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1.

0 INTRODUCTION OF COMPANY
1.1 COMPANY BACKGROUND
Addin Farm Sdn. Bhd. was founded on March 3, 2016. It is consisting of five
young entrepreneurs that specialized in producing and marketing our own
agricultural products. Our company also starting a business with capital
funds of Rm1000. To further strengthen the administration of the company,
one organization has been established and appointed among the owners of
the companies they own. The organization is headed by the Chief Executive
Officer and also assisted by several executive officers; Assistant Manager,
Finance, Operating and Marketing. The company is focused on producing
products based on crops and broiler chicken. The crop planted by the
company consists of leafy vegetables, fruit vegetables and the major crop is
maize. The quality and cleanliness of our product is guaranteed 100%. The
objective of our company is to ensure a profit in line with the companys
goals, fulfill the market requirements and customers need besides produced
high quality products.

1.2 VISION
To be one of the largest exporter of agriculture products in Malaysia.

1.3 MISION
Addin Farm Sdn. Bhd. is dedicated to provide high quality poultry, various
types of seeds and seedlings and agricultural equipment to become sole
supplier to all agricultural activities in Universiti Putra Malaysia.

1.4 GOAL
We have to achieve our goals in the end of our business which is to fulfill
student requirement and solve a problem that student facing at the same
time we get some profit.

1.5 OBJECTIVES

To provide good services based on agricultural products.


To supply the reasonable price of agricultural products.

1.6 LOGO OF COMPANY

1.7 LOGO DESCRIPTION

Green colour synonym to agriculture sector


Arrow represent the ongoing and continuously products by the

company
Circle teamwork as a team members

1.8 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE


Chief Executive Officer

NOOR ASHIRA BINTI YUSRAN


Assistant Manager

NAREMAH BINTI HAMERAN


Financial Officer

Operational Officer

Marketing Officer

NOORDAHIYAH
FAEZ SULAIMAN

MUHAMMAD IZZAT BIN RAHMAT

AMIRUL

BINTI SAHRUDDIN

1.9 JOB DESCRIPTION OF EACH POSITION


POSITION
Chief Executive Officer

RESPONSIBILITIES
1. To ensure all the business
activities are going on smoothly
2. To make sure all the

Noor Ashira Binti Yusran

departments do their jobs well


3. Formulate the strategic plan to
guide the direction of the
business
4. Maintaining awareness of both
the external and internal
competitive landscape,
opportunities for expansion,
customers, markets, new
industry developments and
standards, and so forth.

Assistant Manager

1. Help and give advice to Chief


Executive Manager
2. To run the company organization
3. Hold responsible as leader if

Naremah Binti Hameran

Chief Executive Manager is not


around

Financial Officer

1. To manage the budget well


2. To calculate the financial flow
during business
3. To collect the investments from

Noordahiyah Binti Sahruddin

other members
4. To make a financial report

Operational Officer

1. To manage the production


activities
2. To manage the inventory (input
6

Muhammad Izzat Bin Rahmat

materials, semi-finished products


and finished products
3. Product quality control
4. To ensure the ingredients needed
to make product are sufficient

Marketing Officer

1. To develop the market plan and


strategies
2. To establish and widen the social

Amirul Faez Bin Sulaiman

network
3. To socialize with the customers
4. To observe the business
competitors to produce a better
business plan
5. To establish a good relationship
with the customers in order to
obtain permanent support

2.0 PROJECT BACKGROUND


2.1 CROP AREA
76 M

Corn
Chilies &
Egg
Plant
12M

Lady
Finger &
Long

2.2 BROILER CHICKEN CAGE

ADDIN
FARM
SDN.

2.3 POULTRY FARMING PROJECT


National poultry meat production has reached self-sufficiency in
1981. In 2006, the production activities of local chicken meat contributes
approximately 70 % of total meat supply countries. Despite his quick return,
preservation of chicken meat not an easy job to be done.
Maintenance of chicken meat is exposed to many factors that can
affect the profit and loss account and the viability of a businessman. Among
them the volatility of market prices, input prices such as food and materials
construction, changing weather and disease. Chickens also need comfortable
environment for efficient growth. Maintenance chicken requires careful
planning, starting from the establishment of plantations management right
up to market.

The Malaysian livestock industry is an important and integral


component of the agricultural sector, providing gainful employment and
producing useful animal protein food for the population. It contributes about
18 percent to the total Food Sector Agriculture Value Added and export
earnings. The industry can be classified into the non-ruminant and the
ruminant sub-sectors. It has shown a steady growth over the years attributed
mainly to the active participation of the private sector, particularly in the
sub-sectors of poultry, eggs and pork.

2.4 Breed of Broiler Chicks


Procurement broiler breeds good is important. The selection of breeds
potential and appropriate consideration should be given to guarantee results
quality and profitability. A chicken company will not be successful if chicks
are not properly managed. Great care needed to fully benefit from the
genetic potential of inbreeds reared. Malaysia produces 60-70 % of the
broiler to market local and the rest is imported from countries free of the
disease specific and recognized by the Malaysian government. Now there are
29 pieces integrator company and not the integrator broiler breeds produce
broiler chicks between 1:35 to 110 million a year on 2006. Breed broiler
chicks:
I.

Arbor Acres

II.

Ross

III.

Cobb

IV.

Hubbard

V.

Avian

VI.
2.5 Quality of chicks
Purchased from the breeder chick quality, recognized and appropriate with
the market.
Features Quality chicks:
I.

Weigh at least 35 grams and uniform in size.


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II.

Has a round and shining eyes.

III.

Looks healthy and fit.

IV.

Body hair is dry and fluffy.

V.

No defects.

The benefits of good quality chick:


I.

Have good disease resistance.

II.

Exchange of good food.

III.

Growth is good and can be marketed quickly.

IV.

Production costs are low.

V.

The high uniformity.

VI.

The shape of the body in accordance with the


requirements of the market.

2.6 System Maintenance


Junk Floor System. The flooring is made of cement and covered with
rubbish timber / straw. Type traps are used depending on whether they are
easily available, appropriate to absorb water and cheap price. The types of
traps commonly used are wood shavings, straw and rice husks. Loaded traps
placed 8 - 10cm from the floor.

