You are on page 1of 62

RESEARCH ENGINE TEST SET UP

1 CYLINDR, 4 STROKE, MULTI-FUEL, VCR


with Open ECU
(Computerized)
Product Code
240PE

Instruction manual

Contents

1 Description

5 Installation

9 Theory

2 Specifications

6 Commissioning

10 Components used

3 Installation requirements

7 Software

11 Components manuals

4 Packing slip

8 Troubleshooting

12 Warranty

Apex Innovations

Description
The setup consists of single cylinder, four stroke, Multi-fuel, research engine
connected to eddy current type dynamometer for loading. The operation mode of the
engine can be changed from diesel to ECU Petrol or from ECU Petrol to Diesel mode
by following some procedural steps. In both modes the compression ratio can be
varied without stopping the engine and without altering the combustion chamber
geometry by specially designed tilting cylinder block arrangement. In Diesel mode
fuel injection point and pressure can be manipulated for research tests. In Petrol
mode fuel injection time, fuel injection angle, ignition angle can be programmed with
open ECU at each operating point based on RPM and throttle position. It helps in
optimizing engine performance throughout its operating range. Air temp, coolant
temp, Throttle position and trigger sensor are connected to Open ECU which control
ignition coil, fuel injector, fuel pump and idle air. Set up is provided with necessary
instruments

for

combustion

pressure,

Diesel

line

pressure

and

crank-angle

measurements. These signals are interfaced with computer for pressure crank-angle
diagrams. Instruments are provided to interface airflow, fuel flow, temperatures and
load measurements. The set up has stand-alone panel box consisting of air box, two
fuel tanks for duel fuel test, manometer, fuel measuring unit, transmitters for air and
fuel flow measurements, process indicator and hardware interface. Rotameters are
provided for cooling water and calorimeter water flow measurement. A battery,
starter and battery charger is provided for engine electric start arrangement.
The setup enables study of VCR engine performance for brake power, indicated
power, frictional power, BMEP, IMEP, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal
efficiency, Mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific fuel consumption, A/F
ratio, heat balance and combustion analysis.
Labview based Engine Performance Analysis software package Enginesoft is
provided for on line engine performance evaluation.
PE3 series software package is provided for programming open ECU for petrol mode
operation of the engine.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 2

Apex Innovations

Schematic arrangement
(Performance evaluation)

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 3

Apex Innovations

Specifications
Product Research Engine test setup 1 cylinder, 4 stroke, Multifuel

VCR

with

open

ECU

for

petrol

mode

(Computerized)
Product code 240PE
Engine Type 1 cylinder, 4 stroke, water cooled, stroke 110
mm, bore 87.5 mm. Capacity 661 cc.
Diesel mode: Power 3.5 KW, Speed 1500 rpm, CR
range 12:1-18:1. Injection variation:0- 25 Deg BTDC
ECU Petrol mode: Power 3.5 KW @ 1500 rpm, Speed
range 1200-1800 rpm, CR range 6:1-10:1
Dynamometer Type eddy current, water cooled, with loading unit
Propeller shaft With universal joints
Air box M S fabricated with orifice meter and manometer
Fuel tank Capacity 15 lit, Type: Duel compartment, with fuel
metering pipe of glass
Calorimeter Type Pipe in pipe
Piezo sensor Combustion: Range 5000 PSI, with low noise cable
Diesel line: Range 5000 PSI, with low noise cable
Crank angle sensor Resolution 1 Deg, Speed 5500 RPM with TDC pulse.
Data acquisition device NI USB-6210, 16-bit, 250kS/s.
Piezo powering unit Make-Apex, Model AX-409.
Engine control unit PE3 series ECU, full build potted enclosure.
Sensors for ECU Air temp, coolant temp, Throttle position and trigger.
Engine Controlhardware Fuel injector, Fuel pump, ignition coil, idle air
Digital voltmeter Range 0-20V, panel mounted
Temperature sensor Type RTD, PT100 and Thermocouple, Type K
Temperature transmitter Type two wire, Input RTD PT100, Range 0100 Deg C,
Output

420

mA

and

Type

two

wire,

Input

Thermocouple, Range 01200 Deg C, Output 420 mA


Load indicator Digital, Range 0-50 Kg, Supply 230VAC
Load sensor Load cell, type strain gauge, range 0-50 Kg
Fuel flow transmitter DP transmitter, Range 0-500 mm WC
Air flow transmitter Pressure transmitter, Range (-) 250 mm WC
Software Enginesoft Engine performance analysis software
ECU software peMonitor & peViewer software.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 4

Apex Innovations
Rotameter Engine cooling 40-400 LPH; Calorimeter 25-250 LPH
Pump Type Monoblock
Overall dimensions W 2000 x D 2500 x H 1500 mm

Shipping details
Gross volume 1.33m3, Gross weight 796kg, Net weight 639kg

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 5

Apex Innovations

Installation requirements
Electric supply
Provide 230 +/- 10 VAC, 50 Hz, single phase electric supply with proper earthing.
(Neutral Earth voltage less than 5 VAC)
Provide 5A, three pin socket with switch (2 Nos.) for engine set up
Provide additional 5A, three pin sockets for computer and peripherals

Water supply
Continuous, clean and soft water supply @ 2000 LPH, at 10 m. head. Provide valve
with 1 BSP hose terminal connection

Computer
With standard configuration. Typical configuration as follows:
CPU: Pentium 300 GHz, RAM: Min. 2GB or higher, DVD ROM drive, USB Port.
OS: Windows XP + SP3, Microsoft office2007.
Monitor: Screen resolution 1280x1024.

Space
L3300 mm x W3200 mm x H1700 mm (Refer foundation drawings)

Drain
Provide suitable drain extension arrangement (Drain pipe 75 NB/2.5PVC size)

Exhaust
Provide suitable exhaust extension arrangement (Exhaust pipe 32 NB/1.25 size)

Foundation
Refer foundation drawings Foundation 240(1) and Foundation 240(2)

Fuel, oil
Diesel@5 lit.
Petrol@10 lit.
Lubrication Oil @ 3.5 lit. (20W40)

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 6

Apex Innovations

Packing slip
Total no. of boxes: 10, Volume: 2.08 m3, Gross weight: 773 kg. Net wt. 642
kg
Box

Engine set up assembly

Gross weight: 444kg


3

No.1/10

Size W1600xD670xH1120 mm; Volume:1.20m

Net weight: 444kg

Engine

1 No.

test

setup

assembly

Engine

Dynamometer
Box

Engine panel box structure

Gross weight: 46kg


3

No.2/10

Size W800xD475xH500 mm; Volume:0.19m

Net weight: 25kg

Structure assembly consisting of

1 No.

Rotameters with piping (2)


Dynamometer loading unit clamp (1)
Fuel distributor unit with cock (1)
Box

Engine panel box

Gross weight: 75kg


3

No.3/10

Size W990xD475xH500 mm; Volume:0.24m

Net weight: 52kg

Engine panel box assembly

1 No.

Transmitter

panel,

Fuel

pipe,

Fuel

DP

transmitter, Air transmitter, NI USB 6210,


power supply and wiring, Manometer with PU
tube.
Box

Calorimeter

Gross weight: 28kg


3

No.4/10

Size W725xD250xH325 mm; Volume: 0.06m

Net weight: 15kg

Calorimeter

1 No.

Calorimeter support structure with pad

1 No.

Box

Exhaust pipe

Gross weight: 16kg

No.5/10

Size W900xD200xH200 mm; Volume: 0.04m3

Net weight: 10kg

Exhaust pipe

1 No.

Box

Pump

Gross weight: 14kg

No.6/10

Size W300xD225xH300 mm; Volume:0.02m3

Net weight: 7kg

Pump

1 No.

Box

Battery

Gross weight: 19kg


3

No.7/10

Size W150xD225xH250 mm; Volume:0.01m

Net weight: 8kg

Battery

1 No.

Box

Dash board panel

Gross weight: 35kg


3

No.8/10

Size W500xD400xH300 mm; Volume:0.06m

Net weight: 20kg

Dash board panel box

1 No.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 7

Apex Innovations
Battery charger (1)
Petrol ECU(1)
Wiring for petrol ECU
Fuel throttle unit(1)
Fuel tank with pump (1)
Box

Engine piping

Gross weight: 58Kg

No.9/10

Size W1250xD450xH350mm; Volume: 0.20m3

Net weight: 41kg

Piping set (14 pieces)

1 No.

Engine water inlet and outlet, Dynamometer


water inlet and outlet, Calorimeter water inlet
and

outlet,

Air

hose

pipe,

Pump

suction

connection with strainer, Pump outlet, Engine


water inlet and outlet hose, Water supply hose
pipe, Drain pipe (3 components)
2

Fuel Glass tube 2Nos (one spare)

1 No.

Funnel for fuel fill

1 No.

Wiring PVC channel set (4 pieces)

1 No.

Starting kick/Handle

1 No.

Exhaust extension pipe with socket

1 No.

Pump bracket

1 No.

Air box connection

1 No.

Starter

1 No.

10

Calorimeter exhaust outlet flange

1 No.

11

Engine head for petrol with support and rod

1 No.

Box

Engine wiring

Gross weight: 38kg

No.10/10

Size W500xD400xH300 mm; Volume:0.06m3

Net weight: 20kg

Piezo powering unit

1 No.

Load indicator

1 No.

Digital voltmeter

1 No.

Dynamometer loading unit

1 No.

Pressure gauge

1 No.

Load cell

1 No.

Piezo sensors

2 Nos.

Piezo cables

2 Nos.

Temp sensors (5)

