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S E R I E

O R I E N T A L E

RO M A

XXXIII

JIKIDO TAKASAKI

A STUDY ON TH E RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA
(UTTARATANTRA)
Being a Treatise on th e Tathagatagarbha Theory
of Mahyna Buddhism
Including: a critical Introduction, a Synopsis of
the text, a Translation from the original Sanskrit
text, in comparison with its Tibetan & Chinese
versions, critical Notes, Appendixes and Indexes.

ROM A

RO M E

O R I E N T AL

S E R I E S

Already published:
I.
II.
III.
I V.
V.

T ucci G ., The Tombs of the Tibetan Kings.


P ETEC H L., Northern India according to the Shui ching chu.
FRAU WALLN ER E ., On the date of the Buddhist Master of the Law Vasu
bandhu.
ROC K J . F . , The Na khi Nga cult and related ceremonies. P art I an d II.
Conferenze, Vol. I. Containing lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. by
G.

VI*
VII.

CCEDES, J. J. L. DUYVENDAK, C. HENTZE, P. H. POTT.

CONZE E., Abhisamaylakra. Introduction and Translation from the


original text, with Sanskrit Tibetan Indexes.
Conferenze, Vol. II. Containing lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. by
H. CORBIN, N. EGAMI, M. ELIADE, J. FLLIOZAT, P. HUMBERTCLAUDE,
J. M AS UI, E. H. D E TSCHARNER.

VIII.
IX. 1.

IX. 2.
X.

XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.

FRAU WALLN ER E ., The earliest Vinaya and the beginnings of Buddhist


literature.
Tucci G., Minor Buddhist Texts, Part I. Containing A s a g a ' s
commentary on the Vajracchedik edited and translated; Analysis of the
commentary on it by V a s u b a n d h u ; Mahynavimik of N g
r j u n a ; Navaloki of K a m b a l a p d a ; Catuhstavasamsrtha of
A m r t k a r a ; Hetutattvopadea of J i t r i ; Tarkasopna of V i
d y k a r a n t i . With an appendix containing the Gilgit Text of
the Vajracchedik, edited by N . P. CHAKRAVARTI.
T u cci G ., Minor Buddhist Texts, P art I I . First Bhvankrma of Kama
laa.
Materials for the study of Nepalese History and Culture:
1. T u cci G ., Preliminary Report on two Scientific Expeditions in Nepal.
2. G N OLI R., Nepalese Inscriptions in Gupta characters. P art I , Text an d
Plates.
3. P E TE C H L., Mediaeval History of Nepal (c. 750 1480).
G N OLI R., The aesthetic experience according to Abhinavagupta (out of prin t).
ROCK J . F . , The Amnye Ma chhen range and adjacent regions. A mono
graphic study.
CONZE E ., Vajracchedik Prajpramit.
Le Symbolisme cosmique des Monuments religieux. Actes du Congres qui
a du lieu Rome sous les auspices de l'ls.M.E.O., avec la collaboration
du Musee Guimet, Avril-Mai 1955. Conferences par R. BLOCH, J. DANIELOU, M. ELIADE, M. GRIAULE, C. HENTZE, C. LEVI-STRAUSS, H. C. PUECH,

XV.

XVI.

XVII.

XVIII.
XI X.

XX.

G. Tucci.
WYLIE T. V., A place name index to George N. RoericK's translation of the
Blue Annals.
FERRARI A., mK'yen brtse's Guide to the holy places of Central Tibet. Completed and edited by L. PETECH, with the collaboration of H. RICHARDSON.
Orientalia Romana. 1, Essays and Lectures, by E. BENZ, H. CORBIN,
A. GODARD, L . HAMBIS, V . MlNORSKY, S . P . TOLSTOV.
ROERICH G., Le parler des Amdo. Etude d'un dialecte archa que du Tibet.
VAN G U LIK R . H ., Chinese Pictorial Art as viewed by the Connoisseur.
Notes on the means and methods of traditional Chinese onnoisseurship
based upon a study of the Art of mounting scrolls in China and Japan
(about 600 pp. Size 30 X 22 cm.). Limited to 950 copies.
M AH LER J . G ., The W esterners among the Figurines of the 'Pang Dynasty
of China,
/

XXI.

Un Editto bilingue greco aramaico di Aoka. La prim a iscxizione gteca sco


perta in Afghanistan. Testo, traduzione e note a cura di G. PUGLIESE
CAHRATELLI e di G. LEVI DELLA VIDA, con prefazione di G. Tucci e in

XXII.
XXIII.
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.

XXVII.
XXVIII.
XXIX.

XXX.
XXXI.
XXXII.
XXXIII.

troduzione di U . SCERRATO (out of print).


L E E P. H ., Studies in the Saenaennorae: old Korean poetry.
GNOLI R., The Pramnavrttikam of Dharmak rti. The first chapter with
the autocommentary. Text and critical notes.
T u cci G ., Deb fer dmar po, Tibetan Chronicles. Text an d English
translation (with original text) [ in the press].
WYLI E T . V., The Geography of Tibet according to the 'Dzam gling
rgyas bshad.
CONZE E ., The Gilgit manuscript of the AstdaashasrikprajpramitS.
Chapters 55 to 70 corresponding to the 5th Abhisamaya. Text and English
translation.
G N OLI R ., Udbhata's Commentary on the Kvy amkra of Bhmaha.
Sanskrit fragments from Pakistan. Edited with critical notes.
ROCK J . F . , A Na khi English Encyclopedic Dictionary, P art I .
A bilingual GraecoAramaic Edict of Aoka, Text, Translation an d N otes
by G. PUGLIESE CARRATELLI and G. GABBINI, Foreword by G. Tucci,
Introduction by U. SCERRATO.
G N OLI G . f L e iscrizioni Giudeo Persiane del Gr (Afghanistan). T ext ,
Italian Translation and Notes.
AU BOYER J . , Introduction Vetude de fart de VInde.
SCARCIA G., Sifat nma yi Darv s Muhammad Hn i Gz. A Muslim
Crusade against the Kafirs of Lagmn in A. D. 1532.
TAKASAKI J . , A study on the Ratnagotravibhga (Uttaratantra) Being a
Treatise onthe TatLgatagarbha Theory of Mahyna Buddhism.

Special series:
Orients

P oli a no Studies and lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. onthe occasion


of the 7thCentenary of the birth of Marco Polo (1254 1954), by E. BALAZS,
P. DEMIEVILLE, K. ENOKI, L. CABRINGTON GOODRICH, E. HAENISCH, L. HAM
BIS , A. MOSTAERT, L. OLSCHKI, A. NILAKANTA SHASTRI, E. H. SCHAFEK,
B. S PULER, R. WITTKOWEB.

Forthcoming Works:
TCCl G., Deb ter dmar po, Tibetan Chronicles. Text and English translation (with
original text).
ROC K J . F . , Na khi Culture as expressed in their literature: an encyclopedic Dictionary.
Part I I .
RU EG G D . S., The life of Bu Ston Rin Po Che.
Orientalia Romana. 2, Essays and Lectures, by V. S. Agrawala, P. Beonio Brocchieri,
P. Corradini, L. Lanciotti.

Works in course ofpreparation:


PENS A C ,
Vimuklisena's Abhisamaylankravykhy.
Sanskrit Text.
T u cci G . GARGANO A., The Abhidharmasamuccayakrik by Saghatrta, t ext and
commentary of a hitherto unknown work, the Sanskrit manuscript of which
has been found in Tibet.
Tucci G. PETECH L., Grub-mHa-sel^gyl-me-lo (Crystal mirror of the philosophical
and religious systems), translated from the Tibetan.
TtJCCl G. - PETECH L., The Fifth Dalai-Lama's Chronicle of Tibet, translated from
the Tibetan.

IL

IS TITUTO ITALIANO
MEDIO ED ESTREMO ORIENTE

SERIE ORIEN TALE ROMA


SOTTO LADIREZONE
DI

GIU S EP P E

TUCCI

VOLUME

XXXIII

LA REDAZIONE DELLA SERIE E CURATA


DAL P ROF . AN TON IO GARGANO

ROM A
Is. M. E. O.

S E R I E

O R I E N T A L E

R O M A

XXXI I I

JIKID O TAKASAKI

A STUDY ON TH E RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA
(UTTARATANTRA)
Being a Treatise on the Tathgatagarbha Theory
of Mahyna Buddhism
Including: a critical Introduction, a Synopsis of
the text, a Translation from the original Sanskrit
text, in comparison with its Tibetan & Chinese
versions, critical Notes, Appendixes and Indexes.

ROMA
ISTITU TO ITALIAN O P E R I L M ED IO E D ESTREM O OR I E N TE

GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS


PACE

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ix

PREFACE

xi

INTRODUCTION
SYNOPSIS OF THE TEXT
TRANSLATION AND NOTES

1
63
135

APPENDIXES

I. - Supposed form of the Original Sloka-grantha

393

II. - Corrections & Emendations to the Sanskrit Text

396

III. - Description of the Ultimate Reality by Means of the Six Categories .

400

INDEXES

1. Index of Sanskrit Terms

411

2. Index of Works, Authors & Schools

437

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
(for Synopsis and N otes on the Translation)

= Sanskrit text of the Ratnagotravibhga ed. by E . H . Johnston


Sanskrit term
X '
= Tibetan translation of th e Ratnagotravibhga (Sde dge Edition, Tohoku,
N o. 4025)
Tibetan term

= Chinese translation of the Ratnagotravibhga (Taisho Daizokyo Edition


N o. 1611)
Chinese term
O
= Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation, by E . Obermiller (Ada
Orientalia, XI , ii, iii, & iv)
J
= E . H . Johnston's Preface & N otes on the Ratnagotravibhga
K.
= Krik
v.
= verse
Taisho
= Taisho Edition of the Chinese Tripitaka
Tohoku = A Complete Catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist Canons, ed. by Tohoku U ni
versity, Japan (1934).
BH S
= Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
B H S D ic . = Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, ed. by F . Edgerton (1953)
M. W.
= M. M onier William's Sanskrit English Dictionary
PTS
= Pali Text Society's Edition of the Pali Tipi^aka

AA

= Abhisamaylnkra of Maitreya, ed. by G . Tucci (G aekward's Oriental


Series N o. 62)
AA
= Abhisamaylakrloka of Haribhadra, ed. by G. Tucci (ibid.)
AAN
= Annatvprnatvanirdeaparivarta (Taisho, XVI , N o. 668)
AS
== * Anuttarrayastra (Taisho, XVI, N o. 669)
AbhidhS = Mahynbhidharmastra
AcintA = Tathgatagunajncintyavisayvatranirdea (Taisho, X, N o. 302)
AksP
= Aksayamatipariprcch (Taisho, XI I I , N o. 397 (12))
AN
= Aguttara Nikya (Pali, P TS Edition)
ASP
= Astashasrik prajpramit (Wogihara's Edition of the Abhisamaylakrloka)
AvatS
= Avatamsakatra (Taisho, I X, N o. 278)
BBh
= Bodhisattvabhmi, ed. by U . Wogihara
BG
= * Buddhagotrastra (Taisho, XXXI , N o. 1610)
DAS
= * Mahynadharmadhtvaviesastra (Taisho, XXXI, No. 1627)
DBS
= Daabhmikastra, ed. by J . Rahder

J . TAKASAKI
= Dharmadharmatvibhga (Skt. F ragment, ed. by S. Levi; Tib. ed. by J . N o
zawa, Prof. Yamaguchi's commemoration Volume)
* = Drdhdhyayaparivarta (Tibetan KG , Sde dge Edition Tohoku N o. 224)
= Dhran vararjastra (Taisho, XI I I , N o. 397 (1 2))
= Gaganagajstra (Taisho, XI I I , N o. 397 (8))
= Jnloklakrastra (Taisho, XI I , N o. 357)
= Kyapaparivarta (Ratnaktastra) ed. by Stael H olstein; (Taisho, XI ,
N o. 310 (23))
= Lakvatrastra, ed. by B. N anjio
= Madhyamakakrik of Ngrjuna (ed. by Poussin)
= Majjhima Nikya (Pali, P TS Edition)
= Mahparinirvnastra (M ahyna) (Taisho, XI I , N o. 374)
= Mahynastrlakra (ed. by Sylvain Levi)
(P) = Mahynasamgraha bhsya, t r. by P aram rtha (Taisho, XXXI , N o. 1595)
t
= Mahvyutpatti (Wogihara's Edition)
= Prajpramit
= Ratnacdastra (Taisho, XI I I , N o. 397 (11))
= Ratnadhrikstra (Taisho, XI I I , N o. 397 (3))
= Ratnagotravibhga
= * Sadytanastra (or Sadindriyaristra)
= Sgaramatipariprcch (Taisho, XI I I , N o. 397 (5))
= ryarmlstra (Taisho, XII, No. 353)
= Samyutta Nikya (P ali, P TS Edition)
= Sandhinirmocanastra (Tib. ed. by E . Lam otte)
= Saddharmapundarkastra, ed. by E . Kern & B. N anjio
= Tathgatagarbhastra (Taisho, XVI , N o. 666)
= Yogcrabhmi (Skt. P art I , ed. by V. Bh attach arya; C. Taisho, XXX,
N o. 1579)
= Vajracchedikstra, ed. by M. Mller (Taisho, VI I I , N o. 235)
f
= Vimalaklrtinirdea (Taisho, XI V, N o. 475)
= Vijaptimtrat trimik, ed. by S. Levi
= Source unknown

(*) Sanskrit titles with the sign * are restored from the Chinese m aterials.

PREF ACE

The present volume was originally prepared under the guidance of


Prof. V. Y. G okhale of th e Fergusson College (presently of the U niversity
of Delhi) during my stay at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research I n stitute,
Poona, from August 1954 to Jan uary 1957, under the auspices of the
Indian G overnment, and was submitted to the U niversity of Poona as a
doctoral dissertation. I wish to express my gratitude to Prof. V. V. Gok
hale who instructed me in reading the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of
the text throughout the two and half years of my stay in India and to Prof.
R.D . Karmarkar of the Bhandarkar I nstitute from whom I received much
guidance on Indian philosophy and the Sanskrit language in general.
When I was awarded the degree in September 1958, Prof. G. Tucci,
who was one of the examiners of my dissertation, kindly suggested t h at
I publish my work in the Serie Orientale Roma. I felt it a great honour,
but I could not immediately respond to this kind proposal, since I felt my
work inadequate and the presentation of it in English imperfect. F ortu
nately, D r. Alex Wayman of Berkeley, U.S.A., kindly made suggestions.
I also must acknowledge the helpful suggestions given to me by D r. Way
man, Prof. H . N akamura of the U niversity of Tokyo (my faculty adviser
in the Post G raduate Course), D r. H . U i, and other Japanese scholars too
numerous to mention in the m atter of doctrinal interpretation.
D r. U i, an eminent Japanese Indologist, published the Hoshoron
Kenky (A study of th e Ratnagotravibhga) in 1959. I t consists of
two parts. The first part consists of a critical and detailed studies on the
text, author, Chinese translator, doctrinal and canonical references, etc.,
while the second consists of a Japanese translation of the Sanskrit text.
I owe much to his interpretation in modifying my translation, although
points on which I disagreed with him are kept in tact. I t is indeed with
deep regret t h at I must note the passing away of D r. Ui on July 14, 1963.
Ten years have passed since I started work on this volume. I n the
meanwhile I wrote several articles related to the text. Some are involved
with the present work, but others, especially those written after sending
the manuscript to Rome for printing, are not touched upon in this volume.
Therefore, I would like to give a list of my articles so far published in order

J. TAKASAKI

to cover the shortcomings of the present volume. If the reader has further
interest on the subject, I hope that they will consult these articles.
1. AMUKTAJNA
no Gogi ni tsuite (in Jap.) (On the Meaning
be Term amuktaja), JIBS, Vol. VI-1, Jan. 1958, pp. 186-190.
Translation, p. 144, n. 23, etc.).
2. Kugyoichijohoshoron no Kozo to Genkei (in Jap.) (The Texual
cture of the Ratnagotravibhga and the Supposed F orm of I ts Ori
1 Text), The Journal of Religious Studies, N o. 155, Mar. 1958, pp. 14
cf. Introduction, Chap. I I and Appendix I ).
3. Th e Tathgatotpattisambhavanirdea of the Avatamsaka and
Ratnagotravibhga with special Reference to the Term ' tathgata
isambhava' , JIBS, Vol. VI I 1, D ec. 1958, pp. 48 53. (cf. Intro
ion, Chap. IV, 3,4).
4. Kegon kyogaku to Nyoraizo shiso (in Jap.) (The H ua yen
osophy and the Tathgatagarbha Theory D evelopment of the
L of gotrasarnbhava in India ) , Kegon Shiso, compiled by
N akamura and K. Kawada, Kyoto, 1960, pp. 275 332.
(a detailed investigation of the same subject as N o. 3 mentioned
ye).

5. Tenne (in Jap.) (Arayaparivrtti and rayaparvrtti), Nihon


kyogakkai Nempo, N o. 25, Mar. 1960, pp. 89 110. (cf. Introduction,
P IV, 7)
6. Structure of the Anuttarrayastra
(Wu shang i ching),
IS, Vol. VI I I 2, Mar. 1960, pp. 30 37. (cf. Introduction, Chap. V, 7).
7. D escription of the U ltimate Reality by means of the Six Cate
es in Mahyna Buddhism , JIBS, Vol. I X 2, Mar. 1961, pp. 24 33.
Appendix I I I ) .
8. A Comment on the Term rambana in the Ratnagotravibhga,
>, JIBS, Vol. X 2, Mar. 1962, pp. 26 33. (cf. Translation, Chap. I ll,
163, 168 171).
9. N yoraizo setsu ni okeru Shin no Kozo (in Jap.) (The Struc
e of F aith in the Tathgatagarbha Theory), Komazawadaigaku Ken
kiyo (F ac. of. Buddhism), Vol. 22, Mar. 1964, pp. 86 109.
(This is an article in which the structure and significance of a set
of three terms on faith, viz. astitva, gunavattva, and aktatva [cf.
Translation, p. 382, n. 20] in relation to raddh, adhimukti, chanda,
abhisampratyaya, prasda, and abhilsa are traced back to Abhi

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

dharma Buddhism, including works of the Vijnavda such as


the Mahynasamgrahabhsya, the Vij aptimtrat trimik bh
sya, the Abhidharmasamuccaya vykhy, etc., as well as those of
the Tathgatagarbha Theory such as the Ratnagotravighga, the
Buddhagotrastra and P aram rtha's translation of the Mahyna
samgraha bhsya.)
10. Shintai yaku Shodaijoron Seshin shaku ni okeru Nyoraizo Setsu
Jap.) (The Tathgatagarbha Theory Appearing in P aram rtha's Transla
tion of the Mahay nasamgraha bhsya of Vasubandhu), " Bukkyo Shiso
Ronsh " Commemoration Volume for Prof. R. Yki for his Sixtieth
Birthday, Tokyo, 1964, pp. 241 264.
(In this article, the close relationship between the Ratnagotravibhga
and P aram rtha's said translation is made clear after picking up
the parallel passages in both texts, and the Buddhagotrastra
and the Anuttarrayastra as well. I n conclusion, the author
suggested th at the additional parts of the Mahynasamgrahabh
sya unique to P aram rtha's translation are probably written by
P aram rtha himself on the knowledge of the Ratnagotrabvibhga
as he might have done the same with the Buddhagotrastra and
the Anuttarryastra, and th at Vasubandhu, consequently
deprived of his authorship on the said parts as well as on the Buddha
gotrastra, might have contributed little to the development of
the Tathgatagarbha theory, cf. Introduction, Chap. V, 2,3).
(JIBS = Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies).
I n conclusion I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all the
professors mentioned above for their valuable assistance and encourage
ment without which I could never have brought the book to completion.
However, the responsibility of the final result rests solely with the author.
I also wish to acknowledge with many thanks the troubles taken in the
past three years by the people at Is. M.E.O., especially Prof. Antonio
G argano, who set my rather complicated manuscript into print and gave
it a nice arrangement.
Tokyo, 25 th August 1964.
J.

TAKASAKI.

INTRODUCTION

IN TROD U CTION

CONTENTS
PACK

The Ratnagotravibhga, it s Text, Translation, and Traditions concerning the


Author
1. Text
2. Translations & Traditions concerning the Author
The Structure of the Text
1. Basic Text and Commentary
2. Chinese Account of the Basic Verses
3. Supposed F orm of the Original Text
4. The Commentary and Later Additions

5
5
6

. V . . . 10
10
12
18
19

Keypoint of the D iscourse


1. Ratnagotra, th e G erm of the Three Jewels
2. 4 Aspects of the G erm
3. The Absolute

20
20
23
26

G enealogy of the Tathgatagarbha Theory


1. Sources of the Ratnagotravibhga
2. Cittaprakrti and Agantukaklea
3. Buddhajna in the Avatamsaka
4. The Tathgatagarbhastra
5. The ryar mlstra
6. The Annatvprnatvanirdea an d th e M ahparinirvnastra
7. The M ahynastrlakra

32
32
34
35
36
37
39
40

Works on th e Tathgatagarbha Theory Contemporary with or Succeeding the


R atn a
45
1. The M ahynadharmadhtvaviesastra
45
2. The Buddhagotrastra
47
3. The An uttarrayastra
49
4. The Lakvatra an d the M ahynaraddhotpdastra
53
The Position of the R at n a. in M ahyna Buddhism
1. The R atn a. as a Criticism on the Prajpram it
2. The R atn a. and th e Vijnavda
3. Consideration on th e D ate and Authorship of the R atn a

54
54
57
61

I.
TH E

1.

RATN AG OTRAVIBH G A, ITS TE XT , TRAN SLATION ,


AN D TRAD ITION S CON CERN IN G T H E AU TH OR

Text.

The Ratnagotravibhga Mahynottaratantratra, on which this


present study is made, is one of the treatises on the Mahyna doctrine
written in Sanskrit. I t was, however, quite recently th at the Sanskrit
lj
manuscripts were discovered and critically edited . Before then, it was
known only through the Tibetan and Chinese versions. The first introducer
of this text to the world of modern study was D r. E. Obermiller who tran
slated the Tibetan version into English and made this text famous under
2)
the title of " Uttaratantra" according to the Tibetan tradition . I n
China, however, they used the name " Ratnagotrctr stra" as its title,
and this title was justified by the discovery of a Sanskrit fragment in Saka
3)
script in which we find the title "Ratnagotravibhga".
D r. E. H . John
ston, the discoverer of this fact and the editor of the Sanskrit edition of
this text, suggested the use of " Ratnagotravibhga " as the proper title
showing the main subject of this text 4) . This seems quite reasonable and I
followed him in this study. The reason for this will be made clear after
wards.
x

) The Ratnagotravibhga Mahynottaratantrastra, ed. by E. H . Johnston, D .


Litt., and seen through the press and furnished with indexes by T . Chowdhury, M. A.,
p
t . D ., P atn a, 1950.
This edition is based upon two Mss. found by Rev. Rhula Skrtyyan a in Tibet.
About the Mss., see JBORS, XXI , p . 31 ( I I I . Salu monastery, vol. XI 5, N o. 43) an d
XXI I I , p . 34 (VI I . Salu monastery, vol. XI I I 5, N o. 242).
2
' " The Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation, being a Manual of Buddhist
Monism, the work of rya Maitreya with a commentary by rysaga ". Acta Orientalia,
Vol. IX, parts ii, iii & iv, 1931.
3
> " A Fragment of the Uttaratantra in Sanskrit", by H. W. Bailey & E. H. Johnston,
S.O.S., Vol. VIII, Part 1, 1935. The reference is to pp. 86 & 87.
*' E. H. Johnston, op. cit. (hereafter the abbreviation ' J . ' will be used for this
p. v, fn. 2.

J . TAKASAKI

About the manuscripts, I have nothing to add here to Johnston's


description as I have had no chance to examine them. Some notable
points for the present study are: 1) they belong to a considerably later
period in comparison with the date of the Chinese translation, and conse
quently the latter, though it differs from the Sanskrit edition in several
passages, has its importance because of its antiquity; 2) they are identi
fied almost completely with the Tibetan version; and 3) no mention of
the name of the author leaves room for taking the Chinese tradition into
consideration.
Johnston's critical edition, the basic text of my English translation,
shows his remarkable skill in editing Sanskrit manuscripts and is an ex
cellent contribution to Buddhist scholarship. N evertheless, I have found
some words and passages to be corrected in the light of the Tibetan and
Chinese translations, especially of the latter. Buddhist scholars should
regret th at D r. Johnston passed away before completing his learned analysis
of this text, and should continue to give it critical study. I believe my
work, however faulty, will cast some new light on the implications of
this text in Mahyna Buddhism.

2.

Translation and Traditions concerning the Author.

Prior to describing the contents of the Ratna., it will be necessary


to refer to the translations in Tibetan and Chinese, sub sources of the
present work. Besides this, references will be made to traditions about
the author in Tibet and China, so th at we can further consider the
authorship and date of the Ratna. in the absence of any material in the
Sanskrit manuscripts.
There are two versions of the Ratna. in Tibetan Tanjur:
1. Theg pa chen po rgyud bla mahi bstanbcos {Mahay na utta
ratantra stra), Tohoku Catalogue N o. 4024.
2. Theg pa chen po rgyud bla mahi bstan bcos rnampar bad pa
{Mahyna uttaratantra stra vykhy), Tohoku Catalogue N o. 4025.
The second one is a full translation of the Sanskrit text, probably of
the same source as the present manuscripts, although it is called vykhy.
On the other hand, the first one consists merely of verses in the Ratna. Both
were translated, according to the colophon of these translations, by Blo
ldanesrab (Matiprajna) at Srinagar in Kashmir under the guidance of
Kashmiri an pandits, Ratnavajra and Sajjana, about the end of the 11th

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

cent. A. D . 5 ) . This name Sajjana reminds us of the author of the Mahay


nottaratantrastropadea, given as Satyajna by Johnston from the P atn a
manuscript 6) . If we can identify both names, the Mahynottaratantra
stropadea, of which nothing is known except what Johnston tells us,
will be assured of its date in the same century 7) .
Tibetan tradition attributes the first one, i.e. the verse section of the
Ratna. to rya Maitreya (H phags pa Mgon po byams pa) and t h e
prose commentary (vykhy in the second), to crya Asaga (Slobdpon
Thogs-med) 8), and regards the Ratna. as one of " five treatises written
by Bodhisattva Maitreya, being bis ultimate doctrine based upon the Prajpramit " 9) . This attribution to Maitreya of the verse section is traced
in the Saka script fragment referred to above, which, quotes the opening
verse and the first few verses of Chapter I I I in the Ratna. as the work
of Bodhisattva Maitreya 1 0 ) . This shows th at Maitreya was regarded as
the author of the Ratna. not only in Tibet but also in Central Asia, and
probably in India, too, in the period between the 8th. and 12th cent.
A.D. About the authorship of Asaga on the commentary, however,
nothing is mentioned anywhere else, and the point is undecided.
Chinese tradition offers a different name as to the author. The present
Chinese Tripitaka retains one translation of the Ratna. entitled " Chiu
ching yi-cWeng paosing-lun " ( 9 ^ Jfa. '* PPI j ! f^ pR8 > ^- Uttara
ekayna ratnagotra stra)

(Taisho, Vol. 31, N o . 1611).

I t was t ran

slated by |R atn am ati (*$] ffi | | | Jj| ) in c. 511 A.D . at Lo yang, the
capital of the N orthern Wei dynasty.
According to the K'ai yuan chechiao mo lu (||f] jfc Tpp i^ |= J
pf;), an ancient Chinese catalogue of the Tripitaka (730 A.D.), there are
said to be two translations, one by R atnam ati and the other by Bodhiruci,
5

> Sde dge Edition, MDO XLIV, p . 129 a 5 ff. (Tohoku U niversity Copy). Hereaf
ter, the references to the Tibetan version are made according to this edition with th e ab
breviation, ' T ib . ' or ' T '. F or the date and personage of Blo ldan es rab, see George N .
Roerich, The Blue Annals, P art I , p p . 325 6, 328, 347 350, Calcutta 1949. (This is an
English translation of a history of Tibetan Buddhism called D eb ther son-po. According
to the translator's calculation, his date is 1059-1109 A.D.).
6
) This work was reported by Rhula Smkrtyyana as one of three Mss. of th e
R atna. See JBORS, XXI , p . 33 (I V. N gor monastery, Vol. VI I I 6, N o. 68).
) I have intention to edit this work and have already asked for permission to
the authority of th e Jayaswar Research I n stitute, P atn a and to Prof. G . Tucci who has
got another photographic copy of th e same Ms.
8
> T ib. p . 129 a 5.
9
) See, Obermiller, op. cit. (hereafter th e abbreviation ' O '. will be used for this
p . 81 f.
1Q
) " A Fragment of the Uttaratantra", pp. 86 89.

J . TAKASAKI

which is lost now n ) . F urthermore it is said th at both translators collabo


rated at the beginning, but later on, because of the differences of opinions
12)
between them, Bodhiruci made his own translation separately . This
record seems reliable at a glance since it is said to be taken from the
Pao cK'ung lu ( ^ fl|jj sift), a missing catalogue compiled in c. 518 A.D .,
a few years after the date of translation of the Ratna. H owever, as the
result of critical examination of this record, it is clarified th at the catalogue
was not directly based upon the Pao ch'ung lu, but upon the preceding
catalogues such as the Li~tai san~pao~chi (||f /f^ zL 5H $2 ^97 A.D.),
the Ta fang nei fen lu (^J^ Jflf p^J jBL g| , 664 A.D.), where the
record mentioned above concerned two other works, the Daabhmika
stra stra and the Ratnaktastra stra, and there is no evidence of
Bodhiruci's translation of the Ratna. at all 1 3 ) . The record of the K'ai
yuanlu is perhaps created by misreading of these catalogues, and there
might be room for such misreading in the circumstances of Chinese Bud
dhism in those days. N amely, the Ti lun (ifcjfl, fjfjg) school based upon
the Daabhmikastrastra of Vasubandhu divided into two branches,
proclaiming Bodhiruci and R atn am ati as the nominal founder of each
branch, and this division is said to have had its root in the differences
of opinions due to the interpretation of the relation between 4 layavi
jna' and ' tathgatagarbha' or ' tathat'14). The branch of Southern P ath
of the Ti lun school, founded by a pupil of R atn am ati, caused in later days
the rise of the H ua yen (3J Jjg, Avatamsaka) school which emphasizes
' cittamtra ' theory of the Avatamsaka-stra along with ' dharmadhtu ',
4
tathgatagarbha ' against i vijaptimtrat ' and i layavijna ' of the F a
hsiang ( ^ ^Q) school founded by a disciple of H siiang chuang ( ^ ^^)
Thus R atnam ati and Bodhiruci were standing opposite to each other, and
"> Taisho, Vo l. 55, N o . 2154, p p . 541 a 6, 540 b, 608 c 609 a, 637 6, 690 6, 714 a .
) Ibid., 540 b.

12

13

) H . U i , Hoshoron kenky

( i n J a p a n e se ) , T o k yo , 1959, p p . 3 16. Cf. Li tai

pao chi, Taisho, Vol. 49, N o. 2034, p. 866 6 c: +

^ 6 M Iffl +

san

H ^ (Daabh

mikastrastra, 12 vols.); 5|* ^jp^ | a i Sffl 29 ^? (Ratnaktastrastra t_, _ C J H

pRB PJT j/ E l/t _>C 3Z ^P (two treatises mentioned above are also translated by
Bodhiruci). Nai~t'en~lu, Taisho, Vol. 55, No. 2149, 269 b: + ft& M tiffl ? ^ S i

Pit 5? ft Ira, H ^
1

(Hatnagotra-sastra, 4 vols.); ^ flt M Iw H %,

^r I Jffii
jlffl " S E TJTC^ ^
are also translated by Bodhiruci).
14

p.

f ^

(tnis

an

tne

Daabhmika, these two

) J. Takakusu, The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy (F irst Indian Edition, 1956),


114.