2.7 Farming Requirements


2.7.1 Housing
Broilers require comfortable environment preservation for good growth.
Housing provided shall complete with indoor and outdoor environments
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that provide comfort to the chicken with the construction cost of the
most economical.
Open house:
I.
Wall opened, made of wire netting or net.
II.
A notch or two levels.

2.7.2 Ranking building coop


Coop built with the position of the axis East West. Such construction
would avoid the emission direct sunlight into the house. Distance
between coops not less than 15 meters for controlling the spread of
disease one house to another house. Make sure there are no big trees
or buildings near the house that may hinder perfect air circulation.
2.7.3 Brooding chicks
Brooding is very important stage in management of chicken. Many
factors can influence the brooding stage which is area of pen,
temperature,

ventilation

and

early

management.

The

good

temperature causes the best condition for brooding. The chicken must
not get cold because it can cause the chicken die.
A. Preparation of a chicken coop before chicks arrive

Chicken coop should be emptied at least 21 days after the


chicken previously issued.

Wall, ceiling, floor and equipment that have been used


should be washed thoroughly and dried. Then sprayed with
disinfectants.
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Sow and litter material evenly over the dry floor about
10cm thick and install the besiegers.

Approximately 6-8 hours before the chicks arrive, turn on


the heater. Fill beverage containers into the water so that
the water temperature is balanced with the ambient
temperature. Give chicken drink water first after 2 hours
and then given two meals a beginner.

B. Equipment to be maintained in pens on the instruction.


Siege is used to control the chicks so do not run away from
the heater. Fine wire netting, plywood or thick paper can be
used as tool besiegers. High siege of approximately 40 cm
and the distance from the heater is 1cm. Within siege must
be made without corners to prevent the chicks were
crushed and suffocated in a corner when assembled as
shocked or cold.

Food containers can be divided into types of manual or


automatic. Generally, food containers should be durable,
easy to clean, has a feature - which can prevent wastage
and easily changed the shape. At first and second day, flat
trays and troughs can be used as food containers. When
the chicks reach a reasonable size larger food containers
can be used.

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Beverage containers with a capacity of 4.5 litre jar of water


can be used at this stage. A beverage container can be
used for 50 birds. The water container should be placed on
the liner approximately 2.5 cm higher than the floor
surface to prevent material from entering traps.

2.7.4 Design house


The main feature in the design of a chicken coop:
I. Durable and economical cost.
II. Easy to maintain.
III. Maintenance costs are economical.
IV. Control of effective predators.
V. Optimum ventilation inside pens and comfortable.
2.7.5 Equipment food and drink
Using commercial equipment is more automatic or manual convenient
and economical. Household plastic / metal better than wood because
washable (disinfection) and durable. Food and equipment drink
regularly checked to ensure the good functioning and the composition
suitable distance.
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2.7.6 2Food and drink


Type of food

Age

Feeding frequency

Starter
Finisher

1 18 day
19 42 day

3/day
2/day

Age
1 21 day
22 day
23 day
24 day
25 42 day

Starter
100 %
75%
50%
25%

Finisher
25%
50%
75%
100%

2.7.7 Feed Conversion Ratio ( FCR )


Exchange ratio of units per unit weight of food for weight gain
Total of food intake
Current weight
UMUR
(MINGG
U)

CURRENT WEIGHT
(KG)

TOTAL FOOD
INTAKE
(KG)

FCR

1
2
3
4
5
6

0.060
0.373
0.744
1.150
1.500
1.800

8.9
44.1
88.2
151.9
229.6
259.6

1.48
1.18
1.18
1.32
1.53
1.44

2.8 Poultry Vaccination


Day Type of

Dosage

15

s
7
10
14

Vaccine
NDF
IBD UPM93
MyVAC 201 (ND

1000 DS
1000 DS

& B1 Type

1000 DS

vaccine)
Myvac 202 (ND

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+ IB Lasota

1000 DS

Vaccine

Ways of giving vaccines:


I.

Chickens are not given drinks starting at 12 pm at night , until


morning

II.

1 Vile / 1000 chickens

III.

I vile / 10 litres of water (not chlorinated water) distilled water.

IV.

Provision of drinks given seawall at 5-6 in the morning for 2


hours.

V.
VI.

After 2 hours, the water should be changed with plain water.


Make sure there are beverage containers to prevent chicken
compete to get a drink.

VII.

The vaccine should be stored in the refrigerator 2-8 degrees


Celsius.

2.9 Diseases
Nu

Disease

Cause

Simptom

m.
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New Castle Paramyxo


Disease

1Attack all ages level

virus

( ND)

2.Simptom : -

@Raniket

a ) Cough

disease

b ) Difficulty in breathing

@Sampar

c ) greenish white poop ( lime


)
d ) The decrease in egg
production
f ) Soft egg syndrome

2.

IBD

IBD Virus

1. No coordination

Infectious

3. Inflammation in cloaca

Bursal

4.Ayam recovered stunted

Disease

growth

@
3.

Gamboro
IB
Coronavir

1. Cough

Infectious

2. The fluid in the nose

us

Bronchitis

( children only)
3. Watery eyes
4. Decrease of eggs
production.
5. Usually if exposed - a dead
chicken.

4.

INFECTIOU
S

Bacteria

CORYZA Haemophil

1. Flu
2. Swelling on face

us

3. Depressed

gallinarum

4. Egg production decreased

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5.

Bird

Influenza

1. Growth retardation

Influenza

type A

2. Respiratory Disorder

(from birds

3.Cirit green beret

and can be

4. Edema on the head and

effect to

the bone

human)

5. Watery nose

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3. OPERATIONAL PLAN FOR CROP PLANTATIONS


In order to establish a fully operational farm, certain actions need to be
implemented to ensure the long term success of the farm in which Addin
Farm ventured in. In this part, operational plan in Addin Farm activities will
be discussed. The existence of operational plan is important as
operational plan present highly detailed information specifically to direct
our members in performing day-to-day tasks which required in the
running our business. The effectiveness of operational plan will help our
company to maintain the quality and quantity of our product. The
important parts that will be discussed in this operational plan are:

3.1.

3.6.