1 No.

10

Encoder with flange, rubber and coupling

1 No.

11

Head packing, Spark plug each 2Nos

1 No.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 8

Apex Innovations
12

Fuel piping with connection

1 No.

13

Air manifold with Fuel injector

1 NO.

14

Engine spanner set, Screw driver small, Spark

1 No.

plug spanner, VCR spanner 7/16, Allen key


8mm and Tool kit
15

Fuel caps(2), Teflon tape(2) & Gasket shellac(1)

1 No.

16

Set of instruction manuals

1 No.

Instruction manual CD (Apex), NI driver CD (1)


Enginesoft CD, PE3 Instruction manual CD,
Cable

for

NI

USB

6210,

DP

transmitter,

Dynamometer, Pump,
Kirloskar engine maint.
Calibration sheets for load cell and piezo sensor

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 9

Apex Innovations

ECU Petrol: Reference documents


PE3 user manual
AN001_600F4i_Trigger-Sync
h40
AN000_Determining_Trigger_and_Sync_Settings_2
PE3 Series Datasheet 10-24-11

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 10

Apex Innovations

Installation
Unpack the box(es) received and ensure that all material is received as per packing
slip. In case of short supply or breakage contact Apex Innovations / your supplier
for further actions.
Remove the packings, paper boxes and wrappers from the components.
Refer the various photographs below and note locations of different components.
Install Engine setup assembly on the foundation and tighten the foundation bolts.
The dynamometer body is clamped with its base by locking flat which is to be
removed. There are jack bolts below the dynamometer which are raised upwards
to restrict the swiveling motion. These bolts to be lowered to allow free motion of
the body of the dynamometer. Inside the Rotameters plastic rods are inserted to
arrest the movement of respective floats. These rods are to be removed.
Keep Engine panel box structure near Engine setup assembly. Note the C type
clamp provided for clamping the dynamometer loading unit.
Collect the Engine Panel Box. It is fitted with Fuel pipe (Glass), Manometer, Fuel
DP transmitter, Air transmitter, Orifice for air metering, Transmitter panel (fitted
with Power supply and five Temperature transmitters), NI-6210 USB interface with
cable for computer.
Check all terminal connections, component mounting and wiring screws
Fit the Engine panel box assembly on the Panel box structure with three bolts.
Fit the Dash board panel with support structure on the Panel box structure with
four bolts.

Collect Piezo powering unit (Ax409), Dynamometer loading unit (AX155), Load
indicator (SV8 series) and Digital voltmeter (SMP35) from Engine wiring box.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 11

Apex Innovations
Remove the covers of Piezo powering unit and Dynamometer loading unit and
confirm that all components inside are at proper location and tightly fitted. Remove
any packing material inside dynamometer loading unit. Confirm smooth working of
loading knob on its front. The cover of the dynamometer loading unit is to be fitted
after inserting the unit in the Engine panel support structure
Fit the Piezo powering unit (AX409) and put its clamps. Connect Electric supply
cables and a 9 pin connector at Output.
Fit load indicator (SV8 SERIES) and put its clamps. Connect 4 wires at respective
terminals.
Fit Voltmeter (Meco) and put its clamps. Connect 4 wires at the back terminals.
Fit Dynamometer loading unit in the Engine panel structure after removing C
clamp. Fit its cover and then fit the C clamp.
Remove the Exhaust pipe packed in wooden box placed inside Engine piping box
and connect it between calorimeter exhaust inlet and engine exhaust outlet.
Connect Exhaust extension pipe at the outlet of calorimeter. Insert additional pipe
in between and take the exhaust out of the room.
Collect the piping pieces form Engine piping box. Clean the pipes internally to
remove any dust and particles. Complete the piping as per match marks as
follows:
o Connect Engine water inlet from engine cooling Rotameter to water inlet on
engine body.
o Connect Engine water outlet. Connect Engine water outlet hose between the
outlet pipe and engine body.
o Fit Strainer and hose nipple at the pump inlet and connect Water supply
hose pipe. Connect this hose pipe to site water supply.
o Fit Air box connection to air box and connect Air hose pipe from air box to
engine.
o The fuel pipe is put on engine and its one end is connected to fuel filter.
Connect the other end in the engine panel at the brass hose tee in the fuel
line. The fuel line is to be routed through the wiring channels.
Fit wiring PVC channel set.
Collect the wiring set from Sensors bag and fit 5 temp sensors at respective
places. (i) RTD T1/T3 at the inlet water at pump outlet. (ii) RTD T2 at the Engine
outlet water on the engine head. (iii) RTD T4 at the calorimeter water outlet.
(iv) Thermocouple T5 at the Exhaust inlet of calorimeter and (v) Thermocouple T6
at the exhaust outlet of calorimeter. Route the wiring from PVC wiring channels.
Collect Electric supply cable packed in packing (named as Sensors) and connect L
N E terminals to the transmitter panel at supply 230V. Connect its 3 pin (F)

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 12

Apex Innovations
connector to Dynamometer loading unit at Supply. Connect male 3 pin connector
to Electric supply available at the site. Route the cable through wiring channel.
Connect cable from Crank angle sensor, 4 pin round (F), to CA of Piezo powering
unit.
Connect cable from Load cell, 4 pin flat (F), to Load on transmitter panel.
Remove black cap on Piezo sensor and connect Piezo cable to the sensor. Connect
other end of the Piezo cable to Piezo powering unit at PZ1.
Connect dynamometer supply cable, 3 pin (M), to Output VDC of dynamometer
loading unit.
Take out USB cable from NIUSB 6210 from Engine Panel and connect to Computer.
The cable is short in length. A spare cable of extra length is also supplied.

Fit dash board panel for ECU petrol on left side of the engine panel box by nut
bolts.
Fit fuel throttle unit, battery charger and ECU and wiring harness in the dashboard
panel.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 13

Apex Innovations

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 14

Apex Innovations

Commissioning
Remove top cover on the rocker box of the engine. Fill lubrication oil (SAE20W40
or equivalent) in the rocker box. About 3.5 lit oil is needed. To reach most of the
oil to oil sump, it is necessary to wait for about 5 minutes, after filling the oil.
Check the oil level by the dip stick provided in the crank case.
Two fuel tanks are provided on the top portion of the engine panel. You may fill
two different fuels, for testing the fuels. Fill Diesel in one of the fuel tanks and
Petrol in other tanks as marked on the tanks. Use Fuel funnel for filling. Put fuel
caps on the fuel tanks.
Fuel tank with fuel pump fit on bottom structure pipe and fuel tank overflow pipe
connect to petrol filling pipe.
Open the Fuel cock at the outlet of the fuel tank in which Diesel is filled. Note the
Fuel in the glass fuel pipe. Remove complete air from the fuel pipe between Engine
panel and Engine setup.
Air removal from fuel DP: Remove air bubbles from the fuel line connecting to
Fuel DP transmitter. For removing the air loosen the Air vent on the fuel DP
transmitter and allow some fuel to come out from it and then tighten it gently.

Fill water in the manometer up to 0 mark level.


Ensure that Jack bolts under dynamometer are lowered for free movement of the
dynamometer body.
Switch on electric supply of the panel box and ensure that Piezo powering unit,
load indicator and voltmeter are ON.
TDC adjustment:
o

Keep the Decompression lever on the rocker box in vertical position


and rotate the flywheel slowly in clockwise direction (Viewed from
dynamometer end) till the E (Encoder) mark on the flywheel matches

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 15

Apex Innovations
with the reference pointer provided on the engine body. This rotation
movement should be unidirectional.
o

Check if the TDC light on the Piezo powering unit is lit. If not adjust the
crank angle sensor as follows:

Loosen the four screws on the flange provided for clamping the
crankangle sensor on the mounting bracket.

Ensure that crank angle sensor body is free to rotate about its axis.
Rotate the sensor body slowly till the TDC light on the Piezo powering
unit glows. Ensure that the flywheel is adjusted to E (Encoder) mark as
explained above.

Clamp the four screws on the flange.

By using multipoint selector switch on the engine panel confirm that all voltage
values are properly displayed. Convert the voltage values in to respective
temperature reading using parameter chart pasted on the panel. The values
displayed should show around ambient temperatures.
Confirm the load value on the load indicator is zero. Rotate the dynamometer body
so that the nylon bush is pressing the load cell. Ensure that the load values on the
load indicator are changing.

Compression Ratio adjustment:


o

Slightly loosen 6 Allen bolts provided for clamping the tilting block.

Loosen the lock nut on the adjuster and rotate the adjuster so that the
compression ratio is set to maximum. Refer the marking on the CR
indicator.

Lock the adjuster by the lock nut.

Tighten all the 6 Allen bolts gently.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 16

Apex Innovations

You may measure and note the centre distance between two pivot pins
of the CR indicator. After changing the compression ratio the difference
() can be used to know new CR.

Switch on the pump after providing electric supply to it and ensure water
circulation through engine, calorimeter and dynamometer.
Keep the Load knob on the dynamometer loading unit at minimum position.
Engine starting (Diesel mode):
o

Ensure that all foundation bolts, propeller shaft bolts and Allen bolts of
tilting block (of VCR arrangement) are properly tightened.