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

this conflict between them led people to imagine th at Bodhiruci could


translate the Ratna. on the line of the Vijnavda. Actually however,
he did not do it, and since then the Ratna. was not recognized as the
authority for the Chinese Vijnavdins, probably due to the fact th at the
author of the Ratna. was thought not to be an orthodox Vijnavdin
such as Asaga and Vasubandhu.
As will be made clear afterwards, the Ratna. takes the theory of the
tathgatagarbha as its basic standpoint and is highly estimated by F a tsang
O?Jc l Jc)' t n e ^rd patriarch of the H ua yen school. And it was he who
left the record on the authorship of the Ratna. He said in his commentary
on the Mahynadharmadhtvaviesa stra (yC PPI VzC W' vKi : i / Vi
Ing) 15> th at Bodhisattva Kien huei ( ^ jjj) , Sramati ($$ | g ^ jg;),
in Sanskrit, was ' a Bodhisattva on the first stage ' (jfcjj, _. ^ ifsl), born
in Central India 7 centuries after the Buddha's Mahparinirvna as a
member of a Ksatriya clan who after learning Buddhism, wrote the
Ratnagotravibhga uttaratantrastra, the Dharmadhtvaviesastra and
others16>. This report, heard by F a tsang from Devapraja (% ^g
mC ^jrf) the translator of the Dharmadhtvaviesastra and a monk come
from Khotan, is reliable to some extent. At least, we may say Sramati
was believed to be the author of the Ratna. till the end of the 7th
cent. A.D . in Central Asia. And we cannot find any other tradition
concerning the author of the Ratna. in China.
As far as the Chinese tradition is concerned, the authorship of Sra
mati on the Ratna. seems to be unchangeable. Still, there remains some
doubt. The reason is th at there is no name of the author in the Chinese
translation nor in any of the old catalogues, and this translation consists
actually of two parts, namely: 1) the Krik text, an extract of certain ver
ses in the Ratna., and 2) the whole work including the prose section but
excluding certain number of verses in the Krik text. This Krik text
is quite different from th at of the Tibetan version, in th at it omits those
verses which seem to be supplementary to the basic verses. From this fact
we feel the need of assuming the existence of, at least, two authors on the
Ratna., one heing th at of the basic verses and the other the commentator
on it. H ere one may naturally call to mind the Tibetan tradition. But,
to settle this problem, we should examine the whole contents and charac
teristics of this Ratna. We shall now proceed to the next stage.
15

> Taisho, N os. 1626 and 1627.


> Ta cVeng fa chieh wu cKa pieh lun chu
Taisho, N o. 1838, Vol. 44, p . 63 c.
16

II.
T H E STRU CTU RE OF T H E T E XT
1. Basic

Text and

Commentary.

From th e structural point of view, th e present text of th e Ratna. is


a combination of th e basic text and a commentary thereon. That much
is regular in Buddhist literatures. The peculiarity of th e Ratna. lies in
the fact th at it consists of two parts, in verse and in prose, while the verse
section consists again of two parts, one basic, and th e other supplementary.
In other words, t h e basic part of this text is merely of verses, while another
part, th e commentary, is in verse and in prose and the prose section of
the commentary which follows the commentary verse or verses explaining
their meaning with quotations from various stras is quite detailed in
Chapter I, but quite scanty for other chapters.
To clarify this characteristic, let us take an example from the text.
The verse I , 4 which expresses devotion to the ' buddharatna' as the refuge
(arana) is followed by v. I , 5 with a prose explanation of it and the latter
is again explained in detail by th e following three verses and a prose com
mentary which continues up to p . 10, 1. 14. Then the text proceeds to
the n ext subject, the ' dharma ratna ', beginning with v. I , 9 followed by
commentary verses and a prose commentary with a structure similar to
th at of v. I , 4. If we take such verses as I, 4 & 9 to be typical, we may be
able to compile th e Krik text of th e Ratna., and for this, we find th at
the Chinese Krik text gives a fairly good account of those verses which
are basic or original.
More precisely, the Chinese Krik text is one of the aids for determining
them . In most cases, including th e example given above, it offers us a
fairly good account of the basic verses. But we cannot accept the whole
text as basic. F or example, th e first 18 verses in t h at text are to be omitted
from this line as they are n ot available in either Sanskrit or Tibetan ver
sions. They seem to be written by th e Chinese translator. Besides these
18, we have another additional verse in the Chinese Krik text in the
last chapter maintaining the respect for the teacher of the D octrine (dhar
mabhnaka). As its idea matches t h at of th e 18 introductory verses, this
verse, too, seems to be composed by th e translator 17>. There are also a
17)

C. p . 820 c. Emphasis on the respect for the ' dharmabhnaka' was probably a
reflection of the historical circumstances in those days, e.g. persecution of the Buddhists
by th e H uns, or something like t h a t . The fact t h at P aram rth a's translation of t h e

[ 10 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh aga

certain number of verses whose originality is doubtful to judge from the


contents. Only one thing we can say definitely: those verses which are
omitted from the Chinese Krik text are by no means the original ones.
This is no doubt a kind of selection, but to go beyond this, we should
seek for other grounds.
Prior to v. I, 4, in the heading to th at verse, it is said:
Uktah stra sambandhah //
Idn m loknm artho vaktavyab J / atas tat prathamato buddha
ratnam adhikrtya lokah /
And, as the heading to v. 1,9, it is said:
Ato buddha ratnd
adhikrtya lokah /

dharma ratna prabhvaneti

tad anantaram

tad

This word ' loka ' is n o t used for t h e su pplem en t ary verses in th ese
cases, an d v. I , 4 is t h e first verse for which t h e word ' loka' is applied;
furth erm ore, t h is selection of v. I , 4 as t h e first basic verse is iden t ical
with t h a t in t h e Chinese K rik t e xt (except t h e 18 verses referred t o above).
I t shows t h e fact t h a t t h e passage u p t o ' uktah strasarnbandhah / ' is
t h e in t ro d u c t io n by t h e c o m m en t at o r who th ereafter begin s t o explain t h e
m ean in g of t h e ' lokas', i. e. t h e basic verses. Being t h e explan ation of t h e
m ean in g of loka, t h e co m m en t ar y seems t o be called t h e ' Slokrthasamgrahavykhyna'
as appeared in t h e colophon s of C h apters I , I V, an d V.
Th is lim ited usage of t h e word ' loka ' becom es, however, confused
after vv. I , 156 157 wh ere t h e prose c o m m en t ary disappears except for
h eadin gs, an d t h e word ' loka"1 is used for bo t h basic an d su p p lem en t ary
verses. H ow t o in t er p r et t h is confusion seems n o t so sim ple. Can we
ascribe it t o t h e co m m en t at o r's caprice or forgetfulness of t h e rule ? Shall
we assum e an o t h er c o m m en t a t o r in order t o explain t h is ch an ge of style ?
Again, can ' loka ' be con strued as one kin d of m et re, i. e. Anustubh7
wh en it is used for t h e c o m m en t a r y verses? 1 8 ) One of th ese t h ree possibilities
m u st be in po in t , a n d I feel n o n ecessity to ch an ge m y form er supposition .
N eith er t h e Chinese K rik t e xt n or t h e use of t h e word i loka ' can
give t h e final accou n t of t h e basic verses, bu t th ese two are certain ly t h e
Mahynasamgraha bhsya, which retains Ratna. V, 16 28 at the end of the work
(Taisho. XXX, p. 270 a b), omits this verse is another powerful proof in support of this
supposition.
18
) All the commentary verses in Chapters II V, which are called ' loka ' in the
text, have the Anustubh metre except for v. I I , 73, which is, in turn, missing in the Chi
nese version. And, because of a unique terminology used in this verse (e.g. ' maharsi ' is
used for the Bodhisattva), it seems to be a quotation from some old canonical work. So
the third assumption has no inconsistency.

J . TAKASAKI

most powerful bases for the selection, and those verses which are found
in the Chinese Krik text and called ' loka ' will be accepted as basic.
In this way, we shall evaluate all verses in the Chinese Krik text.
8 2.

Chinese Account on the Basic Verses.

Except for the 19 verses referred to above, all the verses in the Chinese
Krik text are found in the Sanskrit text. N ot all of them are, however,
of the same character. Through their classification into certain groups,
we shall try to reconstruct the original text of the Ratna.
F irst of all, let us pick up those verses which are called ' loka ' in the
Sanskrit text. The result is as follows:
Chapter I. vv. 4, 9, 13, 23, 30, 35, 42, 45, 47, 49, 52 63, 66, 79,
84, 156 157. (27)
Chapter I I . vv. 1*, 3, 8, 9*, 18 20, 29, 38 41, 62, 69. (14)
Chapter I I I . vv. 1. (1)
Chapter IV. vv. 1 2, 13* 41*. (4)
Chapter V. vv. 1 6, 16 25*. (16)
In this table, except for verses with the sign ' *', all are doubtless of
genuine character in their contents as well as their style. They express
the fundamental doctrine of this text and maintain a fairly archaic metre.
F urthermore, they are followed by the supplementary verses, they have
independent meaning and are understandable by themselves19). On these
points, there will be no objection if we regard them as the 'basic verses.'
The verses with the sign ' * ', however, require some more careful
examination.
1) v. I I , 1. This verse is of doubtful originality for the following
reason. I t shows, according to the commentator, 8 categories in regard
to the ' nirmal tathat' i. e. the * dharmakya ' and without other sup
plementary and explanatory verses, itself has no independent meaning.
F ormally, this verse is followed by the commentary in prose and verse.
And in this commentary verse called i uddna ' (summary), the same ca
tegories are repeated in different terminology. The structure presents
no doubt as to its originality; the point at issue is whether or not the
author of the original text tried such categorization.
This question is posed regarding v. I, 29, mentioned in the Chinese
Krik text but called merely ' uddna' in the Sanskrit text, and whose ter
19)

Sometimes, a series of verses expresses a united meaning under one subject word,
e.g. vv. I, 30, 35, 42 & 45. For them, the subject word is ' jinagarbho 'yam ' in v. 45.

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

urinology is exactly the same as v. I I , 2, i. e. the commentary verse on v. I I ,


1, in showing 10 categories of the ' tathgatagarbha.' I n comparison with
v. I I , 2, this v. I, 29 seems clearly to be a commentary verse. F urther
more, the commentary sentence preceding this verse says:
prvataram tu yenrthena sarvatrviesena pravacane sarvkram
tadarthascanam bhavati, tad apy adhikrtya nirdeksymi /
This ' nirdeksymi ' (I will explain) is immediately followed by ' uddnam ',
and hence, against the Chinese tradition, there is no scope to treat this
as original.
As a consequence of denying the originality of v. I, 29, the categori
zation of the tathgatagarbha into 10 aspects also will be denied of origi
nality. H ence, we incline to omit v. I I , 1 from the line of original verses,
although it retains a comparatively old term inology20) .
2) v. I I , 9. This verse is composed with a view to succeeding
detailed explanations of 9 examples of defilements which cover the tath
gatagarbha, illustrated in the Tathgatagarbhastra and utilized in Chapter I.
Without a knowledge of those explanations, it cannot be understood independently. And those verses explaining the 9 examples are, as will be
set forth below, of rather doubtful originality. The omission of that verse
therefore, depends on the originality of the latter verses. About its structural character, however, there is no doubtful point.
3) v. IV, 13. This verse, like v. II, 9, expects the existence of detailed explanation which follows this verse. It is called, by the commentator, ' strasthn yaloka ' (a stanza based upon the scripture) and the
following verses illustrating the examples in detail are called i vistaravibh
ganirdea ', and are actually taken from the Jnloklakrastra. A
further discussion will be made below along with examination of these
illustrations.
In the same way, verses to be similarly considered are v. I ll, 4 and
vv. I, 96 98. Of them, v. I ll, 4 is called ' uddna ' according to the
21
Tibetan and Chinese versions though not mentioned in the Sanskrit text \
1
In fact, all of these, including v. IV, 13, are ' uddna
verses on the
20)

See note on my translation, XI I 11. Of the terms used for such categorization
in w . I , 29 and I I , 2, the first six, viz. svabhva, hetu, phala, karman, yoga, and vrtti, are
identical with those used in the Strlakra (commentary on vv. I X, 59 60) and in the
Yogcrabhmi (on 'abda vidy\ Taisho, 30, p . 361 a). This seems to show t h at such
categorization was commonly held for any subject, regardless of the author. Therefore
the question is to be limited to the categorization itself. See Appendix I I I .
al

> T. ' sdom ni \ C.

|ft H f& .

X J\ SS.J\ .S A

JVl

illustrations taken from certain scriptures. In this sense, the possibility


of their being original depends on the originality of the illustrating verses
which follow them.
4) v. IY, 41. The Sanskrit text shows ' loka ' before this verse,
but the Tibetan and the Chinese texts do n ot. Actually, this one is in th e
series of verses illustrating 9 examples on the acts of the Buddha, and we
have no need to discuss its originality separately.
5) vv. V, 16 25. The headings for these verses are missing in the
Sanskrit text but the Tibetan and Chinese versions retain them well. As
far as the structure is concerned, they are no doubt basic.
There is one verse to be taken as basic, even though it was kept out
of the table. I t is v. I, 27. I t expresses the fundamental idea of the Ratna.
and is so important t h at we cannot imagine the contents of this text wi
thout, this verse. Both the Chinese and Tibetan versions have confusion
in arranging this passage, but the Chinese commentary says in the heading:
" a s it is said in the Krik text (yathoktam loka or krik granthe)."
On the other hand, v. I, 28, though it follows immediately after v. I, 27,
is clearly a commentary verse and possibly the original Sanskrit text had
a heading between these two verses.
As the result of examination, I will divide these verses discussed above
into two groups: 'pure'loka and ' uddnaloka''. In the first group, those
verses mentioned in the table without the sign ' * ' except for vv. V, 16 25,
and v. I , 27 are included. On the other hand, the second group includes
w . I , 96 98; I I I , 4; IV, 13 as being & strasthn ya uddnaS Verses I I ,
9 remain of doubtful position, and v. , 29 and, with some hesitation,
v. I I , 1 are also to be cancelled.
There is another kind of verses among the Chinese Krik text. This
is the three series of verses to be called ' udharana' taken from certain
scriptural passages, namely: 1) vv. I, 99 126, 9 udharanas on the Essence
of Buddhahood covered with defilements, taken from the Tathgatagar
bhastra, 2) vv. I ll, 526, explanations on the 64 buddhagunas, based
upon the Ratnadrikpariprcch, and 3) vv. 27 30, 34 35, 41, 44 52
(with an additional one which is not found in Sanskrit), 55 57, 64 67 (with
an additional one which is not found in Sanskrit), 67 68, 71 76, 88, & 89 91,
9 udharanas on the Buddha's Acts, taken from the Jnloklakrastra.
I n general, these verses differ from those in the first group in their
being taken from a scriptural passage; and because of this characteristic,
we cannot call them ' genuine ' to this text in the same degree. They
have no original idea of the author but are merely ' newly composed verses'
by th e author out of the basic scripture. I n this sense, they are to be
termed ' strasthn ya udharana '-verses. From the structural point

[ 14 ]

The

R at n a got r avibh ga

of view, however, they seem not to be the commentator's work, as they


are followed by a certain number of verses showing ' udharannm pindr
thah \ The question is whether the same author of the 4 pure ' lokas
had a share in composing this group of verses or not. And, if not, we shall
be obliged to suppose the existence of a second author between the author
of ' pure ' lokas and th at of the commentary. In this connection, one
thing to be noted is the counting of the 32 ' mahpurusalaksana ' in Chap.
I I I . I t contains actually more than 32 marks and some of them are not
available in works such as the Abhisamaylakra, attributed to Maitreya,
and the Prajpramitstra attributed to N grjuna, although it agrees
with the Ratnadrikstra22).
I t seems to show th at even the Ratna
drikstra is composed after Maitreya and as far as this part is concerned,
Maitreya was not the author, against Tibetan tradition. As this part is
among the series of i udharana ', all the udharana groups and hence
the uddna group as well, seem to belong to somewhat later days in com
parison with the * pure '' loka group.
We have another kind of question for Chapter IV. The Chinese K
rik text omits a fairly large number of verses which are kept among the
udharana xerses in the Sanskrit text and, furthermore, sometimes it also
changes the order. Of these omissions, the verses 36 40 along with the
passage between p . 102,1. 20 and p . 104,1. 12, and verses 5962 along with
a heading are clearly the later additions because of their contents and
style. The second case concerns vv. 14 26 in the first udharana, vv. 31
33 in the 2nd, vv. 42 43 in the 3rd, vv. 53 54 in the 4th, v. 63 in the 5th,
and vv. 69 70 in the 6th udharana. I n each example these verses have
the same contents as those kept in the Chinese Krik text. I n the first
case, it is difficult to decide whether the verses were added after the Chi
nese translation was made or whether the Chinese translator omitted them
intentionally 2 3 ). I t depends more or less on the reliability of the Chinese
Krik text as showing the original form of the text. This last point will
be proved by the examination of the third case.
The third case is less simple than the previous ones. I t is in the pas
sage between p. 112, 1. 1 and p . 113, 1. 4. Of those verses contained in
this passage, v. 88 is placed in the Chinese version immediately after v. 76,
and vv. 89 91, at the end of the first udharana with a heading saying:
anutpdnirodhas tathgata iti. The first one is, according to the Sanskrit
22

'
note on
23
*
Chapter

D etailed comparison on each ' mark ' among various scriptures is given in my
the equivalent passage in the English translation .
N ote t h at such repetition of the same idea is seen in the udharana verses in
I.

J.

TAKASAKI

text, one of 4 lokas which show th e udharanasamgraha. As a whole,


this ' udharanasamgraha seems to be a later addition since its termino
logy is never seen in other passages and this part is situated after th e
udharanapindrtha of 9 examples. But why was only one of the four
kept in the Chinese version ? V. 88 is a verse which shows the significance
of the three udharanas beginning with t h e 7th. Such a kind of verse is
observed in every udharana up to the 6th with a special heading like
' atatprahitnm tmpardhe ' before v. 41 (2nd ud.), ' bhjana vimtra
tyrn' before v. 46 (3rd ud.), etc. Verses as such are lacking from the 7th
to 9th udharana in th e present Sanskrit text, v. 88 must have represen
ted them in the basic text for the Chinese translation. Addition of vv. 85
87 with th e heading must be th e result of misundertanding of t h e role
of v. 88 as simple summarization of th e three udharanas by a certain
Sanskrit copyist of later days. Difference of metre between vv. 85 87
M
and v. 88 yields another proof for this supposition K H owever, it poses
another question about th e omission of v. 70 in th e Chinese Krik text.
This verse occupies th e same position for th e 6th udharana as v. 88 for
the 7th 9th. If we admit such an omission by the Chinese translator him
self, the omission in th e second case in general will also be ascribed to th e
Chinese translator and th e reliability of the Chinese version will decrease.
There must have taken place an artificial selection by th e Chinese tran
slator, and as a result, those omissions in th e second case m ay be added
to th e Udharana group.
As for the next ones, i. e. vv. 89 91, the problem is not of their genuine
character but of their place in th e text, i. e. whether they belong to th e
Krik text as the Chinese version does, or to the commentary as in the case
of the Sanskrit text. The Chinese treatm ent is acceptable for th e following
reasons: 1) These verses show the significance of the 1st udharana as v. 41
does for the 2nd: 2) The Jnloklkrastra, th e basic scripture for
the 9 udharanas, has a similar verse between th e udharanas;25) and con
24)

I have previously expressed my opinion t h at the whole of this passage is a later


interpolation, but is kept in the basic text of C. tr.: and C omitted the three verses by
mistake. (" The textual structure of the Ratnagotravibhga and the supposed form of
its original text " , in Jap., The Journal of Religious Studies, N o. 155). Here I have cor
rected it according to D r. U i's opinion. See H . U i, op. cit., p . 265.
25)
I n the said stra, the anutpdnirodhat of the Buddha is repeated at the end of
every udharana up to the 4th, and at the end of the 4th ud. the stra has a summarized
verse on this point. [In the oldest version of the stra, i.e. the second Chinese tran
slation, in the absence of the illustrations of dundubhi and the following two, this summar
ized verse comes immediately after the 1st ud. The verse in the said stra is as follows:

[ 16 ]

The

R a t n a go t r a v. ibh ga

tinuity between v. 84 and v. 92 as given by the Chinese version seems to


be consistent. At the same time, however, there remain some difficulties
in accepting it . N amely, 1) th e subject 'anutpdnirodhat'' of the Tath
gata is the basic point throughout Chap. IV as well as the Jnloklakrastra 26) ; 2) their contents and wording are quite like to the commen
tary verses, especially the term i darandi' in v. 91 is akin to 4 navadh
darandikam ' in v. 84 which expects the existence of v. 81 2 7 ) . Thus the
Sanskrit text also can claim its reasonability of their treatm en t. I n view
of the antiquity of the Chinese version, however, the case was most proba
bly as follows: vv. 89 91 along with an additional verse in the Chinese Krik
text were originally kept at th e end of th e 1st udharana but with slightly
different terms in the second pda of v. 91; but afterwards, in the thought
th at the subject is not exclusive to the 1st udharana but common to th e
whole passage, the Sanskrit copyist shifted them to th e commentary, chan
ging some words as seen in th e present text and adding an explanatory
heading (p. 112, 11. 18 20). As far as this point is concerned, th e Chinese
version recovers its reliability to some extent, but unless we could recon
28)
struct the original form of v. 91 , we should treat vv. 89 91 as the com
mentary verses, being a part of th e udharanapindrtha.

(Taisho. Vol. 12, p. 242 b)

(ibid. p. 251 a)
26)
27

See a b o v e ( n . 25); T h e Ratna., p . 9, 1.7 ( = Taisho, ibid., p . 240 6).


) v. 91: ayatnt krtyam ity evam darandi pravartate /
dharmakyd anutpdnirodhd bhavasthiteh jj
v. 84: ayarn ca prakrto ' trrtho navadh darandikam /
janmntardhim rte stur anbhogt pravartate / /
v. 81: darandean vyptir vikrtir jnanihsrtih /
mano vk kyaguhyni

prpti ca karuntmnm //

> F or v. 91, C.

I t can be otherwise tran slated in to the following way:


This action takes place with out effort, an d one perceives th is and t h at appearance
(although) the dharmakya has neither origination nor destruction and is eternal as long
as th e world exists.
r T7 1

J.

S3.

TAKASAKI

Supposed Form of the Original Text.

As the result of examination of the Chinese Karik text, we have


arrived at the conclusion th at 1) the Chinese Krik text does not stand for
the original text; even the existence of the Krik text of such form at the
time when the Chinese translation was made is doubtful, but 2) it keeps a
fairly good account of those verses which are ' not the commentary verses ',
and 3) those verses retained in the Chinese Krik text are to be divided
into 3 groups: A. ' pure ' / o&a group, B. ' uddna ' group, and C. ud
harana ' group; 4) in Chapter IV some verses among the Sanskrit text are
to be added to the Cgroup, and 5) of these 3 groups, B. & C. are some
what of later days.
The problems remaining after this examination are the treatm en t of
v. I I , 9, and the form of the original text. One way to solve these problems
is to treat v. I I , 9 as an insertion made simultaneously with the B.and
the Cgroup by the second author, and regard the A.group as consisting
of the original form of text. By this, we can get 59 verses as original.
This seems consistent in its form, as it matches the use of the title of the
commentary, ' lokrthasamgrahavykhyna ' . Strictly speaking, however,
it leaves us in some doubt regarding the inconsistency of numbers in
29
each chapter or subject ).
Another way is to cut out all verses, starting with those in Chapter
I I as well as v. 23 of Chapter I from the line of the original verses, and
regard them along with v. I I , 9 and verses in the B. & the C. groups as
the secondary addition. In this way only 27 verses in Chapter I remain
as original. The reasons are 1) w . I, 156 157, which express the ' dean
prayojana\ can stand for a kind of conclusion and by this passage, i. e. in
Chapter I, the tathgatagarbha being the ratnagotra is sufficiently explai
ned, 2) the last verse of Chapter V. (v. 25) which expresses the faith in the
Buddha Amityus is not essentially connected with the contents of Chapter
I . D enial of the originality of chapters other than Chapter I consequen
tly means the denial of the idea of the 4 aspects of the ratnagotra. That is
why I omitted v. I, 23 from the line of original verses. Thereby, all kinds
of 4 classification' are deprived of this text. There is no possibility of abrid
ging the original form of the text more than this. This supposition, howe
ver, increases the importance of the supposed second author with regard
to establishing the system of the tathgatagarbha theory as appearing in the
present Sanskrit text. And even if the Chapters after I I were the later
M)

I t is, of course, not necessary to presume the existence of a text with 3 chapters.

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

addition, they had been no doubt composed before the commentary was
made. In this sense, I shall treat in my translation all the verses in the
A. B. C. groups, including v. I I , 9 as the ' basic verses ' for commenting
(it means neither original verses nor ' loka 's) under the name oikrik '30>
4.

The Commentary and Later Additions.

There seems to be no difficult point to discuss about the commentary.


I ts style is consistent throughout the text except for the fact th at the prose
commentary disappears after Chapter I I . This fact is construed as indi
cating th at the commentator attached the main importance to Chapter I,
and felt no necessity for detailed comment on other Chapters.
One thing to be noticed here are the omissions and additions in the
Sanskrit text as compared with the Chinese version. Besides small differen
ces between them, which will be referred to in the notes on my English
translation, the passages to be added to the commentary as missing in the
Sanskrit text and subtracted from it as additions in later days, are as follows:
A. Omissions
1) one commentary verse and its prose explanation on p. 16, 1. 15
(before na hi jtu. . . ) (C. p. 825 b)
2) one commentary verse and its prose explanation on p. 31, 1. 16
(before samsraduhkha) (C. p. 829 c 830 o)
3) a quotation on the parable of a castle taken from the Eat
nacdastra after ' nagarddharaiiam/ ' on p. 50, 1. 16 (C. p . 843 c)
4) two commentary verses before v. 1, 64 (p. 46, C. p. 832 c)
B. Additions
1) p. 51, 1. 10 p. 53, 1. 8 (with a heading 'aparah lokrthalj,'')
10 verses and prose commentary.
2) p. 102, 1. 20
p. 104, 1. 12
3) p. 108, 1. 3 12.
probably 4) p. 112, 11. 1 13,18 20.
Most of these passages were already noticed by the editor of the San
skrit text, and no explanation will be necessary for the present. Other
minor points with respect to the structure of the text will be noticed in
each passage of the translation.
30)

27 verses, being the supposed form of the original text, will be mentioned in Ap
pendix I .
r

in

J . TAKASAKI

III.
KEYPOINT OF THE DISCOURSE

} 1. Ratnagotra, the Germ of the 3 Jewels.

Mahyna Buddhism, in its philosophical approach, may generally be


characterized as Monism (or Absolutism) which admits the unique Abso
iute 3 1 ) or U ltimate E n tity, proved through the essential identification
[advayat) of various phenomena. And each phenomenon, just because
;>f its being merely an aspect (or face, feature, or form) of the Absolute,
cannot he the E n tity different from other phenomena, and itself has no
reality. But, through its being i iden tical' with the Absolute, every phe
nomenon has the characteristics of being ' r e a l' and is 'iden tical' with
32
each other as they stand for the Absolute in one of its various ' aspects' >.
This work, being a treatise on Mahyna Buddhism, is to be charac
terized as monistic in its philosophical approach. Though monism is
one, there is a variety of forms, and this variety of forms is due to the
different emphasis in each text, and this difference of standpoint gradual
ly causes the division of various schools within Mahyna Buddhism.
In other words, the difference of standpoint means: " to which aspect of
the Absolute, is the emphasis given in the text ? " In this sense, we may
define the characteristics of this text as a treatise, analyzing (vibhga)
the Absolute, or U ltimate E n tity from its aspect of ' ratnagotra '. This
31

> H aving come with connotations of Western philosophy, the word ' Absolute '
contains an idea somewhat different from t h at in I n dian philosophy and hence it is n ot
perfectly proper to use this word for expressing the idea which is to be discussed here.
In the case of the Vednta Philosophy, the Brahman (or Atman) is nearer to the Absolute
in Western philosophy in its character than what is corresponding to it in Buddhism.
But since Buddhism denies the existence of such an eternal substance as Brahman,
the use of the word' Absolute ' seems quite improper. Still Buddhism has its own idea
of something immutable (asamskrta), though its character is quite different from t h at of
Brahman and there is no fixed term like Brahman to express it . I n this respect, I dared
adopt the word ' Absolute ' as a general term for what is immutable in Buddhism.
See H . v. G lasenapp, Buddhismus und Gottesidee, S. 99 (Abhandlungen der Akademie der
Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Geistes und Sozialwissenschaftliche Klasse, Jahrgang
1954, N r. 8).
32)
On the other han d, the so called H nayna Buddhism whose representative is
the doctrine of the Sarvstivdin may be characterized as Realism declaring each element
(dharma) as real. See Th . Stcherbatsky, The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana, p . 40.

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

is the significance of the title ' ratnagotravibhga ', and by this the contents
of the text is fully expressed.
Then, what is ' ratnagotra ' ? This word is interpreted by the commen
tator as ' gotram ratnatrayasya ' (v. I, 24), the Germ of the 3 jewels,
and explained in the loka (v. I, 23) as ' visayah paramrthadarinm
ubharatnasargako yatah ', the sphere of those who have the highest per
ception from which the pure 3 jewels rise. H ere, ' gotra ' means something
original, while 'ratnatraya\ its result. The word ' gotra' is one of the
special terms difficult to be conveyed by any other language, but the
basic line of interpretation for this word among the Buddhist literatures
l
i
33
is 'gotra' = ' dhtu ' = hetu\ or ''gotra ' = b ja' >, and hence it may
be translated into English by ' elem en t', ' cause ', ' source ', ' origin ',
'basis', 'gro u n d ', 'essen ce', or ' n a t u r e ' . In India, however, by a com
mon use, this word means ' family', ' clan ' or ' lineage ' 3 4 ) , and analogi
35)
cally, it is used in the sense of' germ ', ' mine ' or ' matrix ' . Actually,
in the word ' gotra ', all of these senses are included, and besides ' dhtu ',
i
' hetu' and b ja', as synonyms of 'gotra' with the range of senses, we
can get various words such as ' pada ', ' raya ', ' mla ', ' sthna ' (for
i
' basis ' or ' ground ' ) ; ' nidna ' (for ' cause '); 'svabhva\ prakrti\ 'dhar
ma ' (for ' nature '); ' sra ' (for ' essence '); ' nidhi', ' nidhna ', ' kara '
(for ' m i n e ' ) , ' yoni\ ' garbha' (for ' m a t r ix' ) ; ' vama' (for lineage);
33)

Abhidharmakoakrik, 1, 20 (dhtu means gotra); The Ratna. p. 72.10 (hetvar


tho'tra dhtvarthah); Yogcrabhmi. P art 1, (ed. by Vidhushekhara Bhattacharva, Cal
cutta, 1957), p . 26, 11. 18 19: bljaparyyh punar dhtur gotram prakrtir hetuh satkya
prapaca laya updnam duhkham satkyadrstyadhisthnam asmimndhisthnam cety
evam bhgiyhparyy veditavyh, Bodhisattvabhmi (ed. by U . Wogihara), p . 3, 1. 6: gotram
bljam ity apy ucyate. See Edgerton, BH S D ie., gotra s.v.
As for the development of the idea of 'gotra'' within Buddhist thought, see Ober
miller's introduction to the Uttaratantra. I t gives a good summary of the development of
the idea from the Vinaya to the Yogcra system through the Sarvstivda and the Sau
trn tika, but as it is merely based upon Tibetan information (the Gser-phre, a commentary on the Abhisamaylakra by Tso-kha-pa, and the Phar-phyin skabs brgyad-ka, Eight
Chapters on the Pramit, of Jam-ya-shad-pa), a more detailed and thorough investigation on this subject based upon the Pali, Sanskrit, and Chinese sources will be required.
34
* ' Gotra ' is originally a term used in the IndoAryan society since the preVedic
age, and signifies usually an exogamous unit of families of the same lineage within the
Brahmin clan. Significance of ' gotra ' in the Brahmanical system was sought for by
J. Brough in his work, " The Early Brahmanical System of Gotra and Pravara, a Translation of the Gotra-pravara-majali of Purusottama-Pandita with an Introduction",
Cambridge, 1953.
35)
Edgerton regards the sense of 'a mine' as uniquely belonging to Buddhist texts.
In his opinion, an objection is raised by V. Raghavan ("Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit",
Indian Linguistics, Chatterjee Jubilee Volume, Journal of the Linguistic Society of India,
Vol. 16, p. 322).