Land Preparation
3.2.
Watering Process
3.3.

Supervision In:
i.
Fertilization
ii.
Mulching
iii.
Weeding
3.7.

Storage
3.4.

Crop Maintenance
3.8.

Input Materials
3.5.

Harvesting Process
3.9.

Labour

Crop Profiles

3.1.

LAND PREPARATION
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Soil tillage or land preparation is one of the routine activities in most


agricultural

systems.

Soil

tillage

has

been

an

important

aspect

of

technological development in the evolution of agriculture, particularly in food


production. Soil tillage is a method of land preparation for seedbed
preparation, sowing or transplanting, and for crop's growth. Often, land
preparation starts with burning fallow vegetation or previous crop residues in
order to clear the land or to scare away wild animals or snakes. With help
from staffs of Faculty of Education, we start our land preparation with soil
tillage process by using tractor. The functions of soil tillage are to loosen and
aerates the top layer of soil, which facilitates planting the crop. Soil tillage
also help to mix harvest residue, organic matter such as humus and
organisms, and nutrients evenly into the soil. Soil tillage is also one of the
most effective ways to mechanically destroys weeds.
Thanks to the efficiency of the staffs of Faculty of Education, by the time we
start our project, the soil tillage process is already finish. The next process in
our land preparation is dividing the area into two part which are for maize
plantation and vegetables plantation. In order to make things easier, we
decide to use colourful plastic rope to mark the rows for our maize
plantation. After some discussions with our supervisor and among ourselves,
we decide to plant eight type of crops which require seedbed in order for
their growth. A seedbed or seedling bed is the local soil environment in which
seeds are planted. The soil of a seedbed needs to be loose and smoothed,

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without large lumps. These traits are needed so that seeds can be planted
easily, and at a specific depth for best germination.
The preparation of our seedbeds include the removal of debris such as dry
roots and all sort of rocks and lumps of soil. By using hoes, we also increase
the level of our seedbeds. This process is to ensure even drainage and to
avoid removal of seeds during heavy rain. In preparing our seedbeds, as
mentioned earlier, we encounters some amount of soil lumps. By digging and
breaking down the lumps into smaller part, the process of preparing
seedbeds has allows air and water to enter, and helps the seedling penetrate
the soil. Smaller seeds require a finer soil structure. The surface the soil can
be broken down into a fine granular structure using a tool such as a rake and
small hoe.

3.2.

WATERING PROCESS
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Plants need large quantities of water for growth. The most important factor
driving water movement in plants is a process known as transpiration.
Transpiration is the loss of water from plants in the form of vapour
(evaporation). Plants utilize most of the water absorbed from the soil for
transpiration (95%), but a small portion of the water absorbed is used during
photosynthesis for producing the carbohydrates necessary for plant growth
(5%). The rate of transpiration is dependent on water availability within the
plant (and soil) and on sufficient energy to vaporize water. Most energy
supporting transpiration is derived directly from the sun (solar radiation).
Sunny, hot weather increases the rate of transpiration and thus the risk for
wilting if adequate water is not available.
Growth is dramatically affected by the timing and amount of water applied
during production.

Certain stages of plant growth are more sensitive to

water stress than others. Due to this reason, we ensure that crops get
enough amount of water during the earlier stage and during hot weather. As
we realize we cannot possibly watered every single each of our crops
everyday due to shortage of watering facilities, we ensure to at least water
our crops by turn. In this project, we were provided with two point of tap
water with long rubber hoses. Other than that, we also were provided by a
watering can to help us in watering our crops.

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3.3.

STORAGE

In context of storage in agriculture farm, "storage" means the phase of the


post-harvest system during which the products are kept in such a way as to
guarantee food security other than during periods of agricultural production.
The main objectives of storage can be summed up as follows:
i.

At the food level, to permit deferred use (on an annual and multi-

ii.

annual basis) of the agricultural products harvested;


At the agricultural level, to ensure availability of seeds for the crop

iii.

cycles to come;
At the agro-industrial level, to guarantee regular and continuous

iv.

supplies of raw materials for processing industries;


At the marketing level, to balance the supply and demand of
agricultural products, thereby stabilizing market prices.

Our company were provided with a processing house where we can keep our
yield for a while in the fridge. But, as we always have immediate customers,
we did not require specific storage for our crops and just sell them fresh,
right after harvest and direct to our customers.

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3.4.

INPUT MATERIALS

The input material is the material used in planting and to enhance the yield
for the plantation. This material includes:
i. Seeds
ii.
Silver Shine (For Mulching)
iii.
Fertilizer (Urea, NPK Green, NPK Blue, Chicken dung and CIRP)
iv.
Stakes for long bean
3.5.
LABOUR
The workforce or usually called labour force is the core of farming and
plantation. Without the labour force, the work will be harder even if there are
machinated materials in the farm. In Addin Farm, all of our group members is
our workforce which include five people. All of us is in charge in certain
aspects. All of us have our own positions in this company. But, during farmfield job, Izzat is in charge in deciding when we will plant, what we will do for
that day and etc. For the land preparation, the workforce we used is at
maximum that our company do such activities like bets preparation, row
planting and also when harvesting. To ensure the continuity of our project,
we use two-regular-worker basis where the daily operation is done by the
worker and work-rotation is also applied in this term of basis. For example,
during mid semester break, all of us have two days breaks in which we do
not have to work at our farm.

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3.6.

SUPERVISION
i.

FERTILIZATION
Although the total amount of nutrients in the soil is important, the
balance among them can be even more critical. Too much of a
nutrient can be just as bad as too little. Excess magnesium may
lead to calcium deficiencies, for example. Fertilization, or the
addition of nutrients to the soil and plant, is the main method of
adjusting the available nutrients. The degree of fertilization will
depend upon the type of growth desired. Fertilization often is
thought of in terms of greatest response, which might not always
be the optimum response.
We start our fertilization process after soil tillage is done and before
seedbeds preparation. Chicken dung is used as our first fertilizer to
fertilize the soil. Fertilization also being carried out several times
before the plant is ready to be harvested. Fertilizers help the soil to
enhance in the term of nutrient and fertility. This would help the
plant to grow healthy and fast grow plant will make the company
profitable. This is because, chicken manure can adds organic
matter and increases the water holding capacity and beneficial
biota in soil. More than that, chicken manure provides Nitrogen,
Phosphorus and Potassium which is beneficial to our crops.