Ensure that Engine stop lever is free and can be pulled towards engine
cranking side for stopping the engine.

For first start after installation, loosen the fuel inlet pipe to the injector.
Crank the engine slowly (with Decompression lever in vertical position)
till fuel starts dribbling out from the loosened nut. Then tighten the
nut.

Ensure that Decompression lever (Decomp lever) is in horizontal


position and CR is set at @ 17.5 to 18.

Start the engine ignition switch so that the engine will be cranked by
battery.

If engine does not start you may check valve setting as explained in
Engine Valve setting.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 17

Apex Innovations

Keep water circulation on, Set @150 lph and 100 lph flow rates for engine cooling
and calorimeter respectively.
Start the engine and allow it to run for 5 minutes in idling condition. Confirm that
engine speed is displayed on Piezo powering unit.
Rotate the knob on dynamometer loading unit and gradually load the engine.
Ensure that the load on the load indicator gradually increases.
Load the engine up to 12 kg allow it to run for 5 minutes.
Ensure that voltages displayed for all 5 temperature sensors are logically correct.
Stop the engine after releasing the load.
Ensure that engine is cooled before switching off the pump.
For software installation on the computer proceed to Software section

Engine Valve setting


This procedure to be followed only if engine does not start or pressure crankangle
diagram shows some pressure values at the start of suction.)
Open the cover on the rocker box. Rotate the flywheel slowly and observe the
rocker movement. The cranking side rocker is for inlet air and flywheel side rocker
is for exhaust air. The Engine fuel pump side end of each rocker is pushed up by
the valve rods below. Due to this the front end (injector side end) goes down to
open the respective valves (Inlet/exhaust). For alternate rotation of flywheel at
TDC position, both rockers move simultaneously.

Adjust the TDC mark marked as T on the flywheel with the pointer. (Note there
are two marks one marked as E and other as T. E marking is to be used for
crankangle sensor adjustment for PO diagram).

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Ensure that when we bring the

Page 18

Apex Innovations
flywheel near these markings both rockers should move i.e. piston is at the start of
new cycle.
Refer the valve timing diagram on the engine panel. The Inlet valve should open
4.5 degree before TDC and exhaust valve should close 4.5 deg after TDC. Make a
marking of @ 16 mm (4.5 degree) on both sides of TDC mark.
Rotate the flywheel in anticlockwise direction for 60 degrees and slowly rotate in
clockwise direction up to the first mark before TDC (Here the inlet valve should
open. Exhaust valve is already in open position i.e. rocker is in operated position).
Adjust the Tappet clearance by using ring spanner no. 18 such that the clearance if
any is removed and rocker just starts opening the inlet valve.
Further rotate the flywheel in clockwise direction to next marking of 4.5 degrees
after TDC. At this position the exhaust valve should fully close. Adjust the tappet
clearance so that there is no clearance in exhaust rocker. (Note: The decomp lever
should be in horizontal position)
Ensure that inlet valve opens at 4.5 degree BTDC and exhaust valve closes 4.5
degree ATDC.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 19

Apex Innovations

Diesel to Petrol
Removing Diesel Head

Disconnect the Battery connection positive and negative and put at safe
position.

Switch off and disconnect electric supply of engine panel

Close the Fuel cock at the outlet of Diesel tank.

Keep Fuel cock on engine panel in Tank position. At fuel junction bracket,
open the drain cock and collect the Diesel from fuel measuring unit and fuel
line.

Disconnect the low noise cable from combustion chamber Piezo sensor.

Disconnect the low noise cable from fuel line Piezo sensor, mark it for
identification.

Remove Piezo sensor from the engine head and keep it at secured and safe
place.

Disconnect the high pressure fuel pipe and overflow pipe connected to the
injector. Connect these pipes to each other by inserting plastic pipe over high
pressure metal pipe.

Disconnect air duct pipe from engine head bend and remove CI bend.

Remove exhaust connection from engine head

Remove water outlet from engine head along-with water outlet temperature
sensor.

Loosen and remove 4 nuts which clamp engine head to the linear block. (Use
9/16 spanner)

Remove push rods (2 nos.)

Fitting Petrol Head

Adjust the compression ratio to 10:1 on petrol scale.

Use new head packing. Apply thin grease layer to head packing before use.

Insert 2 push rods for Petrol operation. These push rods are longer in length
when compared with those for Diesel operation.

Remove the cover lid on the rocker box. Fit the head assembly (Engine head
+ air manifold + Throttle body) on liner block. Ensure that push rods are
properly inserted in the engine head.

Tighten the 4 nuts (Use 9/16W5 flat

spanner). During tightening the nuts rotate the flywheel and ensure smooth
movement of valve rods. Fit the cover lid.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 20

Apex Innovations

Connect the Engine outlet water connection to the engine head (with outlet
water sensor)

Connect exhaust flange to the engine head.

Connect the air duct pipe from air box to the throttle body inlet.

Connect accelerator cable to throttle body.

Fit the Piezo sensor in engine head and connect low noise cable to Piezo
sensor.

Remove spark cable from the spark plug at ignition coil and connect the cable
to spark plug in the engine head.

Connect the coolant temp sensor connector

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 21

Apex Innovations

Connect Trigger sensor connector, Ignition coil connector and battery


connector

Keep Fuel cock on the engine panel at Tank position.

Close Diesel and Petrol cocks at the fuel Junction bracket.

Close the Diesel cock and open the Petrol cock at the fuel tank outlet.

Collect @ 50 ml petrol from drain cock and close the drain cock.

Open the petrol cock at fuel junction bracket.

After all other preliminary checkups start the engine.

Trigger point adjustment


Trigger point adjustment

It is presumed that engine is set for Petrol operation.

Take the decompression lever to vertical position.

Rotate and adjust the flywheel to match the pointer with T mark.

Ensure that the trigger sensor tip is aligned with centre line of first tooth on
the trigger wheel. First tooth is measured after gap of two missing teeth in the
direction of clockwise rotation of trigger wheel. For adjusting the trigger
sensor loosen the clamp screws and rotate the bracket on which trigger
sensor is fitted. Then clamp the bracket by tightening the clamp screws.

Shift decompression lever to horizontal position and start the engine.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 22

Apex Innovations

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 23

Apex Innovations

Petrol to Diesel
Removing Petrol Head

Disconnect the Battery connection positive and negative and put at safe
position.

Switch off and disconnect electric supply of engine panel

Close the Fuel cock at the outlet of Petrol tank.

Keep Fuel cock on engine panel in tank position.

At fuel junction bracket,

open the drain cock and collect the petrol from fuel measuring unit and fuel
line. Disconnect petrol pipe from Injector block and collect the petrol in that
line from drain cock.

Close the Petrol cock on the Fuel junction bracket.

Open the Diesel cock of Diesel Fuel tank and collect @ 50 ml Diesel from drain
cock. Close the cock on Diesel fuel tank and close the drain cock.

Disconnect Spark plug and insert the Spark plug cable in a plug provided near
ignition coil. (This plug is provided for supporting the plug cable)

Disconnect the Piezo sensor and low noise cable.

Remove Piezo sensor and keep it at secured and safe place.

Disconnect air duct pipe from throttle body inlet.

Disconnect Coolant temp connector, ignition coil connector, trigger connector


and battery connector of the wiring harness.

Remove exhaust connection from engine head (Use BSW spanner).

Remove water outlet from engine head along-with temperature sensor (Use
BSW spanner).

Loosen and remove 4 nuts which clamp engine head to the liner block. (Use
9/16W5 flat spanner) and put the head assembly (Engine head + air manifold
+ Throttle body) on stand provided near the engine panel box

Remove push rods and put in stand pipe (2 nos.)

Fitting Diesel Head

Check the condition of packing, if damaged use new head packing. Apply thin
grease layer to head packing..

Inset push rods (2 Nos) for Diesel operation. These push rods are shorter in
length when compared with those for petrol operation.

Remove the cover lid on the rocker box. Fit the head on linear block. Ensure
that push rods are properly inserted in the engine head. This operation needs
two persons to ensure proper assembly of push rods. Tighten the 4 nuts (Use
9/16W5 flat spanner). During tightening the nuts rotate the flywheel and
ensure smooth movement of valve rods. Fit the cover lid.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 24

Apex Innovations

Connect the Engine outlet water connection to the engine head (with outlet
water temperature sensor)

Connect exhaust connection to the engine head.

Connect the duct pipe from air box to the engine head.

At the delivery of the fuel pump, the high pressure metal pipe is connected to
plastic pipe. Disconnect this connection and connect the high pressure pipe to
inlet of the fuel injector. Connect the plastic pipe to the overflow of the
injector.

Connect low noise cable of fuel line Piezo sensor.

Fit the Piezo sensor (Use spanner size 6-7) and connect low noise cable to
Piezo sensor.

At fuel junction bracket, ensure that drain cock is closed. Petrol cock is closed
and Diesel cock is open.

Loosen the Vent plug on fuel pump. Ensure fuel cock on engine panel is in
tank position. Open the Fuel cock at the outlet of Diesel tank

Close the vent on fuel pump as the Diesel comes out.

Ensure that the fuel injection is adjusted as described in Injection point


adjustment to company setting.

Ensure the CR is adjusted @ 17-18. Hand cranks the engine to ensure smooth
movement of the piston.

After all other preliminary checkups start the engine.

Injection point adjustment


Injection point adjustment to company setting

It is presumed that engine is set for Diesel operation and Diesel fuel is
available at fuel pump.

