batch contains 36 bacteria cells and 12 of the cells are not capable of cellular
replication. Suppose that you examine three bacteria cells selected at random
without replacement.
(a) What is the probability mass function of the number of cells in the sample that
can replicate?

(b) What are the mean and variance of the number of cells in the sample that can
replicate?
(c) What is the probability that at least one of the selected cells cannot replicate?
Consider the semiconductor wafer data in Table 2-1.
Location in Sputtering Tool
Contamination Center
Edge
Total
Low
514
68
582
High
112
246
358
Total
626
314
Suppose that 10 wafers are selected randomly (without replacement) for an
electrical test. Determine the following:
(a) Probability that exactly 4 wafers have high contamination.
(b) Probability that at least 1 is from the center of the sputtering tool and has high
contamination.

(c) Probability that exactly 3 have high contamination or are from the edge of the
sputtering tool.
(d) Instead of 10 wafers, what is the minimum number of wafers that need to be
selected so that the probability that at least 1 wafer has high contamination is
greater than or equal to 0.9?

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A desk lamp produced by The Luminar Company was found to be defective (D).
There are three factories (A, B, C) where such desk lamps are manufactured. A
Quality Control Manager (QCM) is responsible for investigating the source of
found defects. This is what the QCM knows about the company's desk lamp
production and the possible source of defects:
Factory

% of total production

## Probability of defective lamps

0,35 = P(A)

0,015 = P(D/A)

0,35 = P(B)

0,010 = P(D/B)

0,30 = P(C)

0,020 = P(D/C)

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The QCM would like to answer the following question: If a randomly selected
lamp is defective, what is the probability that the lamp was manufactured in
factory C?
An aircraft emergency locator transmitter (ELT) is a device designed to transmit
a signal in the case of a crash. The Altigauge Manufacturing Company makes

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80% of the ELTs, the Bryant Company makes 15% of them, and the Chartair
Company makes the other 5%. The ELTs made by Altigauge have a 4% rate of
defects, the Bryant ELTs have a 6% rate of defects, and the Chartair ELTs have a
9% rate of defects (which helps to explain why Chartair has the lowest market
share). a. If an ELT is randomly selected from the general population of all ELTs,
find the probability that it was made by the Altigauge Manufacturing Company.
b. If a randomly selected ELT is then tested and is found to be defective, find the
probability that it was made by the Altigauge Manufacturing Company
A diagnostic test has a probability0.95 of giving a positive result when applied to
a person suffering from a certain disease, and a probability0.10 of giving a (false)
positive when applied to a non-sufferer. It is estimated that 0.5 % of the
population are sufferers. Suppose that the test is now administered to a person
about whom we have no relevant information relating to the disease (apart from
the fact that he/she comes from this population). Calculate the following
probabilities: (a) that the test result will be positive; (b) that, given a positive
result, the person is a sufferer; (c) that, given a negative result, the person is a
non-sufferer; (d) that the person will be misclassified.

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## Machines A and B produce 10% and 90% respectively of the production of a

component intended for the motor industry. From experience, it is known that the
probability that machine A produces a defective component is 0.01 while the
probability that machine B produces a defective component is 0.05. If a
component is selected at random from a days production and is found to be
defective, find the probability that it was made by (a) machine A; (b) machine B.

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There are five machines in a factory. Of these machines, three are working
properly and two are defective. Machines which are working properly produce
articles each of which has independently a probability of 0.1 of being imperfect.
For the defective machines this probability is 0.2. A machine is chosen at random
and five articles produced by the machine are examined. What is the probability
that the machine chosen is defective given that, of the five articles examined, two
are imperfect and three are perfect?

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The probability of a certain medical test being positive is 90%, if a patient has
disease D. 1% of the population have the disease, and the test records a false
positive 5% of the time. If you receive a positive test, what is your probability of
having D?

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Alumno
CANRE
CHASTR
CONDOR
CORNELIO
ESCOBAR

FLORES
LUZA
INCHE
VIDAL
CCANTO

LYNN JAISON
JEAN PIERRE
EDWARD CELESTINO
RUTH ESTEFANY
RONNIE FLIX

Nmero
1
2
3
4
5

GALINDO
HUAYANAY
JAVIER
LANDEO
MALLMA
MAURATE
MENDOZA
MORALES
MORAN
OCHOA
PONCE DE LEN
RAMIREZ
SANTIBAEZ
SEGOVIA
VALVERDE
Marco

GUTIERREZ
PALMA
QUISPE
LOZANO
HERHUAY
FERNNDEZ
SEGURA
TORRES
CAHUANA
LAYZA
CUYUBAMB
A
VSQUEZ
VELASQUEZ
TORRES
HUAMANI

EDWARD CRITHS
KATHERINE VALERIA
KEVIN
THALIA
GERARDO
ISABEL ROSALI
FLORDELICIA
GEORGE DANIEL ALEXSANDER
ALAN ROBERT
JOSSIMAR RENATO

6
7
8
9
10
11

MAKICO EVELYN

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JEFFERSON WILLIAMS
LUIS EDUARDO
ALLEN STEVEN
ROBERTO BRUNO

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17
18
19
20

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