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ii.

MULCHING
Mulching is a process of putting a layer of material applied to the
surface of an area of soil. The purpose of mulching are as below:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

to
to
to
to

conserve moisture
improve the fertility and health of the soil
reduce weed growth
enhance the visual appeal of the area

In our farm, we use silver shine and dried fronds as our mulches to
retain soil moisture, regulate soil temperature, and suppress weed
growth. Silver shine is very effective alternative to suppress weed
growth compare to weeding manually as it is proven in our chilies
crops. Silver shine prevent sunlight from reaching the soil which
can inhibit most annual and perennial weeds. Holes in the mulch for
plants tend to be the only pathway for weeds to grow. The plastic
mulch covering the soil decreases the crusting effect of rain and
sunlight. The reduction in weed quantity means a decreased need
for mechanical cultivation. Weed control between beds of plastic
can be done using directly applied herbicides and through
mechanical means. The soil underneath the plastic mulch stays
loose and well aerated. This increases the amount of oxygen in the

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soil and aids in microbial activity. This plastic mulch will help
reducing our labour force in term of weeding activities.

iii.

WEEDING
Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which
attempts to stop weeds from competing with planted crops. During
our project, Addin Farm has practiced manual removal process as
our weed control by pulling them out of the ground. We also use
hoes in order to hoeing off weed leaves and stems as soon as they
appear. As time goes along, our weed problems become out of
hands as the weeds is too wild and too much. Our scaredy-cat
hearts as some of our classmate saw glimpse of snakes also did not
help us. At first, we were planning to keep our land clean but, in
reality, we only manage to keep some the seedbeds for chilies and
long bean weeds-free, but fail to do so to other seedbeds and in
maize plantation.

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3.7.

CROP MAINTANANCE

Once the crop is established, the fertility program will focus on


maintenance of good fertility levels in the soil. The most important part of
the maintenance program is regular soil testing to determine the need for
Nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium to replace the large amount of
nutrients removed in the forage. Manure is best applied to corn.
Meanwhile for land maintenance, mulching, and stake are being watched
for their maintenance. The maintenance will be going from the beginning
until harvesting and post-harvesting.
3.8.

HARVESTING PROCESS

Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields. We start
harvesting our eggplants and chilies on week seven. Harvesting process
for long bean take longer time compare to harvesting process for chilies
and eggplants as we have to be focus not to missing any long beans.

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3.9.
i.
CORN

CROP PROFILES

Actual photo of
Description

our crop

Corn, Zea mays,

is

grass

family Poaceae

in

the

and is a staple

an

food

annual

crop

grown all over the world. The corn plant possesses a simple stem of nodes
and internodes. A pair of large leaves extends off of each internode and the
leaves total 821 per plant. The leaves are linear or lanceolate (lance-like)
with an obvious midrib and can grow from 30 to 100 cm (11.839.4 in) in
length. The male and female inflorescences (flower bearing region of the
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plant) are positioned separately on the plant. The male inflorescence is


known as the 'tassel' while the female inflorescence is the 'ear'. The ear of
the corn is a modified spike and there may be 13 per plant. The corn grains,
or 'kernels', are encased in husks and total 301000 per ear. The kernels can
be white, yellow, red, purple or black in color. Corn is an annual plant,
surviving for only one growing season prior to harvest and can reach 23 m
(710 ft) in height. Corn may also be referred to as maize or Indian corn and
is believed to originate from Mexico and Central America.
Basic requirements
Corn is best grown in warm, tropical and sub-tropical regions as it requires
warm soils to develop optimally. One of the most important requirements for
growing corn is a high quality soil which is deep, fertile and well-draining with
a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. Corn plants are very heavy feeders and even the
most fertile of soils may need to supplement with nutrients as the plants
develop, particularly nitrogen. Corn also requires ample space as it grows
large in size and is pollinated by wind. It should be planted where it will
receive full sunlight for most of the day and provided with ample moisture.

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Planting
Planting dates for corn depend on the variety being grown. Standard
varieties should be planted when the soil has warmed to at least 12.7C
(55F) and supersweet varieties when the soil reaches 18.3C (65F). Soil
can be brought up to temperature faster by laying black plastic mulches
approximately 1 week prior to planting. Seeds should be sown about 2.5 cm
(1 in) deep and 1015 cm (~34 in) apart allowing 7691 cm (~3036 in)
between rows. Corn should be planted in blocks (numerous rows) rather than
in a single long row as it is wind pollinated and pollen can transfer between
plants much more efficiently. Seedlings should be thinned to a final spacing
2030 cm (812 in) when they are approximately 7.510.0 cm (34 in) in
height. It is common to stagger corn plantings to ensure a continuous
harvest over the summer months.
General care and maintenance
Corn plants are heavy feeders, particularly of nitrogen (N) and care should be
taken to provide them with adequate nutrients by applying side dressings of
fertilizer. Corn undergoes a rapid growth period between 30 and 40 days
after planting and should be fertilized just prior to this. All fertilizer
applications should be made before the tasseling period to ensure the plant
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maximizes N use. Be vigilant regarding signs of nutrient deficiency, plants


should be a deep green color. Purple tinged leaves indicate that the plants
are suffering from a lack of phosphorous whereas light green leaves indicate
a lack of nitrogen. Apply fertilizer. Plants also require adequate soil moisture
throughout the growing period in order to tassel and form silks. Soaker hoses
can be used to great effect in small to mid-size plantings. Pollination occurs
when pollen is transferred from the male tassel to the female silk by the
wind. Each silk produced a single kernel of corn and partially filled ears are
usually a result of poor pollination.
Harvesting
Each corn stalk should produce 1 large ear of corn. Under ideal conditions,
the stalk will often produce a second, slightly smaller ear which reaches
maturity slightly later than the first. Corn ears should be harvested at the
milk stage of development when when the kernels within the husk are well
packed and produce a milky substance when the kernel is punctured. Check
ears for ripeness by gently peeling back a small portion of the husk. Be sure
to check the ears frequently for ripeness and harvest as required as ears can
quickly become over-ripe and lose their sweetness. Remove the ears from
the stalk by pulling quickly downward while twisting and then refrigerate
until consumption.
Pest and diseases.
1. Goss's bacterial blight.