Remove the high pressure fuel pipe at the outlet of fuel pump.

Take the decompression lever to vertical position.

The company set injection point is marked F on the flywheel which is @ 23


Degrees before TDC (@ 8 teeth on the flywheel).

Rotate the flywheel (by hand) in clockwise direction and observe the fuel
spillage from fuel pump. Note the spillage point on the flywheel. Note the
difference between spillage point and company set injection point.

Turn the injection point adjusting nut in one direction@ turn. Check the
difference between Fuel spillage point and company set injection point. If the
difference is reduced repeat the adjustment in same direction. If the
difference is increased rotate the adjusting nut in opposite direction. Repeat
the adjustment till the difference is reduced to minimum.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 25

Apex Innovations

To start the engine with company set injection point, connect the high
pressure fuel pipe to the injection pump and shift decompression lever to
horizontal position.

Injection point adjustment to desired point (On line adjustment)

It is presumed that engine is running in Diesel mode and On-line Diesel


injection plot is being displayed on the monitor using software.

Note the injection point displayed on the monitor. It is the point where
maximum Diesel line pressure occurs.

Turn the injection point adjustment nut gradually and note its effect on Diesel
injection plot. The Diesel injection plot shifts horizontally to retard/advance
injection point depending upon the direction of rotation. Adjust the nut till
desired injection point is obtained.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 26

Apex Innovations
Following photograph shows position of relays and fuse box.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 27

Apex Innovations
Precautions
Use clean and filtered water; any suspended particle may clog the piping.
Circulate dynamometer and engine cooling water for some time after shutting
down the engine.
Piezo Sensor Handling:
o While engine is running ensure cooling water circulation for combustion
pressure sensor / engine jacket.
o Diaphragm of the sensor is delicate part. Avoid scratches or hammering.
o A long sleeve is provided inside the hole drilled for Piezo sensor. This sleeve
is protecting the surface of the diaphragm. While removing the sensor, this
sleeve may come out with the sensor and fall down or loose during handling.
o Status of the sensor is indicated on the Piezo powering unit. Damages to the
electronic parts of the sensor or loose connection are indicated as "open" or
"Short" status on Piezo powering unit.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 28

Apex Innovations

Troubleshooting
Note: 1 For component specific problems refer components manual
2 For wiring problems refer drawing Wiring234.
Problems

Possible causes / remedies

Engine does not start

Diesel mode:

Decompression lever in vertical position. Make it


horizontal

Low Battery voltage: Recharge battery

No fuel injected: Remove air from air vent on the


fuel pump
Clogged injector: Remove injector and check the fuel
injection spray while engine is manually cranked.

VCR setting low: Set VCR to 17-18

Fuel injection point disturbed: Set to company


setting

Dynamometer

loaded:

Switch

off

dynamometer

loading unit or adjust load to minimum


Improper valve setting: The valve setting procedure
is described below.
Petrol mode

Decompression lever in vertical position. Make it


horizontal

Low Battery voltage: Recharge battery

Spark plug damaged/short

VCR setting wrong : Set VCR to 10

Dynamometer loaded: Switch off dynamometer


loading unit or adjust load to minimum

Check trigger wheel setting

Ensure working of fuel pump when ignition key is


switched on

Dynamometer does
not load the engine

Ensure Sensors and Outputs are connected to ECU

Faulty/ loose wiring from dynamometer loading unit


to dynamometer
No DC voltage at the outlet of dynamometer loading
unit. Check DLU for loose connection
No free movement of dynamometer body due to
raised jack bolts below dynamometer body

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 29

Apex Innovations
Water inlet outlet hoses connecting dynamometer
body below the dynamometer may be very hard.
Faulty air flow

Air hose leakage at connections between air box and


engine.

Faulty fuel flow

Air trap in pressure signal line to fuel transmitter


Improper closing of fuel cock.

Software does not

Faulty or wrong USB port

work

Virus in computer
Loose connections, improper earthing

Faulty indicated
power

TDC setting disturbed. Readjust TDC setting (refer


commissioning).
Check configuration data

Faulty pressure crank

Improper earthing

angle diagram

Adjust Plot reference for cylinder pressure in setup


constants such that suction stroke pressure just
matches the zero line.
If peak pressure is just after TDC, TDC setting
disturbed, readjust
If peak pressure shifts randomly with respect to
TDC, coupling of crank angle sensor may be loose

Faulty speed

Broken coupling of crank angle sensor

indication
Incorrect

Check the connection between thermocouple, RTD,

temperature

transmitters, Digital voltmeter. Note that yellow

indication

cable

of

thermocouple

is

positive

and

red

is

negative.
Open or damaged temperature sensor

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 30

Apex Innovations

Theory
Terminology
Engine Cylinder diameter (bore) (D): The nominal inner diameter of the
working cylinder.
Piston area (A): The area of a circle of diameter equal to engine
cylinder diameter (bore). A = / 4 D

Engine Stroke length (L): The nominal distance through which a working
piston moves between two successive reversals of its direction of motion.
Dead center: The position of the working piston and the moving parts, which
are mechanically connected to it at the moment when the direction of the piston
motion is reversed (at either end point of the stroke).
Bottom dead center (BDC): Dead center when the piston is nearest to
the crankshaft. Sometimes it is also called outer dead center (ODC).
Top dead center (TDC): Dead center when the position is farthest from the
crankshaft. Sometimes it is also called inner dead center (IDC).
Swept volume (VS): The nominal volume generated by the working piston
when travelling from one dead center to next one, calculated as the product of
piston area and stroke. The capacity described by engine manufacturers in cc
is the swept volume of the engine. Vs = A L = / 4 D L
2

Clearance volume (VC): The nominal volume of the space on the combustion side
of the piston at top dead center.
Cylinder volume: The sum of swept volume and clearance volume. V = Vs + Vc
Compression ratio (CR): The numerical value of the cylinder volume divided
by the numerical value of clearance volume. CR = V / Vc

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 31

Apex Innovations

Bore
D
Cylinder head
Suction valve
Intake or suction manifold

Top dead center T.D.C.


Piston
Gudgeon or wrist pin

Exhaust valve
Exhaust manifold

Clearance volume.Vc

Cylinder volumeV
Stroke volume.Vs

Bottom dead center B.D.C.


Cylinder
Connecting rod
Crankcase
Crankshaft

Crank pin
Crank

Important positions and volumes in reciprocating engine

Four stroke cycle engine


In four-stroke cycle engine, the cycle of operation is completed in four strokes of the
piston or two revolutions of the crankshaft. Each stroke consists of 1800 of crankshaft
rotation and hence a cycle consists of 7200 of crankshaft rotation. The series of
operation of an ideal four-stroke engine are as follows:
1. Suction or Induction stroke: The inlet valve is open, and the piston travels
down the cylinder, drawing in a charge of air. In the case of a spark ignition
engine the fuel is usually pre-mixed with the air.
2. Compression stroke: Both valves are closed, and the piston travels up the
cylinder. As the piston approaches top dead centre (TDC), ignition occurs. In the
case of compression ignition engines, the fuel is injected towards the end of
compression stroke.
3. Expansion or Power or Working stroke: Combustion propagates throughout
the charge, raising the pressure and temperature, and forcing the piston down. At
the end of the power stroke the exhaust valve opens, and the irreversible
expansion of the exhaust gases is termed blow-down.
4. Exhaust stroke: The exhaust valve remains open, and as the piston travels up
the cylinder the remaining gases are expelled. At the end of the exhaust stroke,

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 32

Apex Innovations
when the exhaust valve closes some exhaust gas residuals will be left; these will
dilute the next charge.

Two stroke cycle engine


In two stroke engines the cycle is completed in two strokes of piston i.e. one
revolution of the crankshaft as against two revolutions of four stroke cycle engine.
The two-stroke cycle eliminates the separate induction and exhaust strokes.
1. Compression stroke: The piston travels up the cylinder, so compressing the
trapped charge. If the fuel is not pre-mixed, the fuel is injected towards the end
of

the

compression

stroke;

ignition

should

again

occur

before

TDC.

Simultaneously under side of the piston is drawing in a charge through a springloaded non-return inlet valve.
2. Power stroke: The burning mixture raises the temperature and pressure in the
cylinder, and forces the piston down. The downward motion of the piston also
compresses the charge in the crankcase. As the piston approaches the end of its
stroke the exhaust port is uncovered and blow down occurs. When the piston is at
BDC the transfer port is also uncovered, and the compressed charge in the
crankcase expands into the cylinder. Some of the remaining exhaust gases are
displaced by the fresh charge; because of the flow mechanism this is called loop
scavenging'. As the piston travels up the cylinder, the piston closes the first
transfer port, and then the exhaust port is closed.

Performance of I.C.Engines
Indicated thermal efficiency (t): Indicated thermal efficiency is the ratio of
energy in the indicated power to the fuel energy.

t = IndicatedPower / FuelEnergy
t (%) =

IndicatedPower ( KW ) 3600
100
FuelFlow( Kg / Hr ) CalorificValue( KJ / Kg )

Brake thermal efficiency (bth): A measure of overall efficiency of the engine


is given by the brake thermal efficiency. Brake thermal efficiency is the ratio of
energy in the brake power to the fuel energy.

bth = BrakePower / FuelEnergy

bth (%) =

BrakePower ( KW ) 3600
100
FuelFlow( Kg / Hr ) CalorificValue( KJ / Kg )

Mechanical efficiency (m): Mechanical efficiency is the ratio of brake horse power
(delivered power) to the indicated horsepower (power provided to the piston).

m = BrakePower / IndicatedPower
01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 33

Apex Innovations
and Frictional power = Indicated power Brake power
Following figure gives diagrammatic representation of various efficiencies,

Energy lost in exhaust, coolant, and radiation

Energy lost in friction, pumping etc.