J . TAKASAKI

parlgraha ' (for ' family ') etc. 3 6 ). On the other hand, ' ratna ' or ' rat
tatraya ' is a name for the Absolute when it is regarded as the ' arana '
refuge), or the object of worship. Par excellence, it is the ' buddharatna ',
md the other two, i. e. the ' dharmaratna' and 4 sagharatna ' are merely
he 'natural outflow' (dharmatnisyanda) of the former 37> (p. 7). In this
ense, ' ratnatraya ' is synonymous with 'buddha', ' tathgata\ or 4jfma\
\.nd combining these terms of both sides, we can get those terms like
tathgatagarbha ', 4 buddhagarbha\ ' jinagarbha ' ; ' tathgatadhtu \ 4 bud
Ihadhatu'; itathgatagotra\ 'buddhgotra\ etc. as synonyms of '"ratna
\ otra '. Thus we know the word ' ratnagotra ' used in the title indicates
/vhat is called ' tathgatagarbha ' and this text is a treatise on the Tath
'}atagarbha theory.
Then again, how are these terms ' tathgatagarbha ' or ' tathgatagotra '
;mployed ? The tathgatagarbha is, in a concrete way, a name for * satt
mdhtu', the multitude of the living beings. This 4 sattvadhtu \ or
sattvarV (in other words, sarvasattvh, sarvadehinah, all living beings)
s, according to the text, called ' tathagatagarbhh ', those who have the
Matrix of the Tathgata, just because 1) the Wisdom of the Buddha
penetrates it, 2) it is by n ature identical with purity, i. e. the Absolute,
and 3) it is the igotra\ through which the result, i. e. 4 ratnatraya '
9r, par excellence, the Tathgata makes its appearance (v. I, 27).
The point of its identity with the Absolute lies in its 4 essential purity '
(prakrty asamklistat) (v. I, 30) which is found in the 4 innate mind '
(cittaprakrti) of living beings (v. I, 49). Through the purity of the
innate mind, all living beings, irrespective of their conditions or appea
rances, are identical with each other. The existence of this purity, common
to all living beings, is proved by the all pervadingness of the Wisdom
of the Buddha, in other words, by th at of the Body of the Absolute (dhar
makya) (v. I, 28). At the same time, despite the existence of purity, the
living beings differ from each other owing to their appearances, namely
the different degrees with regard to the ' im pu rit y' on the pure innate
mind, and have various names, viz. ' t h e ordinary beings', ' t h e Saints ',
or ' the Buddha ' (v. I, 47) 38>. This ' im pu rit y' is, however, not essenti
ally connected with them, but merely temporally associated with them as
the accidental defilement (gantukaklea) and itself has no reality because
36

' All of these term s are taken from this text.


* This point is taken from the rlmlstra and is called the ' ekayna"1 theory
being one of the characteristics of M ahyna Buddhism.
38)
I n another place, (v. I, 47) th ey are classified in to ' sattvadhtu, bodhisattva, and
tathgata ', bu t essentially there is no difference between the two kinds of classification
(the Saints are par excellence' bodhisattvas ' in the M ahyna Buddhism).
37

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

it is constructed by th e ' irregular thought ' (ayoniomanasikra) (v. I ,


60 63). Therefore, it is removable from them and when they remove it
by realizing its accidental nature, i. e. when they accomplish the purifi
cation, they become th e Buddha. Because of this possibility, the sattva
dhtu is th e ' gotra ' of th e Buddha, and its pure innate mind is
regarded as th e Buddhahood (buddhatva) or the Essence of the Buddha
(buddhadhtu).
Those are th e essential characteristics of the tathgatagarbha, which
at th e same time constitute the core of th e doctrine described in this
39
text >.

2 . 4 Aspects of the Germ.


On th e basis of the essential characteristics of th e tathgatagarbha
referred to above, the text explicates the doctrine in five chapters 4), under
the titles: 1) Tathgatagarbha, 2) Bodhi, 3) Guna, 4) Tathgatakrtyakriy,
and 5) Anuamsa, respectively. Of these five, th e last chapter is th e
conclusion in which the merits of having faith in this doctrine of the tath
gatagarbha are described. The other four stand for th e 4 aspects ofth e
gotra, which are mentioned in v. I , 23 and which show its inconceiva
bility in each respect (v. I , 24) while Chapter I includes 3 lokas on t h e
ratnatraya and the commentary thereon, along with th e commentator's
introduction 4l>.
Thus, these 4 aspects of the gotra form the basic frame of this text an d
the authors refer to them in various places with various denominations.
I t would be better to pick up such denominations before analysing their
characteristics and significance.
1) dhtu, bodhi, guna, karman. (v. I , 1)
2) garbha (jnadhtu ptinistha), agrabodhi (jnpti), dharmh,
sattvrthakrt. (v. I, 3).
3) samal tathat, nirmal tathat, vimal buddhagunh, jinakriy.
(v. I , 23)
39)
The whole account of this passage on the [fundamental characteristics of th e
' ratnagotra' was taken from what I considered as the original text.
40)
The Chinese version gives 11 chapters, dividing the Chapter on the Tathgata
garbha into 7. But this division has probably no source in the basic text for the Chinese
translation.
41
) The commentary mentions the 3 Jewels along with 4 aspects of the G erm in it s
open verse and calls them the 7 vajrapadas. But this categorization does not have as
much significance as the 4 aspects of the gotra.

J. TAKASAKI

4)
5)
6)
7)

bodhya, bodhi, bodhyagni, bodhana. (v. I , 26)


buddhadhtu, buddhabodhi, buddhadharmh, buddhakrtya. (v. V, 1)
vyavadnadhtu, amal bodhi, gunh, karman (v. V, 25)
raya, tadparvrtti, tadgunh, arthasdhana. (v. V, 7)

Of these four, th e first aspect represents th e tathgatagarbha or th e gotra,


and th e second, what is to be called the Absolute. The interrelation bet
ween these two is t h at of ' cause' and ' result'. On the other hand, the third
aspect signifies th e attributes or the qualities of the Buddha, being insepa
rable from him; the fourth, th e acts of the Buddha, being th e natural out
flow of th e Buddhahood. Because th e Buddha is one aspect of th e Ab
solute, the latter two are said to relate to th e Absolute as being *attribute '
and ' function ' inseparable from th e Absolute or ' substance ', so to say A2\
At th e same time, because of its identity with th e Absolute, the tathgata
garbha is said to be endowed with th e same qualities and acts as those
of the Buddha. 43>. In this respect, these two are regarded as 4 aspects '
of the gotra. Therefore, these two latter aspects are less independent
and less important than th e former two and can be included in one
of them.
Thus, the 4 aspects of gotra are fundamentally reducible to two aspects,
4
cause ' and ' result '. Taking an example from the table mentioned
above, they are to be termed as ' bodhya ' and ' bodhi '. Gotra is different
from th e Absolute in its being actually not enlightened {abudha) (v. I , 4),
but it has a relation to th e latter in its being ' bodhya ', i. e. ' to be enligh
tened ' or * capable of getting bodhi'. Because of this capability, gotra
i
has obtained its name of cause ', and this capability is sought for in the
fact (or postulate) th at gotra is (or is to be) essentially identical with the
Absolute (tathatvyatireka). This relationship is expressed in another
couple of terms, samal tathat and nirmal tathat. H ere, th e difference
between two aspects is shown by each attribute, samal and nirmal, while
the identity of both is expressed by the term tathat. Tathat, th e Abso
lute, is characterized as nirmal in comparison with gotra, though it is
common to both. H ere we may notice t h at there are two aspects of the
Absolute, and for th e 'result' aspect, the Absolute as in common with the

42)

The relationship between the Absolute and attributes is often expressed by the
term ' avinirbhga, amuktaja (avinirmuktajna) (p. 3.4 ff. &c.) and similes of lantern
and ocean are used for its explanation (v. I , 42). F or the acts of the Buddha, they are
ragarded somehow as the natural outflow of the Buddha's Compassion (karun) towards
living beings (v. I , 4 c d).
43)
V. I, 49; I , 155 and v. I, 42 and commentary thereon (on yogrtha). (gunaprakrtiyogatah), p. 66.19 (andicittavyavadSnadharmasahajvinirbhgat), etc.

[ 24 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

gotra is the ' ground '. In other words, the Absolute can be established
as ' result ' because it is in common with the gotra.
This Absolute, as common to both cause and result, is therefore to
be regarded as the third aspect which is necessary to establish the relation
ship of cause and result. I t may be termed ' ground' aspect or 4 m edium '
aspect, and including this aspect, we know, 3 aspects are often used for
analyzing the tathgatagarbha in this text.
The first application of the 3 aspects theory is v. I, 26 where the Ab
solute is on the one hand regarded as phala under the name of ratnatraya
and on the other hand as pratyaya for establishing ratnatraya (i. e. buddha)
under the name of bodhi in comparison with the gotra's being hetu. H ere
the third aspect is characterized as 4 medium ' (pratyaya) and on the basis
of bodhi as medium, cause and result are called bodhya and buddha, respec
tively. Another kind of, and more important, division of the 3 aspects
is what is called svabhvatraya of gotra (p. 69. 17 ff) by the commentator
based upon v. I, 27. The names of the 3 aspects are dharmakya, tathat,
and tathgatagotra. If we apply the same idea of ' medium ' in this case,
tathat will be regarded as 4 medium ', and dharmakya as 4 result' since
the word dharmakya stands for one aspect of buddha showing his essential
nature. According to the commentator, however, dharmakya is inter
preted as the Absolute itself, being the 4 ground ' which renders gotra as
* cause ', while tathat is explained as tathgata in the sense ' tathat ud
dhim gat ', and regarded as ' resu lt '. H ere, the third aspect is prefe
4
4
4
rably called ground ', and result ' is considered to become one with
4
4
the ground, i. e. the Absolute '. F or ground ' of cause ', if we restrict
the observation only to the relationship between dharmakya and tathgata
gotra, the former is to be regarded as 4 cause ' and the latter, as * result '.
In this case, tathat stands again for 4 medium ' aspect.
By examining in this way, we come to know th at these aspects are
interchangeable according to the respective standpoint. F rom the stand
4
4
4
point of gotra', dharmakya and tathat are either resu lt ' or groun d',
4
while from the standpoint of the Absolute, gotra is result ' as well as
4
cause '. 44) Such is the fundamental structure of the Absolute and its
aspects in this text. N ext, let us examine the characteristics of the Abso
lute, taking this structure into consideration and subsequently clarifying
4
4
the process from cause' to resu lt '.
44
' The word tathgatagarbha is interpreted in the Ratna. in three ways, namely:
1) tathgatasya ime garbhah sarvasattvh, (p. 70.17); 2) tathgatas tathatasm garbhah
sarvasattvnm, and 3) tathgatadhtur esm garbhah sarvasattvnm. They correspond
to dharmakya, tathat, and tathgatagotra, respectively. See my translation of each
passage.

J . TAKASAKI

3.

The Absolute.

The Absolute is expressed in various terms in this text. But in its


fundamental characteristics, these terms can be divided into two groups:
to one group belong those expressing the Absolute from the ' ground '
aspect, to the other those doing the same from the ' result ' aspect.
Of course both aspects are interchangeable as has been seen in the case
of 'dharmakya'' and ' tathat'' in the preceding passage. From the
standpoint of the development of the idea or from the literal meaning
of each term, however, such a division seems possible.
Originally and basically the Absolute in Buddhism is dharma, the
universal law, or the highest truth (paramrthasatya), which is unchangeable and immutable (asarnskrta) and whose contents are expressed by the
4 ryasatya of duhkha, samudaya, nirodha and mrga, or by the terms,
prat tyasamutpda, nyat, etc. This truth is to be realized by oneself
('pratytmavedan ya'')
as the Buddha did for the first time, and hence, is
characterized as ' adhigamadharma\
Thus the Buddhist Absolute, being
the truth , is ' impersonal ' and ' attainable '; in those two points we can
find the peculiarity of the Buddhist Absolute, and based upon these two
characteristics, the Buddhist Absolute expands its contents in two direc
tions 45>.
F irstly, as this 'im person al' truth shows the real nature of 't h in gs',
this nature is also regarded as the Absolute under the names of ' dharmat'
( = dharmasvabhva), ' tathat' or itattva'> (suchness). Being the nature
of things, it penetrates all things or phenomena including the living
beings, and hence the universe is called 'dharmadhtu\ the realm of truth
which is the essence of the nature (tattvasya laksanam) and is regarded
as the Absolute itself in the sense of ' reality '. Thus the all pervadin
gness, and hence the oneness of the Absolute, is introduced into the
conception of Buddhist Absolute. This is nothing but the 4 ground '
aspect of the Absolute.
On the other hand, the character of being ' attainable ' introduces
the ' result ' aspect and is shown by the absolutization of the Buddha
caused by veneration and glorification of the Buddha as the founder among
Buddhist followers. This is a kind of ' personification ' of the Absolute,
45)
The following description does n ot exactly follow a historical development of
the idea but is made with a logical approach. Sanskrit terms mentioned with quotation
marks in the following passage are the technical terms on the Absolute used in
th e Ratna.

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

but even in this case, if one may discuss the m atter apart from the religious
feeling* the Buddha is regarded as * impersonal', the manifestation of the
truth, since he realized the truth and his essence or nature as being ' bud
dha ' lies in his realization (' bodhi ') of the truth . Thus the absolutization
of the Buddha consists in making the Buddha impersonal and this Buddha
as the Absolute is called ' dharmakya'. At the same time, the term
' buddha ' is originally applicable to any person as an adjetive. N amely,
anybody can become ' buddha ' if he experiences and practises what the
G autama Buddha did; in other words, the state of 'buddha' is attainable
as the result of practice. In this sense, the existence of an innumerable
number of Buddhas is possible and even ordinary beings, though they
are actually not the Buddha, are postulated to have the same nature
as the Buddha. This same nature is called ' gotra ' or ' dhtu ' and the
existence of this nature is explained by the expression ' dharmakyapa~
rispharanat'' or ibuddhajnntargama''-tva.
Besides ' buddha ' and ' bodhi', there is another important term for
the Buddhist Absolute. It is ' nirvana '. This term was absolutized even
in the Pali and in the Adhidharma Buddhism as an idea contrary to samsra and is stated to be the realm of peace (' ntipatha ') . Mahyna
Buddhism rebelled against the dualistic conception of Nirvana and Satnsra
and emphasized the oneness of both in the sense th at N irvana is the only
reality; and N irvana was regarded as synonymous with ' dharmat', ' dhar
madhtu', or ' dharmakya'. Originally, however, by ' nirvana' is meant
a state 4 attained ' by the Buddha and hence, like ' bodhi', it shows the
' result ' aspect of the Absolute. In the case of ' bodhi ', the intuition
(praj) or wisdom (jna) by which the Buddha attained the enlighten
ment occupies an important place and is elevated to identity with the
Absolute under the name of 4 prajpramit ' or 4 buddhajna ' as the
essential nature of the Buddha. On the other hand, in the case of ' nir
vana ', the emphasis is on the disappearance or extinction (ksaya, ni
rodha) of defilements (klea) and hence the term nirvana is much related
to the purification of mind (cittavyavadna). Both of these attainments
of ' jna' and ' vyavadna', are, however, combined in one as
the sine qua non for the realization of the Absolute, and consequently
there is no strict distinction of use between both terms, ' nirvana'' and
' bodhi'.
Introduction of the ' result' aspect into the Absolute thus effected
the absolutization of Buddha, of the attained state, and even of the medium
or instrument for such an acquisition. For the introduction of such a
conception, we cannot overlook a rather primitive and magical idea th at
to know something is to become itself, which is believed commonly in India

J. TAKASAKI

since the Vedic Age 46>. It was also the basic idea for the theory of the
oneness of Brahman and tman in the philosophy of the Upanisads as
47
well as of the later Vedntavda >. Rather, it is an inevitable character
for all systems which declare their philosophical standpoint as Monism.
And when Buddhism developed itself into Mahyna Buddhism, it
could not but take the appearance of Monism as a result of Absoluti
zation of the Buddha, and approach the U panisadic thinking in its
philosophy.
On the other hand absolutization of the Buddha made Mahyna
Buddhism more religious than Abhidharma Buddhism. Emphasis was
placed on the Buddha rather than the D harma and effected the ' ekayna '
theory of the Buddha. Among the 3 jewels, the jewel of the Buddha came
to be regarded as the only ultimate refuge. At the same time, the purpose
of religious practices was made to be the acquisition of the Buddhahood
rather than the Arhatship of Abhidharma Buddhism. And for explaining
the possibility of anyone's acquiring the Buddhahood, the Monistic philo
sophy was used as the background.
In this last point lies the significance of the tathgatagarbha theory
of this text. This theory is in one sense an inevitable result of the deve
lopment of Mahynistic Monism in its religious expression. In relation to
the term tathgatagarbha, the Absolute is often spoken of as the dharmakya
of the tathgata, which is characterized as ' rayaparivrttV (Revolution
of the basis, i. e. of the tathgatagarbha) or jnpti. In this characterization the process from cause to result is observed, and this process is
understood as the removal (' visamyoga'') of two kinds of obscuration, viz. of
knowable things (jeya-varana) and of defilements (klea .). Basically,
however, the stress lies on the purification of mind from the defilements,
observed in the use of terms such as 'samal tathat^ and ' nirmal
tathat\ 'vaimalyadhtu\ 'viuddhicittaprakrti'' or by the definition of
tathgata as itathat uddhim gat\ and of tathgatagarbha as 'sarva
kleakoakotigdhas tathgatagarbhah\ Such terminology is characteristic
of this tathgatagarbha theory compared with stress on jnpti in the
vijnavda as the ultimate goal 48>.
In relation to the conception of the Absolute in 4 ground ' and ' re
sult ' aspect, one thing to be noted here is the development of Buddhology.
Establishment of the Buddha as the Absolute under the name of dharma
46>
e.g. Brhad. Up. vi 1 1: yo ha vai jyestham ca restham ca veda, jyesfha ca
restha ca svnm bhavati, etc.
47
' 'sayo ha vai tatparamambrahma veda brahmava bhavati'. (Mundaka Up. iii-2-9)
is regarded as one of the important authority for the Vedntavda.
*8) See VI, 2. (The R atn a. and the Vijnavda).

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

subsequently caused another aspect of the Buddha to rise besides


the dharmakya. This was originally a problem of how to treat the histo
rical Buddha in the Buddhist doctrine. In comparison with the dharma
kya, this second body is called ' rpakya' (v. I I , 61). This division of two
bodies corresponds to the two aspects of the Absolute, namely, the rpakya.
is ' result ' and the dharmakya is ' ground' for the second body. Also,
it corresponds to the division of two satyas, paramrtha and samvrti,
the former being lokottara and the latter being laukika, and called
4
paramrthakya'' and *samvrtikya, (v. I l l , 1). F urthermore these two
are said to represent 4svrthasampatti'' and 'parrthasampatti\ respectively (v. I l l , 1).
This double kya theory is, however, immediately followed by the
triple kya theory, by dividing the second one into two. An usual nomina
tion for the three is ' svbhvika\ ' smbhogika' and 'nairmnik a\ respecti
vely (vv. 1,151 2; I I , 43 ff.). Of them, ' svbhvika' is for the dharmakya,
the fact of being the Buddha's own nature. H ere, the Buddha's own
nature means, as has been observed above, ' bodhi' or ' buddhajna,' and
hence the dharmakya's original character as ' result ' is still retained.
That is why, in this text, ' buddhajna' is replaced by dharmakya without
interpretation (v. I, 27 and 28), and dharmakya is called svrthasampatti
because of its including jnpti within itself. On the other hand, ' srn
bogika' and ' nairmnika' are of conventional character, referring respec
tively to the body for the assembly of Bodhisattvas and to the body for
common people in order to lead them towards the Enlightenment. There
fore, these latter two are called parrthasampatti. Here, smbhogika
means para smbhogika, i. e. the Body for other's enjoyment. Literally
sambhoga means enjoyment or bliss of the dharma by the Buddha himself
as the ' result' of realization of dharma, but by this term all the Buddhas
in ten directions and in three divisions of time, i. e. past, future and
present are signified, and the manifestation of these Buddhas is regarded
as for the sake of people, and is hence included under parrthasampatti. In
turn, the historical Buddha is defined as 'nairmnika', the Apparitio
nal Body.
This triple kya theory seems to be basic for the Ratna. H owever,
the interpretation of smbhogika leaves some doubt with us. Why is its
Junction limited to para sambhoga ? If the dharmakya is regarded as
svrthasampatti, it is to be called ' svasmbhogika ' in contrast with the
sanibhogika which represents parrthasampatti. It may be more logical
to include the dharmakya's character of jnpti or svrthasampatti
ln
to the second body of sambhoga, and by it, to leave the dharmakya
m its pure character of truth or reality.
r oo

J.

TAKASAKI

In this respect, attention should be paid to the division of dharmakya


by the commentator into ' muktikya ' and ' dharmakya ' in regard to its
i
function (v. I I , 21). These two kyas correspond to prakrtiviuddhi '
and ' vaimalyaviuddhi ' (p. 80), or to ' prakrtisthagotra ' and ' samudn
tagotra ' (v. I, 149), respectively. H ere, the muktikya is to be identified
with the Absolute Essence characterized as ' dharmadhtu\ ' cittaprakrti '
or ''prakrtisthagotra'', in the sense ' t h e Body which represents the innate
liberation '. Being ' in n a t e ' , it stands for the 'gr o u n d ' aspect of the
dharmakya. I n turn, the dharmakya stands for the ' result ' aspect,
since it is nothing but the samudn tagotra being the result produced by the
prakrtisthagotra (v. I, 150). Shall we then consider th at the svrthasampatti is represented by this second body, the dharmakya, and the first body,
the muktikya remains without arthasampatti ? An answer is not clearly
given in the text, but it is apparently ' no '. N amely, the said twofold
Body is referred to as the substratum of sva-parrthasampatti, which is
caused by means o f avikalpajna ' and ' tatprsthalabdha-jna ' (v. I I , 30).
In this description, the correspondence between each of the 3 couples of
terms is not clearly observed, but it may be proven in the light of another
commentary passage.
Commenting on the dharmakya as one of the svabhvatraya of the
tathgatagarbha (p. 70), the commentator divides the dharmakya into (1)
dharmadhtu which, being the realm of avikalpajna, represents ' adhiga
madharma ', and (2) ' tadnisyanda ', i. e. the natural outflow of dharmadhtu,
which constitutes ' deandharma ' characterized as ' parasattvesu vijaptiprabhavah '. Here the text does not call the latter the realm of prsthalabdha-jna, but it might well have done so, in contrast with the former,
which it calls ' the realm of avikalpajna '; and in the same way, the for
mer might be said to represent svrthasampatti, in comparison with the
latter, which is characterized as 'parasattvesu vijaptiprabhavah '. Thus
being the case, svrthasampatti is to be regarded as inherent to the
muktikya or dharmadhtu, and we may conclude th at the complete
separation of the ' result ' aspect from the dharmakya is not observed
in the Ratna., even in the commentary 49>.
*9) I n M ahyna Buddhism, Buddhology occupies an im portan t part among its
doctrines. The development had taken place from the double kya theory in N grjuna's
philosophy to the triple kya theory as in the Ratna., and lastly resulted in another kind
of the triple kya theory, whose characteristic lies in the division of the dharmakya into
two kyas, or separation of the jna from the attributes of the dharmakya. I n Chinese
Buddhism reference is often made to these two kinds of the triple kya theory calling the
former ' K'ai ying ho chen (pfj J|/ j>|| / p y J|l.) ' and the latter ' K'ai chen ho ying
S * 'PJ* M H ) ' respectively.

I t is one of keynotes to decide the date of M ah

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

There is another thing to be noticed here with reference to the aspects


of the dharmakya. Up to now I have often referred to the i result' aspect
without distinction. But in regard to its contents or its relation to ' cause'
or ' ground ', there is a certain variety. The terms which show this va
riety and which are used in the Ratna. are ' visamyoga ', * niryanda ' and
' vipka '. Of them, the first one, visamyoga phala is used for characteriz
ing rayaparivrtti, or dharmakya as the result of purification or attain
ment of Enlightenment (p. 80, 82). This is nothing but what I called the
' resu lt ' aspect of the dharmakya whose ' cause ' is gotra or dhtu, i. e. the
tathgatagarbha. On the other hand, the term nisyanda is used for indicating
the relation of dharmaratna and samgharatna to buddharatna (dharmat
nisyanda, p. 7) or the relation of deandharma to adhigamadharma as
mentioned above (dharmadhtu nisyanda). This last usage actually refers
to the relation of the rpakya to the dharmakya in the sense th at the
rpakya is merely an aspect of the dharmakya when it works for parrtha.
The same relation must be observed between samudn tagotra and the
twofold rpakya (v. I, 150), and between avikalpajna and tatprstha
labdha-jna. In this case, the dharmakya appears in its ' ground '
aspect.
Now the third one, vipka phala is an entirely different one from the
other two in its original character. N amely, in the case of visamyoga, cause
and result are exactly the same, and in the case of nisyanda, result is the
same as cause or is involved within the cause, while in the case of vipka,
cause and result are dissimilar from each other. In the Ratna, however,
this term is used along with visamyoga in the same context as dharmakya
and rpakya (v. I I , 1). N amely, samvrtikya, representing parrtha,
is said to be vipka phala, in contrast with paramrthakya as visamyoga
phala which represents svrtha. This usage seems to relate to the character
of sambhogakya as the ' reward ' of infinite practice (bhvan) before
Enlightenment. If it were so, Enlightenment or jnpti may also be termed vipkaphala because of its character of svasambhoga, while to include
the nirmnakya within vipkaphala is improper; what is proper to
the nirmnakya is the term nisyanda, because this kya is said to be the
incarnation of the dharmakya 50>.
yna Sutras and Sstras. About Buddhology of the triple kya, see D .T. Suzuki, Studies
in the Lakvatra Stra, pp. 308 ff.
60)
I n the Lakvatrastra (p. 283, 1.4 & 11), the term vaipkika is used for
smbhogika, in contrast with nairmnika (see BH S D ie.) (c. =P|X. 4Q I7p) At the
same tim e, however, the term nisyanda buddha is mentioned as indicating the second
Body (p. 56, 1. 8 & 18, 57, 1. 8), which, curiously enough, is rendered into the Chinese

J. TAKASAKI

IV.
G EN EALOG Y OF T H E TATH G ATAG ARBH A TH EOR Y

1.

Sources of the Ratnagotravibhga.

In th e preceding chapter, we have examined th e fundamental character


of th e tathgatagarbha theory in th e Ratna. which seems to be the first
treatise exposing this theory systematically and in its pure form. F or
its explanation, however, th e Ratna. has been much aided by various
scriptures which expound the same theory. Sometimes it presents th e
whole passage by quotations without its own words, sometimes it uses th e
scriptural passage as if it were its own words without any sign of quotation .
The number of Scriptures utilized in th e Ratna. is more th an 20 and quo
tations or altered scriptural passages seem to occupy more th an one th ird
of th e whole text. I n one sense, th e Ratna. seems merely a collection
of scriptural passages concerning th e tathgatagarbha theory.
Among the scriptures utilized in the Ratna. 5 1 ) , those relating to
the Krik text and hence assuming im portan t roles in th e arrangement
of th e text are, according to th e commentator, following ones:
1) Dhran vararjastra (or T athgatamahkarunstra), from which
the

7 Vajrapadas are derived as th e body of th e treatise, (v. 1, 2 dh

ranlrjastra).
2) T athgatagarbhastra, from which the 9 examples

illustratin g

how th e Germ is covered with defilements are derived (p. 66.18. tathgata
garbhastrodharananirdea) (Chapter I ) .
3) Ratnadrikstra, from which the 64 Attributes of th e Buddha
are derived (v. I l l , 27. ratnastra) (Chap. I I I ) .
4) Jnloklakrastra, from which th e 9 examples illustrating
the

Buddha's Acts are derived (v. IV, 79).


Of them , the T athgatagarbhastra is th e most im portan t one as it

expounds mainly th e tathgatagarbha theory, and its essential doctrine


constitutes th e core of this text.
Besides th e T athgatagarbhastra, the main sources of th e Ratna.
and those frequently quoted are 5) ryarmlstra and 6) Annatvprna
tvanirdeaparivarta. Also, 7) Avatamsakastra {T athgatotpattisambhava
51)

Bibliographical information of these scriptures is given in my notes on the English


translation under th e first occurrence of quotations or name of each scripture.

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

parivarta), 8) Mahparinirvnastra {Mahayna) {Tathgatadhtuparivarta),


9) Sgaramatipariprcch, 10) Gaganagajbodhisattvapariprcch, and 11)
Ratnacdastra are quoted, not often but with long passages. They
expound more or less the same theory of tathgatagarbha, and especially
nos. 5) 6) and 8) are the representative scriptures on this theory.
There are two works, among the quotations, which occupy a unique
position in comparison with the former group of Scriptures. They are 12)
Mahynbhidharmastra and 13) Mahaynastrlakra, both of which
are regarded as the main authorities on the Vijnavda. However, the
Ratna. utilized them only along the lines of the tathgatagarbha theory
and never referred to the Vijnavda. These two seem to hold a key
for solving the problems of the relationship between the tathgatagarbha
theory and the Vijnavda, as well as of the authorship of the Ratna.
One remarkable point is th at all scriptures or parts of scriptures men
tioned above are unknown to N grjuna or, at least, not used in the works
of N grjuna. They seem to have appeared after N grjuna, and the
tathgatagarbha theory, like the Vijnavda, is an entirely new and later
theory of Mahyna Buddhism.
Besides these scriptures on the tathgatagarbha theory, the names
Prajpramitstra and Saddharmapundar ka, two main and basic scrip
tures of M ahyna Buddhism, are mentioned in the Ratna. There is no
quotation from the Saddharmapundar ka, but it is clear th at this scripture
had influenced the Ratna. much with its ekayna theory and the doctrine
of the eternal Buddha. As for the Prajpramit, besides its indirect
influences on the Tathgatagarbha theory, the Ratna. quotes once from 14)
Vajracchedik and once from 15) Astashasrik altering the sentences
into the commentary's own form. This last one is significant in its expo
sition of how phenomena are originated from one essence (ekadhtu), as
well as in its ascription of the cause to irregular thought (ayonio manasi
kra) 52>, which corresponds to the passage, v. 1, 52 onwards, in the Ratna.
Other quotations are from 16) Drdhdhyayaparivarta, 17) Tath
gatagunajncintyavisayvatranirdea, 18) Kyapaparivarta (Ratnak
tastra), 19) ISadyatanastra (or adindriyarsi stra) and from more
than eight unknown sources, of which one is in P rakrit.
To discuss and examine the character of all the scriptures mentioned
above is beyond our present purpose, but it is necessary and possible for
clarifying the tathgatagarbha theory to trace its genealogy back to its
origin by examining these sources. F or this purpose, we will pick up
some important ones and will refer to their historical order.
52

> See my note on the Engl. tr. (111 53).

J. TAKASAKI

2.