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-Symptoms : Gray or yellow stripes with irregular margins on leaf


surfaces; stripes follow leaf veins and contain characteristic dark green
to black water-soaked spots; if infection occurs early then plant may
become wilted or withered; it is common to find a crystalline residue
on leaves caused by dried bacterial exudate.

2. Common smut (Boil smut, Blister smut).


- Symptoms: Tumor-like galls on plant tissues which are initially
green-white or silvery white in color; interior of galls darken and
turn into masses of powdery dark brown or black spores (with the
exception of galls on leaves which remain greenish in color); galls
may reach up to 15 cm in diameter and are common on ears,
tassels, shoots or midrib of leaves; galls on leaves remain small and
do not burst open.

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ii.

EGGPLANTS

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Description
Eggplant, Solanum melongena, is a tropical, herbaceous, perennial plant,
closely related to tomato, in the family Solanaceae which is grown for its
edible fruit. The plants has a branching stem and simple, long, flat. coarsely
lobed leaves which are green in color and are arranged alternately on the
branches. The leaves can measure 10 to 20 cm (48 in) long and 5 to 10 cm
(24 in) broad. The plant produces purple flowers which are 35 cm (1.22.0
in) in diameter. The fruit is a large, fleshy ovoid berry which can reach 40 cm
(15.7 in) in length, with glossy smooth skin and numerous small seeds.
35

The color of the fruit is variable and can be white, green, yellow, purple or
black. Eggplants can reach up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in height and although they
are perennial plants, they are most commonly grown as annuals. Eggplant
may also be referred to as aubergine or guinea squash and originates from
the Indian subcontinent.
Basic requirements
Eggplants are warm-season crops which require a long growing season. They
grow best in regions where the daytime temperature is between 26 and 32C
(8090F) and night time temperatures around 21C (70F). In addition,
eggplant is a sun loving plant and should be positioned in an area that
receives full sunlight. Eggplants will perform best when planted in a fertile
soil with a pH between 6.3 and 6.8.

Sowing seeds
In cold areas and regions with a short growing season it is necessary to start
eggplant indoors or in a glasshouse. In addition, eggplant will often perform
much better in colder areas if planted in containers or grown under row
covers as this helps to keep the soil warm. Seeds should be sown indoors 6
to 8 weeks before the last frost date. Sow seeds thickly in seed trays
containing good quality sterile seed starting mix to a depth of 6 mm (0.25
in). Keep the trays moist and provide bottom heat by placing on a heat mat
or in a warm area of the house. Seedling should be potted into larger pots
when they have two sets of true leaves.
36

Transplanting
Eggplant seedlings can be transplanted after hardening-off and when all
danger of frost has passed in your area. Seedlings should be spaced 4560
cm (1824 in) apart, depending on variety, allowing a further 6090 cm (24
36 in) between rows.

General care and maintenance


Eggplant may benefit from the addition of mulch to conserve soil moisture
and maintain a higher soil temperature. Row covers will help to increase the
temperature around the plants in cooler climates and during cool spells in
otherwise warm areas. The row covers should be removed to allow
pollinators to access the plants during flowering. Eggplant should be
provided with a steady water supply for optimum development of fruit and
the soil around the plants should not be allowed to dry out but should also
not be wet. Plants can be laden with numerous fruit and the use of stakes
and supports can help to support the plants before harvest.

Harvesting
Eggplant fruits are ready to harvest while the flesh is still firm and seeds are
small and tightly packed. The skin of the fruit should be firm, glossy and dark
purple. Over ripe fruit will contain darker seeds and will taste bitter. Harvest
the fruit as soon as it is ripe to ensure maximum productivity. The fruit

37

should be removed from the plant by cutting the calyx (green stem above
the fruit) with a sharp knife.
Pest and diseases.
1. Early blight

Symptoms : Premature dropping of lower leaves; brown-black


spots on leaves; spots covering leaf surface; alternating rings of
light and dark on leaves; yellowing dry leaves; large sunken area of
concentric rings and black velvety texture at stem end of fruit.

2. Cercospora leaf spot

38

Symptoms : Symptoms appear first on lower part of plant and move


upwards; initial symptoms are small circular or oval chlorotic spots
on leaves which develop light to dark brown centres; as the lesions
expand, they may develop concentric zones; severely infested
leaves may dry out and curl then drop from the plant.

iii.

CHILIES
39

Description
Chilli is considered as one of the most important commercial spice
crops and is widely used universal spice, named as wonder spice.
Different varieties are cultivated for varied uses like vegetable, pickles,
spice and condiments. Chilli also called red pepper belongs to the
genus capsicum, under the solanaceae family. It is believed to have
originated in South America. Chillies are referred to as chillies, chile,
hot peppers, bell peppers, red peppers, pod peppers, cayenne
peppers, paprika, pimento, and capsicum in different parts of the
world. Chillies are rich in vitamins, especially in vitamin A and C. They
are also packed with potassium, magnesium and iron. Chillies have
long been used for pain relief as they are known to inhibit pain
messengers, extracts of chilli peppers are used for alleviating the pain
of arthritis, headaches, burns and neuralgia. It is also claimed that they
have the power to boost immune system and lower cholesterol. They
are also helpful in getting rid of parasites of gut.
40

Basic requirement
Chilies prefer well-drained, fine, sandy loam soils with a pH of 6.0 to
7.5. They will tolerate heavier soils, however. Chilies have a high water
demand, about 25 to 35 inches per acre per season; a uniform
moisture supply throughout the growing season is ideal. The critical
water demand periods are at planting and at bloom set.
Planting
Chillies can be germinated much as any other seed. In order to give
the seeds a bit of a helping hand to germinate farmers can place the
seeds in between two sheets of damp kitchen roll and put into a either
a sealed freezer bag or plastic container. Place the bag somewhere
warm such as in an airing cupboard. This method will help keep the
heat and the moisture around the seeds, which will eventually
speeding up the germination process. After 2-5 days, some of the
seeds will have swelled up and may be even be starting to sprout.
When this happen, it is times to plant the seeds. When planting chilli
seeds aim to space them about 5cms apart in normal compost, ideal
mixed with some vermiculite. Then lightly cover the seeds with about
0.5cm of compost and spray the tray lightly with water. Check them
every day and spray with a little water if they look a bit dry. The aim is
to prevent the compost from drying out rather than keeping it wet.
41

Once the seedlings have developed their second set of leaves it is time
to re-pot and transplant them.