Energy
in fuel
(A)

IP
(B)

BP
(C)

Indicated thermal efficiency = B/A


Brake thermal efficiency = C/A
Mechanical efficiency = C/B
Volumetric efficiency (v): The engine output is limited by the maximum
amount of air that can be taken in during the suction stroke, because only a
certain amount of fuel can be burned effectively with a given quantity of air.
Volumetric efficiency is an indication of the breathing ability of the engine and
is defined as the ratio of the air actually induced at ambient conditions to the
swept volume of the engine. In practice the engine does not induce a complete
cylinder full of air on each stroke, and it is convenient to define volumetric
Efficiency as:
Mass of air consumed
v (%) =

-------------------------------------------------------------------------mass of flow of air to fill swept volume at atmospheric conditions

v (%) =

AirFlow( Kg / Hr )
100
/ 4 D L(m ) N ( RPM ) / n NoofCyl AirDen ( Kg / m 3 ) 60
2

Where n= 1 for 2 stroke engine and n= 2 for 4 stroke engine.


Air flow:
For air consumption measurement air box with orifice is used.
01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 34

Apex Innovations

AitFlow( Kg / Hr ) = C d / 4 D 2 2 g hwater Wden / Aden Aden 3600


Where Cd = Coefficient of discharge of orifice
D = Orifice diameter in m
g = Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) = 9.81 m/s2
h = Differential head across orifice (m of water)
Wden = Water density (kg/m3) =@1000 kg/m3
Wair = Air density at working condition (kg/m3) = p/RT
Where
p= Atmospheric pressure in kgf/m2 (1 Standard atm. = 1.0332X104 kgf/m2)
R= Gas constant = 29.27 kgf.m/kg0k
T= Atmospheric temperature in 0k
Specific fuel consumption (SFC): Brake specific fuel consumption and indicated
specific fuel consumption, abbreviated BSFC and ISFC, are the fuel consumptions
on the basis of Brake power and Indicated power respectively.
Fuel-air (F/A) or air-fuel (A/F) ratio: The relative proportions of the fuel and air
in the engine are very important from standpoint of combustion and efficiency of
the engine. This is expressed either as the ratio of the mass of the fuel to that of
the air or vice versa.
Calorific value or Heating value or Heat of combustion: It is the energy
released per unit quantity of the fuel, when the combustible is burned and the
products of combustion are cooled back to the initial temperature of combustible
mixture. The heating value so obtained is called the higher or gross calorific value
of the fuel. The lower or net calorific value is the heat released when water in the
products of combustion is not condensed and remains in the vapour form.
Power and Mechanical efficiency: Power is defined as rate of doing work and
equal to the product of force and linear velocity or the product of torque and
angular velocity. Thus, the measurement of power involves the measurement of
force (or torque) as well as speed.
The power developed by an engine at the output shaft is called brake power and
is given by
Power = NT/60,000 in kW
where T= torque in Nm = WR
W = 9.81 * Net mass applied in kg. R= Radius in m
N is speed in RPM
Mean effective pressure and torque: Mean effective pressure is defined as a
hypothetical pressure, which is thought to be acting on the piston throughout the
power stroke.
01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 35

Apex Innovations
Power in kW = (Pm LAN/n 100)/60 in bar
Where Pm = mean effective pressure
L = length of the stroke in m
A = area of the piston in m2
N = Rotational speed of engine RPM
n= number of revolutions required to complete one engine cycle
n= 1 (for two stroke engine)
n= 2 (for four stroke engine)
Thus we can see that for a given engine the power output can be measured in
terms of mean effective pressure. If the mean effective pressure is based on
brake power it is called brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and if based on
indicated power it is called indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP).

BMEP(bar ) =

BrakePower( KW ) 60
L A ( N / n) NoOfCyl 100

IMEP(bar ) =

IndicatedPower ( KW ) 60
L A ( N / n) NoOfCyl 100

Similarly, the friction means effective pressure (FMEP) can be defined as


FMEP= IMEP BMEP

Basic measurements
The basic measurements, which usually should be undertaken to evaluate the
performance of an engine on almost all tests, are the following:
1 Measurement of speed
Following different speed measuring devices are used for speed measurement.
1 Photoelectric/Inductive proximity pickup with speed indicator
2 Rotary encoder
2 Measurement of fuel consumption
I) Volumetric method: The fuel consumed by an engine is measured by
determining the volume flow of the fuel in a given time interval and multiplying it by
the specific gravity of fuel. Generally a glass burette having graduations in ml is used
for volume flow measurement. Time taken by the engine to consume this volume is
measured by stopwatch.
II) Gravimetric method: In this method the time to consume a given weight of the
fuel is measured. Differential pressure transmitters working on hydrostatic head
principles can used for fuel consumption measurement.
3 Measurement of air consumption
Air box method: In IC engines, as the air flow is pulsating, for satisfactory
measurement of air consumption an air box of suitable volume is fitted with orifice.
01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 36

Apex Innovations
The air box is used for damping out the pulsations. The differential pressure across
the orifice is measured by manometer and pressure transmitter.
4 Measurement of brake power
Measurement of BP involves determination of the torque and angular speed of the
engine output shaft. This torque-measuring device is called a dynamometer.
The dynamometers used are of following types:
I) Rope brake dynamometer: It consists of a number of turns of rope wound
around the rotating drum attached to the output shaft. One side of the rope is
connected to a spring balance and the other to a loading device. The power is
absorbed in friction between the rope and the drum. The drum therefore requires
cooling.
Brake power = DN (W-S)/60,000 in kW
where D is the brake drum diameter, W is the weight and S is the spring scale
reading.
II) Hydraulic dynamometer: Hydraulic dynamometer works on the principal of
dissipating the power in fluid friction. It consists of an inner rotating member or
impeller coupled to output shaft of the engine. This impeller rotates in a casing, due
to the centrifugal force developed, tends to revolve with impeller, but is resisted by
torque arm supporting the balance weight. The frictional forces between the impeller
and the fluid are measured by the spring-balance fitted on the casing. Heat
developed due to dissipation of power is carried away by a continuous supply of the
working fluid usually water. The output (power absorbed) can be controlled by
varying the quantity of water circulating in the vortex of the rotor and stator
elements. This is achieved by a moving sluice gate in the dynamometer casing.
III) Eddy current dynamometer: It consists of a stator on which are fitted a
number of electromagnets and a rotor disc and coupled to the output shaft of the
engine. When rotor rotates eddy currents are produced in the stator due to magnetic
flux set up by the passage of field current in the electromagnets. These eddy
currents oppose the rotor motion, thus loading the engine. These eddy currents are
dissipated in producing heat so that this type of dynamometer needs cooling
arrangement. A moment arm measures the torque. Regulating the current in
electromagnets controls the load.
Note: While using with variable speed engines sometimes in certain speed zone the
dynamometer operating line are nearly parallel with engine operating lines which
result in poor stability.

5 Measurement of indicated power


There are two methods of finding the IHP of an engine.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 37

Apex Innovations
I) Indicator diagram:

A dynamic pressure sensor (piezo sensor) is fitted in the

cylinder head to sense combustion pressure. A rotary encoder is fitted on the engine
shaft for crank angle signal. Both signals are simultaneously scanned by an engine
indicator (electronic unit) and communicated to computer. The software in the
computer draws pressure crank-angle and pressure volume plots and computes
indicated power of the engine.
Conversion of pressure crank-angle plot to pressure volume plot:

The figure shows crank-slider mechanism. The piston pin position is given by

x = r cos + l cos
From figure r sin = l sin and recalling cos =

1 sin 2

{1 (r l ) sin }

x = r cos + l r

The binomial theorem can be used to expand the square root term:

]}

x = r cos + l / r 1 1 (r / l ) 2 sin 2 1 8 (r / l ) 4 sin 4 + ...


2

.1

The powers of sin can be expressed as equivalent multiple angles:

sin 2 = 1 / 2 1 / 2 cos 2

sin 4 = 3 / 8 1 / 2 cos 2 + 1 / 8 cos 4

.2

Substituting the results from equation 2 in to equation 1 gives

]}

x = r cos + l / r 1 1 (r / l ) 2 (1 / 2 1 / 2 cos 2 ) 1 8 (r / l ) 4 (3 / 8 1 / 2 cos 2 + 1 / 8 cos 4 ) + ...


2
2
The geometry of the engine is such that (r / l ) is invariably less than 0.1, in which
case it is acceptable to neglect the

(r / l )4 terms,

as inspection of above equation

shows that these terms will be at least an order of magnitude smaller than

(r / l )2

terms.
The approximate position of piston pin end is thus:

]}

x = r cos + l / r 1 1 ( r / l ) 2 (1 / 2 1 / 2 cos 2 )
2

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 38

Apex Innovations
Where r =crankshaft throw and
Calculate

l = connecting rod length.

x using above equation; then (l + r x ) shall give distance traversed by

piston from its top most position at any angle


II) Morse test:

It is applicable to multi-cylinder engines. The engine is run at

desired speed and output is noted. Then combustion in one of the cylinders is
stopped by short circuiting spark plug or by cutting off the fuel supply. Under this
condition other cylinders motor this cylinder. The output is measured after
adjusting load on the engine to keep speed constant at original value. The difference
in output is measure of the indicated power of cut-out cylinder. Thus for each
cylinder indicated power is obtained to find out total indicated power.