Cittaprakrti and Agantukaklea

As has been said above, the most important and principal point of
the tathgatagarbha theory is to purify the mind. This is not an exclusive
facture of this theory, but was also the principle of practice from the out
set of Buddhism. The peculiarity of the tathgatagarbha theory lies in its
emphasis on this point in association with the fundamental identification
of living beings with the Buddha under the name of tathgatagarbha, etc.
The term tathgatagarbha was an entirely new usage but its basic idea is
found in the expression " prakrtiprabhsvaram cittam gantukair upakle
air upakliyate. ", for which the same corresponding expression, or si
53
milar ones, are used sometimes in the Pali canons >. Another expression of
this same idea of purification of mind, " cittasamklet sattvh samkliyante,
cittavyavadnd viuddhyante", seems also to be old and to have its
54
origin in the Pali canons >. This purity of the innate mind is often com
55
pared to th at of gold >. A P rakrit verse quoted in the Ratna. (p. 6)
seems to belong to the same line of doctrine found in the Pali canons,
though it is not traced in the present Tripitaka. The Dhran vararjastra
together with the Sgaramatipariprcch, the Ratnadrik, the Ratnacda,
the Gaganagaj, the Aksayamatipariprcch, etc., which form parts of
the Mahsamghtastra 56\ are also standing fundamentally on the theory
of the cittaprakrti, and they are probably written by one and the same
group who later developed the tathgatagarbha theory.
Characterization of defilements or phenomena in general as ' acciden
tal ' attachment on the mind is, however, not found among those scriptures
belonging to the oldest group in the Pali canon and there was a controversy
about this characterization among schools of the Abhidharma Buddhism 57) .
53)

e.g. AN , I , 5, 9 10 (PTS, vol. 1, p . 10).


> e.g. SN (P TS, vol. 3, p . 151).
S5
> e.g. AN (ibid., vol. 1, p . 257); SN (vol. 5, p . 92).
S4

56)
^ C Jl'^f
^C M I S
Taisho, N o. 397 (Vol. 13). Compilation of this
big collection of stras in the present form has probably taken place after the composition
of the Ratna.
57
' The Sarvstivda did not accept this theory of cittaprakrti. Among other sects
of the Abhidharma Buddhism, the following four are known for their acceptance of this
theory:
1) the Theravda of CeylonDhammapadtthakath, 1; 2; 3; Milindapanh iv 7 2.
2) the VaibhsikaMahvibhsstra (Taisho, 27, p . 140 b).
3) the Vts putr ya * riputrbhidharmastra (Taisho, 28, p . 697 b).
4) the M ahsamghika* Laksannusrastra (|*m >rn PRfl) (Taisho, 32,
p . 163 b), etc.
See C. Akanuma: Bukkyokyori no Kenky (Japanese) (Studies in the Buddhist
D octrine), p . 210 ff.

T h e R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga
This idea had been fully accepted by the Mahyna Buddhism, and we
can find a frequent use of the above two expressions among th e Mahy
nistic scriptures. F urthermore, this characterization of defilements led
to the idea of non reality of all the phenomena and resulted in the citta
mtra theory, whose first exposition is found in the Daabhmikastra 58>.
This Ratna., though it makes no use of the term cittamtra, is no doubt
based upon this theory, which will be observed in the passage expounding
the origination of phenomena from the cittaprakrti.
Questions which arise pursuant to the idea of cittaprakrti and gan
tukaklea are (1) why and how the phenomena of unreal character are ori
ginated and (2) how th e cittaprakrti is pure and identical with th e Buddha
or the immutable Absolute being. The tathgatagarbha theory seems to
put the accent on the latter of the two, and, as for the former it has not
sufficient explanation to resolve the problem even in th e Ratna. I t
describes only how the defilements come to cover the pure innate mind
and how they are to be removed. The first exposition of these two points
(consequently the first establishment of the tathgatagarbha theory) is seen
in the Tathgatagarbhastra.

3. " Buddhajna " in the Avatamsaka.


Prior to the establishment of the tathgatagarbha theory by the Tath
gatagarbhastra, there is a stage of development with respect to the iden
tification of living beings with the Buddha. I t is the idea of the pene
tration of the Buddha's Wisdom into the living beings described in the
Avatamsakastra and quoted in the Ratna. (pp. 22-24). The Avatamsakastra as is seen in the present form is a collection of minor scriptures
among which the Daabhmika, the Gandavyha are important and of
early origin. The passage containing the description of the buddhajna
(Tathgatotpattisambhavanirdea) also seems old, and was translated early
in the 3rd cent. A.D. into Chinese by D harmaraksa as an independent
59
Stra ). The term buddhajna is a synonym of buddhatva or buddhat,
58)

The source of the citta mtra theory is often sought for in the following passage:
tasyavam bhavati / cittamtram idam yad idam traidhtukam / yny apmni dvdan
gni tathgatena prabhedao vykhytni tny api sarvny eva cittasamritni V (Rahder's
ed. p . 49 c, Taisho 9, p . 558 b).
Strictly speaking, however, this passage teaches only the dependence of the pheno
mena on the citta. Still there is no doubt th at the citta mtra theory and the Vijnavda
have their starting point in this passage.
M)

' Ju lai hsing hsien ching (# P ^

5 |

MB $ S \ Taisho, no. 291.

J. TAKASAKI
because the Buddha's nature is represented by his Enlightenment, for which
the acquisition of jna is indispensable. This buddhajna is often com
pared to the sun, as it appears from the Ratna. or the Jnloklakra.
In their emphasis of buddhajna, the Jnloklakra and the Tathgata
gunajncintyavisayvatra seem to be consistent with the Tathgatotpa
tisambhavanirdea. These scriptures expound on one hand the eternity
of the Buddha and his acts which corresponds to the all pervadingness
of the buddhajna and form the basic idea of the Absolute 60>.
4.

The Tathgatagarbhastra.

The Tathgatagarbhastra is a small scripture whose main part con


sists merely of the 9 examples illustrating the covering of defilements over
the tathgatagarbha. The core of its doctrine is stated in the following
four sentences in the first example, a Buddha sitting in the interior of
every lotus flower:
1) I (the Buddha) observe, with the buddhacaksus, th at all living
beings, though they are among the defilements of hatred, anger and
ignorance, have the buddhajna, buddhacaksus, and buddhakya sitting
motionless.
2) [Thus] all living beings, though they are abiding in various
worlds with bodies full of defilements, are possessed of the tathgatagarbha
which is always unpolluted and, being endowed with the virtuous proper
ties, they are not different from myself.
3) H aving thus observed, the Buddha preached the doctrine in
order to remove the defilements and manifest the Buddha n ature [within
the living beings].
4) es dharmnm dharmat. utpdd v tathgatnm anutpdd
v sadavate sattvs tathgatagarbhh6 1 \
60)

On th e relationship between the Tathgatotpattisambhavanirdea and the Ratna.


with respect to th e Tathgatgarbhastra, with special reference to this idea of the pene
tration of buddhajna, I wrote an article in the Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies:
" The Tathgatotpattisambhavanirdea of the Avatamsaka and the Ratnagotravibhga,
with special reference to the term ' tathgatagotra sambhava ' (j%\ \ yjv '|n / chi) '\ JIBS,
Vol. 7, N o. 1, Tokyo, 1958, p p . (48) (53). This article stresses the development of
the idea of ' gotrasambhava ', one of the important terms in the H ua yen philosophy
and locates the first use of this compound in the Ratna. (p. 26, 11. 8 9). I n relation to
this, one thing to be noticed here is t h at a scriptural passage of unknown source quoted
in the Ratna. (p. 72, 11. 10 11) seems to belong to the same group as the two said scrip
tures in the use of terms: tathgatadhtur utpanno garbhagatah.
61>
These four passages are in Taisho, 16, p . 457 6 c. The last one is quoted in th e
Ratna. (p. 73).

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

The first three of those statements are based upon the Avantamsaka
stra. but deepened the idea by the phrase " sarvasattvs tathgatagarbhh "
which probably was declared for the first time in this Stra, and they re
present, respectively, what is called the three meanings of the tathgata
garbha by the Ratna., viz. dharmakya parispharanrtha, tathatvyatirekrtha, and gotrasambhavrtha (p. 26, vv. I, 27, 28, & 11. 7-11). In the fourth
sentence, it is expounded how this tathgatagarbha theory is an eternal truth .
That, in short, is the whole contents of this Stra. H owever, all of
these points form the basic idea of the tathgatagarbha theory and are dee
pened by the subsequent scriptures.
5.

The ryarmlstra.

A Stra which deeply investigates the characters of the tathgatagarbha


in a more developed form than the Tathgatagarbhastra and has a signifi
cant role for establishing the tathgatagarbha theory is the ryar ml
stra. I t is quoted more often in the Ratna. than any other scripture, and
as far as the philosophical approach is concerned, it occupies a much more
important position in the Ratna. than does the Tathgatagarbhastra.
The original points of thought of the tathgatagarbha expounded in this
Sutra are as follows:
1) Two faces of the mind: prakrtipariuddhicitta and upaklistacitta.
(quotations in pp. 15 & 22) I t is another expression of the same idea of
' cittaprakrti and gantukaklea ', and because of this co existence of purity
and impurity on the mind, the tathgatagarbha has got its name and is
characterized, in the Ratna., as * samal tathat \
i
2) In relation to those faces, the so called 5 meanings of garbha '
(clarified in the Buddhagotrastra), i. e. tathgatagarbha, dharmadhtu
garbha, dharkyagarbha, lokottaradharmagarbha, & prakrtipariuddha
garbha give the full characteristic of garbha on its pure side.
3) Union of the tathgatagarbha with innumerable attributes of the
Buddha, which identifies the garbha with the dharmakya, and in relation
to this,
4) the anya and nya character of the garbha (Q in pp. 59 & 76).
The explanation for this is th at garbha is nya since it is devoid of kleas
"which are of unreal n ature, while garbha is anya since it is endowed with.
buddhadharmas which are inseparable from the dharmakya which is the
reality.
Moreover, such an observation is regarded as the real conception of
nyat, and to know the tathgatagarbha is said to be the same as to know
nyat. H ere is seen the criticism on the sarva nya vda, and those

J.

TAKASAKI

adh erin g to t h e nya vda are criticized by bein g called ' nyatviksipta
citt'' sattvh. 62\
5) Such criticism of t h e nyavda n a t u r a lly leads t h e S t ra t o de
scribe t h e dharmakya, as well as t h e garbha, wit h positive expression s
an d t h er eby t h e ch aract er of t h e dharmakya or garbha approach es t h e
Atman of t h e Ved n t a v d a . One of such expression s is t h e tathgata's
possession of 4 gunapramits of nitya, sukha, tman a*id ubha. Also
4 a t t r ibu t es of nitya, dhruva, iva an d vata are used for t h e dharmakya.
(Q. in p p . 12, 55 & 84). At t h e sam e t im e, t h e S t ra con ten ds t h a t
t h e garbha iden tical wit h t h e dharmakya of such ch aracters is n o t t h e
63)
t m an m en t ion ed b y t h e tirths .
6) An oth er expression of t h e idea of t h e nya an d anya of t h e
garbha is its bein g t h e su ppo rt (dhra) of bo t h t h e samklista
an d vyava
dna dharmas, or of samsra an d nirvana ( Q . i n p . 72). Th e la t t er po in t ,
i. e. t h e garbha's bein g dhra of p u re dharmas, is proved by its bein g en
dowed with buddhadarmas an d its bein g con sidered t h e groun d of h avin g
in t en t io n t owards t h e N irvan a (Q. in p p . 35 & 73); while t h e form er h as
th e sim ple explan at io n t h a t t h e samsra exists owing t o t h e existen ce of
t h e garbha wh ich is begin n in gless (andiklika).
(cf. t h e Ratna. p . 72)
B u t it does n o t give a n y accoun t of h ow an d wh y such samsra or u n real
defilem en ts com e o u t an d cover over t h e garbha. I n an o t h er place, t h e
S t r a seeks for t h e basis of origin ation of defilements in avidyvsabhmi
( Q . in p . 33) which is also regarded as bein g andiklika; bu t it s research
n ever goes beyon d t h is, an d t h e problem rem ain s un solved.
7) Lastly, t h e fu n d am en t al st an d p o in t t h r o u gh o u t t h is S t ra is
t h e ekayna theory, i. e. t h e acceptan ce of One Vehicle of t h e Bu d d h a , i. e.
t h e M ah yn a in clusive of t h e o t h er two Vehicles of Srvaka an d P rat yeka
bu d d h a . I t con sequen tly adm it s t h e N irvan a on ly t o t h e Bu d d h a (Q. in
p . 57), accepts t h e buddharatna as t h e u lt im at e refuge am on g 3 jewels,
(Q. in p p . 7, 9, & 20), an d declares t h a t t h e tathgatagarbha is on ly accessi
ble t o t h e Bu d d h a or th ose who believe in t h e buddhayna.
An d t o realize
t h is ekayna is said t o acquire t h e anuttarasamyaksambodhi,
t h a t , is nirv
nadhtu, or t o becom e tathgata, in an o t h er word, t o realize t h e dharma
64)
kya, which is n o t h in g bu t t h e ' ext rem e of t h e ekayn a ' . T h u s we
82

> Cf. Introduction, VI, 1.


> Taisho, 12, p. 222 6.
64)
Ibid., p. 220 c. This ' extreme of the ekayna ' is translated into Chinese by
63

terms ' Chiu ching i ch'eng (^L J?L * ^R ) ' which is identical with the Chinese
title of the Ratna. According to the Tibetan translation, its original word seems to be
* ekaynanisth '. (T. theg pa gcig gi mthah). H owever the idea of the Chinese title
of the Ratna. is probably taken from this term .

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

know th at the Ratna. depends to a great extent on this Stra for its fun
damental standpoints and th at quite a little of its original development is
added to this Stra.
K 6.

The Annatvprnatvanirdea and the Mahparinirvnastra.

There is a small Stra contemporary with the r mlstra named


Annatvprnatvanirdea 65>. The main point of its doctrine is the non
increase and non decrease of the dharmadhtu, the U niverse, and consequen
tly the full identification of the sattvadhtu with the dharmakya of the
Buddha. I n most passages, it has similar terms as the Sr mlstra with
respect to the dharmakya, to its possession of innumerous dharmas or
gunas, to the tathgatagarbha's being covered with kleas and to its accessi
bility only to the Buddha. Special contributions of this Stra to the Ratna.
are 1) inseparability of the dharmakya and the Buddha's dharmas ex
plained by similes of lantern and gems (cf. Q. in p. 39), 2) fixation of 4 terms
of nitya, dhruva, iva and vata as the 4 attributes of the dharmakya
(Q. in pp. 12 & 54), and 3) three divisions of the dharmakya under the
names of sattvadhtu, bodhisattva and tathgata (Q. in p. 41) 66 \
About the perception of the garbha as identical with the dharmadhtu,
the Stra ascribes it to the removal of dualistic views of various kinds, esp.
of increase and decrease with respect to the sattvadhtu as well as the dhar
madhtu or nirvnadhtu, and those who have such dual conception are
called, in the Stra, ' icchantika ' (Q. in p. 28). There is however no de
scription of the non possibility of acquiring Buddhahood on the part of
the icchantikas as discussed in the Mahparinirvnastra (of Mahyna) 67) .
The Mahparinirvnastra, which exposes the eternity of the dharma
kya of the Buddha from the standpoint of the Mahyna and borrows
85)

I n one point this Stra seems older th an the Srlmlstra, namely in the use of
a term ' avinirmuktajna ', which is abbreviated in the latter to ' amuktajna ' or
' amuktaja '. See my note on the Engl. tr., 1-23.
66)
In addition, the following fact is to be noted here. The Stra has a pas
sage explaining the characteristics of tathgatagarbha in three points (AAN, p . 476 6),
namely: 1)

andismnidhyasambaddhasvabhva ubhadharmat

M 3 ~F i)> 2)

andismnidhysambaddhasvabhva kleakoat
y

J%* AH TPJ rf!H ' T* Ypf ^P if3)> and 3)

mnat (^C ^K I S ^

^F ' fi A ^

aparntakotisama-dhruvadharmat samvidya

). Referring to them, the Ratna. says

that no. 3 is explained thruogh the 10 meanings of tathgatagarbha, whille nos. 1 & 2 are to
be explained by the 9 illustrations on the defilements covering the garbha (S. p. 59 11 14).
67)
This work is quite a different one from the Mahparinirvanastra ed. by
E. Waldschmidt which is a Sanskrit equivalent for the Pali
Mahparinibbnasuttanta.

J. TAKASAKI

its style of structure from the Mahparinibbnasuttanta of Primitive


Buddhism, seems to have completed its present form in days a little
68
later than those of the Sr ml and the Annatvprnatvanirdea >.
As for its tathgatagarbha theory, there can hardly be found any new and
advanced doctrine, but its description is detailed in several points. I t
describes the eternity of the dharmakya by attributin g the 4 gunaprami
ts of nitya, sukha, tman and ubba as the result of the! double negation
of misconception (viparysa) as the r ml did but, is enriched by detail
with similes (Q. in p . 74) and applies to the tathgatagarbha the term
69
tman >, which was a sort of taboo among early Buddhists. I t may
be called a unique point of this Stra.
Another point to be noted here is the doctrine of the icchantikas. The
stra, as one exposition of the garbha theory, emphasizes the innate posses
sion of the buddhadhtu in every living being, but on the other hand, it refers
often to the icchantikas who being agotra have absolutely no possibility of
attain in g Buddhahood. Such descriptions are sometimes contradicted
in various passages, but the final solution of this problem seems to be
the denial of the existence of such people from the ultimate point of view
through introducing the idea of the Bodhisattva's compassion or the idea
of the long time needed before their achieving Buddhahood. The Ratna.
utilizes this second idea and construes the theory of icchantikas as a conven
tional teaching to convert people (p. 37). Some M ahynists, however,
attributed the final agotratva to those icchantikas who abuse the Mahyna
doctrine. Such an opinion is often found in the works belonging to the
Vijnavda.
The Strlakra, and the Lakvatra, while exposing
the doctrine of tathgatagarbha on one hand, have on the other the same
opinion on this problem as the Vijnavda. I t is one of key points for
distinguishing the pure tathgatagarbha theory from the Vijnavda.
7.

The Mahynastrlahkra.

T h e Strlakra is t h e on ly Sst ra quoted in t h e Ratna..


I t is said
to be a work of M aitreya with a c o m m en t ar y b y Vasu ban dh u ; con sistin g of
68

) I t is at least sure that the Tathgatagarbhastra is known to the author of the

Mahparinirvnastra. See, for example, Taisho, Vol. 12, p. 881 6: %\ l ^, yjgfaflfcc ? '

HJ 3R !?fc ^

ft

tt

ft

M #

* . (Tib. de bshin gegs pa

sih-pohi mdo-sde chen-po, Peking Ed. KJ. Mdo. Tu. 97 a 6 (Photo, repr. Vol. 31,
p. 185). This version (Taisho, No. 367), tr. by Fa-hien in 418 A. D., is regarded as the
oldest version of the MPS.
69
' Taisho, 12, p. 407 b. where the simile of gold hidden under the ground (Cf. The
Ratna. vv. I, 112-114) is spoken of.

[ 40 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

21 chapters, it describes the practices of the Mahynistic Bodhisattvas.


The division of chapters has a resemblance to the chapters of the Bodhi
sattvabhmi in the Yogcrabhmistra, attributed, according to the
Chinese tradition, to the same author. I t expounds mainly the theory of
the Vijnavda, but at the same time has passages referring to the ta~
thgatagarbha as seen in the quotations in the Ratna.
Including one verse preserved only in the Chinese version 70\ all of the
three verses of this stra quoted in the Ratna. are found in Chapter IX,
the chapter on 'bodhi\ This chapter, treating the subject of buddhatva
has a doctrine quite similar to the Ratna. I n this chapter we come across
such terms and subjects as ' buddhatvasya aranatva ', 4 rayaparvrtti ',
' rayaparivrtti ', ' anbhogprarabdhakriy' with the simile of the Di
vine drum, 4 ansravadhtu ', 4 dharmadhtuviuddhi ', 4 tathat ', 4 tath
gatagarbha\ and the 4 trikya' theory of 4svbhvika\ *smbhogya\ and
*nairmnika % with all of which we are acquainted in the Ratna. As for the
garbha theory, however, this stra has no development to compare with the
Sutras referred to above, nor has any systematization on it. The term
tathgatagarbha is used only once throughout the passages, although this
stra seems to accept basically the theory of the prakrtiprabhsvarat of
citta and gantukaklea. Rather, it is inclined to approach the trisvabhva
theory in its interpretation of cittaprakrti, which it regards as the same as
parinispannasvabhva. This point may be called unique in this stra
as showing a germ of reciprocal influence between the garbha theory and
the Vijnavda.
In relation to this, one notable thing is the use of the term 4 rayapa
rvftti ' or 4 parivrtti' and its meaning. In the orthodox Vijnavda,
the term rayaparvrtti or rayasya parvrtti is used for denoting the
ansravadhtu, and raya means layavijna, while in the Ratna., the
term rayaparivrtti is used for characterizing dharmakya or bodhi, and
raya means tathgatagarbha or gotra nh What is meant by rayapa
rvrtti and what is meant by rayaparivrtti are finally the same Absolute,
and the difference lies in what is meant by raya. This much is clear in
regard to the difference between the two theories. But whether parvrtti
and parivrtti differ from each other in their sense is somehow questionable.
As if to answer this question, the Strlakra has various relevant passages.
1) 6 verses beginning with v. 12 in Chap. I X are said to be referring
4
to rayaparvrtti \ Of them, in v. 12 we have ' buddhatvam raya
70)
After p . 31, 1. 15 nairtmyameva
tmani krtv. See n o t e o n t h e E n gl. t r . V I I I
(III & IV) 32.
7 1)
An e xc e p t io n is fo u n d on ce i n v. V, 7, wh ere, in st e a d of 'parivrtti',
''parvrtti''
is u sed .

41 1

J . TAKASAKI

synyathptih \ H ere ' anyathpti ' seems to be an interpretation of ' pa


rvrtti ', in the sense, ' change of basis from A to B '.
2) The commentary says th at by this v. 12, ' rayaparivrtti ' is
explained.
3) Commenting on v. 13, the commentator says that by this second
verse the superiority of the tathgata abiding in th at state (sthita ca tasmin
sa tathgato, v. 13) over other kinds of rayaparvrtti is explained.
4) V. 14 refers to the 10 meanings or characters of rayaparvrtti
and says ' rayo... tathgatnm parivrttir isyate\ I t is interpreted by the
commentator as ' raya iti yo sau parivrtty rayas tarn darayati* (that
which is parivrtti is th at which is raya.) H ere the term raya seems to be
synonymous with buddhatva as 'sarvagattmaka'' (v. 14). This last point is
shown in v. 15 with a simile of sky, which is quoted in the Ratna. (p. 71)
5) Verses IX, 4148, referring to ivibhutva\ speak to the effect that,
due to parvrtti of 5 indriyas and others, one obtains ' vibhutva ' (power)
and enters upon the amalraya of the Buddhas.
6) The same amalraya is explained in v. I X, 77 to be the dharma
kya, which is, in turn , defined as ' rayaparvrtti laksana ' in the com
mentary on v. I X, 60.
7) In the commentary on vv. XI , 32 33, which refer to the investi
gation of samklea and vyavadna, the commentator says th at what is
taught in v. 33 is the acquisition of lambanaviesa (special basis), i. e.
dharmlambana, which causes the disappearance of the manifestation of
dvaya, i. e. grhya and grhaka, as the result of fixation {yoga) of mind on
svadhtu, i. e . tathat; and th at the one who has acquired this state is called
' parvrttraya ' (one whose raya has been changed).
8) In the commentary on v. 42 of the same chapter, which refers
to the ' yogabhmi' of Bodhisattvas, the commentator mentions ' raya '
as the last of the 5 yogabhmis and explains th at ' raya' means here
4
rayaparvrtti \ But v. 42 mentions only the first 4 and the 5th
bhmi, i. e. raya is shown in the next verse where it is referred to by the
term ryagotra characterized as vimala, sama, viista, and anynnadhika.
9) v. XI, 44 runs as follows:
padrthadehanirbhsaparvrttir ansravah /
dhtur, b japarvrtteh sa ca sarvatragrayah \ \

and thereon the commentary says th at ' b japarvrtti ' means ' layavij
naparvrtti ''; ' parvrtti ^ of i padrtha-deha-nirbhsa ', i. e. of vij
nas (other than layavijna) is the 4 ansravadhtu ', i. e. the ' vimukti \
I t ( = ansravadhtu) is also ' sarvatragraya ', i. e. existing also in
the rvaka and the pratyekabuddha.
[ 42 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

10) The same parvrtti of vijnas are referred to in the next


verse (v. 45) with another expression, ' vrtti ' of manas, udgraha and vi
kalpa , and this ' vrtti ' is explained in the commentary to mean parvrtti.
11) In chapter XIV, v. 29 says th at rayaparvrtti takes place
for the first time in the first Stage of Bodhisattva, and vv. 45 & 46 say
that the final rayaparvrtti, i. e. the acquisition of anuttarapada and
sarvkarajat takes place with those Bodhisattvas who practised the
tajropamasamdhi.
12) v. I X, 49 runs as follows:
pratisth bhoga b jam hi nimittam bandhanasya hi j
sray cittacaits tu badhyante ''tra sab jakh fj
For the second line, the commentary says: on these three nimittas are bound
cittacaitt accompanied by rayas. F urthermore the ' rayas ' are
here to be understood as caksurvijna, etc., i. e. the 5 outer sense based
vijnas.
13) v. XI X, 54 runs as follows:
akhyna khynat jey asadartha sadarthayoh /
rayasya parvrttir mokso ' sau kmacratah Jj
Here rayaparvrtti is defined as the non manifestation of the unreal
objects (asadartha = nimitta, in v. 49) and the manifestation of the reality
(sadartha = tathat).
That is the description of rayaparvrtti in the Strlakra. In
conclusion, we may say, though it is not brought out clearly by the author,
that there is a variety in usage of the term raya:
1) raya (in pi.) = caksurvijna, etc.
2) raya = b ja = layavijna (whose parvrtti, i. e. anyathpti
is buddhatva), and
3) raya rayaparvrtti = tathgatnm parivrtti = sarva
tragraya = amalraya = ansravadhtu = dharmakya = buddhatva =
= ryagotra = svadhtu.
This use of the term raya relates to the characterization of svbh
vika or dharmakya as the raya of the other two kyas (IX, 60, 66). In
this third meaning, raya should be compounded only with parivrtti, and
not with parvrtti, because parvrtti means 'change of basis (from A to B)';
and as the result of parvrtti, the former basis, being the substratum
of unreal things or phenomena, is annihilated or no more exists (akhyna of
asadartha), while at the same time there takes place the manifestation
[ 43 ]

of the reality (khyna of sadartha, i. e. tathat) which is a new raya, and


it is this ' manifestation ' of th e reality th at is meant by parivrtti 7 2 ).
This last interpretation of raya and its combination with parivTtti
is supported by the usage of these terms in th e Yogcrabhmi, including
the Bodhisattvabhmi, and th e Dharmadharmatvibhga attributed to
M aitreya. I n these two stras, we find raya in combination with pari
4
vrt, but n ot with parvrt, with such expressions as dausthulyasya pra
4
i
hnad rayo sya bodhisattvasya parivartate\ asyyayah parivrtto bha
vati, s csya niruttar rayaparivrttih ' (Bodhisattvabhmi); ' yoginm
parivrttraynm sarvaklistadharma nirb ja rayah parivartate* (Yogc
rabhmi, I I Manobhmi); 4 (rayaparivrtter) svabhvapraveas tathat'
vaimalyam gantukamalatathatprakhynaprakhynya', ' tathat pari
vrtti ', etc. (Dharmadh)73) . On the other hand, not only is the term raya
parvrtti found in the Strlamkra, but also in the Vijaptimtrat trim
ik, Sthiramati's commentary on th e Madhyntavibhga, th e Lakva
trastra, etc.; and the Mahynasamgraha of Asaga has probably the
74
same use of rayaparvrtti along with its definition ).
These facts seem to show th at th e term rayaparvrtti was used for
the first time in th e Strlamkra (krik) and has gradually been fixed as
a technical term of th e Vijnavda by Asaga and Vasubandhu, defining
raya as layavijna, and th at before th at term was introduced, the term
rayaparivrtti was commonly used by th e Vijnavdins and in th e Ta
thgatagarbha theory.
The commentator of th e Ratna. was no doubt acquainted with both
expressionsparivrtti and parvrttibut th e Ratna. could n ot employ
the latter expression, because gotra, being raya, could remain before
and after th e enlightenment without changing its n ature.
This supposition bears upon th e authorship of th e Ratna., and due
72)

' Parvrtti ' is interpreted in three ways in the Strlakra. Namely, 1) anya~
thpti (in literal sense); 2) akhyna, astam praytam, nirasyate, e t c , disappearance, to
disappear (phenomenal sense); 3) vrtti, returning (doctrinal sense). The most im portant
one is the third interpretation , th at is to say, the disappearance of the asad artha (inclusive
of blja) signifies its returning to the reality. I n this sense, ' rayaparvrtti ' means
rayasya bijasya tathatym amalraye parvrttih ' . And as the result of the ' parvrtti '
into ' tathat ' , ' tathat ' alone manifests itself fully without obscuration, t h at is to say,
* tathatyh parivrttih ' takes place.
73)
Bodhisattvabhmi, Wogihara's edition, p . 368, 1. 6; p . 405, 11. 25 26; Yogcrabh
mi, ed. by V. Bhattacharya, P art 1, p . 27, 11. 1 2; Dharmadharmatvibhga, fragments,
Appendix to the Mahyyastrlakra, ed. by S. Levi, p . 190, 11. 6 & 9, respectively.
74)
Mahynasamgraha, Tib. Sde dge edition, Ri 36 b 2: gshan gyur pa ni, ga
gshan-gyi dba-gi Ao-bo-id de-id-kyi gen-po skyes-na, ga kun-nas on-mos-pahi
chal dog cih, rnam-par bya-bahi char gyur-paho. (gshan-gyur-pa parvrtti).

[ 44 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

to the specialized use of the term rayaparivrtti, the commentator of the


Ratna. must be someone other than Asaga or Vasubandhu 75>.