Pest and diseases


i.

Slugs & Snails

Both kinds of molluscs prefer dark damp places to live. These are
often the worst enemies of chillies plants. The symptoms of slugs
and snails attact (apart from the obvious slime trails) are that
young branches near the base of the plant have been stripped
away overnight or parts of leaves (often the centre) have been
munched away.
There are various methods to combat these pests including the
traditional slug pellets. However these can be harmful to any
birds that eat the poisoned pellets so a more organic approach
may be better. Copper also is known to repel slugs and snails
because it produces a very slight electric charge that this

42

molluscs hate. The downside to this is that copper piping or rings


can be expensive, however once purchased it can last for years.
ii.

Aphids

Aphids can infest chilies plants at any time during the growing
season. They look like tiny white specks and tend to gather
around the shoot tips, flower buds and all over younger leaves.
Aphids also leave a sticky white residue on leaves that they have
been feeding on. This is easily mistaken for fungus. As
mentioned the aphids tend to attack and feed on the new growth
of the plants resulting in stunted or deformed growth. An easy
solution is to spray a very weak soap solution onto chillies plants.

43

iv.

LADIES FINGER

Description
Also known as okra, ladies finger is a flowering plant in the mallow
family. It is valued for its edible green seed pods. The geographical
origin of okra is disputed, with supporters of West African, Ethiopian,
and South Asian origins. The plant is cultivated in tropical,
subtropical and warm temperate regions around the world.
Basic requirements
Ladies finger grows best in soil with a near-neutral pH between 6.5
and 7.0, although it will do fine in a pH as high as 7.6. Plants benefit
from a generous amount of compost or other rich organic matter,
which should be thoroughly mixed into the soil before planting.
Planting
Ladies finger seedlings have fragile taproots that cannot be broken.
Before planting them, this seedling must be thoroughly water an
hour before planting them. Gently break open the sides and
bottoms of their biodegradable containers, separate the seedlings,

44

and set them about 10 inches apart. Water the little plants if rain is
not expected, but wait a few days before mulching to give the soil a
chance to absorb the suns warmth. Ladies finger is appreciated for
its ability to withstand drought compared to other vegetables.
The early growth of okra is often slow. In addition to gaining height,
okras leaves get bigger as the plants grow and begin producing
yellow blossoms followed by tender pods. Plants are erect with a
main trunk, making them look a little tree-like.
Pest and diseases
One of the most serious pest in planting ladies finger is root knot
nematode. Ants often climb up plants to steal sips of nectar but
seldom cause serious damage. Fireants are the exception, as they
can cause damage to developing flowers that forces them to abort.
Other pests that can attack ladies finger plants are Japanese
beetles, stink bugs, aphids, corn earworms, and flea beetles.

Root node nematod


v.

LONGBEAN

45

Description
Vigna unguiculata which common name is called as long bean can
grow up to 3 feet in length. The leaves are bright green, compound
with three heart shaped smaller leaflets. Both flowers and pods are
usually formed in joined pairs. The blooms are similar in appearance
to those of the regular green bean, with the color varying from
white, to pink to lavender.
Planting
Long beans planting start from seed and plant them about 5cm
between each other in rows or grids. Seeds will germinate between
10-15 days. It will take a while for then to start flowering. It can take
two to three months for the plants to flower. Just like other climbing
bean varieties, long beans need support, such as fence, trellis and
46

poles to climb up. Long beans mature rapidly and farmers need to
harvest the beans daily. The beans can attain lengths of 3 feet, the
optimal picking length is between 12-18 inches long.
Pest and diseases
i.
Alternaria leaf spot

The symptoms of this disease are presence of small irregular


brown lesions on leaves which expand and turn gray-brown or
dark brown with concentric zones; older areas of lesions may dry
out and drop from leaves causing shot hole; lesions coalesce to
form large necrotic patches. In order to avoid this, farmers can
plant beans in fertile soil and applied foliar fungicide.
ii.

Anthracnose

47

The symptoms of this problem are presence of small, dark brown


to black lesions on cotyledons; oval or eye-shaped lesions on
stems which turn sunken and brown with purple to red margins;
stems may break if cankers weaken stem; pods drying and
shrinking above areas of visible symptoms; reddish brown spots
on pods which become circular and sunken with rust coloured
margin. In order to solve this problems, farmer can plant
resistant varieties; use certified disease free seed; avoid
sprinkler irrigation, water plants at base and plow bean crop
debris into soil.

48

4.0 MARKETING
Marketing is a business of promoting and selling products or services
including market research and advertising. In a more simple definition,
marketing can be defined as promoting the right product in the right place,
at the right price and at the right time. Marketing also is a form of
communication between you and your customers with the goal of selling
your product or service to them. Communicating the value of your product or
service is a key aspect of marketing. This chapter will including the
estimated or planned marketing, actual marketing that Addin Farm does
during the business, some comparison between both of it and the reasons or
marketing-problems occurred throughout this business.
4.1 Marketing Strategy Plan
The strategy we plan to implement is known as marketing mix
strategy. In this strategy, the four Ps were introduced which is Product, Price,
Place and Promotion.
4.1.1 Product
As earlier in business and also in Addin Farms proposal, the
planning products are various kind of products. Considering the
availability of resources, Addin Farm decided to produce products in
the form of combos. There are 6 kind of combos and one normal raw
product:

49

NORMAL PRODUCT
-

Normal product in non-combo


product that consist only raw
chicken.
The price is RM7.50/ kg.

PACK COMBO 1
-

This combo consist of raw chicken and


mixed fresh vegetables.
Price for this combo is RM15.00

PACK COMBO 2
-

This combo consist of mixed fresh


vegetables and vegetables flavoring.
Price for this combo is RM2.00.
This kind of combo is convenient to
people who are lacking of time to
cook.