VCR Engines
The standard available engines (with fixed compression ratio) can be modified by
providing additional variable combustion space. There are different arrangements by
which this can be achieved. Tilting cylinder block method is one of the arrangements
where the compression ratio can be changed without change is combustion
geometry. With this method the compression ratio can be changed within designed
range without stopping the engine.

Calculations

Brake power (kw):

BP =

2NT
60 x1000

2N (WxR)
60000

0.785 xRPMx(Wx9.81) xArmlength


60000

BHP =

TxN
75x 60

Brake mean effective pressure (bar):

BMEP =

BPx 60
/ 4 xD xLx( N / n) xNoOfCylx100
2

n = 2 for 4 stroke
n = 1 for 2 stroke

Indicated power (kw) :From PV diagram

X scale (volume)

1cm =

Y scale (pressure) 1cm

01-03-2014

..m3
..bar

Im240PE

Page 39

Apex Innovations

Area of PV diagram

..cm2

workdone / cycle / cyl ( Nm ) = AreaofPVdi agram Xscalefact or Yscalefact or 100000

IP =

workdone / cycle / cyl ( N / n) NoOfCyl


60 1000

Indicated mean effective pressure (bar):

IPx 60
/ 4 xD xLx ( N / n) xNoOfCylx100

IMEP =

Frictional power (kw):

FP = IP BP

FHP = IHP BHP


BHP = IHP FHP

Brake specific fuel consumption (Kg/kwh):

BSFC =

Brake Thermal Efficiency (%):

BThEff =

BP 3600 100
FuelFlowInKg / hr CalVal

BThEff =

IThEff MechEff
BHP
OR
100
FuelHP

Indicated Thermal Efficiency (%):

IThEff =

IP 3600 100
FuelFlowInKg / hr CalVal

IThEff =

BThEff 100
MechEff

Mechanical Efficiency (%):

MechEff =

FuelflowIn kg / hr
BP

BP 100
IP

Air flow (Kg/hr):

AirFlow = Cd / 4 d 2 2 gh (Wden / Aden ) 3600 Aden

Volumetric Efficiency (%):

VolEff =

01-03-2014

AirFlow 100
TheoreticalAirFlow

AirFlow 100
/ 4 D Stroke ( N / n) 60 NoOfCyl Aden
2

Im240PE

Page 40

Apex Innovations

Air fuel ratio:

A/ F =

AirFlow
FuelFlow

Heat Balance (KJ/h):

a) HeatSuppli edbyFuel = FuelFlow CalVal


b) HeatEquiva lentToUsef ulWork = BP 3600

HeatEquivalentToUsefulWorkIn% =
C)

HeatEquivalentToUsefulWork 100
HeatSuppliedByFuel

HeatInJacketCoolingWater = F 3 C PW (T 2 T1)
HeatInJacketCoolingWaterIn% =

HeatInJacketCoolingWater 100
HeatSuppliedByFuel

d) Heat in Exhaust (Calculate CPex value):

C P ex =

F 4 C PW (T 4 T 3)
..KJ / Kg 0 k
( F1 + F 2) (T 5 T 6)

Where,
Cpex

Specific heat of exhaust gas

kJ/kg0K

Cpw

Specific heat of water

kJ/kg0K

F1

Fuel consumption

kg/hr

F2

Air consumption

kg/hr

F4

Calorimeter water flow

kg/hr

Calorimeter water inlet temperature

Calorimeter water outlet temperature

Exhaust gas to calorimeter inlet temp.

Exhaust gas from calorimeter outlet temp.

T3
T4
T5
T6

HeatInExha ust ( KJ / h ) = ( F1 + F 2) C P ex (T 5 Tamb )

HeatInExhaust % =

HeatInExhaust 100
HeatSuppliedByFuel

e) Heat to radiation and unaccounted (%)

= HeatSuppliedByFuel (100%) {( HeatEquivalentToUsefulWork (%) +


HeatInJacketCoolingWater (%) + HeatToExhaust (%)}

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 41

Apex Innovations

Components used
Components

Details

Engine

Make Kirloskar, Type 1 cylinder, 4 stroke Diesel,


water cooled, Model TV1, stroke 110 mm, bore 87.5
mm. 661 cc, CR 18,

Modified to VCR engine CR

range 12 to 18 with additional head for petrol


Dynamometer

Make Saj test plant Pvt. Ltd., Model AG10, Type


Eddy current

Dynamometer

Loading

Make Apex, Model AX-155. Type constant speed,

unit

Supply 230V AC.

Propeller shaft

Make Hindustan Hardy Spicer, Model 1260, Type A

Manometer

Make Apex, Model MX-104, Range 100-0-100 mm,


Type U tube, Conn. 1/4`` BSP hose back side,
Mounting panel

Fuel measuring unit

Make Apex, Glass, Model:FF0.012

Piezo sensor

Make PCB Piezotronics, Model SM111A22, Range


5000 psi, Diaphragm stainless steel type & hermetic
sealed

White

coaxial

teflon

cable

Make PCB Piezotronics, Model 002C20, Length 20 ft,


Connections one end BNC plug and other end 10-32
micro

Engine control unit

PE3 series ECU, full build potted enclosure.

Throttle body

Make Tata motors Model used in TATA Nano car

Fuel injector

Make Denso Model: Used with Maruti 800 car

Fuel pump

Make Denso Model: Used with Maruti 800 car

Crank angle sensor

Make Kubler-Germany Model 8.3700.1321.0360 Dia:


37mm
Supply

Shaft

Size:

Voltage

Size

5-30V

6mmxLength
DC,

Output

12.5mm,
Push

Pull

(AA,BB,OO), PPR: 360, Outlet cable type axial with


flange 37 mm to 58 mm
Data acquisition device

NI USB-6210 Bus Powered M Series,

Piezo powering unit

Model AX-409.

Temperature sensor

Make

Radix

Type

K,

Ungrounded,

Sheath

Dia.6mmX110mmL, SS316, Connection 1/4"BSP (M)


adjustable compression fitting
Temperature sensor

01-03-2014

Make Radix, Type Pt100, Sheath Dia.6mmX110mmL,

Im240PE

Page 42

Apex Innovations
SS316,

Connection

1/4"BSP(M)

adjustable

compression fitting
Temperature transmitter

Input

Thermocouple

(type

K),

output

4-20mA,

supply 24VDC, Calibration: 0-1200deg.C.


Temperature transmitter

Input

RTD(Pt100), output 4-20mA, supply 24VDC,

Calibration: 0-100C
Load sensor

Make Sensotronics Sanmar Ltd., Model 60001,Type


S beam, Universal, Capacity 0-50 kg

Load indicator

Model SV8 SERIES, 85 to 270VAC, retransmission


output 4-20 mA

Power supply

Make Meanwell, model S-15-24, O/P 24 V, 0.7 A

Digital voltmeter

Make Meco, 3.1/2 digit LED display, range 0-20


VDC, supply 230VAC, model SMP35

Fuel flow transmitter

Make

Yokogawa,

Model

EJA110-EMS-5A-92NN,

Calibration range 0-500 mm H2O, Output linear


Air flow transmitter

Make Wika, Model SL1, Range (-) 250 mm WC

Rotameter

Make Eureka Model PG 5, Range 25-250 lph,


Connection

BSP

vertical,

screwed,

Packing

neoprene
Rotameter

Make Eureka Model PG 6, Range 40-400 lph,


Connection

BSP

vertical,

screwed,

Packing

neoprene
Pump

Make Kirloskar, Model Mini 18SM, HP 0.5, Size 1 x


1, Single ph 230 V AC

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 43

Apex
x Innovatio
ons

Co
omponen
nts manu
uals
Rotametter (PG series)
s
Rotam
meter works
s on the principle of va
ariable area.. Float is fre
ee to move up & down in
a tap
pered measu
uring glass tube.
t
Upwarrd flow caus
ses the floatt to take up
p a position in
which
h the buoya
ancy forces and the we
eight are ba
alanced. The
e vertical po
osition of th
he
float as indicated
d by scale is
s a measure
ement of the
e instantane
eous flow ra
ate.

Tech
hnical spe
ecification
ns
Mode
el

PG-1 to 21
1

Make
e

Eureka

Flow Rate Max.

100 to 400
000 Lph

Packiing/Gaskets
s

Neoprene

Meas
suring tube

Borosilicate glass

Float

316SS

er
Cove

Glass

Accuracy

+/-2% fulll flow

Rang
ge ability

10:1

Scale
e length

175-200mm.

Max. Temp.

2000C

Conn
nection

Flanged an
nd Threaded
d, Vertical

Principle of operation
The rotameter
r
valves
v
must be opened slowly and carefully to
o adjust the
e desired flo
ow
rate. A sudden jumping of the
t
float, wh
hich may cause damage
e to the mea
asuring tube
e,
mustt be avoided
d.
Fig.1
Edge

The upper edge


e of the flo
oat as shown in fig. 1 indicates
s the rate of flow. Fo
or
alignment a line marked R.P. is provided on the scale
s
which should coincide with th
he
red liine provided
d on measurring tube att the bottom
m.