V.
THE WONKS ON THE TATHGATAGARBHA THEORY CONTEMPORARY
WITH OR SUCCEEDING THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHGA
There are many other works on the garbha theory which are never ref
fered to in the Ratna. though regarded as of Indian origin and preserved
in the Chinese and the Tibetan Tripitakas. Among them those to be re
ferred to here are (1) Dharmadhtvaviesastra, (2) Buddhagotrastra, (3)
Anuttarrayastra, (4) Lakvatrastra and (5) Mahynaraddhotpda
tra. Except (4), all these are known only through the Chinese sources, th at
casts various problems about their authorship, date, and even their origina
lity, and these problems are relating to the date and author of the Ratna.
Especially, the first three are in close relation to the Ratna. in their con
tents, and hence discussions will be mainly devoted to them in this chapter.
1. The Mahynadharmadhtvaviesastra.
As has been referred to above, this small stra is attributed to Sramati
in the Chinese Tripitaka. From its contents, this work seems quite con
sistent with th e Ratna. The main point of doctrine in this work is the
i
bodhicittai which is synonymous with 'cittaprakrtV in the Ratna. and
hence is nothing but the tathgatagarbha. The text describes this bodhicitta
under 12 divisions, namely: 1) phala, 2) hetu, 3) svabhva, 4) paryya,
5) abheda, 6) avasthprabheda, 7) asamklista, 8) nitya, 9) yoga, 10) anartha
kriy, 11) arthakriy, and 12) ekatva (or ekadhtu), and is mainly based
upon two Sutras, the ryar ml and the Annatvprnatvanirdea76).
78)

The Chinese insertion of one verse from the Strl. referred to above is accompanied
by a prose commentary whose explanation is exactly the same as Vasubandhu's commentary on this very verse. This fact cannot be a fully reliable proof for the present problem
but suggests the point to some extent. There is another point which shows the close
relationship between the Mahynastrlakra and the Ratna. I t is the use of the six
categories (sat-padrtha) beginning with svabhva. As for this, see Appendix I I I , The
D escription of the U ltimate R eality.
76
^ These terms are reconstructed from the Chinese translation which gives the

following terms: 1) ^ , 2) g | , 3) g ft , 4) J & , 5) ft 3g &] , 6) ft

ft (ffi), 7) m Ife, 8) ^ fi, 9) ffi JR. 10) A fiS m ? t 11) ft ft


M, 12) ft
[ 45 ]

J . TAKASAKI

This division has a resemblance not only in its terminology but also
in its contents to th e 10 meanings of the gotra described in Chap. I of
the Ratna. (pp. 26 ff.). In particular, 6) avasthprabheda is fully identical
with t h at in the Ratna. in its classification of living beings into ' sattva
dhtu ' , ' bodhisattva ' , and ' tathgata' seeking for its auth ority in the
Annatvprnatvanirdea. Besides, under 1) phala, the text says phala
means nirvnadhtu which is nothing but the dharmakya characterized as
rayaparivrtti, and explains it in the same way as th e Ratna. did in its
explanation on the ' uddhvasthym avikrrtha ([IX]-c). Under 2)
hetu, it explains 4 causes, i. e. dharmdhimukti, praj, samdhi and ka
run, with a verse containing the same idea as v. 1, 34 of the Ratna.
U nder 3) svabhva, prakrtyasamklistatva is said to be the own n ature of
bodhicitta. I n 4) paryya, a synonym of bodhicitta in its phala state, is
called ubhtmasukhanityapramit and so authorized by a quotation
from th e Sr mlstra. The verse in 8) nitya, is identical with verses I,
53 & 54 of th e Ratna. in its contents, explaining t h at dharmadhtu is, like
kadhtu, of neither origination nor destruction (anutpdnirodha).
U nder 9) yoga, the text has two verses, of which th e first one is identical
with v. 1, 42 c d of th e Ratna., th e second, with I , 155, a verse referring
to the nya and anya of th e gotra. And lastly, the contents of 12)
ekatva are the same as those under 'asambheda'' (X) in the Ratna., saying
t h at the bodhicitta is nothing but the dharmakya, the tathgata,
the ryasatya or the N irvana, and emphasizing oneness of nirvana with
buddhatva.
The remaining parts not described above seem to be taken mostly from
Chapters I I & IV of the Ratna. N amely, a reference to the 2 sides of
bodhicitta under 3) svabhva, saying ' ukladharmamayalaksana and vaima
lyapariuddhilaksana reminds us of the characterization of dharmakya
with prakrtiviudhi and vaimalyaviuddhi (p. 80) or the distinction of
prakrtisthagotra and samudn tagotra in the Ratna.', a verse under 7) asam
klista resembles v. I I , 3 in the Ratna.; similes used under 10) anarthakriy
and I I ) arthakriy are the same as those in Chapters 1 (among 9 illustra
tions), I I , and IV of th e Ratna.; and th e 10 characteristics of asambheda
under 5) can be traced one by one in various passages in th e Ratna.
Thus examining the contents, we may say t h at th e author of this text
composed it on the basis of the Ratna., compressing and revising the form
according to his own view.

In this case, as this text, unlike the Strala-

kra, seems to have been written from th e same standpoint as the commen
tator of the Ratna., it is possible t h at the latter is identical with the author
of this text, and Sramati to whom this work is attributed may have been
the author of the commentary of the Ratna.
[ 46 ]

The

c 2.

R atn agotravibh ga

The Buddhagotrastra.

The Buddhagotrastra is another work which, like the Dharma


dhtvaviesastra, expounds the 10 meanings of the gotra described in the
Ratna. but with the same terminology and with explanations much similar
to those of the Dharmadhtvaviesastra. I t is translated into Chi
nese by Paramrtha, is attributed, according to the Chinese tradition,
to Vasubandhu 7?) and highly esteemed among Chinese Buddhists throughout the centuries as a representative work on the garbha theory. This
attribution is rather doubtful, but this work poses interesting problems
for us because of its very close similarity to the Ratna. in most parts
of the text.
The whole text consists of 4 chapters, of which the last one treats
the subject of the 10 meanings of the gotra under the title: Analysis of the
characteristics (laksana) (of the Tathgatagarbha). Explanations under each
' laksana ' are in most cases quite equivalent to those in the Ratna. even
in their wording, but sometimes doctrines based upon the Vijnavda are
interwoven among passages, and sometimes those passages which are in
other chapters or other parts of Chap. I in th e Ratna. are inserted be
tween lines.
The main differences between the two works as mentioned in the pre
vious paragraph are as follows: 1) 9 illustrations of the garbha taken from
the Tathgatagarbhastra along with the explanations of the 9 kinds of
defilements and of the 3 svabhvas of the gotra (Ratna. pp. 66 72) are
inserted under (IX) avikra, 2) (V) yoga includes explanations of ' dharma
ratna ' and ' sagharatna ' which appeared in Chap. I of the Ratna., 3)
descriptions regarding Buddhology of the trikyatheory which is taught
in two places in the Ratna., viz. in Chap. I I (under (VI) vrtti) and in Chap. I
(among explanations on the 3 svabhvas of th e gotra, p . 72), are inserted
under (IX) avikra; 4) explanations of (VII) nitya and (VIII) acintya in
Chap. I I of the Ratna. are inserted under (IX) avikra as characteristics
of the dharmakya; 5) descriptions of the ' nya and anya ' of the garbha
along with the 4 kinds of sattvas, satkyadrstipatit, etc. are inserted in (X)
asambheda.
Besides those insertions in the passages on the 10 laksanas of the
garbha, important changes of arrangement in this work are 6) shift of the
deanprayojana ' which is at the end of Chap. I in the Ratna. to the
beginning of the work forming the nidnaparivarta' (Chap. I ), and 7)
"> Taisho, No. 1610, ' ft ft ffffl ', by ' ^ C ^ft ', tr. by ' j f

f$f\

J.

TAKASAK

shift of the explanation of the 3 meanings of the term tathgatagarbha to


Chapter I I I with detailed explanation. These two points show th at the
purpose of this text is to describe the buddhagotra only from its gotra aspect
but not from 4 aspects as in the Ratna. This relates to the fact th at the
text is lacking those passages on the 4 aspects of gotra (Ratna. pp. 21 23)
and Chaps. I I I V of the Ratna.
Throughout these passages, the text is written in prose except for a
few verses which are quotations. An interesting fact is t h at among these
quoted verses, we have 3 which are identical with vv. I, 51, 154 & 155 of
the Ratna. and one identical with v. I X, 23 of the Strlakra which is
preserved in the parallel passage in the Chinese version of the Ratna.
For these, except for the first one, the name of the source is not mentioned,
and the first one is said to be taken from the Sandhinirmocanastra, though
the verse is not found in any edition of t h at Stra. Why such a statement
is made is not clear 78>, but there is no doubt about their being taken from
the Ratna. along with its prose commentary. Another point of interest
is the use of the Anuttarrayastra in the Buddhagotrastra, as an autho
rity, which is never quoted in the Ratna. I t also indicates th at this work
was composed after the Ratna.
Thus examining, we are led to imagine th at, as far as the garbha theory
is concerned, this work was composed by borrowing many sentences from
the Ratna. but arranging them more systematically by adding the author's
own opinion. This author's opinion appears in descriptions of the ' 5
dosas ' and the 4 5 gunas ' in relation to the purpose of the teaching; of
the 5 meanings of the garbha taken from the Sr mlstra; of the 3 natures
of the garbha taught in (I) svabhva; of the attainm ent of the Buddhahood
by the icchantikas (in [IV] karman); of the rayaparivrtti, dharmakya,
and nirvana (in [V] yoga); of the 6 meanings of avikra; of the ' 5 laksa
nas and 5 gunas ' of dharmakya as one of trikya (in [IX] avikra), etc.
These passages show the more developed doctrines, some of which are
based upon the Vijnavda. F urthermore, in passages other than those
referred to above, the text expresses the doctrines of the Vijnavda such
as 4 3 fold nihsvabhva ' ' 3 fold svabhva ' and i 5 dharmas ', for which
the source is probably the Yogcrabhmistra.
Thus the Buddhagotrastra is based upon two works, the Ratna. and
78) "phe Ratna. has a similar character of being * sandhinirmocana ' in its position
among the M ahyna Buddhism. (See Introduction, VI 1 & 2). So it is not impossible
to imagine t h at the Ratna. is also called ' Sandhinirmocana'.
According to Prof.
Tsukinowa's information, one Tibetan version of the Ratna. has a subtitle: Sandhimo
cana Mahyna uttara stra. (K. Tsukinowa, " On the U t t a r a t a n t r a ", Japanese,
Annals of the Nihon Bukkyogaku kyokai, vol. 7, 1935).

[ 48 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

^ke Yogcrabhmistra, being a work on the garbha theory and the


Vijnavda, respectively, and trying to combine both theories. This
standpoint is somewhat similar to th at of the Strlakra and hence the
author was probably a Vijnavdin who had a tendency similar to that of
Yasubandhu. As far as this point is concerned, the Chinese attribution of
this text to Vasubandhu seems quite reasonable, but a doubt arises about
its date because of its being later than the Ratna. which quotes the Strlakra. F urthermore we have to put the Anttarrayastra between the
Ratna. and the Buddhagotrastra. To solve this problem, we should
next examine the Anuttarrayastra 7 9 ) .

3.

The Anuttarrayastra.

At a glance, one may notice in this Stra, a similarity of its chapter


divisions to those of the Ratna. Leaving aside the first and the last
two chapters which form its introduction and conclusion, respectively 8),
the central part of this Stra consists of 4 chapters whose titles are I I .
Tathgatadhtu parivarta, I I I . Tathgatabodhip., IV. Tathgataguna p.
and V. Tathgatakriy p., respectively 8 1 ) . These are quite identical with
the 4 aspects of gotra described in the Ratna. The term anuttarraya8 2 )
seems to mean the Tathgata that possesses these 4 aspects. F urthermore,
at the end of each chapter, the Stra emphasizes the inconceivability of
these 4 subjects, but their description can be traced word by word in the
79) p o r these problems on the Buddhagotrastra discussed above, see M. H attori,
" Busshoron no Ichikosatsu "' (Japanese), Bukkyoshigaku, vol. IV, p . 160 ff. 1955.
80)
T h e o r igin a l of C h a p . I . is t h e Adbhutastra
wh o se ver sio n s a r e a va ila ble in
T ib e t a n a n d C h in ese as well ( T i b . Tohoku. N o . 319; Taisho, N o s. 688, 689), a n d wh o se
m a in su bjec t is t h e a d m i r a t i o n of m e r it s of t h e S t p a wo r sh ip as t h e h igh e st o bser va n c e of
Bu d d h ist s, wh ile C h a p . VI I is a k i n d of eu lo gy o n t h e B u d d h a (buddhastotra) a n d C h a p .
VI I I Parlndanaparivarta is a n e n la r ge m e n t of t h e co n clu sio n of t h e Adbhutastra i n
acco rd an ce wi t h e n la r ge m e n t of t h e c e n t r a l p a r t . T h e c o n n e c t io n of t h e tathgatagarbha
t h eo r y wi t h t h e S t p a wo r sh ip a n d t h e eu lo gy o n t h e B u d d h a is n o t a m e r e ly m e c h a n ic a l
an d a c c id en t a l c o n n e c t io n a t all, b u t i t sh o ws t h e exist en c e of a n essen t ia l in t e r r e la t io n
a m o n g t h e m . N a m e ly, t h e S t p a wo r sh ip a n d t h e eu lo gy o n t h e B u d d h a h a d o r igin a lly
t a ke n p lace a m o n g a gr o u p of B u d d h i st fro m wh ic h t h e M a h y n i st c o m m u n i t y c a m e i n t o
exist en ce, a n d t h e core of t h e tathgatagarbha t h e o r y lies in its ekayna t h e o r y, i. e. t h e
p u r e ' fa it h i n t h e B u d d h a as often referred t o in t h e Ratna.
81)

^K

I n C h in ese, j{\ \
<

=p

3$.

jf>

pp, ^

$ p p ,

%[i Pf; ^JJ

p p , respectively.

82

) This term is restored from the Chinese * 3P _fc, flX '

[ 49 ]

\f

p p , & #U

J . TAKASAK.I
83)

Ratna. in its prose commentary on v. I , 23 & 24 . This fact does not


show th at the Ratna. im itated the structure of this Stra or borrowed such
an idea from this Stra, but quite to the contrary, it seems to show th at this
Stra was composed after the Ratna. as a kind of sutralization of the latter.
This hypothesis will be proven upon examining the contents of the Stra.
This Stra uses a categorization with respect to the characteristics of
gotra or dhtu, similar to t h at in the Ratna., but under the chapter on
' bodhi ' . I ts ten divisions are (1) svabhva, (2) hetu, (3) paripantha, (4)
phala, (5) karman, (6) yoga, (7) vrtti, (8) nitya, (9) venika and (10) acintya.
This is actually a mixture of the 10 meanings of4 gotra ' and the 8 meanings
of ' bodhi ' in the Ratna. N amely, (2) (4) are identical with (II) hetu
and (I I I ) phala among the 10 meanings of ' gotra ' in the Ratna., of which
(3) paripantha is included under (I I I ) phala in case of the Ratna., while
the last six (nos. 5 10), except for (9) venika, are identical with the last
five subjects among the 8 meanings of' bodhi ' in the Ratna. Although (9)
venika has no equivalent passage in th e Ratna., its idea is taught here
and th ere. H owever, in th e explanation of (1) svabhva, whose idea is
fundamentally identical with (I) svabhva of ' bodhi ' in the Ratna, the
Stra refers to ' rayaparivritti ' with its 4 characteristics which are not
in the Ratna. but utilized in the Buddhagotra84). On the other hand,
the six subjects starting with (V) yoga among the 10 meanings of ' gotra '
in the Ratna., are included in th e chapter on tathgatadhtu in this Stra
but with a slight difference in arrangement and wording. As to Chap. IV.
T athgatagunaparivarta, the Stra mentions the 180 venikadharmas in
cluding the 80 anuvyajanas which are not in the Ratna., but names for
the 32 mahpurusalaksanas are identical with those mentioned in the Ratna.
I t is only the chapter on T athgatakriy t h at differs entirely from the Ratna.
in its contents.
Besides these similarities with the Ratna., a stronger factor which
shows t h at this Stra is an im itation of the Ratna. is t h at this Stra refers
to certain passages which are quotations from other Sutras in the Ratna.
as if they were its own sentences. F or instance:
(Chap. I I )
1. A passage on the meaning of gotra being sadyatanaviesa ta
ken

from the Sadyatanastra (T aisho 16 p. 469 b, RG V, p . 55, 16 17);


2. a passage on anutpdnirodhat of the Tathgata taken from the

Jnloklakrastra (p. 469 c, RG V. p . 12, 6 10);


83)
Ratna. 21.17 18, 22.5, 22.8 9, 24.9 25.3, = Anuttarraya
473 c, 475 c, 476 b c, respectively.

84)

fe

Taisho 16, 470c,

h 1S $ S , Taisho, 16, p. 470 c; ft ft fw . Taisho, 31, p. 801 b,


[ 50 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

3. a passage on dharmakya endowed with th e Buddha's properties


w
are avinirbhga, amuktaja, acintya, etc. taken from the r mls
tra (p 469 6, RG V. p . 12, 10 14);
4. a simile of th e Vaidrya stone taken from th e Sgaramatipari
prcch (p. 469 6, RG V. p . 49, 5 9);
5. a passage on cittaprahri and gantukaklea taken from th e same
Stra (p. 4696 c; RG V. p p . 49, 9 50,7);
6. a passage on th e 3 states of dhtu (avasthprabheda) taken from
the Annatvprnatvanirdea (p. 469 c; RG V. p p . 40, 16 41,5);
7. a passage on th e penetration of tathgatajna into th e living
beings taken from th e T athgatopattisambhavanirdea of th e Avatamsaka
( p . 470 a; RG V. p . 24, 2 6, 1 2);
8. a description of th e Buddha, his teaching and disciples, being
an auth ority for th e Triple Jewel taken from th e Dhran vararjastra
(p. 470 a; RG V. p . 3, 18);
9. a parable of a householder with respect to th e Bodhisattva's
compassion taken from th e Sgaramatipariprcch (p. 470 a6; RG V.
pp. 47, 7 48, 13);
10. a passage on dhtu being raya of all dharmas, real and unreal,
taken from th e Sr mlstra (p. 470 b; RG V. p . 73,2 5);
11. a passage on th e inconceivability of dhtu taken from th e same
Stra (p. 470 c; RG V. p . 22,1 4);
(Chap. I ll)
12. a passage on tathgatagarbha covered with millions of defile
ments taken from th e Sr mlstra (p. 470 c; RG V. p . 79, 10);
13. a passage on th e Icchantikas taken from th e Annatvprnatva
nirdea (p. 471 a; RG V. p . 28,3 4);
14. a passage on those who are proud of their conception of nyat
taken from th e Kyapaparivarta (p. 471 6; RG V. p . 28, 11 12);
15. a passage on th e 4 gunapramits (ubha, tma, sukha, nitya)
taken from the r mlstra (p. 471 c, 472 a; RG V. pp. 30,19 31,16);
16. a passage on th e 3 epithets of th e Tath gata, viz. dharmadh
tuparama, kadhtuparyavasna, and aparntakotinistha taken from th e
Daabhmikastra (p. 472 a; RG V. p . 32,8 9);
(Chap. V)
17. a passage on th e inconceivability of tathgatakriy taken from
the Dhran vararjastra (p. 476 b; RG V. p p . 26,16 27,3).
Thus, th e Anuttarrayastra is clearly a composition based upon th e
Rotna. reshaping its contents in to th e frame of stra style an d keeping
!ts stress on th e bodhi aspect, which is th e highest basis {anuttarrayd).

r si ]

J. TAKASAKI

But what was the intention of the author in composing this * S t ra' ? This
Stra is quoted only in the Buddhagotra, and both are translated into
Chinese by Paramrtha 85>. A key to solve this question as well as the
question of the author of the Buddhagotra seems to lie in the hands of Paramrtha. If we may surmise so, it was probably some one in the circle to
which Paramrtha had belonged or rather Paramrtha himself who composed these Stra and stra as authorities for the propagation of his unique
doctrine, a combination of the garbha theory and the Vijnavda. This
supposition will be supported by the fact th at among Chinese translations
of the Mahynasamgrahabhsya of Vasubandhu, the garbha theory is
inserted only in Paramrtha's translation 86>. Attribution of the Buddhagotra to Vasubandhu will be a subsidiary proof of the fact that the Ratna.
was not written by Asaga or Vasubandhu; the latter was a great and
respected scholar of the Vijnavda, and hence it was not desirable for
the Vijnavdins to use the Ratna. as an authority.
Of course, th e combination of both theories was already traced in the
Strlakra to some extent, but it was not intentional nor as clear, and
the Ratna. seems to have tried to purify its standpoint on the garbha
theory, while the orthodox Vijnavdins like Vasubandhu have gradually
deepened their theory on the side of pure Vijnavda. I t was after Va
subandhu th at the combination again took place, but intentionally. As
85)

Quotations of the Anuttarraya in the Buddhagotrastra are as follows:


. 469 6 = RG V, p. 12,6

(a part of a quotation from the Jnloklakrastra);


2) p. 806 6 ( $ $ |
16-41.5 (a quotation from the
3) p. 806 6 (i\ \ $$ _ L
13 15 (a commentary passage);

ft
M ! . . . ) = AS, p. 469 c = RGV, pp. 40,
Annatvprnatvanirdea);
ft

H ? I S . . . ) = AS, p. 469 c = RGV, p. 41,

4) p. 812 (#H M _ h ft $ S n ft . . . ) = AS, p. 469 6 = RGV, p. 55,


16-17 (a quotation from the Sadyatanastra).
Paramrtha's translation of the Mahynasamgraha bhsya of Vasubandhu (Tai
sho, N o. 1595) also quotes the AS (Vol. 31, pp. 259 c 260 a = AS, p . 469 b c
= RG V, p p . 49, 11 50, 7, a quotation from the Sgaramati pariprcch). But the quota
tion is found neither in the Tibetan version nor in H san chuang's tran slation of the
same t ext . More interesting is th e fact t h at the quotation is much more similar to the
Ratna. th an to the Anuttarraya, which has, in turn , some insertion between lines.
86
* F or example, while interpreting a verse from th e Mahynaabhidharmastra
(Andikliko dhtuh) which is quoted also in the Ratna., Paramrtha's translation
gives two meanings for ' dhtu'.
One is ' layavijna' and the other is 'gotra', i.e.
tathgatagarbha (Taisho, 31, p . 156 c). The latter in terpretation is identical with the
Ratna. (77.13 73.8).

[ 52 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

other examples of this combination we have two works, the Lakvat


rastra and the Mahynaraddhotpdastra.
4, _ The Lakvatra and the Mahynaraddhotpdastra.
The unique point of these two works with respect to the garbha theory
is their identification of the tathgatagarbha with the layavijna an
identification which has never been seen in previous works, even in those
of Vasubandhu. That is why the Lakvatra is regarded by modern
scholars as a work produced after Vasubandhu. The Lakvatra is
actually a collection of various theories among Mahyna Buddhism,
among which the garbha theory, and the Vijnavda are prominent,
and these two are combined under the theory of cittamtra taught in the
Avatamsaka. Later Vijnavdins regarded the Lakvatra as one of
the authorities, but in China it was respected by the followers of the
Avatamsaka school as well, because of its exposition of the cittamtra and
garbha theory. This is quite significant for determing the fate of the garbha
theory, to which we will refer at the end of this introduction.
This is another Stra not known to the Ratna., and it was translated for
the first time into Chinese in 433 A.D . 8 7 ). Therefore, the date of the Ratna.
cannot be placed after th at year and probably lies in the 4th cent. A.D .
As for the raddhotpdastra, its doctrine is purely of the garbha
theory in spite of its use of the term layavijna, and it is in one sense
the most systematic exposition of its kind. One point of similarity to
the Ratna. is the expression of faith in the Buddha Amityus towards the
end of the treatise. Another point which seems to be under the influence
of the Ratna. is its establishment of tathat as the ultimate principle th at
is the basis of both klista and aklista elements. I t reminds us of the samal
tathat and nirmal tathat of the Ratna.
H owever, there is some doubt about its authorship. I t is attributed
to Avaghosa, the famous poet contemporary with the King Kaniska.
I t is impossible th at such an old poet is the author of this work containing
such a new theory. Some scholars wanted to solve this contradiction by
regarding the author as another Avaghosa different from the famous poet,
but some are trying to prove th at this work is of Chinese origin in the
absence of Sanskrit and Tibetan versions. This latter opinion is not
87)

According to old Chinese Catalogues on the Tripitaka, (prior to this translation)

there was 6aid to have been another translation done by D harmaksema ( fig ^Sg g||j)
between 412 433 A.D . but now missing. As far as the present problem is concerned,
there is no difference even if we accept this tradition .

[ 53 ]

J . TAKASAKI
untenable since, being translated by Paramrtha, this work is in the same
position as the Buddhagotra. There is no work which refers to this treatise in Indian literature. But one difficulty in accepting this opinion is
how to explain the existence of two versions of this treatise in China. The
second translation was made by Siksnanda who is said to have come from
Khotan . The problem is still under consideration, but it is at least sure
88
t h a t this work shows the final development of th e garbha theory \

VI.
T H E POSITION OF TH E RATN A. I N MAHYNA BU D D H ISM
1.

T he Ratna. as a Criticism on the Prajpramit.

At th e end of Chapter I ., th e Ratna. expresses its purpose of discourse,


saying t h at th e text was exposed in order to establish th e existence (astitva)
of buddhadhtu so t h at one could avoid th e faults created by th e theory
of ' nyam sarvam ' described in th e ' previous ' Sutras (I , 158 9).
I t is clear t h at th e Sutras which expose th e theory of ' nyam sar
vam ' with similes of megha, svapna, etc. signify the Prajpramit and
the like, and t h at , in contrast with the Prajpramit taken as the
* prva ' exposition, this Ratna. calls itself th e ' uttara tantra ' , th e later
exposition. N amely, the subtitle: Uttaratantra denotes the position of th e
Ratna. in th e history of M ahyna Buddhism in th e sense " one t h at co
mes after th e Prajpram it, criticizing th e lat t er."
On what point does then th e Ratna. criticize th e Prajpramit ?
As a m atter of terminology, th e Ratna. emphasizes ' asti' in contrast
with th e ' nya ' of the Prajpramit. But this ' asti vda ' does n ot
mean th e negation of 'nya vda\
R ather, th e Ratna. regards itself
as the real successor to th e ' nya vda ' of th e Prajpramit declaring
t h at th e real meaning of ' nyat ' is to know the ' astitva' of the G erm
having within itself both the ' nya' of defilements and the ' anya"1 of
88)

There is another Stra which exposes the garbha theory and bears a resemblance
to the Ratna. in its contents. Its name, according to the Tibetan version, is Arya
candrottaradrik vykarana (Tohoku no. 191) and it was translated into Chinese in 591
A.D. (Taisho, 14, no. 480) I t s composition seems to be later in date than the Ratna. and
there were probably a great deal of influences from th e Ratna. See N . Takata, On the
Aryacandrottaradrikvykarananma mahyna stra
{Japanese). Journal of Indian
and Buddhist Studies { ndogaku Bukkyogaku Kenky) Vol. V, N o. 1, 1957 (pp. 83 86).
As I received this information only recently, detailed examination of this Stra could not
be pursued up to now.

r si i

The

R atn agotra\ ibh ga

the Buddha 's Qualities. (I, 1545). We may take this statement as an
e X plan ation of ' nyam sarvam ', defining ' sarvam ' as ' sarvaklea ' from
which all phenomena arise and which excludes the Germ inseparably asso
ciated with the Buddha's Qualities, th at is to say, identical with the Ab
solute; and hence the word ' nya' implies ' anya ' of this G erm.
As the Prajpramit was lacking in a clear explanation of such a kind,
the Ratna. assumes for th at reason many faults among the followers of the
prajpramit, and, therefore, the aim of the Ratna. is to remove such
faults in order to make known the real meaning of ' nya vda '.
Thus the criticism is directed not to the doctrine of the Prajpramit
itself, but to its short or unclear explanation. This point becomes clear
after examining the 5 faults described in the Ratna., especially the last
three of them. N amely, the 3rd fault: ' abhtagrha ' denotes the ' tma
vda ' of H eretics or the ' sarvstivda ' of the Abhidharma and is said
to be removed by ' praj '. This is exactly what is aimed at by the
Prajpramit. H owever, when this ' praj ' is stated to be the intui
tion of ' nyam sarvam ', many people are likely to misunderstand the
meaning of ' nya ': on the one hand, some regard ' nya ' as something
substantial, on the other hand, some become the ' nstika ' and never
believe in the existence of the dharmakya but rather abuse such a reality.
The text calls both kind of people those of ' nyatviksiptacitta ' (P . 75).
The former have a kind of ' abhtagrha '; the latter have the fault
of ' bhtadharmpavda ', which forms the 4th of the 5 faults. As the
remedy against this fault, the commentary mentions ' jna '. H ere
' jna ' has the character of criticizing ' praj ' in the sense of affirming
the existence of the reality undone by i praj \ But the text seems to
regard this ''jna ' as one side of ''praj'', as a natural outflow of ''praj
'. In other words, ' praj ' has two functions, to negate the ' abhta
4
grha ', and to establish the ' bhtadharma ', as represented by praj'
and ' jna ', respectively.
These two sides of 'praj' are shown in another passage by the terms
avikalpajna and tatprsthalabdha (jna), and characterized as lokottara
and laukika, respectively. H ere the term ' laukika ' signifies the func
tion of jna to make known the reality to the ' worldly ' beings. This
is nothing but a function of providing benefits for others, i. e. for the world,
and hence is based upon the Compassion, karun or maitr . Unless this
function of jna operates, man will have the fault of ' tmasneha '. This
seems to be the reason for maintaining ' tmasneha ' as the last of the 5
faults and ' maitr ' as the remedy for it.
Thus the Ratna. emphasizes karun along with praj as associating
inseparably with each other for the acquisition of the Buddhahood. This
[ 55 ]

J . TAKASAKI

point is also mentioned in the explanation of the process from cause to


effect with respect to the Germ. (pp. 27-35) Namely, the text mentions
four kinds of practice, viz. adhimukti, prajpramit, samdhi, and ma
hkarun, as the cause for attaining the dharmakya. Of them, praj
pramit and mahkarun are relevant to the present discussion. The
practice of prajpramit is said to be the remedy for all kinds of substan
tial views, the tmavda of heretics and the like, while the practice of mah
karun is said to be the remedy for any selfishness whose typical form is
found in the P ratyekabuddha. Also, it is said th at the result of the former
practice is the establishment of the dharmakya to be the ' tmapramit '
extending as far as the limit of space (kadhtuparyavasna), while that
of the latter is the establishment of the dharmakya to be the ' nityap
ramit ' continuing as far as the limit of time (aparntakotinistha). And
the Bodhisattva is said to be the only one who practises both praj
pramit and mahkarun and who, owing to the practice of praj, never
afflicts the world, but, owing to the practice of karun, never remains in
the N irvana (apratisthitanirvna). H ere we see the stress lies more on the
karun than on the praj and this standpoint relates to the ekayna
theory whose origin is in the Saddharmapundar ka, which declares the eter
n ity of the Buddha89>.
Another important point to be noted here is the positive expression
of the dharmakya to be the ubha tma sukha nityagunapramit. These
four terms, viz. nitya, sukha, tman and ubha are usually regarded as
wrong notions with respect to the phenomena, and most scriptures, inclu
ding the Prajpramit, teach the notions of anitya, duhkha, antman and
aubha as the correct view (aviparysa) with respect to the dharmas, i. e.
the phenomena. In contrast, in this Ratna. or in the garbha theory in
general, these prohibited terms are used as attributes of the dharmakya
but in the reverse order. This is a kind of revolution in Buddhist thought,
but it is, as has been examined above, another expression of the same idea
of ' dhtvastitva ' being explained through the characters of the gotra as
4
nya ' and i anya '. Special attention is to be paid to the point that
the tmapramit is said to be the result of the practice of ' prajpra
mit. In the Prajpramit, the function of praj (or prajpramit)
is to establish the correct notions of anitya, etc., while here the same term
is used for the function of establishing the dharmakya expressed in the
positive way. I t seems to show th at the Ratna. understands the praj
89)

e.g. Saddh. P . XV 1: Acinty kalpasahasrakotyo ysm pramnam na kadci


vidyate / prpt may esa tadagrabodhir dharmamca deemy ahu nityaklam / / (Bibl. Buddh.
ed. p . 323).

[ 56 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

paramit in its two aspects, negation of the wrong view and manifestation
of praj
o f the reality, in other words, prajpramit as consisting
and jna or of praj and karun. In clarifying such a structure of
prajpramit, the Ratna. deserves to be called the successor to the
Prajpramit. What is criticized is ' praj, not accompanied by ka
run ', or ' praj which does not work out in the world as jna '. 90>.
2.

The Ratna. and the Vijnvda.

