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# NUMERICAL METHODS

## APPLICATION OF THE NUMERICAL METHOD FOR SOLVING NONLINEAR EQUATIONS

FOR SEA WAVE MODEL

## RUNGE KUTTA GROUP

GORDILLO RODRIGUEZ, FANNY
HIDALGO CASTRO, GRECIA
SEPEDE LAURO, PATRICK
SOLANO YAMUNAQUE, CLAUDIA

## COMMUNITY BENEFITED: CAPE BLANCO

Period: (2016-2018)

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2.1.

## Current and Desired Situation:

For a long time it has dreamed tap the huge potential of tides and ocean waves. Wave

energy allows obtaining electricity from mechanical energy generated by the movement of the
waves. It is one of the types of renewable energy currently most studied, and presents
enormous advantages over other energy because it more easily presented to predict optimum
conditions for maximum efficiency in their processes because its variability is lower.
Want to install a generator that works with wave energy on the beach in Cabo Blanco,
Talara, Piura department, you need to know where Busting the wave to locate generators fed a
fishing boat landing, running efficiently and effectively correctly this mode by numerical methods
to find how far from shore have a height.
This approach is developed with the help of a simple method (Newton-Raphson), which is
generally more understandable for the development of exercises and why we use it to solve the
little practical case embodied in the work.
We find the solution of the equation of a standing wave by a method, which we have
learned in the field. It is a nonlinear parameter and because of the periodic nature of the wave
equation have infinite solutions, with the lowest value of the solution the fundamental and most
important

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2.2.

General objective:
The general purpose of the research is to determine the optimal distance to the shore to

## which the generator must be installed so that current production is optimized.

Give a better quality of life to the community of Cabo Blanco, increasing the competitiveness of
the fishing sector as it is one of the main economic activities in the area.
2.3.

Specific goal:

## Specify the problem solution after completion of exposure.

Specify why the Newton-Raphson method is used to solve the problems presented.
2.4.

Justification:
When the project of an artisanal fisher terminal was raised, it was thought that it was

necessary to cause the least damage to the environment of Cabo Blanco since it is the
livelihood of the people, hence the problem of finding a clean and efficient away of power supply
to terminal. The idea of a generator wave power was chosen among others as the area meets
optimal conditions to develop an idea of this kind, while reducing the terminals maintenance
costs by concept of energy thus increasing profit margins fishermen.
Find how far from the shore is the best area to locate the generator through the application of
numerical methods is obtained according to the procedure for determining the value of the
variable "x", which in this case is the distance, including it as a feature wave necessary for
obtaining electricity from mechanical wave energy generating a more positive environmental
impact with a mayor economic viability.

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## PHASE III. PROJECT DESIGN AND FORMULATION

3.1.

Problem Tree

POWER
SUPPL
Y

3.2.

HIRE
SERVICE
(ENOSA)
SELFSUFFICI
ENT

WIND
POWER
WAVE
POWER

GENERAT
OR

DISTANCE

Objective tree

GENERAL
OBJECTIVE
S

Determine optimal
distance to the
shore that the
generator should
be install.
Specify the
solution of the
problem.

SPECIFIC
Demonstrate that
the method is
used.

3.3.

Alternatives Analysis

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HIRE SERVICE (ENOSA): Do not consider it a good choice because what is intended as the
current situation is to innovate and take advantage of renewable energy.
SELF-SUFFICIENT POWER SUPPLY: If you choose this option will have to decide which type
of energy has the lowest possible cost: wind power or wave power.
From that criterion the wave energy is chosen, is then where we have to analyze how far should
the generator be placed in order to obtain power.
3.4.-

Action Plan
The first thing we'll do is design the generator which will use the wave energy to operate

the terminal.
To locate the generator we'll use the method of Newton-Raphson and thus will find the
distance.
3.4.1.

Process:
Measurements
In this research was used as a tool to numerical methods, in this case solving the

respective equation of the wave that gives us the exercise, this consists of several parameters
such as wavelength, the respective heights, speed, time and ask us find the distance where the
wave breaks given by the variable "x". This is a logarithmic function for that reason we are in the
presence of a nonlinear equation and proceed to find the solution, this thanks to that
aforementioned method is determined. For this, it made a collection of approximate data. In the
field work the following data were collected:

=16
t= 12s
f=3
v=48

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h=0.40h0

PRACTICAL CASE
The equation of a stationary wave reflected in a harbor is given by:

Movement of water molecules in the surface region of the sea caused by wind action. In this
movement, which is originally circular no horizontal displacement of said molecules or water
mass formed by them, although there is itself the wave motion generated by that molecular
motion. This type of waves that originate offshore, known by the name of 'free waves' or
'standing waves'.
When a wave approaches the coast, the typical movement of the open sea, circular motion, is
transformed by friction with the bottom, in an elliptical motion; the crest of the wave advances
for this reason faster than its opposite point in the vertical and a horizontal displacement of the
mass of water that causes the breakdown of the wave to reach the coast occurs.

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For our case we were given the respective wave equation along with several parameters of
this, such as the wavelength, the respective heights, speed and time. You are asked to find the
distance where the wave breaks given by the variable "x". Due to the presence of the
logarithmic function, we are in the presence of a nonlinear equation and proceed to determine
the solutions by the method mentioned above.
DETAILED SOLUTION CASE
To find the given solution it can be applied various methods taught in the course of numerical
methods, such as Newton's method, secant method, etc. To solve this exercise Newton's
method due to its rapid convergence in finding the solution and the easiest to understand and
implement was used.
Determining the smallest positive solution:

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## Find the smallest positive solution through 1 method.