PACK COMBO 3
-

This combo id usually for lunch or


dinner.
This set consist of tomato rice, any
menu of chicken and also provided
with any kind of drink.

50

PACK COMBO 4
-

This combo is for Addin Farms main


menu.
One part of chicken is RM7.00 but if
buy with this combo, customer will get
4 parts of honey grilled chicken with
RM24.00

PACK COMBO 5
-

This combo is for crop yields.


3 pieces of corn with RM5.00 while if
customer buy more with 7 pieces of
corns, they will get with price of
RM10.00

PACK COMBO 6
-

This combo consist of corn-based


product which is grilled butter corn.
Price for this product is only RM2.00

During business period, not all the planning products were produced.
Only 3 of them are being sold which are raw chicken, raw fresh
vegetables and also honey grilled chicken.
The problems due to the product reduced are because of Addin Farms
members lacking of time, Addin Farms lack or manpower to handle all
the planning products and the time for yields production is not at the

51

correct time. All these problems is the reasons why Addin not produce
various kind of product as planned earlier.
1.1.1.1 Bazars Product
During the Agro Bazar, Addin Farm sell various kind of crop
yields and products. The hot items during the bazar are
mushrooms, eggplant, chilies, cherries tomatoes and also
bananas.

Figure

1:

Bazars

Products
4.1.2 Price
The price for Addin Farms product are same as in the proposal. The
prices offered are affordable prices for the customer to buy our
product.
4.1.3 Place
As we proposed in business plan, the place that Addin farm want to
cover are weekly night market at 16 th College, around Serdang

52

residential area, Agro Bazar of Faculty of Education Studies, whole


UPM and car boot sale.
The actual place tha Addin Farm covered during running business is
only whole UPM and Agro Bazar of Faculty of Education Studies.
This is because Addin Farm already have regular or fix customers
that always buy the products sold.

4.1.4 Promotion
The promotion that was done is same as in proposal. Addin Farm
using all kind of social media to spread the news or announcements
of our product to people.

Addin Farm using Whats Apps Application


on smartphone to spread the news of
products and this kind of application is the
most fastest application to spread the
news.

Whats Apps Application

53

Addin farm using Facebook Application


to make announcements of the products
release. This kind of application will
make the promotion stay longer and can
be seen by people even though its
already a few days.

Facebook
Aplication

54

Instagram Application
Addin farm using Instagram Application to
make announcements of the products
release in the form of picture or photo. This
kind of application will make customers
know what Addin products look is.

55

Flyers

Addin Farm using also promote the product


by flyers. This flyers were given to the
UPMs staff.

4.2 SWOT Analysis


In order to carry out our business and have better understanding on
the internal and external factors before and after starting our
business, we have conducted an analysis based on the SWOT
strategies.

SWOT analysis a tool that identifies the strengths,

weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization. The method


56

of SWOT analysis is to take the information from an environmental


analysis and separate it into internal (strengths and weaknesses) and
external issues (opportunities and threats). Once this is completed,
SWOT analysis determines what may assist the firm in accomplishing
its objectives, and what obstacles must be overcome or minimized to
achieve desired result

STRENGTH

The advertising for our


product is cost effective.

WEAKNESS

Time constraint.

Lack of experience.

Simple and common product.

Pack schedule among group


members.

Strong teamwork capability.


Innovative aspects on our
products.
Strategic locations.

Has own transport.

Has own cooking equipments

Has broad networking.

Regular customer.

Well known brand.

Lacking of man power.

57

OPPORTUNITY

THREATS

Able to learn how to started a


new business

Lack of differentiated foodbased products.

Exposure to the business


world

Increased students enrolment


in the business

Availability of competitors
that also sells the same
products as ours at the same
location.

Markets could change.

Know a few other people who


are thinking of the same
niche market.

Environmental effects such as


weather.

Pest attack.

New challenge.

Better earnings prospects.

Delicious recipe of honey


grilled chicken.

58

1.0 BROILER
1.1

Expenses

Estimation

Actual

Birds

150 birds x RM2.80


=RM 420

150 birds x RM2.80


=RM420

Processing
cost

145 birds x RM0.50


=RM 72.50

146 birds x RM0.50


=RM 73

Feeding
cost

Starter :
RM135 x 3 sacks
=RM405
Grower :
RM125 x 14sacks
=1750
Total
=RM 2155

Starter (FPP): RM135 x 1 sacks


=RM135
Starter (outsider): RM103 x
4sacks
=RM412
Finisher (FPP):RM125 x 1 sacks
=RM125
Finisher (outsider):RM103 x
6sacks
=RM 618
Total
=RM 1290

Total

1.2
Menu

RM 2647.50

RM 1783

Income
Estimation

Actual
59

Agrobazaar

Ayam
Madu
Bakar

Weekly
bazaar

10 chickens x 4
portions x RM 6

6 chickens x 4 portions
x RM 6.50

= RM 240

= RM 156

8 chickens x 4
portions x RM 6

=RM 192

Ongoing

27 chickens x 4
portions x RM 4

79 chickens x 4
portions x RM 6.50

=RM 432

=RM 2054

48 packs x RM 5
Agro bazaar
Nasi
Tomato

= RM 240

Weekly
bazaar

60 packs x RM 5
=RM 300

852 packs x RM 5
Ongoing

=RM 4260

121 packs x RM 1.50

Nasi
Lemak

Ongoing

Raw Meat

Ongoing

= RM 181.50

8 chickens x RM 12
= RM 96

61 chickens x RM
7.50/kg
=RM 732.50
60

12 combo chickens x
RM 15
=RM 150
Total

RM 5910

RM 3124

2.0 CROPS
2.1 Expenses
Estimation

Actual

61

Seeds

Maize: 1kg = RM 20
Vegetables: RM 55
= RM75

Chillies:
Seedling 36 seedlings x RM 2=RM 72
s
Eggplants:
49 seedlings x RM 2=RM 98
Total = RM 170

Maize: 1kg = RM 40
Vegetables: RM 156
= RM 196

Chillies:
36 seedlings x RM 2=RM 72
Eggplants:
49 seedlings x RM 2=RM 98
Total = RM 170