Main
ntenance
When
n the measu
uring tube and
a
float be
ecome dirty it is necess
sary to rem
move the tub
be
and clean
c
it with
h a soft brus
sh, trichloroethylene or compressed air.

01 03
3 2014

Im
m240PE

Page 44

Apex Innovations

Dismantling of the measuring tube


Shut off the flow.
Remove the front and rear covers.
Unscrew the gland adjusting screws, and push the gland upwards incase of bottom
gland and downwards incase of top gland. Then remove the glass by turning it to
and fro. Care should be taken, not to drop down the glands. Float or float
retainers. The indicating edge of the float should not be damaged.

Fitting of the measuring tube


Normally the old gland packing is replaced by new ones while fitting back the
measuring tube.
Put the glands first in their position and then put the packing on the tube.
Insert the tube in its place.
Push the glands downwards and upwards respectively and fix them with the gland
adjusting screws.
Tighten the gland adjusting screws evenly till the gap between the gland and the
bottom plate is approximately 1mm. In case, after putting the loflometer into
operation, still there is leakage, then tighten the gland adjusting screw till the
leakage stops.
Fix the scale, considering the remark given in the test report.

Fix the front and rear covers.


Troubleshooting
Problem

Check

Leakage on glands

Replace gland packing

Showing high/low flow rate than

Consult manufacturers

expected
Showing correct reading initially but

Replace float

starts showing high reading after

Incase of gases, check also leakage

few days
Showing correct reading initially but

Clean the rotameter by suitable solvent or

starts showing high reading after

soft brush

some months.
Fluctuation of float

Maintain operating pressure as mentioned


in test report.

Frequent breakage of glass tube

Use loflometer to accommodate correct


flow rate.
Maintain

operating

pressure

below

pressure rating of the tube.


Check piping layout.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 45

Apex Innovations

Manufacturers address
Eureka Industrial Equipments Pvt. Ltd.
17/20, Royal Chambers,
Paud Road, Pune 411 038.
Email: eureka.equip@gems.vsnl.net.in

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 46

Apex Innovations

Pump (Self priming)


The centrifugal pumps designed for pumping water and many similar applications.
The pump & the motor are designed for continuous operations.

Technical specifications
Model

MINI-18SM

Make

Kirloskar

Supply

230 VAC, Single phase

Total Head Max.

6-18 meter

Discharge

1650-720 Lph

Connection

20 x 20mm

Water seal

Mechanical

Pump Unit

CI.

Power Rating

0.18Kw/0.25hp

Type of Motor

Capacitor starts and run

Insulation

B class

Rating

Continuous

Impeller

H.T. Brass

Delivery casing

Cast Iron

Motor Body

Cast Iron

Shaft

Carbon steel

Priming
The pump is of self priming model. It is only essential to fill about 300ml. of water
into the casing once during installation and shut the filler cap tightly. After switching
the pump on, during the first operation it will have to remove the air in the suction
pipe and will take min. 2 minutes before the water begins to flow. During consecutive
operations you will get water immediately on switching the pump.

Troubleshooting
Problem

Check

Motor does not rotate

Check power supply.


Remove fan cover and check free rotation of fan
along with shaft.(By hand)
Check supply voltage.
Replace condenser.

Capacity
the

decreases

pump

satisfactorily.

is

after

running

The inlet of suction pipe should be at least 2 below


the water level.
Clean the pipe.
Reduce the total head.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 47

Apex Innovations
Check the pipe for leakage and correct it.
Change to the recommended size.
Pump over loaded. (Takes

Select suitable Monoblock pump.

more amps or fuse goes off)

Reduce the total head.

Leaking mechanical seal.

Lap the running faces or change seal.

Pump gets jammed

Remove fan cover and rotate fan by hand.


Pump should run for a few minutes at least once in
two days.

Pump does not lift water

Fill water till it flows continuously in air cock.


Check pipe for leakages. Use Teflon tape for joints.
Clean pipes and reduce the bends.
Change or re-fit the seal.
Tighten the air cock head: if damaged replace it.

Manufacturers address
Kirloskar Brothers Ltd.,
Ujjain Road, Opp. Railway Station,
Dewas 455 001.
E-mail: mkt@dws.kbl.co.in

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 48

Apex
x Innovatio
ons

E
Engine
Tech
hnical spe
ecification
ns
Mode
el

TV1

Make
e

Kirloskar O
Oil Engines

Type

Four stroke
e, Water

ed, Diesel
coole
No. of
o cylinder

One

Bore

87.5 mm

ke
Strok

110 mm

Comb
bustion prin
nciple

Compression ignition

Cubic
c capacity

0.661 literrs

Comp
pression rattio 3 port

17.5:1

Peak pressure

77.5 kg/cm
m2

ction of rotation
Direc

Clockwise (Looking

from flywheel en
nd side)
Max. speed

2000 rpm

Min. idle speed

750 rpm

Min. operating speed

1200 rpm

Fuel timing for std.


s
engine

230 BTDC

Valve
e timing
Inlet opens BTDC

4.50

Inlet closes ABDC

35.50

Exhaust opens
o
BBDC
C 35.50
Exhaust closes
c
ATDC
C 4.50
Valve
e clearance Inlet

0.18 mm

Valve
e clearance Exhaust

0.20 mm

Bump
ping clearan
nce

0.046 0
0.052

Lubricating syste
em

Forced fee
ed system

Powe
er rating
1. Continuous

7/1500 hp
p/rpm

2. Interm
mittent

7.7/1500 h
hp/rpm

Brake
e mean effe
ective
Press
sure at 1500
0 rpm

6.35 kg/cm
m2

Lubricating oil pu
ump

Gear type

Lub. oil pump de


elivery

6.50 lit/min.

Sump
p capacity

2.70 liter

Lub. Oil consumption

1.5% norm
mally exceed
d of fuel

Conn
necting rod length

234 mm

01 03
3 2014

Im
m240PE

Page 49

Apex Innovations
Overall dimensions

617 L x 504 W x 877 H

Weight

130 kgs

Manufacturers address
Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd.

Dealer:

Laxmanrao Kirloskar Road,

Ashwini Enterprise

Khadki, Pune 411 003.

Kolhapur.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 50

Apex
x Innovatio
ons

Crank a
angle se
ensor
Tech
hnical spe
ecification
ns
Make
e

Kublerr

Mode
el

8.3700
0.1321.0360

Supp
ply voltage

5-30VDC

Output

p
(AA,BB,OO)
Push pull

PPR

360

Outle
et Cable typ
pe

axial

Encoder Diamete
er

Dia. 37
7,

Shaftt size

Dia.6m
mm x length
h12mm

Weight

120 gm
m

Man
nufacturerrs address
Kueb
bler Germa
any

an supplier:
India
Rajd
deep Automa
ation Pvt. Lttd.
Surv
vey No. 143, 3rd floor,
Sinh
hgad Road, Vadgaon
V
Dh
hayari,
Pune
e 411 041
1.

01 03
3 2014

Im
m240PE

Page 51

Apex Innovations

Piezo sensor
Introduction
These

miniature

sensor

series

are

intended

for

general

purpose

pressure

measurements. Models SM111A22 and M108A02 are designed for applications where
acceleration compensation is not required.
This

versatile

compression,

transducer
combustion,

series

is

explosion,

designed
pulsation,

for

dynamic

cavitations,

measurement
blast,

pneumatic,

hydraulic, fluidic and other such pressures.

Technical specifications
Sensor name

Dynamic pr. transducer With built in amplifier

Make

PCB Piezotronics, INC.

Model

M111A22

Range, FS (5V output)

5000 psi

Useful range (10V output)

10000 psi

Maximum pressure

15000 psi

Resolution

0.1 psi

Sensitivity

1 mV/psi

Resonant frequency

400 kHz

Rise time

2 s

Discharge time constant

500 s

Low frequency response (-5%)

0.001 Hz

Linearity (Best straight line)

2%

Output polarity

Positive

Output impedance

100 ohms

Output bias

8-14 volt

Acceleration sensitivity

0.002 psi/g

Temperature coefficient

0.03 %/0F

Temperature range

-100 to +275 0F

Flash temperature

3000 0F

Vibration / Shock

2000 / 20000 g peak

Ground isolation

No (2)

Excitation (Constant current)

2 to 20 mA

Voltage to current regulator

+18 to 28 VDC

Sensing geometry

Compression

Sensing element

Quartz

Housing material

17.4 SS

Diaphragm

Invar

Sealing

Welded hermetic

01-03-2014

Im240PE

of

Page 52

Apex Innovations
Electric connector

10-32 coaxial jack

Mounting thread

M7 x 0.75 pitches

Weight (with clamp nut)

6 gm

Cable model

002C20 white coaxial cable

Principle of operation
Dynamic pressure transducer: It is necessary only to supply the sensor with a 2
to 20 mA constant current at +20 to +30 VDC through a current regulating
diode or equivalent circuit. Most of the signal conditioners manufactured by PCB
have adjustable current features allowing a choice of input currents from 2 to 20
mA. In general, for lowest noise (best resolution), choose the lower current
ranges. When driving long cables (to several thousand feet), use the higher
current, up to 20 mA maximum.