Using Newton's method

## a corresponding starting point is:

Xo = 7.5

We continue:

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Once you have found the distance where the wave breaks given by the variable "x". We
proceed to find the distance where the generator should be located, for this the following
function is given:
D = x + 2
Where:
D: is the distance where the generator should be located.
X: distance where the wave breaks
2: it is the period of the wave
Replacing data:
D = x + 2
D= 8 + 2
D = 14.28 m

## PHASE IV. EVALUATION

4.1.-

Results Achieved

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In the problem of standing wave has a periodic equation due to the presence of the
independent variable "x" within a sine function, therefore will have multiple answers due to the
periodicity of the function.
There are infinite solutions of x for f (x) = 0, since the sine function 0.4 displaced
downward short horizontal axis radians each, where 2 is the period 8 wave.
Trigonometric functions such as sine or cosine function are typical cases of periodic
functions, in which the period is 360 degrees.
For this reason it will be necessary to put a generator to 14.28 meters and if you want
to expand the capacity to generate more power, generators can be installed every 6.28 meters.
4. 2.-

## Strengths and Limitations

LIMITATIONS

STRENGTHS
We have the knowledge about wave

## energy used in this report, thanks to

power generators.

courses

taken

previously

as

## environmental analysis, so we can see

the impact it will have on the area.
We know the method of NewtonRaphson.
Being inhabitants of the city of Talara
know the surf zone.

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4.3.-

## Social Impacts, Economic, Environmental, Cultural and Technical

The advantage of having a source of clean, renewable energy to power the energy

needs of the artisanal fisheries terminal is that it greatly reduces the damage to the ecosystem
of the area. Besides the structures installed for the construction of the generator form an ideal
for adaptation and flourishing biodiversity area.
As if that were not enough, having a power source that feeds the terminal would
prevent the community of fishermen in the area bear the cost of energy payment thus reducing
their costs and improving their profit margins resulting in an improvement of its economy .
A source of non-conventional renewable energy would be an excellent alternative for
coastal zone as Cabo Blanco, which would mark a trend in the development of clean energy in
Peru and more specifically on the east coast. also inculcating care of its landscape and
hydrobiologics to the inhabitants of the target areas for this type of project resources.
A project like this could encourage several companies in different industries to have
greater social and environmental awareness, in addition to larger applied to feed energy needs
as biger cities or more developed industries.
Conclusion of the Case Studied
The Newton-Raphson method is an effective and quick method to find the zero of the function.
Due to the oscillatory nature of the sea waves, multiple responses will, however be considered
the fundamental response to the smallest positive solution.
The generator will be placed at 14.28 meters.
There are infinite crossings function zero because for large values of "x" the exponential
function have zero, leaving only the sine equation multiplied by a constant and moved down 0.4
therefore intersects the horizontal axis 2 have times in each period.

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ATTACHMENTS
Wave
Sea waves are seismic waves (disturbances of a material medium) also called superficial, which
are those that propagate through the interface (border) between two material means. When a
wave passes through deep waters (to greater than 1/20 of the wavelength deep) water
molecules return almost at the same site where they originally resided. It is a reciprocating with
a vertical component, from top to bottom, and a longitudinal direction of wave propagation.
We must distinguish two movements. The first oscillation means is moved by the wave is a
circular motion. The second is the wave propagation, which occurs because the energy is
transmitted with it, transferring the phenomenon with a direction and speed, called wave speed.
Parameters
The highest part of a wave is its crest, and the deepest part of the depression between
two consecutive waves is called valley. The distance between two crests is called wavelength
() and the height difference between a ridge and a valley is called wave height. Amplitude is
the distance that the particle away from its middle position in a direction perpendicular to the
propagation. The amplitude is worth half of the height. The slope () is the ratio of the height
and wavelength: = H /
It is called period () the time between the passage of two consecutive crests by the
same point. Wave velocity (also called phase velocity or speed), ie the propagation velocity is
calculated by dividing the wavelength by the period:
c=/
In deep water wave velocity is proportional to the wavelength, in very shallow water
on the contrary depends only on depth.

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## Parameters of waves. A = amplitude. H = height. = wavelength.

To find approximations of the zeros or roots of a real function. It can also be used to find the
maximum or minimum of a function, finding the zeros of its first derivative.
WAVE ENERGY
The wave or olamotriz, energy is the energy that allows the production of electricity from
mechanical energy generated by the movement of the waves. It is one of the types of renewable
energy currently most studied, and has enormous advantages over other renewable energies
because it presents greater ease to predict optimum conditions for maximum efficiency in their
processes. It is easier to reach optimum wave predict that in optimal wind conditions for wind
power, as its variability is lower.
GENERATOR IN OPERATION SCHEME

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REFERENCES
https://www.uis.edu.co/webUIS/es/catedraLowMaus/lowMauss12_2/documentos/Guia
%20para%20Ensayos%20UNIVALLE.pdf
Chapra S. & Canales R. / Mtodos numricos para ingenieros. / Edit. Mc Graw Hill .
N.Y. 1994, 641p (virtual)
Aljama C. Toms , Cadena M. Miguel , Charleston V. , Miguel , Yaez S. Oscar /
Procesamiento digital de seales. / Universidad Autnoma Metropolitana / Mxico 1998,
pg 244p. (libro virtual)