Fertilize
rs

Organic (chicken dung) = RM


21 (20kg)
NPK Blue = RM 50
NPK Green = RM 50
=RM 121
TOTAL: RM 366

Organic (20kg)
= RM 21
NPK Blue ( 5KG)
NPK Green (3KG)
Urea
(8KG)
=RM 137.30
TOTAL: RM 524.30

Total

RM 366

RM 524.30

62

2.2 Income
Menu

Estimation

Actual

107 combs x RM 1.40

10 combs x RM 1

=RM 149.80

=RM 10

Agrobazaar

Fresh
corn

Weekly
bazaar

60 combs x RM 1.40
=RM 84

1650 combs x RM 1.40

399 combs x RM 1

=RM 2310

= RM 399

Ongoing

Crops

Fresh vegetables
Ongoing

RM 2886
=RM 120.20

RM 15 x 3 trees
Agro bazaar

=RM 45

Chillies
RM 15 x 10 trees
Ongoing

=RM 150

Others

Agro bazaar
Bubur jagung
80 packs x RM1.80
=RM 144

Mushroom
Cherry tomatoes
Banana
Starfruit

63

Total = RM 992.60

Weekly
bazaar

Ongoing
Total

Butter grilled corn


90 combs x RM 2
=RM 180

Chicken feeds = RM
70

RM 5753.80

RM 1786.80

64

3.0 OTHERS EXPENSES


3.1 Side Expenses
Title

Estimation

Actual

Silvershine

RM 30

RM 20 (10 m)

Black netting

RM 30

RM 0

Pest and Control


Disease

RM 30

RM 0

Vaccination

RM 34.20

RM 68.55

Sawdust

RM 5 x 4 bags = RM 20

RM 5 x 9 bags
= RM 40

Bazaar

RM 214.95

Total

RM 144.20

RM 343.50

3.2 Product Management Expenses


Title

Estimation

Actual

Fee rant

3 weeks x RM10 = RM30

RM 0

Transportation

RM100

RM 22

Ingredients

RM780

RM 708.30

Overhead

RM100

RM 25

Total

RM 1010

RM 755.30

4.0 EXPENSES AND INCOME COMPARISON


65

Title

Estimation (RM)

Actual (RM)

Broiler

2647.50

1783.00

Crops

366.00

524.30

EXPENSES
Others

Product
Management
TOTAL

RM 144.20

RM 343.50

RM 1010

RM 755.30

RM 4167.70

RM 3406.10

Broiler

5910.00

Crops

5753.80

3124.00

INCOME

TOTAL

11663.80

1786.80

4910.80

5.0 NET PROFIT


5.1 Estimation
66

Net Profit = Income Estimation Expenses Estimation


= RM 11663.80 RM 4167.70
= RM 7496.10
5.2 Actual

Net Profit = Actual Income Actual Expenses


= RM 4910.80 RM 3406.10
= RM 1504.70

6.0

AGRO BAZAAR

Actual net profit for this company for the whole semester had been
summarized already above which is RM 1507.70. This section is the sort of
for agro bazaar income. However, these calculations already included above.
67

For this company, agro bazaar is the second biggest income for both broiler
and vegetables. This is because, other than our usual product we also served
as 7 eleven for fresh vegetables. Further information is informed in products
section.

INCOME

Estimation

Actual

RM 773.80

RM 1203.60

68

REFLECTION
From the business project we had done, we have gained priceless
experiences, skills and knowledge especially on how to start a real business.
Despite the hardship, trials and challenges, we prevailed and succeed in our
business, thanks to the determination, perseverance and passion of our
group members.
There were a lot of things we learned from the business project. First
and foremost, to start a business, we must have a business plan. Business
plan encouraged goal setting, provided a clear statement of direction and
purpose for a firm, encouraged entrepreneurs to search his ideal business
and other benefits. An important part of the business plan is financial plan.
As a business man or an entrepreneur, we should have a financial plan or
decisions in mind all over the times.
Every business or investment has its own risk. Therefore, we have to
be prepared for unforeseen events and being able to resolve them
effectively. This is a prerequisite for a businessman and entrepreneur.
Moreover, do not ever try to give up without putting any efforts. When me
with difficulties and problems in our business, we must keep our mind
positive, be constructive and stay stronger to deal with the entire crisis that
comes along. All in all, what we get the lessons throughout the business is an
entrepreneur is not a matter of luck but is determination and persistence.
Next, we were able to train and develop our integrity while conducting
our business. While working together, we not only practiced tolerance, but to
build up trust and understanding between one another. After business
activities have ended and the cash flow is done, there is no shortage of
money which means that all of us had done our assigned roles with honesty.
Every member had also done their best to make sure that every information
and promotions regarding our products are shared wisely.

69

Last, but not least, this business project had given us a great
experience in managing our own business. It is undeniable that in this era of
advanced knowledge, experience has now become an important aspect in
measuring fresh graduates availability in the jobs market. Hence, with this
kind of project, we managed to develop more soft skills, get a hold of
important responsibilities, practice integrity and the most important thing is
the experience in handling the business so that it will run smoothly according
to our plan. Lastly, the greatest blessing of this project is that we have
gained experience on how to manage our own business while maintaining
good relationship with one another.

70

CONCLUSION
Overall, ADDIN FARM SDN. BHD. fails to achieve our target profit in the
earlier proposal due to some reasons. Despite that, we still get the profit and
throughout this semester, we have learned many important things as the
mention previous. We would like to thank to Mr. Allan for the opportunity
given and lessons throughout this semester. Not to forget our supervisor En.
Ismin and the rest of supervisors, staffs for give a hand to our group when
needed.
In addition, Agro technology is a very good subject to continue in the next
semester as it gives lots benefits to students in terms of knowledge and
experience. Experience that the student gained is very useful to be applied
in daily life and keep continuously for young generation. Agro technology is
not just give knowledge in farming or livestock, but students also exposed to
collaborative skills in organization, build up business without strong
background and communication skills.
As a team member, we uphold to this principle if plan A did not work, there
are another 25 alphabets to name your plan. Life is hard, dream big and be
strong. Thank you.

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