Troubleshooting
Problem

Check

No signal

Remove sensor and clean by dampened cloth

Sensor damaged or ceases to

Return the equipment to company for repair

operate

Calibration
1. Piezoelectric sensors are dynamic devices, but static calibration techniques
can be employed if discharge time constants are sufficiently long. Generally,
static calibration methods are not employed when testing sensors with a
discharge time constant that is less than several hundred seconds.
2.

Direct couple the sensor to the DVM readout using a T-connector from the
Xducer jack or use the model 484B in the calibrate mode.

3. Apply pressure with a dead weight tester and take reading quickly. Release
pressure after each calibration point.
4. For shorter TC series, rapid step functions of pressure are generated by a
pneumatic pressure pulse calibrator or dead weight tester and readout is by
recorder or storage oscilloscope.

Manufacturers address
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.

Indian supplier:

3425 Walden Avenue,

Structural solutions (India) Pvt. Ltd.

Depew, New York 14043-2495.


E-mail: pressure@pcb.com
Web: www.pcb.com

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 53

Apex Innovations

Eddy Current Dynamometer


Introduction
The

AG

Series

eddy

current

dynamometers designed for the testing


of engines up to 400kW (536bhp) and
may

be

systems.

used

with

various

The

dynamometer

control
is

bi-

directional. The shaft mounted finger


type rotor runs in a dry gap. A closed
circuit type cooling system permits for a
sump.
Dynamometer

load

measurement

is

from a strain gauge load cell and speed


measurement is from a shaft mounted
three hundred sixty PPR rotary encoder.

Technical specifications (AG10)


Model

AG10

Make

Saj Test Plant Pvt. Ltd.

End flanges both side

Cardon shaft model 1260 type A

Water inlet

1.6bar

Minimum kPa

160

Pressure lbf/in2

23

Air gap mm

0.77/0.63

Torque Nm

11.5

Hot coil voltage max.

60

Continuous current amps

5.0

Cold resistance ohms

9.8

Speed max.

10000rpm

Load

3.5kg

Bolt size

M12 x 1.75

Weight

130kg

Principle of operation
1. The dynamometer unit comprises basically a rotor mounted on a shaft running in
bearings which rotates within a casing supported in ball bearing trunnions which form
part of the bed plate of the machine.
2. Secured in the casing are two field coils connected in series. When these coils are
supplied with a direct current (DC) a magnetic field is created in the casing across
the air gap at either side of the rotor. When the rotor turns in this magnetic field,
01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 54

Apex Innovations
eddy currents are induced creating a breaking effect between the rotor and casing.
The rotational torque exerted on the casing is measured by a strain gauge load cell
incorporated in the restraining linkage between the casing and dynamometer bed
plate.
3.

To prevent overheating of the dynamometer a water supply pressurized to

minimum indicated in specification is connected to a flanged inlet on the bed plate.


Water passes from the inlet to the casing via a flexible connection; permitting
movement of the casing. Water passes through loss (Grooved) plates in the casing
positioned either side of the rotor and absorbs the heat generated.
4. Heated water discharges from the casing through a flexible connection to an outlet
flange on the bed plate.

Troubleshooting
Problem

Check

Calibration of dynamometer not coming

in accuracy limit

Remove the obstruction for the free


movement of casing

Calibrate

the

weights

from

authorized source.

Maintain constant water flow

Clean

&

lubricate

properly

with

grease

Vibrations to dynamometer

Bearings clean & refit properly

Load cell link tighten properly

Clean & refit trunnion bearings

Dynamometer

foundation

bolts

tighten properly
Abnormal noise

Loss plate temperature high

Bearing temperature high

Arrest engine vibrations

Cardon shaft cover secure properly

Align guard properly

Replace rotor if warped

Replace main bearing

Check correct water flow

De-scale with suitable solution

Clear off water passages

Grease with proper brand

Remove excess grease & avoid over


grease

Use specified grease and do not mix


two types of grease

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 55

Apex Innovations

Dynamometer not rotating

Clear the drain

Replace the bearings

Replace shaft & coupling

Replace bearings

Replace rotor / loss plates after


checking

Water leakages at various locations

Replace casing o rings

Loss plates bolts tighten properly

Replace loss plate o rings

Casing plugs tighten properly

Replace pipe o rings

Operation
1. New dynamometers are run in before delivery to ensure that all components
run smoothly and grease is evently distributed within the shaft bearings.
2. The dynamometer has been calibrated the power developed by the engine on
test may be calculated using the following formula:
Power (kW) =
Power (hp) =

Torque ( Nm) xSpeed ( Radians / sec .)


inS .I .units
1000

Torque (lbfft ) xSpeed ( Radians / sec .)


in.imperialun its
550

3. The dynamometer will be calibrated in either Imperial or S.I. units or MKS as


specified.
Power =

WN
k

Where N = Shaft speed in rev/min


W = Torque (Indicated on torque indicator)
K = Constant dependant on units of power and torque

Manufacturers address
Saj Test Plant Pvt. Ltd.
72-76, Mundhwa, Pune Cantonment,
Pune 411 036.
Email:sajdyno@vsnl.com

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 56

Apex
x Innovatio
ons

Lo
oad cell
Introduction
Load cell are suitable use for sta
atic & dynamic
weigh
hing, bin/hopper weig
ghing, force
e measurem
ment,
scale
es

and

electro-mec
e
chanical

conversion

kit.

Constructed bod
dy of special high alloy s
steel.

Tech
hnical spe
ecification
ns
Make
e

Sens
sortronics

Mode
el

6000
01

Type

S Beam,Univer
B
rsal

Capa
acity

0 50Kg

Moun
nting thread
d

M10
0 x 1.25mm
m

Full scale
s
outputt (mV/V)

3.00

Tolerrance on outtput (FSO)

+/--0.25%

Zero balance (FS


SO)

+/--0.1mV/V

Non-linearity (FS
SO)

<+/-0.025%

Hyste
eresis (FSO))

<+/-0.020%

Non-repeatability
y

<+/-0.010%

Creep
p (FSO) in 30
3 min

<+/-0.020%

Operrating tempe
erature rang
ge

-20
00C to +700C

Rated
d excitation

10V
V AC/DC

Maxim
mum excitation

15V
V AC/DC

Bridg
ge resistance
e

350
0 Ohms (Nominal)

Insulation resista
ance

>10
000 Meg ohm @ 50VDC
C

Span
n / C (of loa
ad)
0

+/--0.001%

Zero / C (of FSO


O)

+/--0.002%

bined error (FSO)


Comb

<+/-0.025%

Safe overload (F
FSO)

150
0%

Ultim
mate overloa
ad (FSO)

300
0%

Prote
ection class

IP 6
67

Overall dimensio
ons

51 L x 20 W x 76 H mm

Weight

380
0 gm

Man
nufacturerrs address
Sensortronics Sa
anmar Ltd.
38/2A
A, Old Maha
abalipuram Road,
Perun
ngudi, Chen
nnai 600 096.
0
E-ma
ail: KBS@SA
ANMARGROU
UP.com

01 03
3 2014

Im
m240PE

Page 57

Apex Innovations

Air flow transmitter

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 58

Apex Innovations

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 59

Apex Innovations

Manufacturers address
WIKA Instruments Ltd.

Wika Instruments India Pvt. Ltd.

Garmany.

Plot No. 40, GatNo. 94+100, high Cliff Ind.

Web: www.wika.de

Estate, Village Kesnand,


Pune 412207

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 60

Apex Innovations

Differential Pressure Transmitter


Introduction
The model EJA110A pressure transmitter measures the flow rates and the pressure of
the liquids, gases, and steam, and also liquid levels.

Technical specifications
Model

EJA110A-DMS5A-92NN

Make

Yokogawa

Output signal

4 20mA DC with digital communication (Linear)

Measurement span

1 to 100kPa (100 to 10000mmH2O)

Calibration range

0 200, 0 500 mmH2O

Wetted parts material

Body SCS14A, Capsule SUS316L

Process connections

without process connector (1/4BSP body connection)

Bolts and nuts material

SCM 435

Installation

Horizontal impulse piping left side high pressure

Electrical connection

1/2NPT female

Cover O rings

Buna-N

Supply

10 to 24VDC

Process temperature limit

-40 to 120 0C

Housing

Weather proof

Weight

3.9Kg

Manufacturers address
Yokogawa Electrical Corporation

Indian supplier:

2-9-32, Nakacho,

Yokogawa India Ltd.

Musashino-shi,

40/4 Lavelle Road,

Tokyo, 180-8750, Japan.

Bangalore 560 001.

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 61

Apex Innovations

Warranty
This product is warranted for a period of 12 months from the date of supply against
manufacturing defects. You shall inform us in writing any defect in the system
noticed during the warranty period. On receipt of your written notice, Apex at its
option either repairs or replaces the product if proved to be defective as stated
above. You shall not return any part of the system to us before receiving our
confirmation to this effect.
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from:
Buyer/ User shall not have subjected the system to unauthorized alterations/
additions/ modifications.
Unauthorized use of external software/ interfacing.
Unauthorized maintenance by third party not authorized by Apex.
Improper site utilities and/or maintenance.
We do not take any responsibility for accidental injuries caused while working with
the set up.

Apex Innovations Pvt. Ltd.


E9/1, MIDC, Kupwad, Sangli-416436 (Maharashtra) India
Telefax:0233-2644098, 2644398
Email: support@apexinnovations.co.in Web: www.apexinnovations.co.in

01-03-2014

Im240PE

Page 62