There is another system in Mahyna Buddhism th at criticizes the


Prajpramit in a manner similar to the way done by the Ratna. This
is the Vijnavda whose authority is sought for in the Sandhinirmocana
stra. The Stra says 9 1 ): By the first Turning of the Wheel of D octrine,
there was taught the doctrine of the ryasatya and on its basis the astivda
of the Abhidharma has been developed. This astivda was negated by the
Prajpramit and there has been established the nyavda of the Mah
90 J

Both terms, praj and jna are of a great significance in Buddhism since its
beginning. Literally and originally, the former has a somewhat functional character, while
the latter signifies what is attained by the former. Concretely speaking, praj is the
intellect or in tuition by means of which the Buddha attained the bodhi, while jna is the
knowledge which forms the contents of bodhi. H owever, such an analysis was made for the
first time by Pali Abhidhamma Buddhism, and in primitive Buddhism there seems to have
been no strict distinction in the use of these term s. This distinction is of fundamental
character throughout the history of Buddhism, but there was a variant in each school in
the usage of both term s. D iagramatically speaking, the Sarvstivda laid stress on jna
in which the function of praj is implied, while the Prajpramit emphasized praj as
the highest 'practice ', but this praj included both aspects of jna and praj. In con
trast with the logical approach of Abhidharma Buddhism, th at of M ahyna Buddhism
may be characterized as ' pract ical'. This praj of the Prajpramit and consequently
of N grjuna was again analyzed by the Vijnavda, as mentioned above, which, in turn,
sought for its basic term in jna as the Sarvstivda did. But a revolutionary point of
M ahyna Buddhism in comparison with Abhidharma Buddhism is in the emphasis laid
on * parrthasampatti', and hence on karun; and the Vijnavda, in spite of its simila
rity to the Sarvstivda in its analytical method, is a successor of the Prajpramit in its
introduction of the idea of parrthasampatti into jna, which changed the character of
jna to its ground. A critical approach to this subject will be one of the big themes
in future studies of Buddhist thought. Cf. G. Sasaki, " Praj and Jna ", (Japanese")
Journal of Indian & Buddhist Studies, Vol. I I , N o. 2. Tokyo, pp. 437 439.
91)
Sandhinirmocanastra t r. by Hsan-Chuang (Taisho, No. 676) Chap. V. Nihsvabitvalaksanaparivarta, Taisho, 16, pp. 693 c 697 c. This statem en t is placed towards
the end of the chapter. Tib. ed. by E. Lamotte (1935), p. 85 f. (Chapitre VI I , 30 31).
' Sandhinirmocana' on account of ' nihsvabhva' is the main topic of this chapter,
which opens with a question by P aram rthasam udayagata Bodhisattva (Tib. D on dam
ya-dag-hphags) on this point. (Lamotte, op. cit.f p. 65 f.).

[ 57 ]

J.

IAK.AS AKI

yna. The amalgamation of both asti and nya vda is now done by the
Sandhinirmocana, and it is th e last and the highest Turning of the Wheel
of D octrine. As the justification for this statem en t, the Stra continues:
The ultim ate doctrine of the M ahyna is no doubt taught in the Praj
pramit, but its way of exposition is ' with an esoteric meaning, or ' with
92
a hidden in ten tion ' >. F or example th e Prajpramit teaches the
nihsvabhvat in regard to the sarvadharma, but what is meant by this
nihsvabhvat is not so clear. The purpose of the Sandhinirmocana is to
explain this meaning of nihsvabhva ' in a clear manner ' , t h at is to
say, to analyze and clarify the significance of the nyavada. Just be
cause of this standpoint, the Stra is called ' sandhi nirmocana ' , i. e. the
D isclosure of the Knot or Secret D octrine. Along this line, the Stra
establishes the doctrine of the 3 meanings with respect to the nihsvabhvat
as the basis of th e trisvabhva theory93>.
This standpoint is precisely held in common with the Ratna. in its
criticism of the Prajpramit.
Indeed, the Ratna. is in one sense a
sandhinirmocana on account of praj94) and the Sandhinirmocana may
be termed the uttaratantra as the ultim ate exposition of the nyavda
described from the two sides, of nya and anya.
Such a community of historical background brought the garbha theory
and the Vijnavda to assume a similar appearance of ' astivda ' and to
have common doctrines to a great extent, and lastly resulted in the amal
gamation of both theories. Avikalpajna and tatprsthalabdha (jna),
or rayaparivrtti and the six categories beginning with svabhva for
describing th e ultim ate reality, are, as has been referred to above, terms
borrowed by the Ratna. from the Vijnavda. The quotation of a verse
from th e Mahyna abhidharmastra (andikliko dhtuh) also shows
the influence of the Vijnavda on the Ratna., at least on the commentary.
Also, we have already observed in the Strlakra the co existence of
the garbha theory and the doctrine of trisvabhva and layavijna.
In spite of such interrelations of both theories, the unique stand
point of the Ratna. may be observed in the fact t h at there is no quotation
from th e Sandhinirmocana, nor any use of term s like trisvabhva or la
yavijna: hence, the Ratna. cannot be regarded as a work of the Vi
jnavada. F urthermore the Ratna. has many authorities for its doctrine
th at are, in turn , not acquainted with the Vijnavda at all. These
facts seem to tell us th at the garbha theory, although it criticizes the Praj
92)

Cf. E d g e r t o n B H S D i e . s. v . samdhya,
& samdh,
samdhi.
Lam otte, op. cit., Chap. VI I , 3 ( p. 67). H e refers to the source of this trisva
bhva in the Prajpramit {op. cit., Preface, pp. 14 16).
94
^ See N ote on Introduction, V, 3.
93)

[ 58 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

nramit, is a completely different system from the Vijnavda by


origin? and, in its possession of many Sutras, somewhat precedes the
Vijnavda.
The starting point of th e garbha theory lies in th e doctrine of ' citta
prakrti and gantukaklea' and th e stress is laid on th e purification of the
mind which is regarded as the attain m en t of th e Enlightenment. This
cittaprakrti is unconditionally identified with bodhi or dharmakya and
is called ' dhtu ' or ' gotra \
F rom such a theory of cittaprakrti, we may
expect the development of the cittamtra theory as exposed in the Avatam
saka or the Lakvatra. In fact, we find a germ of such a theory in the
Ratna. in th e passage where the origination of the 3 impurities (samklea)
of klea, karman and janman from cittaprakrti by the force of ' ayonio
manasikra' is set forth. N evertheless, th e Ratna. never uses the expression
of cittamtra. The passage referred to above is used for explaining how th e
cittaprakrti is real and how the gantukaklea is unreal, but there is no
explanation of th e reason why such unreal kleas are originated from th e
cittaprakrti. In other words, the emphasis lies on the identification of gotra
or garbha with th e dharmakya and an y difference of the garbha or the
sattvadhtu from th e dharmakya is rather neglected. This is a weak point
of the garbha theory.
On the other han d, what is done by the Vijnavda is the investiga
tion of this very point of difference between sattvadhtu and the Buddha.
When th e Sandhinirmocana established the theory of trisvabhva as the
result of the analysis of nihsvabhvat taugh t in the Prajparamit, its ana
lytical method found the origin of the n ature of sattvadhtu covered with
kleas in vijna as the function of distinguishing object from subject.
The term cittamtra is replaced by and explained more concretely as ' vij
aptimtra ' , and ' citta ' , n ot as pure cittaprakrti, but as something t h at
manifests klea, or as th e basis (raya) of phenomena, is named ' layavijna'.
In its methodology, th e Vijnavda was really a successor
of the Abhidharma Buddhism, but it was the Abhidharma based upon the
nyavda of the Prafpramit, and hence deserves to be called ' mah
ynbhidharma ' , as shown in the title of one scripture.
Thus the standpoint of the Vijnavda is the analysis of phenomena
from th e viewpoint of the sattvadhtu and thereby it stands in a clear contrast
with the garbha theory which, in turn , exposes its doctrine always from
the viewpoint of th e dharmakya or bodhi.

Of course, even for th e Vij

navda, the ultim ate purpose is the realization of bodhi, or manifestation


of the real meaning of nyat.

As regards bodhi, the Vijnvada seeks

for th e process towards its realization in the acquisition of ' jna ' as a
result of th e conversion of layavijna, and with this ' jna ' acquired,
[ 59 ]

j .

XAJS.A&AK.1

it is said, the * vijaptimtrat' can be understood, otherwise it cannot. Thus


this 4 jna ' is characterized as ' laukika ' ' prsthalabdha ' , owing to which
function th e basic praj, i. e. 4 avihalpajna ' can realize itself in th e
world. This point is accepted in the Ratna. The only difference, but of an
essential character, is t h at the gotra, being 4andikliko dhtuh'' and the
' raya of sarvadharma ' , is regarded as fully identical with bodhi or dhar
makya, and kjnpti ' is said to be the perfect manifestation (pari-vrtti)
of such ' raya \ while in th e Vijnavda, layavijna, though being
andikliko dhtuh and being raya of sarvadharma, always remains as a
principle of ' samklistadharma ' and is never regarded as identical with
dharmakya 9 5 ) , and ' jnpti ' is said to be the result of the revolution
(parvrtti) of raya, i. e. change of basis from layavijna to jna. I n
other words, gotra involves two sides, namely 'prakrtistha' and *samud
n ta ' , and hence has th e same structure as 4 avikalpajna ' and 4 tatprs
thalabdha ' , while layavijna can never be identical with 4 avikalpajna '
and in 4 jnpti ' , it no longer remains. This is the reason why the Ratna.,
in spite of its acceptance of the Vijnavda in its in terpretation of4 jna *
and others, never introduced th e doctrine of layavijna, and why
the Ratna. could remain thereby, in th e field of the pure garbha theory.
At th e same tim e, failure to introduce the layavijna made the garbha
theory weak in its explanation of th e gotra as th e substratum (dhra) of
Samsra or th e phenomenal world. Because of this weak point, th e gar
bha theory in its later development could n ot but introduce th e doctrine
of layavijna, and there was an at t em pt at identification, of garbha with
layavijna, as seen in th e L ahkvatra and the Mahynaraddhotpda.
F urtherm ore, such an innovation of th e Vijnavda resulted in th e ab
sorption of th e garbha theory into th e Vijnavda, preventing the former
from establishing an independent school of its own. This absorption seems
to have taken place not so long after th e Ratna. in th e period when th e
Vijnavda had formed an independent school as th e rival of the Mdhy
am ika. At its startin g point, however, th e garbha theory was no doubt
of an independent character, different from th e Vijnavda, and th e
Ratna. was th e first systematized and at th e same tim e th e last inde
pendent and pure exposition of th e garbha theory.
One thin g to be added here is th e similarity of th e Ratna. (and th e
Vijnavda, too) to the U panisadic philosophy in the expression of
95)

According to Paramrtha, however, layavijna is said to have a mixed

character of real and unreal (Jfi -% 7(\\ ' o ) This characterization seems to be
his unique interpretation of that term, probably influenced by the tathgatagarbha
theory.
[ 60 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga

the Absolute with positive terms 96) . I n its essence, it is clear, th e Ab


solute taught in th e Ratna., being the manifestation of nyat, is of a
cruite different character from th e substantial Absolute of the U panisad.
Still it is n ot impossible to suppose th at there was an influence from th e
U panisadic thought for th e astivda of the Ratna. to establish its moni
stic doctrine. At th e same time, many scholars have already remarked
the influence of the Vijanavda on th e Vedntavda in its change of
character from th e realistic philosophy of the Brahmastra to the idea
listic philosophy of th e Advaita vednta which is established by akara
through the philosophy of G audapda. To clarify th e historical and
social background of the garbha theory and the Vijnavda, it seems quite
necessary to investigate such mutual influences and interrelations between
the Brahmanical thought and M ahyna Buddhism. This subject is,
however, too wide to cover here, and I cannot but reserve its investiga
tion for my future studies 97>.

3.

Consideration on the Date and Authorship of the Ratna.

As a result of investigations throughout the previous passage, it may


not be useless here to have in conclusion a summarized consideration of the
date and authorship of th e Ratna.
As for its date:
1) The upper limit is the date of N grjuna and ryadeva, i. e. the
middle of the 3rd cent. A.D. It is common to the garbha theory and the
Vijnavda in general.
2) The lower limit is 433 A.D . when the Lakvatra is translated
into Chinese for th e first time.
3) Completion of the present form of the Ratna., i. e. the text con
sisting of th e basic Kriks and a commentary on it in verse and prose,
came probably after Asaga and Vasubandhu but not so far from their
time, and hence at early 5th cent. A.D.
96)
A verse of the Ratna. quite similar to one of the Bhagavadg t is pointed out
by Prof. V. V. G okhale (A Note on Ratnagotravibhga I. 52 = Bhagavadgit XIII, 32,
Prof. S. Yamaguchi's Commemoration Volume, Kyoto, 1955, pp. 90 91).
97)
Recently, a great work by Prof. T. R. V. Murti has appeared on this field of
comparative study. (The Central Philosophy of Buddhism, London, 1955) Especially,
Chap. XIII of his work is devoted to the subject of the Absolute seen by three systems,
viz. M dhyamika, Vijnavda and Vednta. As far as the historical approach is concer
ned, however, so far no work has been done systematically.

[ 61 ]

J . TAKASAKI

4) As for the Krik text, especially those verses called ' loka '
and kept in Chapter I . seem fairly old in both their style and contents;
hence its date is no doubt earlier than Asaga's.
As for the author:
1) The author of the commentary must be Sram ati.

This is cer

tain through comparison of the Ratna. with the Dharmadhtvaviesastra


2) Most probably the authorship of the original ' loka ' is to be
attributed to M aitreya, taking th e Tibetan tradition in to consideration.
In the case of the Strlakra, the garbha theory and the Vijnavda are
taught side by side, while the Abhisamaylakra expresses no Vijnavda.
Thus it is not impossible th at the same author of the above two works com
posed the original ' loka' of the Ratna.

But against the Tibetan tradition ,

th e Ratna. seems to have been composed next to the Abhisamaylakra


but before the Strlakra.

This is because the garbha theory precedes

M aitreya, but the Vijnavda is likely to have started with M aitreya.


3) The Vijnavda had probably been established in its pure form
by Vasubandhu.

H e was no doubt acquainted with the garbha theory

but devoted himself to the systematization of the Vijnavda.

There

fore, it is quite doubtful to attribute the Buddhagotrastra to him.


4) I n the same way, Sramati was the systematizer of the garbha
theory in its pure form.

Because of this similar position, Sramati may

have been almost contemporary with Vasubandhu.

Amalgamation of

both theories may consequently have taken place after Vasubandhu and
Sramati, since the Lakvatra was unknown to either of them .
This seems to be th e most reasonable assumption on the date and
author of the Ratna. after the present investigation.

F or certainty of

M aitreya's authorship of the Ratna., however, pieces of evidence are


still n ot enough, and we shall be required to engage in further and detailed
examination of all th e works attributed to M aitreya.

[ 62 ]

TRANSLATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(for Translation & N otes thereon)

Chapter I.

TH E

M ATRIX OP THE

TATHGATA
FAGS

Introduction

141

1) The Meaning of the Adamantine Subjects


2) Authorities on the 7 Subjects
3) The Essential Character of the 7 Subjects
4) The Inherent Connection among the 7 Subjects
The Jewel of the Buddha
1) The eightfold Quality of the Buddhahood
2) Reference to the Jnloklakrastra

141
143
146
153
155
156
159

The Jewel of the D octrine

163

1)
2)
3)
4)

164
165
165
168

The Eightfold Quality of the D octrine


Nirodhasatya & Mrgasatya
T h e D octrin e as t h e T r u t h of E xt in ct io n
Th e D octrin e as t h e T r u t h of P a t h

T h e Jewel of t h e C om m un ity

172

1) M an n er an d E xt e n t of P erception
a) R igh t M an n er of P erception
b) U n lim ited E xt e n t of P erception
2) I n trospective C h aracter of Bodh isattva's P erception
3) Superiority of Bodh isattva's C om m un ity

173
174
175
176
176

Th e 3 Jewels as Refuges

180

1)
2)
3)
4)

180
181
184
185

3 Refuges from t h e E m pirical St an dpoin t


Th e D octrin e an d t h e C om m un ity are n ot t h e u lt im at e refuge . . . .
Only t h e Bu d d h a is th e Refuge from t h e u lt im at e St an dpoin t . . . .
Th e M eaning of t h e 3 Jewels

Th e G erm of t h e 3 Jewels in 4 Aspects

186

1) I n con ceivability of t h e 4 Aspects


2) T h e G erm as Cause an d C onditions of t h e 3 Jewels in its 4 Aspects .

188
194

Th e Serm on: All

196

Livin g Beings are possessed of t h e Tathgatagarbha

[ 137 ]

. .

PAGE

VI I I . Analysis of the Germ from 10 Points of View

199

(I) Svabhva & (I I ) Hetu


1) The N ature of the Essence of the Tathgata
2) Obstructions and Causes for Purification

200
200
201

(I I I )

207
208

(V)

Phaa & (IV) Karman


1) The 4 Supreme Virtues as the Result of Purification
2) Concordance between the 4 Supreme Virtues and the 4 Causes for Purification
3) 4 Impediments to the Attainment of the Supreme Virtues
4) Motives of the 4 Supreme Virtues
4') The Unstable Nirvana
5) Functions of the Germ for its Purification

210
214
218
219
221

Yoga
1) The Union of the Germ to the Factors of its Purification
2) The Union of the Germ to the Result of Purification

225
225
227

. . . .

(VI)

Vrtti (Manifestation)

229

(VII)

Avasthprabheda (Different States of Manifestation)

230

(VI I I ) Sarvatraga (All pervadingness)

233

(I X) Avikra
234
(A) U nchangeability in the Impure State
235
1) U noriginated Character of the I n n ate Mind
238
2) Indestructible Character of the I n n ate Mind
241
(B) U nchangeability in the Pure and impure State
243
1) P ure Character and Impure Character of the Bodhisattva
243
2) Defilements endowed with the Virtuous Root
245
3) Bodhisattva's Compassion The P arable of a H ouseholder . . . .
246
4) Bodhisattva's Perception of the P ure Mind
248
5) ' Samsra ' in the Case of Bodhisattva
250
6) Bodhisattva in his 6th Stage
250
7) The P ure and Impure State of the Bodhisattva in comparison with the
Ordinary Being and the Buddha
253
(C) U nchangeability in the Perfectly P ure Sta;e
256
(X)

I X.

Asambheda

258

1)
2)
3)
4)

259
261
263
265

The
1)
2)
3)

Synonyms of th e Essence of the Tathgata


The Point: Buddhahood is N irvana
The Parable of Painters
Similarity of the Buddhahood to the Sun

9 Illustrations on th e G erm covered with Defilements


The 9 Illustrations according to the Tathgatagarbhastra
9 Kinds of Defilements the Impurities of the Mind
Concordance between th e 9 Illustrations and 9 Kinds of Defilements .
[ 138

268
268
277
281

The

R atn agotravibh ga
PAGE

4) The threefold N ature of th e Essence


a) Dharmakya
b) Tathat
c) Tathgatagotra
X.

The Essential Characteristics of the M atrix of the Tathgata


1) The Saying: ' All Living Beings are possessed of the M atrix of the
Tathgata ' is the H ighest Logical Truth
2) The 4 Kinds of Individuals to whom the F aith in this Essence is necessary
3) The True Conception of the M atrix of the Tathgata as representing
N on substantiality

XI .

The Purpose of I nstruction

283
284
287
288
294
294
296
300
305

Chapter I I . T H E EN LIG H TEN MEN T

XI I .

G eneral Characteristics of the Reality free from Pollutions

310

XI I I .

8 Points on the Undefiled Reality

314

(I)

Svabhva & (I I ) Hetu

314

(III)

Phala

315

(IV)

Karman

318

(V)

Yoga

322

(VI)

Vrtti

324

a) The Body of the Absolute Essence


b) The Body of Enjoyment
c) The Apparitional Body
(VII) Nitya
(VI I I ) Acintya

326
328
329
331
334

C hapter I I I . T H E P ROP ERTIES OF TH E BU D D H A

XI V.
XV.

G eneral Characteristics of the Buddha's Properties

336

The 64 Properties of the Buddha

338

(I)

The 10 Powers

338

(II)

The 4 F orms of I ntrepidity

339

(I I I ) The 18 Exclusive Properties

341

(IV) The 32 Marks of the Superman


(Commentary)

343
347

[ 139 ]

j . TAKASAKI

Chapter IV.

THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA


PAGE

XVI.
XVII.

General Characteristics of the Acts of the Buddha

351

The 9 Illustrations on the Buddha's Acts

355

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

355
356
374
375
377
377

Buddha's Magnanimity
The 9 Illustrations taken from the Jnloklankrastra
Summary of the Illustrations given by the Commentator
Summary of Examples given in the Kriks
N on origination and N on extinction of th e Buddhahood
The Point of D issimilarity

C hapter V. T H E M ER I TS OF F AI TH

XVIII. The Merits of H aving F aith in the D octrine of the Essence of Buddhahood 380
1) The Superiority of F aith to other Virtues in regard to their Merits . .
2) Authority, Motive, and Characteristics of this Text being the Correct
D octrine
3) Means of preserving oneself within the D octrine
4) Causes and Results of the Loss of the D octrine
5) Conclusion

[ 140 ]

380
384
386
387
389

ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS 1}


(A Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle) 2)

CHAPTER

I.

THE MATRIX OF THE TATHGATA


(Salutation)
I bow to the Saint Vajrasattva 3>.

I. INTRODUCTION - The 7 Vajrapadas


1. The Meaning of the 7 Vajrapadas.
The Buddha, the Doctrine, and the Community *>,
The Essence [of the Buddha] 5>, the Supreme Enlightenment 6>,
The Virtuous Qualities [of the Buddha],
And, last of all, the Act of the Buddha;
These are the 7 Adamantine Subjects, [which show]
Briefly, the body of the whole text. // 1 //
*) Ratnagotravibhga. The word ' vibhga ' is the correct Skt. form of P a li ' vibhaga '
which means ' explanation ', ' commentary '. In BHS, however, the form ' vibhaga '
is more often used as in cases of Madhyntavibhaga, Dharmadharmat vibhaga and
so on. In these cases, ' vibhaga ' is taken in the sense of ' distinction between two '.
But here, the meaning ' analysis ' seems more suitable, because the wofd ' ratnagotra *
indicates ' dhtu ' or ' tathgatagarbha ', and not ' ratna & gotra ' . Cf. gotram ratnatrayasya
S. p. 21.6.
2
) Mahaynauttaratantrastra. About the title, see my Introduction, G hap. I .
3
) T. offers salutation to " the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas " . C. om . the salutation,
but has 18 verses instead before entering the main text. This salutation to Vajrasattva,
who has an im portan t role in the Tantric Buddhism, does not match with this text which
has no connection with Tantrism in its doctrine, in spite of the use of the word * tantra'
in the title. P robably this is a salutation made by the copyist of the present Skt. text
under the influence of later Tantric Buddhism.
*) gana, T . tshogs, C. fc |gj
B

) dhtu, T. khams, C.

( = sagha).

ft.

) bodhi, T. bya-chub, C. j l f .
[ 141 ]

J.

1AKASAKI

The word *vajrapada ' (adamantine subject) 7> means th e term (pada),
i.e. th e basis (sthna), which expresses the meaning of the Enlightenment
(adhigama) which is similar to a thunderbolt [or diamond] (vajra). H ere, it
8)
being difficult to be penetrated by the knowledge consisting in studying
and thinking, the meaning [of the Enlightenment] which is not capable
9
of being explained but is to be realized by oneself >, should be understood
as 'like a thun derbolt'. Those letters, which express th at meaning by
making manifest the way which is favourable for its acquisition, are called
4
pada% just because they are the basis of th at meaning. Thus, by
both meanings, i.e. being hard to be penetrated and being the basis, the
character of 'vajrapada', of th e meaning as well as of th e letters, is to
be understood.
4
4
Now, what is artha ' (the meaning) and what is vyajana ' (the
letter)? 'Artha'
is the sevenfold meaning of the Enlightenment, viz.
1) the Buddha (buddha), 2) the Doctrine (dharma), 3) the Community
(samgha), 4) the Essence of the Buddha (dhtu) 10\ 5) the Supreme Enlighten
ment (bodhi), 6) the Virtuous Qualities of the Buddha (guna), and 7) the
Acts of the Buddha (karman) u>. These are called 4 artha ' l2>. The
letters, by which this sevenfold meaning of the Enlightenment is indicated
or is manifested, are called 4 vyajana ' 1 3 ) . And this teaching of i vajrapada ' should be understood in detail according to the Sutras.
') T . rdo-rje gnas, C.J
8

) prativedha,

T. phigs-pa

) pratytma vedan ya,

(to m a k e a small hole, to penetrate).

T . so-so-ra-bshin

rig-par

bya-ba, C. P ^ -5j* ff V2*

10

> C. >$* S i ( = sattva).

) For these 7 subjects, T. & C. give the following terms: 1) sas-rgyas,

2) chos, ' ? ; 3) dge-hdun, fft'; 4) khams, ft ( ^ >^); 5) bya-chub, =?


6) yon-tan, SjJ j ^ ;
12

7) phyin-las, | i p | .

) C. adds here the following scriptural passage: " ^>C 0ft * |f|

paramrtha satya) gf | g , ifr f fig} ^ P f i g f t L f a f f i ^ ^ ^


13

) Instead of this sentence, C. puts the following one: "J^ff = f ^ p ^ff

^ i "^F T J "? * ? *H J (phrase), = | an (word), jffi\ 5=p (sound), ^ t j ^ K (expression),


b 1/u (description), ^ b RrJ (explanation), ^ b / J ^ (indication), JtL ' u *M ^ ^
And it adds the following scriptural passage: " _^\., THT ^rjj (samvrtisatya) ^ ,

1 -ft n * 0rffl^ * , ^ ^ . * ^ , Wfs. 0r ft These two passages are quoted from the Aksayamati-parivarta (C.
I, p. 197
M. # % OP , Taisho, XIII,
197 fc).
[ 142 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga

8 2. Authorities on the 7 Subjects.


1) ' Buddha ': " Verily, O nanda, invisible is the Tathgata. H e
cannot be seen by eyes ".
2) ' Dharma ': " Verily, O nanda, unutterable is the D octrine. I t
cannot be heard by ears ".
3) ' Samgha ': " Verily, O nanda, the Holy Community is of an
immutable 14> character. It cannot be completely served, either by body
or by mind ".
These are the [first] 3 vajrapadas, which are to be understood according to the Dfdhdhyaya parivarta15).
4) ' Dhtu ': " Verily, O riputra, this meaning is a subject for the
Tathgata [and only belongs to] th e sphere of the Tathgata. This
meaning, O riputra, can neither be known 16> nor be seen, nor be ex
amined correctly throngh the knowledge of the rvakas and the Pratye
kabuddhas. N eedless to say, this applies to the case of ignorant and ordi
nary beings, except when they have faith 17> in the Tathgata. O
riputra, th e ultimate truth is really approachable only by faith [in the
Tathgata]. O riputra, th e ultimate Truth is a synonym of the mass
of living beings (sattva dhtu) 18>. The mass of living beings is, O
riputra, nothing but a synonym of th e Matrix of the Tathgata {tath
gatagarbha) 19\ The M atrix of th e Tathgata is, riputra, nothing but
a synonym of the Absolute Body (dharmakya) ".
14
) asamskrta, T. hdus ma byas pa, C. 3*9? >w{f Lit. 'bein g n ot created by causes
and conditions ', or ' not caused by samskras (the active forces) ', i. e. ' not belonging
to this Phenomenal World ' .
15
) T. Lhag pahi bsam pa bstan pahi lehu. H ere, ' brtan pa' is preferable to ' bstan
pa\
Cf. Tohoku N o. 224 which gives the Skt title; Sthirdhyaya parivarta. This
stra is lacking in Chinese Tripijaka.
16
) According to T., ' jtum v ' should be supplied after ' svaprajay ' (T. es pa).
17
) raddh gamana, T . dad pas rtogs pa. As for the importance of faith, see
S. p . 74 1. 1 f. (v. I . 153).

nVt.

!_, | 33

1S

) T. sems can gyi khams, C. ?fc f ^_ yi*, H ere dhtu means ' a group ' (jti or
gotra) and sattvadhtu is used as a collective noun for sattvas. At the same tim e, however,
this word, being synonymous with tathgatagarbha, m a yb e interpreted as "t h e Essence
of the sattva, being the ' cause ' of the Buddhahood " , according to the special use of the
word ' dhtu ' in this text.
19

) T . de bshin gegs pahi si-po, C. }$[ yjv |!15c. The meaning of tathgatagarbha

will be discussed under (VII) & (I X)

4) (in Chap. I) (S. p. 26, 70 ff.).

[ 143 ]

i.

j. .ri.rv.tvi3i4.JVl

Thus is the fourth ' vajrapada ' and is to be understood according


to the Annatvprnatvanirdeaparivarta20).
5) * Bodhi ' : " O Lord, the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment {anuttar
samyaksambodhi) is a synonym of the Sphere of th e N irvana 21>. The
Sphere ofth e N irvana is nothing but a synonym ofthe Absolute Body
of the Tathgata " .
Thus is the fifth Vajrapada which is to be understood according to
the rya r ml stra2 2 ) .
6) 4 Guna ': " 0 riputra, th at which is called the Absolute Body,
preached bythe Tathgata, is of indivisible n ature, of qualities insepa
rable from th e Wisdom, th at is to say, [indivisible from or endowed] with
the properties of th e Buddha which far surpass t h e particles of sands
23
of the G ang in number " >.

> C. ^ P if!" A^ $ S H [ , T aisho, N o. 668, XVI, 467 a. T. has no translation of


this stra. H ereafter, AAN will be used as the abbreviation.
V|~T rftfV \ 'Jr\
21

) nirvnadhtu, T . mya-an-las-hdas-pahi dbyis, C. 35 ^ ^ yf'. T. dbyis


(for dhtu) means ' a heavenly region '. ' bhagavan ' in the Text is, to be corrected
into ' bhagavams ' .
22) = r mldevsimhandastra.
T . Hphags pa dpal-phre-gi mdo (Dpal-phre
lha-mo se-gehi sgrahi modo) C. 3g. '^=1 /j/r 3 C ntC. There are two translations in C :

i>* * w ^F ift ^-k.~n &is'9i M *.by * m &. PB m


(Gunabhadra), Taisho, No. 353. and 2) $$f- " ^ ^ A . *f[. vol. 48 of ^ 5 8 Jf{ jf8

(Ratnakta stra), Taisho, N o. 310. H ereafter the first one will be used as the reference
under the abbreviation of SMS. This passage, SMS, Taisho, XI I , 220 c.
23
) The whole quotation runs as follows:

(S.) j o ' yam, riputra, tathagatanirdisto dharmakyah, so'yam avinirbhgadhar


avinirmuktajnaguno, yaduta, gagnad vlikvyatikrntais tathgatadharmaih;
(T.) Sr bu, debshin gegspas bstanpahi choskyi sku gayinpa deni hdi
Ita-ste, gaghi klu-gi bye-ma-sed-las hdas-pahi de bshin gegs pahi chos-dag-da /
rnampar dbyermedpahi chos da Idan-pa, mabralbahi ye~eskyi yontancan yinno
m,

M ^ JB i ft ? # * ^ S ^ J @ (C. has a longer quo

tation, but its additional part is identical with the quotation in S. p. 39 from the
same stra).
For ' avinirbhgadharman ' (' dharman ', ifc. ' of th e nature o f') , T . mam par
dbyer med pahi chos da Idan-pa ( = . . . chos-can), C. simply A^* pj|t and om. 'dhar-

man* (usually, ^ ^ g ^ g ?).


For ' avinirmuktajnaguna', T . ma bral bahi ye es kyi yon tan can, which does
aot

seem correct ( it should be 'ye es da

[ 144 ]

ma-bral-bahi

yon-tan

con');

C. -A^

The

R at n a got r av ib h ga

This is the sixth Vajrapada and is to be understood according to


24
t h e Annatvprnatvanirdea
>.
7) ' Karman ' : " 0 Majuri, the Tathgata never imagines anything
nor distinguishes falsely. That is to say, his acts of this kind flow
forth without any effort, without any imagination or any thought
construction " .
This is the seventh Vajrapada which is to be understood according
t o t h e Tathgatagunajncintyavisayvatranirdea 25>.
I n sh o rt , t h ese a r e t h e 7 Vajrapadas wh ich sh ould be kn own as t h e
bo d y of t h is wh ole t e xt , in t h e sen se of bein g a collection of p relim in ary
26
exp lan at io n s >.

