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Multiple Particles in Liquids Where are we NOW

Know about the different types of settling (Type 1 and Type 2)


Can develop a flux curve (Ups vs c) from multiple settling curves obtained

for different starting concentrations


Can develop a flux curve by construction from a single settling curve
Can calculate the velocity of upward propagation of a zone of any
concentration

Ups S

(m/s)
(kg/m2.s)

(kg/m2.s)

c (kg/m3)
C
Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

c (kg/m3)

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Where are we GOING


Understanding

the settling behaviour of multiple


particle systems

Understanding, designing, analysing and optimising


thickeners and clarifiers

Dept of Process Engineering


Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Flux with downflow

Settling suspension flowing downwards in vessel


Feed suspension to vessel with cross-sectional area A:
Volumetric flow rate Q, concentration CF

Suspension drawn off from base of vessel at rate Q


At position X in vessel:
Concentration C, solids volumetric flux Ups, liquid volumetric flux Ufs
Mass balance:
= +

Relative velocity between particles and fluid:

= = 1

Hindered settling:

Figure from
Rhodes (2008)

=
Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Flux with downflow

Settling suspension flowing downwards in vessel


Combining equations from previous page:
=
=

+ 2 1
+ 1

= +

Batch flux plot can be converted to continuous total downward flux


plot

Dept of Process Engineering


Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Total flux for downflow

Settling suspension flowing downwards in vessel


=

+ 1

= +
Flux in at feed = flux out at bottom
Ups (feed concentration CF) = Ups (bottom concentration CB)

Figures from
Rhodes (2008)
Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Thickeners

Thickener

Figures Richardson et al (2002),


Roymec Technologies (2008)

Industrial unit to increase concentration of process

stream by sedimentation
Clear liquid as overflow is desired

Operation
Suspension fed at centre, below surface
Thickened liquid continuously removed
Clarified liquid continuously removed
Rake mechanism to direct solids
Increasing sedimentation rate:

Flocculent addition
Decreasing viscosity by heating

Dept of Process Engineering


Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Total flux plots for thickeners

With upflow and downflow sections


Feed to thickener
Flow rate F, concentration CF

Underflow drawn of from base of thickener


Flow rate L, concentration CL

Overflow drawn from top of thickener


Flow rate V, concentration CV

CT = concentration of particles entering top section


CB = concentration of particles entering bottom section

Figure from
Rhodes (2008)
Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Thickeners

Main objective in thickener design:

Determine the AREA (A) that ensures:


all the particles settle out in the settling (bottom) zone
there are no solids in the overflow (CV = 0)
there is no accumulation of solids in the thickener
Figure from
Rhodes (2008)
Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids Total flux plots for thickeners

Mass balances link upflow and down flow sections


Total mass balance over thickener

= +
Particle mass balance over thickener
= +
Figure from
Rhodes (2008)

6 variables, 2 equations. Hence can solve for all 6 variables

if any 4 are known.


Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids Total flux plots for thickeners

Note units:
F, V, L in m3/s

OR

F, V, L in kg/s

CF , CV and CL in m3/m3 (vol fraction)


CF , CV and CL in kg/m3
CF , CV and CL in (kg/kg)(mass fraction)

Note Fluxes:
(FCF)/A = feed flux = Ups,F
(VCV)/A = overflow flux = Ups,V
(LCL)/A = underflow flux = Ups,L
(FCF)/A = (VCV)/A + (LCL)/A
Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids Total flux plots for thickeners

F/A, V/A and L/A are the operating lines for the thickener

The operating flux in the bottom section (settling zone) is a


horizontal line on the flux plot (Ups,o) [see next page]

If any part of this line lies above the total flux curve for any
concentration between CF and CL , it implies that solids are
settling slower than required for the mass balance. Hence
there will be accumulation of solids eventually leading to
solids appearing in the overflow.

Hence to design a thickener where there will be no solids in


the overflow, need to ensure that the operating flux line
between CF and CL is always below the total flux curve.

Dept of Process Engineering


Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids Acceptable flux lines


3
2

Ups,o
lines

4
1

Ups

CF

CL

1 stable operation (all solids report to underflow)


2,3 unstable (part of flux line above total flux curve between CF and CL)
will get buildup and overflow of solids
4 critical or maximum flux line for this system
Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids Critically loaded thickener

Critical conditions:
CF = Ccrit
CF = CB
All particles in feed
report to underflow
CL > CF
(F = V + L)

No particles in overflow
CT = 0; Cv = 0
(OR CT = Ccrit: fluidized bed)

Figures from
Rhodes (2008)

Dept of Process Engineering


Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids Underloaded (normal) thickener

Underloaded conditions:
CF < Ccrit
CF > CB
All particles in feed
report to underflow
CL > CF
(F = V + L)

No particles in overflow
CT = 0; CV = 0

Figure from
Rhodes (2008)

Dept of Process Engineering


Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Overloaded thickener


Overloaded conditions:
CF > Ccrit
CF = CB
Some particles in feed
report to underflow
CL > CF
(F = V + L)

Some particles in feed


report to overflow
CT > 0
CV > 0
Read off excess from below
feed flux plot, apply to
above feed flux plot

Figure from
Rhodes (2008)
Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Critical loading

Critical loading (with minimum in total flux)

Critical loading for


minimum total flux:
Ups (CF) = Ups (Cmax)
Two possible values for CB

No particles in overflow
CT = 0; CV = 0
Figure from
Rhodes (2008)
Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids Overloading

Overloading (with minimum in total flux)

Critical loading for


minimum total flux:
Ups (CF) = Ups (Cmax)
Two possible values for CB

Some particles in overflow


Read off excess from below
feed flux plot, apply to
above feed flux plot

Figure from
Rhodes (2008)
Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Thickener design

Thickener design requirements


Adequate area for satisfactory clarification
Sufficient depth for required thickening (and equipment)

Coe and Clevenger area calculation


For critical thickener (CV = 0)
Area calculation:
=

Need area to handle maximum flux

Calculate areas for different flux / concentration combinations


From CF to CL
Select maximum area

Figure from
Rhodes (2008)

Dept of Process Engineering


Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Thickener design from Batch Flux Plot


If the area (A) of the thickener is not known, then we cant draw a total flux plot.
However, the critical or maximum operating flux for a particular suspension

can also be obtained from the Batch Flux Plot, by drawing a tangent to the curve
from CL

Ups

Ups, MAX

[or S or ]

(kg/m2.s
or
3
2
m /m .s)

tangent
CF

CL

(m3 /m3 or kg/m3 or kg/kg)


Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

Particle Technology 316

Multiple Particles in Liquids - Thickener design from Batch Flux Plot


After obtaining Ups,MAX (by construction), we can calculate the minimum

Area (Amin). This is the minimum area required to ensure stable operation.
In practice, the design area would be 10 % to 20 % greater than this area.
, =

= 1.1 1.2

Conversely, if we know the operating flux, we can determine the maximum

underflow concentration, CL,max by drawing the same tangent

e.g. given F, CF and A what is the maximum CL that can be obtained ?

Ups,o = (FCF)/A
Ups, o

tangent
CF
Dept of Process Engineering
Stellenbosch University

CL, max
Particle Technology 316