JjjjJ
^ Jf! R/ f^, but ^3 JHfc -/J "f@ is placed at the end, and probably
the whole sentense could not be understood properly by C. translator. The term ' avinirmuktajnaguna ', being appositional t o ' dharmakya ', is a Bahuvr hi compound, in
l
which th e former p ar t ' avinirmuktajna ' is relating t o th e latter part guna* as
an apposition. And hence, ' avinirmuktajna', being an adjective to 'guna' (which
means ' buddhagunh ' or ' tathgatadharmh ' i . e . th e Qualities of t h e Buddha), forms
again a kind of Bahuvr hi compound. I t should mean ' unreleased from jna'.
H ere, ' jna' signifies ' buddhajna ', i. e. t h e Wisdom, by which th e Buddha has
realized ' bodhi '. Therefore, this term ' avinirmuktajna ' is an attribute, exclusive
to th e Buddha's Qualities. (See S. p. 39, where a simile of lantern is used for clari
fying this meaning and lantern is said to be of ' avinirmukta guna ', om ittin g th e
word * jna ') .
I n other passages, ' amuktajna ' or ' amuktaja ' is used as an attribute to ' guna '. They are nothing but the abbreviated forms of ' avinirmuktajna '
and seem to have t h e same sense as t h e latter. See S. p p . 42,2 3; 55,14 15;
73,2 3; 76,9.
As for the term ' gagnadivlik vyatikrnta ' it is also an adjective, exclusive to
the Buddha's Qualities and often used along with ' amuktaja ', ' avinirbhga ' and ' acin
tya '. (sometimes in t h e form of ' gagnadvlukvyativrtta ' (S. pp. 42,2; 55,14), ' gagnadivlik vyativrtta ' (p. 12,12), ' gagt rarajo 't ta' (p. 80,9) or ' gagsikat 'tivrtta'
(p. 85,16).
Instrumental case ending of th e word ' tathgatadharma ' (which is translated into
T. by ' dan ') shows th e implied meaning of ' upeta ', ' yoga ', ' samanvgama ', or
otherwise is to be related to ' avinirbhga ' as shown in the present translation. T. seems
to show the latter interpretation. C. offers no help.
2
*) AAN 467 a.
25

J Chinese Tripiaka retains 3 kinds of translations of this stra, namely: 1) Jg^

W i$fr fl ffi ^m W i ^

(translator unknown), Taisho, N o. 302, 2) ^

l p |gt

A tW * fl S JS i i t # M tr. by I I ^ (Jnagupta),
ibid., No. 303, 3) ^ C ^ f M A # 0 3fc ^

fH S iSv | H & tr. by iksnanda,

ibid., N o. 304. This passage is in Taisho, X, p . 915 b (N o. 302).


26
) uddeamukha, T . bstan pahi sgo, G. n ot clear.
[ 145 ]

J.

TAKASAKI

3. The Essential Character of the 7 Subjects.


Of these [seven subjects],
27)
Accompanied
by their own characteristics,
One should know respectively the [first] three subjects
F rom the introductory chapter in the Dhranirjastra 28\
And the [latter] four from [the chapter on] the distinction
Between the qualities of the Bodhisattva
and those of the Buddha 29>. // 2 //
[The meaning of this verse is as follows]: And of these seven Vaj
rapadas, accompanied 3 0 ) by the explanation of their own characteristics,
31)
the three subjects should be known as being from
the introductory
chapter (nidnaparivarta) of the H oly Dhran vararjastra, and then
the remaining four [are to be known] from the chapter on the distinction
between the qualities of the Bodhisattva and those of the Buddha
32
respectively >. Therefore, it is said:
" The Lord has perfectly realized the equality of all things, has
set the wheel of D octrine going well and has kindly trained num
berless disciples " 33>.
a7

) anugata, T. rjes hbrel ba ( = anubandha), C. not clear.


Literally, ' anugata ' is related to ' trlni padni ', as well as to ' catvri [padni] \
F or ' svalaksanennugatni ', T. as if ' svalaksanasynngatni ', and om. the case
ending of ' esm ' (hdi dag).
2S
) == Dhran vararjastra. See below.
29

vely.

) dh mat

( = bodhisattva),

F or ' dharma ', C. ^


30

) For

' svalaksananirdeena

a n d jina

( = buddha).

T . bloldan & rgyalba,

r e sp e c t i

(jna).
...

anugatni',

T.

ra-gi

mtshanid

bstanpa

da / rjes-su hbrel-ba ni. (da is probably for Instrumental case-ending).


sl
) The reading ' nidnaparivartnugatni ' i r rather obscure. I t should be ' nid
naparivartd anugatni '. So T. (ablative) Also v. 2 (nidnatah). But C. takes it as locative.
32
) This stra is available in both Tibetan and Chinese Tripitakas. T. has the title
' Tathgata mahkarunnirdea stra ', which is identical with the title of Chinese
translation ' y^, ^

$ ' (Taisho, N o. 398). Beside this independent stra, C. has another

translation of the same stra as a part of the Mahvaipulya mahsamnipta stra

( yC

y/ J "^f y^. J fc rfT.) (Taisho, N o. 397). I n this Mahsamniptastra, the Dhranir


jastra occupies the vols. 1 4, under the titles of Chap. I " Alakra parivarta " and
Chap. I I " Dhran vararja bodhisattva parivarta ".
I t seems t h at the " Nidna
parivarta " is equivalent to the Alakra parivarta, and the " Bodhisattva tathgata
dharmabheda (parivarta) ", to th e remaining part, i.e. Chap. II, denoting the contents
of this chapter.

DRS 1 a. ( = ^ C

I S , Taisho, XIII, p. 409 o).

[ 146 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

By these three fundamental sentences, respectively, one should know


the arrangement of th e three Jewels [in th e aspect of] their successive
origination and accomplishment 34>. The remaining four subjects are to
be known as the statem ent of th e accomplishment of the causes which
correspond to th e origin of the three Jewels 35\ N ow, on the 8th Stage
of Bodhisattva, as th e power of controlling all elements of phenomena
has been attained, so it is said:
" H e ( = th e Lord), sitting in th e excellent Seat of the Englighten
ment 3 6 ) , realized perfectly th e equality of all things ".
On th e 9th Stage of Bodhisattva, he is endowed with the power of
expressing the H ighest D octrine 37\ knows very easily th e intentions of
all living beings, brings all faculties [of living beings] 38) to the highest
perfection and becomes an expert in th e removal of the chain of Defi
39)
ling forces
in all living beings. Therefore, it is said: "H avin g rea
lized the perfect Enlightenment, he has well set th e wheel of th e Doc
trine going ". On th e 10th Stage of Bodhisattva, after attaining th e
anointment for th e prince recognized as th e next king in the highest
religious empire of the Buddha, he is immediately calmed in the Bud
dha's effortless 40> acts uninterruptedly41 ). Therefore, it is said: "H e who
has well set the wheel of th e D octrine going has kindly trained number
3

*) anuprva samutpda samudgama, T. rim gyis skye ba hgrub pa, C. yC 0ft

3 W

/PC 5vC H ere the word ' samudgama ' (also in the next line) means ' siddhi '.

(T. hgrub pa, C. / $ Wl)


3

)
triratnotpatty anurpahetu samudgama nirdea.
) bodhi manda. ' manda ' has originally meant ' the scum of cooked rice, or the
essence of milk, i. e. cream '. In P ali, it is used in the sense of ' essence ' (sra) ' excellent
p a r t ' . T. translation ' si-po ' shows the same meaning. Therefore ' bodhi-manda '
means literally ' the essence of the Enlightenment', ' the highest state of Enlightenment'.
But in later scriptures, it denotes ' the excellent place of the Enlightenment' as C. translation ' f^J $ ] j j | | H Iffi ^
/ 2 l | t ' , and is often accompanied by the word
4
vara ' as in the text. Sometimes ' bodhi-manda ' is explained as denoting Bodhi-tree.
Here I preferred C. translation.
37
) dharmabhnakatva,
T . chos-smra-ba-id,
C. < ptP ( t e a c h e r of t h e D o c t r i n e ,
one who has the qualification for preaching the Doctrine).
38
) indriya. There are 5 indriyas, namely raddh i., vlrya i., smrti i., samdhi i.,
&praj i. viz. Mvyut 41.
36

39

) vsan anusamdhi,

T . bag chags kyi

mtshams sbyor ba,

C. ^

^ p \ , ( o m . anu

samdhi).
" ) anbhoga, T. Ihun gyis grub, C. g
41

$ & fffj ^ T

) apratiprarabdha, T . rgyun mi~hchad pa(r), C. j 6 ^ <^\ s \ 7f* fig^,

[ 147 ]
11

less disciples " . F urtherm ore, th e same qualification of having trained


numberless disciples is shown in th e same text, immediately after this
sentence. I t runs as follows:
42

" H e was together with th e assembly of a large number of monks )


and

with th e assembly

of numberless Bodhisattvas " .

As he has well train ed those who are in th e enlightenment of the


rvaka and up to t h at of th e Buddha, step by step, it is said:
43

" Thus being endowed with the virtuous qualities, . . . " &c. >
And then , immediately after th e [passage of the]

doctrine on the

n ature of qualities of rvakas and Bodhisattvas, in th e reference to the


44

Buddha's inconceivable leadership > in regard to tran quillity, the esta


blishment of th e distinguishable qualities 45> of the Jewel of th e Buddha
is to be known through th e accomplishment of a great palace adorned
with circular ornam ent of jewels 46>, through his bringing the people to
47

gether > in to th e assembly of Tath gatas,

through th e completion of

various kinds of worship with divine things 4 8 \ and through th e pouring


of rain from th e cloud of praises 49>.
And n ext, through th e splendid arrangement 5 0 ) of th e seat of the
D octrine and its brightness, and through th e glorification

42) A _ yvat

51)

of th e name

B ( begin n in g wi t h A u p t o B ) , T . . . . shes bya ba nas

. . . shes

bya bahi bar, C. / J H \ .


*) D RS 1, a b.
44
) vrsabhit (BH S), T. khyu mchog (' th e best b u ll' = rsabha). The term is often
used as an epithet of th e Buddha. C. reads it as ' visaya '.
45

vastu).
46

) F o r ' gunavibhga

', T . yon tan

rnam par

I n t h e following cases, however, C. /J j


) vipula ratna vyha mandala vyha nivrtti.

dbye ba,

C . ^Y* f\ g ^ | -sfl- (acintya-

^ 2 c //'J
(gunaprabheda).
Of th e two ' vyhas ' in t h e text,

the first one is translated into T . ' bkod pa ', C. JjJt ^

(decoration), and th e second

one, in to T . khyams (court yard), C. 5 1 ! Mx. (palace of jewel). C. * 5 l H x ' s e e m s t o


include t h e meaning of ' mandala '. F or ,' vipula ', C. as ' vimala ', bu t T. as S.
*') samvartana < sam vartayati (BH S), ' gathers, collects ' (viz. BH S D ie. s.v.).
For parisatsamvartana,
T . bkhorhduspa (hdus pa < hduba, t o c o m e t o ge t h e r ) . F o r
samvartana,

C . ^ ^ ?fc , b u t se e m s t o o m . parisad.

48

) C. om . dravya, and has * J | >fM 1^> ^ C instead (vividha divy pj?).


49
) These passages are extracted from t h e same stra. (D RS 1 c 3 c).
80

> vyha, T. bkod ba, C. ~$t R .

") pariklrtana, T. yons su

__

bsgrags pa, C. R/ J (/ J\

t 148 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

and qualities of the variety of doctrines 52) , there should be known the
establishment of the distinguishable qualities of the Jewel of the D octrine 53).
And next, in the light of th e mutual 54> manifestation of the power of th e
acting sphere 55) of various tranquillities of the Bodhisattvas, and in the
light of th e description of their various forms of qualities, there should be
known th e establishment of the distinguishable qualities of the Jewel of
56)
the Community .
And again, immediately after this, in the reference to the Buddha's
presentation 5 7 ) of th e highest fearlessness and confidence [in speech] 58)
on account of the prince of the supreme religious king [to the Bodhisattvas],
through the sprinkling of th e Buddha's light. And, through the expla
nation of th e highest praise to the true virtues of th e Tathgata, through
the description 5 9 ) in th e form of discussion 6) of th e highest D octrine of
the G reat Vehicle, and, as th e result of th at knowledge, through th e mani
festation of the attainm ent of th e highest sovereignty 61 ); through these
three, respectively, th e highest establishment of th e distinguishable qua
62
lities of three Jewels is to be understood ). And also therein th e intro
ductory chapter of this Stra is known to have come to th e end 6 3 ).
Then, after th e introductory chapter of this Stra, th e Essence of
the Buddha is explained by a description of th e sixtyfold appliance as
62

) dharmaparyya, T, chos kyi rnam-gras, C. {l^


) Cf. DRS 3 c-4 d.

\ J .

64
) anyonya, T. phan-tshun, C. j ^ i 3> As J suggested, 'anyonya' had better
be connected with ' bodhisattva ' in a compound. C. seems t o omit ' prabh samdar
ana '.
85

) gocara visaya, T. spyod yul, C. <\ ~f jjf| TT .


> D R S 4 e 5 b.
67
) The reading ' upakaranat ' is to be corrected in to ' upaharanat ', according
86

to C , which tran slates it twice by JjjP & JJRj. (to give, to offer), respectively, resolving the
compound into ' anuttaradharmarja jyesthaputra upaharana ' and ' paramavairadya
upaharana ' . B u t t h i s r e so lu t i o n of t h e c o m p o u n d is n o t go o d . H e r e t h e t r a n sl a t i o n i s
a c c o r d in g t o T , e xc e p t t h e t e r m ' upaharana ' . ' . . . jyesthiputra'
m e a n i n g B o d h i sa t t va .
68

) pratibhna

( fro m P a l i patibhna,

wh i c h h a s t h e sp e c ia l m e a n i n g o f ' r e a d in e ss

in sp e e c h ' o r ' con fiden ce of sp e e c h ' , be sid e s t h e u su a l sen se of in t e llige n c e o r m a n ife st a


t io n of m i n d ) , T . spobs pa
t a l e n t of sp eec h ) .

( c o u r a ge, con fiden ce), C . ^ 1 ^ * j ^ I p J fp f XJ


4a,

69

) upanyasana ( < upa ni V as) T. ne bar bkod pa, C. / .


60
) kathvastu (subject of story), T. gtam gyi dos-po, C. om.
61

) C. om. aivarya. F or ' tat pratipatteh ', C. # P jjf fjj ^


(because of th e practice of th at Mahyna by rule).
) Cf. DRS 5 6 6 c.
w

) avasnagata, T. mthah-id (avasnatva) C. t il J ^t

[ 149 ]

( c o wa r d le ss

the

purifying

factors of t h at

Essence *>.

Because

th e Essence of the

Buddha deserves to be applied the purification, in so far as it has qualities


of an object to be purified

65)

And because of th e effect of this meaning,

in th e 10 Stages of Bodhisattva

66)

of th e purifying process of gold.

, th ere is illustrated again an analogy


I n th is Stra (the Dhranirjastra)

too, after th e description of th e Acts of th e Buddha, th e allegory of unpu


rified

Vaidrya stone is illustrated.


44

I t runs as follows 67>:

O noble youth , take for instance a skilful jewel maker who knows

quite well how to purify precious ston es.

H aving taken out an

68

69

unpurified precious stone from th e m in e ), and having washed ) it


70

71

with acid salt wat er ) , he th en polishes it by rubbin g ) with black

64
) sastykratad (=dhtu)
viuddhi gunaparikarmanirdeena.
Ab o u t ' viuddhi gunaparikarman'',
se e b e l o w.
65
) viodhye ' rthe gunavati, tad viuddhi parikarma yogt.
In comparison with ' viuddhi guna parikarrnan ' and ' buddhadhtoh sastykra
viuddhiparikarma gunh ' in S. p . 6, 1: 11, th e meaning seems as follows ' viuddhiguna '
is ' viuddhiparikarman ' of ' dhtu ' . I n other words, ' dhtu ' is ' viodhyagunavad
artha ', and hence, ' viuddhiparikarman ' is inherent to ' dhtu ' in t h e form of ' Ssty
kra viuddhiguna ' . F or ' parikarman ', T. yossu sbyo-ba (pariodhana, cleaning),

C. / A (in th e sense of ' method ', or ' appliance ') in the former two cases, and ' ^ g ' ,
in the third case (f^P* Jjp^ 4AJ |7U i fr viuddhi parikarma guna).

But in another case,

i.e. for ' parikamma ' in th e verse quoted in S. p . 6, C. translates it by ' Ypf i~r ' which
has th e same sense as T. ' yossu sbyo-ba '. After all, the most suitable translation
for this term is ' process of purification or ' appliance for purification \
68
) The significance of this ' daasu bodhisattvabhmisu' is n ot clear, C. says
instead ' i n th e D aabh m ika stra'. I t sounds better in comparison with ' asminneva
ca stre'1 in t h e n ext sentence. (Cf. Taisho, 10, 186c, 188c, etc.).
67
) D R S p . 21 c.
68

manigotra,

T . norbu rinpochehi rigs ( = maniratnagotra),

C. [j= ij]

p I' |

[ T ^ ) Cf. L a n k . p . 1,7 (ratnagotra puspapratimandite


..
.samudra malaya ikhare).
69
) uikslya i n t h e t e x t , b u t M s. B r e a d s ' unmlya \ There seems t o b e no definite
reason for changing ' unmilya ' i n t o ' utkslya'
a ga in st M s. r e a d in g. T h e m e a n i n g
of t h i s wo r d is n o d o u b t ' wa sh in g ', b u t i n t h e sp ecial sen se of ' m e t a li n g ', i. e. ' t a k i n g
d u st offi n o r d e r t o m a k e jewel o r m e t a l m a n i f e s t ' ( i n c a u sa t ive sen se) . Ast h i s ' unmilya '
is fo u n d t wic e i n M s., i t seem s r a t h e r difficult t o c o n sid er i t a s a m i st a k e . At t h e sa m e
t i m e , h o wever , we c a n n o t sa y ' unmilya ' is a bso lu t e ly c o r r e c t , u n less we find o t h e r e xa m
ples of t h e sa m e u se .
p i ^ ^ j
70
) tiksena khrodakena, T . lantshvahi chu rnon pos,
C . J^A, jglt / A ( sh a r p a sh ? )
' khra ' is a P rakrit form of Skt ' ksra ' .
71
) paryavadpanena paryavadpayati ( lit . ' makes perfectly clean by means of
purifying in st ru m en t ') , T . yos-su sbyo-bas sbyo-ba byed-do. C. J^K /TJ 3B M=x
seems to show the actual process of purification. So I adopted it in the translation.
[ 150

The

R at n a got r av ib h ga

hair cloth 7 2 ) . But with this much work, he never ceases to make
73
efforts. After t h at , having washed the stone with meat juice )
74
of bitter taste, he polishes it by rubbing with a woollen blanket ) .
Even with this much work, he never ceases to make efforts.
After
t h at , having washed it with great medical liquid 7 5 ) , he polishes it
76
with closely woven cotton cloth \ After having been polished and
77
having been separated from all impure metals mingled with it >,
it is called a precious 78) Vaidrya stone. Similarly, 0 noble youth,
the Tathgata too, having known the unpurified element of living
79)
beings
, creates disgust in the mind of those living beings who
are attached to the world of transmigration through th e teaching
of being afraid of th e non eternity, suffering, impersonality and
im purity [of this world] 8 0 ) , and causes them to enter the discipline
of the sacred D octrine. With this much of act the Buddha never
ceases to make efforts.
After t h at , he makes them realize the
guiding manner 8 1 ) of th e Tathgata by th e teaching of [the three
fold gate to th e emancipation 82\ viz.] ' non substantiality ' {n
yat), ' non distinction ' (animitta) and ' desirelessness ' (aprani
hita). Even with this much of act, the Tathgata never ceases to
make efforts. After t h at , through th e teaching of the irreversible
wheel of th e D octrine 83> and through th e teaching of the ' puri
fication of three circles ' 84>, he causes those living beings who have

72

) krsna keakambala, T. skrahi re ba (om. krsna), C. jf^ ]f| 3gc 'KC

73

) tlksa

misa rasa,

T . zaskyi

klupa rnonpo,

C. - - J- IjjC j | / J^_ + \ .

74

) khandik, T. lal gyi la ba, C, ^V\ %HI ^ ^ , 7|^ (a piece of wood covered with cloth).
)
mahvaisajyarasa.
76
) sk'sma vastra.
> * |r/A &PI 4f
77
) apagatakca
( B a h u vr h i c o m p . ) , T . drima da bralba(ni), C. J^, p]P: vE|P| jylJj
i
>
^ 3p|i[ Wft JHU " ^ 3 "5fcf A c c o r d i n g t o C , kca'
se e m s t o b e a ge n e r a l n a m e fo r
dust or piece of m etal and glass mingled within jewels.
78
) abhijta (' well b o r n ', ' b o r n i n t h e n o ble fa m ily ', ' n o ble ' ) , T . rigs chen po
75

( = mahkula),

C . y\ ^, ( = mah).

79

> sattvadhtu, C. tfe ^ f^ .


T. as usual.
' T h e se a r e c a lle d ' caturvidhviparysasamj

80

'.

vi z . S. p . 3 0 .

81

) netrl, T . tshul ( nay a), b u t C . VzC Wffl (dharmacakra).


Cf. B H S D i e . s. v .
82
) (trini vimoksamukhni).
83
)
avivartya dharmacakra.
84
) trimandala pariuddhi, T. hkhor gsum yos-su dag-pa, C. ^Y* Jj^ ,Hl ^fl- (against
the usual translation, . ^ , Jpflj Ypf r~r ) It means usually the purity of three things in donation, i.e. the giver, the receiver, and the gift, and signifies 'non-substantiality' (nyat).
[ 151 ]

J. TAKASAKI

different kinds of characteristics and origins, to enter th e sphere


of th e T ath gata. H aving entered [the sphere of th e Tath gata],
those same beings, when th ey have realized th e true n ature of
the T ath gata, are called unparalleled venerables " 8 5 ) .

gin

H aving in view this Essence of th e Tath gata, which is of pure ori


, it is said as follows:

86)

" Just as gold, though it is invisible among stones


Comes to be seen by th e process of purification,
Similarly, in this world of living beings
The Tath gata [becomes visible by purification] " .
Now,

and

sands,

which are th e sixtyfold factors of purifying process87) of the

Essence of Buddhahood?

They are, namely, (1) 4 kinds of ornam en t of

Bodhisattvas, (2) 8 kinds of illumination of Bodhisattvas, (3) 16 kinds


of Bodhisattva's great compassion, and (4) 32 kinds of

Bodhisattva's

88

deeds >.
86

) daksinlya (worthy to receive ' daksin \ i.e. gift, donation), T. yon gnas (place

of gift), C. f ffl (punya ksetra).


88
) viuddhigotra, T. yos-su dag-pahi rigs, C. y j^c Ypf r~r (as if ' prakrtipariuddhi ') .
The source of this P rakrit verse is unknown. (I t is apparently in P ali, bu t is not
found among th e present Pali Tripitaka.)
7> See above (N ote 65).
88
) According to D RS, these gunas are as follows:

1) 4 'alakras' ( ^ $ ) jf H ) : 1. ^

(lla), 2. H

(samdhi),

3 li ? 8 S (praj) & 4. Pfe J H / (dhrani). (DRS 5 6 8 b).


2) 8 ' avabhsas' jfc, H^J): 1. ^

(smrti),

2. ^

(manas),

3. -fT (cary ?),

4. * (dharma), 5. ^ (jna), 6. TJf (satya), 7. f^ i j (abhij), & 8. ^


(apratihatajna). (D RS 9 a 10 a).

3) 16 ' karuns ', by which each of t h e following ' mithys' of th e living beings
is removed: 1. 3jp J j ^ (mithy drsti),

2. JZQ MH ji] (caturvidha viparysa),

3.

" j \ ^ / | jYu (ahamkra, mamakra), 4. T l, jfa (pacavarana, i.e. rga., pratigha.,


styna middha ., auddhatya kaukrtya ., & vicikits .),
abhinivea), 6. ^ L 1 ^ (sapta mna,

5. 2J^L S\

y\

i.e. mna, adhimna, mntimnu,

(sadyatana
asmimna,

abhimna, namna & mithymna), 7. IHT 1P3. (loka mrga ?), 8. 4 ^ ^ i l l , (durgati),
9 iiii> ^ ^ (daa akualni

karmani), 10. Jjv? yj ilk W^. (avidymtsaryarga ?),

11. ignorance about th e 12 ago's of causality, 12. |

r 152 ]

/ \ ^|S ^ , (16 kinds of ' mi-

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

Immediately after this statement, there is explained the Supreme


Enlightenment of the Buddha by indicating the 16 kinds of G reat Com
a9
passion [imparted by] the Supreme Enlightenment \ N ext to this
description, there is explained the Buddha's Virtuous Qualities by the
indication of 10 Powers, 4 kinds of Intrepidity and 18 Exclusive Pro
90
perties of the Buddha ). And next, the Acts of the Buddha are explai
ned by the indication of 32 kinds of Supreme Acts of the Buddha 91>.
Thus, these 7 Vajrapadas should be understood in detail through the
indication of their own characters according to the Stra.
4.

The Inherent Connection between 7 Subjects.


And then, what is the inherent connection 9 2 ) between these subjects?
F rom the Buddha comes the D octrine,
Owing to the D octrine there is the H oly Community,
In the Community exists the M atrix, which is

thydrsti'), 13. affliction to ' tribhava\ 14. ||| (mra), 15. fj^ ^p (kma ?), 16. igno
rance about the gate to N irvana. (D RS 10 o lO c).
4) 32 acts practised by Bodhisattvas, which are the counterpart of 32 bad
behaviours of living beings. (D RS 10 c 11 6).
89

) The Supreme Enlightenment is said to be accompanied by the following 16 quali

ties, namely: 1. f f ^

3.

(uddhi nti), 2.

ft

fpf ffi (prakrtipariuddhi),

P iX, ^* "far (anudgraha, anupeks ?;, 4. Tv ^S S>v Wot {asamj, anrambana),

5. . 1^ , THT ^ * ^fJF (tryadhva samat), 6. ffPJ

% 3>P? > s | (asamskrta), 7. } y

wj i l l (nirvikalpa-padrtha), 8. A* ^J f^

(anabhilpya), 9. ^

^X $ j |

(3E I ) (apratisthita), 10. 5 * (nya), 11. jtfif ^ ^ (kavat), 12. _g|. "Q^ ^ J

pado), 13. #

^ #

(safya

$\ >(M ffl te f^) (animitta akrtrima ?), 14. ^

tf% ( ^ 0T ^ ) (ansrava, etc.), 15. <^C H^ "^Li ^

Jg M

^ i oF (nti, prabh, arana?),

16. (?) (D RS 11 b 14 a) (Chinese terms in brackets are taken from y^, Jj5^ flbc*
Taisho, 8, pp. 422 a 425 a).
H ere the reason why these qualities are called ' mahkarun ' is t h at they are inse
parable from ' mahkarun ' and Buddha's Enlightenment realizes itself in the form
of the acts of ' mahkarun \

Cf. DRS 11 b, " ^

_L ^

SI ^

^ C S S . JU

. f^ ^f |(l3 TST 7J Jv'J " (The Supreme Enlightenment and the G reat Compassion,
these two are equal and undistinguishable from each other).
9
) See Chap. IV (I I I ).; D R S 14 c 21 c (there is no description of the 32 Mahpuru
salaksana in D RS).
91
) D RS 26 6 27 b. Each of the 32 ' karman's is indistinct.
82
) anulesa ( < anu \ / lis), T. hbrel pa ( = sambandha), C. ^ V Jfv (anu krama).
The use of ' anulesa ' seems to be quite rare. BH S D ie. records only the form of ' aim

[ 153 ]

J. TAKASAKI

The element of Wisdom, aiming at its acquisition 9 3 ) ;


Its acquisition of the Wisdom is the Supreme Enlightenment,
Which is endowed with the Qualities, 10 Powers and others,
And accompanied by altruistic Acts for all living beings./ / 3/ /
Finished [the explanation of] the relation between each subject in
the text 94>.
lista ' (ppp.) found in Mahvastu, iii 71 14. viz. BH S D i e , s. v. C. takes it merely
to show the order of succession between each subject and uses, in each case, the ablative
for the preceding one. But it is n ot agreeable. Therefore, the reading ' saghe ' in the
text, though against T. & C. is quite correct.
93
) ' jna dhtu ptinistha '. F or ' nistha ', T. mthar. (' pti nistha ' seems to
mean 'havin g (jna)pti as the en d '. I n comparison with it, 'jnadhtu' seems to
mean ' garbha ', which is indicated by ' tad ' in the next line. C. reads as ' saghd
apratihatadhtuh ( }$$ ijU X ) , dhtor jnam ' and om. ' jnadhtvptinistha ' &
* agrabodhi '. (Supreme Enlightenment)
94
) strasambandha. F or sambandha, T. hbrel pa, C. y . g^ <g + Q (dharmrthasvalaksana ?).

L 1541

II.

TH E JE WE L OF TH E BU D D H A

H ereafter we should explain th e meaning of Slokas (basic verses) x).


Those living beings who were lead by the Tathgata, while taking
their refuge in th e Tathgata, also take refuge in th e D octrine and
2
Community through th e faith as th e natural outflow of the Reality ).
Therefore, first of all, there is one loka with regard to th e Jewel of The
Buddha.
(Krik 1)
I bow to th e one, who has realized 3) the Buddhahood 4>
Which has neither beginning, middle nor end, and is quiescent,
And who, having realized himself, taught th e P ath,
Fearless and eternal, in order to enlighten th e ignorant 5\
And who, having in hand th e excellent sword and thunderbolt
Of Wisdom and Mercy, cuts in pieces 6> all sprouts of Sufferings,
And breaks th e wall of doubts 7) concealed
s
In th e forest of various views \ // 4 //
*) The word loka has a strict use in this text, especially in Chap. I . I t is used mostly
in case of certain verses which I picked up as the basic verses. I n I . Introduction, it is
clear, there is no loka, though we have 3 ' verses ' . Sloka or K rik text starts with
the following verse (v. 4). H ereafter I shall use th e Sanskrit word loka without translation
when it indicates the basic verses. About a detailed discussion on the basic verses, see
my Introduction .
2)

dharmatnisyandbhiprasdena, T. chos~id-kyi rgyu-mihun-pahi dva-ba, C. -ff^-

TIX ^Q ^ ^ (respecting the Tathgata). For abhiprasda, P ali, abhippasda, T. dva-ba,


dvas-pa (purity, faith, trust). Cf. SMS 221 a, where emphasis lies on the 'ekaaranat'
of t h e B u d d h a . S e e a lso V. The three jewels as refuges.
3)
vibuddha, ' o n e wh o h a s e n ligh t e n ed ' .
4)

buddhatva, T . sas-rgyas-id,
C. jjjjj * - .
> abudha (BHS), = S k t . abuddha.
6)
ekacchid, both T. & C omit eka.

' vimati, T. the-tshom (doubt), C. ljy|{ |3tjj Jf^, (viparyasta-mati, wrong view).

8>

C. reads this passage as follows

" and breaks the wrong view and all forests

[of defilements] {<yfy iy%) concealed in the mountain of various views " .

[ 155 ]

J.

TAKASAKI

1. The Eightfold Quality of the Buddhahood.


What is shown by this [loka]?
Being immutable, free from efforts
And not being dependent upon the others,
[Also] Being endowed with Wisdom, Compassion and [superna
tural] Power [imparted by both],
The Buddhahood has two kinds of benefit. // 5 //
By this verse there has been briefly explained the Buddhahood as
being contracted by eight qualities. Which are the 8 qualities? N amely,
1) Immutability (asamskrtatva), 2) being free from any effort (anbhogat),
3) Enlightenment, not dependent on others (aparapratyaybhisambodhi)9\
4) Wisdom (jna), 5) Compassion (karun) 10\ 6) [supernatural] power
(akti), 7) fulfilment of self benefit (svrthasampad), and 8) fulfilment of
benefit for others (parrthasampad)11).
As having neither beginning, middle nor end by nature,
It is immutable;
Being the body of quiet character,
It is free from any effort, thus remembered by tradition // 6 //
Being realized by oneself12^.
It is cognizable without any help of others;
Thus awakened in a threefold way, it is Wisdom,
Because of preaching the way, it is Compassion. // 7 //
It is Power because of destroying
Suffering and Defilements by Wisdom and Compassion;
By the first three qualities, benefit for oneself,
And by the latter three, benefit for others [is indicated]. // 8 //
1) asamskrta: The word i immutable' {asamskrta) should be understood as being opposite to being conditioned or caused (samskrta)lsK Here
9)

aparapratyayodita in the verse.


* krunya in t h e verse.

10

n )

Translations of these 8 qualities in T. & C. are as follows:


1) hdus ma-byas-pa-id, -7re? >w\j H a 2) Ihun-gyis-grub-pa,

gyi rkyen-gyis mon-par rtogs-pa ma yin-pa, -^I"* f^


r e

fv 3) gshan-

'|{j^ y\\ ; 4) ye es, ^

; 5) thugs

J i ^\S> 6) nus pa, j \ ; 7) ra-gi don phun-sum tshogs-pa, {3 ^*'J ^gt 8) gshan-gyi

don phun-sum

tshogs-pa, 'ftji >r'J nfc.

12)

pratytmam

13)

samskrta, T. hdus-byas-pa, C. ^

adhigamya,

C. p ^

' J .

>w

[ 156 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

'being conditioned' (saniskrta) means the thing, of which origination, last


ing, as well as destruction 14> are conceivable. Because of the absence of
these characteristics, th e Buddhahood should be seen as having neither
beginning, middle nor end, and being represented as the immutable Ab
solute Body.
2) anbhoga: I t is free from efforts because all dualistic views15)
and false discriminations 16> have ceased to exist.
3) aparapratyaybhisambodhi: It is 4 enlightened without any help
of others ' (aparapratyayodaya) because it is realized through one's innate
knowledge. Here the word ' udaya' means 4 perfect enlightenment '
(abhisambodha), in which the sense 'origination' is implied17). Thus,
as being Tathgata, though it is immutable and of the characteristic of
non activity, the whole action of the Perfectly Enlightened One proceeds
without an y effort, ceaselessly and uninterruptedly as far as the world
exists18>.
4) Jna, 5) karun, & 6) akti: Thus, not having heard the Bud
dhahood, which is a quite marvellous and unthinkable sphere, from some
body else, but having perfectly cognized its unutterable nature 4 by one
se lf (svayam), i.e. by means of self born knowledge which needs no tea
14

' utpda, T. skyeba, C. ^T*: ; sthiti, T . gnaspa, C. p ; and bhaga, T. hjigpa,

C. ^ ^ , respectively. Sometimes, inserting anyathtva (C. JP) between sthiti and bhaga,
we count 4 characteristics of samskrta. Cf. Abhidharmakoa. I I . 45 and comm. H ere,
these 3 are implied th e beginning, middle and end, as in the loka.
16
) prapaca (Pali papaca), T. spros-pa, C. ^f) pffij T. shows merely a literal translation of the term prapaca (pra-\/pac or -Vpane, to spread out, to enlarge). But,
in Buddhist thought, this term signifies ' pluralistic view '. i.e. a view, by which the one
entity is regarded as plural, manifold ( = prapaca-vacana) and not ' t h e phenomenal
world ' as in the Vednta philosophy. C. means literally 'frivolous t a lk' , which shows
almost the exact sense of this Buddhist term . That is to say, from the Buddhist point
of view, any pluralistic view is considered as a false view. In the Buddhist texts, the term
is usually accompanied by vikalpa.
16

) vikalpa, T. mam par rtog pa, C. JM. "3 ^ 7} ZrJ (sometimes only '/ J ArJ )
) T . r e a d i n g " odaya ni hdir mon-par-rtogs~pa-la
hdod-kyi, skye-ba-la
ni ma
yin-no " means " here the word ' udaya ' is to be understood in the sense of ' abhisambodha ' and not in the sense of ' utpda ' ", as O tran slated. Though it is not a literal
tran slation of Skt, it catches the significance quite well. 'Kyi' of 'hdod kyi' in the above
sentence is a conjunction of two clauses, showing an opposite sense between them .
(udaya, utpda = tathgatotpatti, by which is meant originally the acquisition of
Enlightenment by Skyamuni. Cf. P ali AN . I , 13. Ekapuggala vaggo.)
17

18
) samsrakoteh,
C . ^R v > p I " > N (from t h e be gin n in gle ss p a st ) . Cf. S. p . 32,
1. 4 ( samsrt), p . 79, 1. 17 ( bhavagateh), p . 88, 1. 4 a n d p . 113, 1. 4 ( a bhavasthiteh),
p . 112, 1.9 ( bhavgratah).

[ 157 ]

J , TAKASAKI

ch er 1 9 ) , an d, with respect to his comprehension, in order to enlighten


20
the others too, who are ignorant > and blind by birth, [the Buddha]
21)
has preached
th e path to follow22) th at [Buddhahood]. Therefore,
[the Buddha] should be understood as being endowed with the supreme
Wisdom and Compassion. The fearlessness (abhayatva) of P ath is due
to its transcendency. The transcendency is due to its never again being
turned back. With respect to their abolition of th e roots of others'
Suffering (duhkha) and Defilement (klea), the power (akti) of Wisdom
and of Compassion of the Tathgata, is explained by means of the
examples of sword and thunderbolt, respectively. Of these, the root of
Suffering is, in short, one kind of origination of Individuality 23) (nma
24
rpa) on th e [three] existences ). The root of Defilement is anything
25
26
which is based on th e prejudice ) to the individual existence ), i.e.
27
wrong view and doubt ). H ere, the Suffering, as being contracted in
the Individuality, should be regarded as having the state of sprout because
of its character of origination. As having the character of cutting it,
it should be known th at the Buddha's power of both Wisdom and Com
passion is illustrated by an example of sword. The Defilement, which
is contracted in wrong view and doubt and is to be destroyed by th e P ath
of true perception, is difficult to be understood and hardly to be over
come by means of mundane knowledge. Thence, it is akin to the wall
concealed by a thick forest. As having th e character of breaking, it
should be known th at Buddha's Power of both Wisdom an d Compassion
is illustrated by an example of thunderbolt.
19

) ancryaka

( P a l i ancaryaka),

T . slob dpon

med pa,

C . ^i^ $ p i P p f ] .

C f. P a l i

M N vo l. 1, p . 171 ( r ya p a r i ye sa n a su t t a ) .
20
) abudha = S. abuddha.
21
22

) vyupadea
) anugmin,

( B H S ) ( p e r h a p s a wr o n g fo r m fo r S k t . vyapadea), T . stonpa, C . j/ .
T . rjes su rtogs pa ( = anubodha),
C . r e a d s i n st e a d ' anuttara '.

23

) nmarpa, T . mire dagzugs, C. ^ J ^ . ' m e n t a l e l e m e n t s a n d m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s ,


by which the individuality is distinguished from each other ' , ' nma ' means the 4
skandhas other than irpa\ therefore, nmarpa is a synonym of pacaskandhh.
24
25

) bhavh T . srid rnams pa,


C . ZZ. ^= J ( t r i b h a va ) .
) abhinivea (Pali abhinivesa), false opinion, superstition, T. mon-par en pa,

c IE.
26

) satkya ( P . sakkya),

T.hjig tshogs(&

c o llec t io n p e r ish a ble ) , C . ^pj }", p h ysic a l

bo d y.
2?

) T h e r e a r e 4 kin d s of ' kleas ' wh ic h a r e c au sed b y t h e wr o n g d isc r im in a t io n


a n d a r e t o p e r ish b y darana mrga.
T h e y a r e mithydrsti,
drsti parmara,
lavra
taparmara a n d vicikits.
saikyadrsti is, o n t h e c o n t r a r y, a n i n n a t e d efilem en t , a n d
is t o p e r i sh b y bhvan mrga.

[ 158 3

Th e

fi 2.

Reference to t h e

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a

Jnloklakrastra.

Thus, the six qualities of the Tathgata mentioned above should be


understood by this very order 28> and wdth detailed and analytical expla
nation, according to the Sarvabuddhavisayvatrajnloklarnkrastra29\
In th at Stra, it is said as follows:
" O Manjur , he who is of no origination or destruction is
(i.e. has the epithets) the Tathgata, the Arhat, the Perfectly En
lightenend One " 3).
By this, first of all, it is explained th at the Tathgata is of immu
table character. And immediately after this, by nine illustrations beginn
ing with the illustration of a reflection of the Indra on the surface of an
immaculate Vaidrya ston e 31 ), with reference to this very meaning of
the Tathgata's being neither originated nor destructed, it is said as
follows 3 2 ) :
" Thus, Majur , the Tathgata, the Arhat, the Perfectly Enlighte
ned One neither moves nor produces any thought 33>, neither ex
plains in a dualistic way34 ) nor imagines falsely nor discriminates.
35
He is unimaginable, indiscriminative, devoid of thinking > and
28

) nuprvl (anuprvi?),
P a li, anupubb .
T . go rims.
Cf. S. p . 3 1, 1. 7: hetv
nupurvy (M s. B anu). See B H S D ie. s.v.
29
) We have 3 translations of this stra in the Chinese Tripitaka :

(D harmaruci), (501 A. >.), Taisho, N o. 357 (12, p . 239 250 a); 2) j j

" Q J

t f ff ft ?- IH tf . M tr. by ff" -fJO I g H (Samghabhadra)& c. (511-520


A. D.), Taisho No. 358 (12, p. 250 a-253 c); 3) " j ^ fft ^ C ^

^3 ^t H^| rf M M tr. by S

nS

&c

- (

t h e l l t h cent

A
D

- -)> Taisho, No. 359

(12, p. 253 c-265 b). Of them, the simplest edition is 2), which seems to show the original
type of this stra. H owever, the 9 illustrations on the Buddha's Acts utilized in the
Ratna. are partly lacking in 2), hence hereafter the equivalency in C. will be shown
according to 1) (abbr. JA).
3
) C. JA, 240 b.
31
> About the 9 illustrations, see Chap. IV (S. p . 99 ff.).
32
) JA, 240 c.
33
) The term ' vithapati ' is to be corrected into ' vithapeti ', as a hybrid form
of vithapayati, Caus. of Skt. vi\ )sth. so, T. sems par byed pa, C.
1. 1. vithapyante, 1. 2. vithapit, vithapan.
34
) prapacayati.
See N o t e 1 1 - 1 5 .
35

> T . bsam-du
med-pa ( = acintya),
should b e i n s e r t ed after ' acitta '.

P ^ p P u *] . Cf. S. p. 49,

C. A ^ J vV JS> ^ ^ B ^ ' a c m i y a '

[ 159 ]

minding, of quiescent character, of neither origination nor destruc


tion. H e cannot be seen, or heard, or smelt, or tested, or touched
and has no characteristic remark, has neither making known nor
being made known. " and so forth.
Such is the explanation of various kinds of aspects of quiescence 36>.
By this it is indicated th at, in his own acts, all dualistic views and false
discriminations have ceased to exist; hence, the Tathgata is free from
efforts.
After this, i.e. after th e explanation of [nine] illustrations, there is
explained by the remaining texts the Tathgata's perfect enlightenment
realized without an y help of others with respect to all the gates to the
Perfect Enlightenment of the real nature of all elements37>.
And after this, with reference to the Tathgata's 16 kinds of En
ightenment 3 8 \ it is said as follows39> :
44

There, O Majur , as soon as the Tathgata has enlightened


all the elements of such a nature and has observed the essential
4
nature of all living beings as impure ' ' not removing stains ' and
4
blemished ', the Creat Compassion named 4 mastery ' sets in forth
on all living beings ".
By this the Tathgata's possession of Supreme Wisdom and Com
passion is demonstrated. There, " all th e elements of such a nature "
means * [all the elements, having th e nature] as has been said before ',
i.e. the character of non existence 40>. H aving enlightened " means
4
having known truly by means of Buddha's non discriminative Wisdom \
44
4
Of [all] living beings " means of those [living beings] who are in th e
36

) upaamaprabhedapradea,

T . ebar shibahi tshiggi rabtu dbyeba

(== upa-

amaabda prabheda
? ) , C . /fc5 i ^ ^c, / 7'J ^ZL T O (
upaama prabheda laksana).
H e r e ' pradea ' se e m s t o m e a n ' a sp e c t ' (visaya o r gocara).
37
) C. regards ' sarvataihatbhisambodhamukhesu ' as a quotation, which is equivalent to JA, 247 6.
38
> Cf. N ote 1 89.

> JA, 2476. m


* ^ f t
ID VS W M tfe M IA % a %. M !S >l>. .. -observing the nature
of all living beings, sets forth the Compassion which is 'pure', 'immaculate', 'not
blemished ' and ' mastery'), The former 3 epithets are translated in an opposite way,
but it is probably a wrong translation.
40

) ' abhva svabhvt * in th e text should be corrected to

by accepting T. reading *dos-po med-pahi o-bo-id-du


to * nirdistn ' .

[ 160 ]

' abhvasvabhvn',

(Acc.)-ho ' as an apposition

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

state of conformed [in right way] (niyata ), unconformed (aniyatar ) and


wrongly conformed (mithy niyata ) groups (ri) '. " Essential nature
(dharmadhtu) " 4 1 ) means 4 the M atrix of th e Tathgata, which is n ot
different from his own quality by nature ' 4 2 ) . " H aving observed "
i
means having perceived all kinds (i.e. impure, etc.) through the Buddha's
43)
i
eye to which nothing is obscure' . " Impure (auddha) " means [impure
nature] of the ignorant and common people ' because of obstruction caused
by Moral Defilement (klesvarana). " N ot removing stains (avimala) "
means *[stainful nature] of the ravkas and Pratyekabuddhas ' because
of obstruction on account of knowable things (jeyvarana). " Blemished
(sgana) " 44) means ' [blemished nature] of Bodhisattvas ', because of
[their] retaining [the impression of] one of both [obstructions] 45>. [The
Compassion is ** named] mastery (vikr dit) " 46> because it enters well into
the gates of accomplished means of training in various ways (vividh) 47>.
" The great Compassion sets forth on all living bein gs", because [the
Buddha], having realized 4 8 ) the characteristics of all living beings through
41

) T. chos kyi dbyis, C. J/C j3 in the quotation (instead of the usual ' ^ -^r ').

But here C. has ' fj^ Jf"' ' along with ' ' ij^ [, fZC B S ' (dharmat, dharmasva
bhva ? ) .
42
) (sattvnm) dharmadhtu
svadharmat prakrtinirviista tathgatagarbha.
43
) C . e xp la i n s t h e wo r d s fr o m ' sarvasattvnm ' t o ' avalokya ' t o ge t h e r .
44

) T . skyon-da

45

bcas-pa,

C. ^ J j S p cf. B H S . D i e . agana,

sgana,

s.v.

) Instead of ' tadubhayniyatama viistay ' in the text, the reading should be

' tadubhaynyatamvaistatay'. F or 'avaistat'1

(remained), T. lhag ma, and C. ' "p |

^ \ ^ ' shows nearly the same meaning.


46
> T. rnam par brtse ba, in stead of the usual mam par rol pa, (brtse ba = sneha
[affection], hence the whole means ' takin g compassion in various ways ' ?). On the
contrary C. translates it by ' || Tiiy ', which is usually equivalent to ' vijrmbhita ' (mani
festation of the Buddha's power). The term vikrldita is often used in the sense of ' having
perfect mastery ' in BH S as E . mentioned (e. g. trivimoksamukhavikrdito, Lalitavistara).
Here, being an epithet or an apposition to ' karun ', the feminine form is used.
47
) T h e r e a d in g of t h i s p a ssa ge is r a t h e r o b vio u s. T h e r e is n o e xa c t c o n c o r d a n c e
b e t we e n S., T . & C . T h e prefix ' vi ' is i n t e r p r e t e d b y ' vividh',
i n c o m m o n wi t h
S., T . & C , b u t T . c o n n e c t s t h i s 'vividh'
t o ' m u M a ' a n d C . u ses t h i s wo r d t wic e , o n c e
c o n n e c t in g t o ' upya' a n d i n t h e seco n d c a se , t o ' mukha'.
O n t h e c o n t r a r y, S. c o n n e c t s
it t o ' supravista ' . F o r ' vinayopya \ b o t h T . & C . r e a d a s ' vineyopya '. B u t t h e r e
seem s t o b e n o t so m u c h differen ce b e t we e n b o t h t e r m s as t o t h e i r sen se. Cf. S. v. I V 1
' vineyadhtau vinaybhyupye
' . C. t r a n sl a t i o n of t h i s p a ssa ge r u n s a s follows:
" I t is ' vikr dit ' b e c a u se [ t h e B u d d h a ] , h a vi n g k n o wn ( = sampanna ?) t h e va r io u s
m e a n s b y wh i c h livin g be in gs a r e t o b e c o n ve r t e d , e n t e r s t he va r io u s ga t e s of that
m ean s ".
48
) T h e r e a d in g ' abhisambuddhabodheh
' i n t h e t e xt is doubtful. T. moT-par
rdsogs-

J.

1AJ4.AS5AK.I

equality 49), ^ a s t n e intention to lead [the living beings] to the acquisition of thei o w n nature 50). After this, i.e. having aroused the supreme
Wisdom an Compassion, [the Buddha] has no relaxation of activity
for effectuatag t n e setting in motion of the Wheel of unparalleled Doctrine.
This [activif] should be known as ' power ' of both [Wisdom and Compassion] in egard of acting for the sake of others.
7) St7riasa]r?ljPa<^ & 8) parrthasampad: Here, of these six qualities
of the Tatbg ata > according to order [the quality] connected with the
first three ualities, immutable, etc. is 4 the fulfilment of self-benefit'
(svrthasamfd), and [the quality connected with] the remaining three,
Wisdom, et( *s ' t n e fulfilment of benefit for others ' (parrthasampad).
Besides [thee *s another meaning]. By the word ' Wisdom ', the fulfilment of sef"k enent *s designated, in so far as the highest, eternal and
cruiescent plPe 51^ n a s the character of being the basis of his own perfect
enlightenmei By the words ' Compassion ' and ' Power ', the fulfilment
of benefit fo others is designated, because of their character of being the
basis for set*ng forth the Wheel of the highest and greatest Doctrine.
par bya-chub'as

na

(abhisambodheh), C. seems to have a double expression ' fjg

-4^ . i & ' p.t it is not certain whether it is the translation of this terin or that of
a

ea

' adhie:amaprpi ' O d s to the acquisition), because there is another expression *JJ5C
4^ ;. J [J', a e r ' tuahkarun iti\
' i!i> wC *^~

' ^

orc

er

t 0

'

o r

and ' ^gjf y^,

f^ ' Jg ' seems to be connected with

having intention to) as an apposition to ' 3U 7

lF AO ' ( t o enghten the same as the Buddha, i.e. to enlighten the H ighest Enlightne
ment). If so, ' 3. / v r f 4/ E ' *s m e r e ly an interpreting word by the Chinese translator.
And even if wc*1006?* t n e double expression, still it is better to be ' abhisambodhi
buddhy '.
49) samata1, id., the equality, or th e lack of differencp (nirviistat) between the
Buddha himsel n d all sattvas. See, N ote 11 42, VI I
I. Cf. The Tathgatagar
bhastra the Thgatopattisambhavanirdea (Avat S).
so) _ r e a c the whole passage as follows:
" ' mah5!>rui} ' [signifies] t h at , having attained the G reat Enlightenment,
[the Buddhal o l " n s t n e G reat Compassion equally for all living beings with intention
to make living eings realize what the Buddha did, i.e. to make them enlighten the
G reat E n ligh t eJ i e n t < Therefore, [it is called ' mahkarun ' ] . " I t seems C. takes
' svadharmat ' i ' Buddha's own n at u re', i.e. the Enlightenment.
51

) paramatyopantipada,
signifies ' nirvn

C. _5f?

* <g)C pf" ft^

[ 162 ]

?.

U sually,

upantipada

I I I . THE JEWEL OF THE DOCTRINE

Now, from th e Jewel of th e Buddha, there arises the Jewel of the


D octrine. Therefore, immediately after [the explanation of] th e former,
we have one loka concerning the latter.

(Krik 2).
I bow before th e sun of the D octrine,
Which is neither non being nor being,
N or both being and non being together,
And neither different from being nor from non being X);
Which cannot be speculated upon and is beyond explanation,
But revealed [only] by introspection 2> and is quiescent;
And which, with rays of light of th e immaculate Wisdom,
D estroys passion, hatred 3) and darkness4)
with respect to all the basis of cognition 5 ). // 9 //
lj

This alternative proposition is called ' catuskotik\


Cf. Madhyamaka-krik
I, 7, Mahynastrlakra VI, 1, Lakvatra p. 122, J. 4 8, etc.
2)
pratytmavedya ( = pratytmavedan ya in comm.), T. so so ran gyis rig ( par

bya ba),C.fa i|> fcj . W ? .


3)

dosa (BH S for Skt. dvesa, P ali dosa), T. sda(-ba) (she-sda).


' timira, T., rab-rib. It means doctrinally the ignorance, moha or avidy. So

^ / JiE (moha). But, in comparison with the simile of th e sun, what is to be destroyed is
timira (the sun is often referred to by such terms as timiracchid, timiranana, timiranud,
timiraripu, timirri, etc., cf. M. W. Skt. Dictionary, s.v.) and C. flji |*Jp. seems to show
this sense.
5)

rambana (ramvana in the text is probably a misprint) (BH S fr. P ali ram

mana Skt. lambana), T. dmigs pa, C. ^ J ||} or _!? pip. j^ S f$t ? C. translation is
curious. ' 3fT| | P J ' means usually ' vitarka vicra ' and I could n ot trace th e use of
' j|? j H it' for 'rambana' in other texts. But, viz. N ote VI 70 (for cittrambana,C 'li*

fft

a t SB) and XVII-187 (for ' nirlamba', C. ^


C 163 ]

( ) . The present transla

J . TAJK.ASAKI

1. Eightfold Quality of the D octrine 6>.


What is shown by this loka?
Because of its being unthinkable, non dual,
and being non discriminative,
And because of its pureness, manifestation and hostility;
The D octrine, which is D eliverance and also
by which arises D eliverance
Has th e characteristics of th e two Truth s. // 10 //
By this verse, in brief, the Jewel of the D octrine is explained as being
contracted by eight qualities. Which are the eight qualities? They are
1) unthinkability (acintyatva), 2) non duality (advayat), 3) non discri
minativeness (nirvikalpat), 4) purity, (uddhi), 5) [being] manifest
(abhivyaktikarana), 6) hostility [against obstacles] (pratipaksat), 7)
Deliverance [from passions] (virga), and 8) cause of D eliverance
(virgahetu) 7 ) .
tion is according to T. The C. translation for th e whole line runs as follows:
" D estroys several kinds of darkness (H_5, 1 ^)* i>

researching and investiga

tion (jSjjJ pt) [by discriminative mind], passions, hatred and ignorance, and all [other]
defilements " .

_,,

?^ pip.' seems to be equivalent to vibandha ',

and ' j^lj ||p' to vikalpa or ayoniomanasikra, and C. tran slation is more understan
dable than S.
About the use of th e term ' rambana ', see below (N ote 111 39). Cf. BH S D ie.
s. v. (rambana
6)

&

lambana).

Cf. Buddhagotrastra

( B G ) 801 b ff. ( u n d e r C h a p .

I V, [V] vrtti,

wh e r e t h e se

8 categories are explained as the qualities of th e Buddha's ' rayaparivrtti ' ) .


7)
Terms in v. 10 and tran slation s of these 8 in T. & C , as well as in BGS are as
follows:
1) acintya, bsam du med-pa-id,
2) advaya,

gis-su

med-pa-id,

pa med-pa-id, 7>f 73

'i*

yf^

"pT* {B |fe fRP

. (BGS -7H

*V

,); 3) niskalpa, rnam-par rtog-

[A7'Jj; 4) uddhi, dag pa, ^p", (BG ^ ^

par gsal-bar (byed-pa), ^TJj' M R ^ ^ / (BGS ) j ^

/ T^ U T

^ ") ; 5) vyakti, mon-

A| ) 6) vipaksa gen-pohi phyogs-

id, 3EJ j p , 3E>|; 7) yo virgah, hdod chags da bral-ba, pjfl: ^ ^ (BGS pgjt ^ ) , &
8) yena virgah, hdod chags da bral-bahi rgyu, pgfl: |AJ (BGS
BG 8016.

[ 164 ]

^ ^

f\

|2si). Cf.

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

2. Nirodha satya and Mrga satya.


8

D eliverance ) is summarized
In both truth s, Extinction and P ath ,
9)
Which are each to be known
By three qualities according to order. // 11 //
Of these six qualities, by th e first three qualities, i.e. unthinkabi
lity, non duality and non discriminativeness, the Truth of Extinction is
explained. F rom this [explanation] it should be known th at the D eli
verance [itself] is contracted. And by th e remaining three qualities,
i.e. purity, manifestation and hostility, th e Truth of P ath is explained,
and from this, it should be known th at th e cause of D eliverance is con
tracted. " That which is D eliverance " means [the D octrine, as] th e
Truth of Extinction, and " by which arises the D eliverance " means ' by
[the D octrine as] the Truth of P ath . ' H aving joined these two together 10>,
it is explained, ' being of the nature of D eliverance (virgadharma)u ) '
12
means ' having characteristic of th e two purifying Truths >.
3. The D octrine as the Truth of Extinction.
Because of its being beyond speculation and explanation,
13
And because of its being the knowledge of Saints >,
U nthinkability [of the D octrine should be known];
8)

' virgit ', t h e s t a t e of b e i n g virgin

( o n e wh o is p a ssio n le ss) .

T . ' [hdod ]chags

[dan] bral[-ba]-id
' seems e q u i v a l e n t t o ' virgat \ C . ' pjjft a lso sh o ws n o t h i n g sp e c ia l.
T h e m e a n i n g o f t h i s wo r d is sh o wn b e lo w b y t h e t e r m ' virgadharma ', wh i c h is t h e
c o m m o n n a t u r e o f b o t h ' nirodhasatya ' & ' mrgasatya '. H e n c e ' vi r ga t ' se e m s h e r e a
more n at u ral form th an ' virgit '.
9)
The reading ' ete ' in th e text should be understood in the sense ' ybhym nirodha
tnrgasatybhym .. . te (ete) veditavye '. C. tran slates ' nirodhamrgasatybhym ' as
the subject, and takes ' samgrhita ' as active voice. Consequently there is no difficulty
in C. reading.
10)

abhisamasya

( gr . o f abhi sam ^as),

T . mnon par

bsdus

te, C . ' Q " . . . .

llj

C. pij| f S This is an interpretation of the word ' virgit ' (or virgat) in v. 11.
See above.
12)
vyavadna satyadvaya laksana, T. rnam par bya-bahi bden-pa gis-kyi mtshanid, C. f^p* fZC
- vff iyn ' vyavadnasatyadvaya ' means ' th e 2 satyas concerned with
purification ' i.e. nirodhasatya and mrgasatya, and is opposite to ' duhkhasatya ' and
' samudayasatya ', which are, in their turn , to be termed ' samkleasatyadvaya \
13

' rya, T. hphags pa, C. ^3 ^gf .

[ 165 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Because of quiescence it is non dual and non discriminative,


And three [qualities], purity etc., are akin to th e sun. // 12 //
1) acintyatva: U nthinkability of th e Truth of Extinction, in short,
should be known by three causes. By which three? Because, 1) it is not
a sphere of speculation even by four categories [of existence] 1 4 \ i.e non
being, being, being and non being together, and neither being nor non being;
2) it cannot be explained by an y sound, voice, speech, way of speech,
15
explanation, agreed term, designation, conversation [and so forth] >;
and 3) it is to be revealed by th e introspection of Saints.
2) advayat & 3) nirvikalpat. How should here be understood non
duality an d non discriminativeness of t h e Truth of Extinction? I t is
16)
taught by t h e Lord as follows :
l7)

" O riputra, quiescen t is this Absolute Body [ofthe Buddha],


18
having th e nature > of being non dual and non discriminative ".
H ere, 4 dual ' (dvaya) 19) means ' action ' or ' active force ' (karman), [as
20)
i
by deed, word and thought] '
and ' Defilement (Mesa); discrimination
21
(vikalpa) means 'I rration al Thought (ayoniomanasikra)' ) which is th e
cause of origination of Action and Defilements. By knowing deeply th at
14

) So called ' catuskotik ' .

16>

See above.

ruta, T. sgra (= abda), C. 5= p ; ravita (artificial sound), T. skad ( = bhs),C 2gp

(echo ?);ghosa, T. brjod pa ( = vacana), C. ^\

; vkpatha, T. ag-gi yul, C. - ^ ; nirukti,

T. e-tshig, C. _EpL ; samketa, T. brda, C. ^ J ; vyavahra, T. tha-sad, C. ^*H g / j j;


abhilpa, T. mon-par brjod-pa, C. "pEt m , respectively. Equivalency t o each term
in C. is n ot sure. About th e etymology of ' vyavahra', see N ote VI I I (I X) A 61.
16)
AAN 467 b, ( B G a lso q u o t e s t h i s se n t e n c e ) .
17)

iva, C . Vpf i 5 > ^ u t T . hgog pa ( = nirodha), p e r h a p s i n t h e sen se t h a t ' iva *


is an epithet of ' nirodha ' .
18)
dharman (ifc). I n another passage, th e sam e sentence is quoted changing * dhar
m ' into ' dharmatay '. (S. p. 44,1. 14). I t seems to be th e original reading an d is prefe
rable here.
19>

" m ^1 ^

Z2 ITS I S ^

H (what are two, of which is taught ' non

dual'?).
20)

See belo w ( S. p . 13, 1. 7 ff.). Cf. P T S D i e (' kamma ' ) . Wh e n e ve r


'karman1
a n d ' klea ' a r e m e n t io n e d sid e b y sid e, t h e fo r m er signifies t h e a c t u a l deed b y bo d y,
word a n d t h o u gh t , of wh ic h t h e c a u se is ' klea'.
B u t i n t h e r e la t io n t o ' janman ', i. e.
t h e n e xt b ir t h , 'karman'
is t h e c a u se of 'janman'
( o r bhava). I n t h i s sen se ' k a r m a n '
sh o u ld be r e ga r d e d a s t h e ' a c t ive force ', so m e kin d of en er gy a n d h a s a sen se sim ila r
t o ' samskra '.
21)

T. tshul bshin ma yin pa yid la byed pa, C. ?R ^

( 4 ^] H S

1H ). As

for its being a cause of Defilements and Actions, see S. p. 13 and p. 42, 1. 10 ff.

[ 166 ]

The

R a t n a got r a v i b h ga

this I rrational thought is extinct by n ature, consequently, there is no ori


gination of duality and discrimination; for this reason there is absolutely
no origination of Suffering.
This is called the Truth of Extinction of
Suffering.
I t should never be explained t h at , because of extinction of
something, it is [called] the Truth of Extinction of Suffering.
I t is said
as follows 22>:
44

O Majur , in case there is neither origination nor extinction,


mental actions as mind, intellect and consciousness never take
23)
place . Wherever no mental action takes place, there is no false
imagination by which th ey would thin k irrationally. One who
applies himself with rational thought never makes Ignorance arise.
N on arising of Ignorance means non arising of the Twelve P arts
of Existence (dvdaa bhavga) 24>. It is called 4 non birth(ajfti) 2 5 ) . ' "
and so forth.
Also said [in th e scripture] 26).
44

O Lord, extinction of Suffering does n ot mean th e disappea


rance of element. By th e term , 4 Extinction of Suffering ' , O
Lord, there is designated the Absolute Body of the Tathgata
27
which is beginningless >, immutable, of no birth, non originated,
of no destruction, free from destruction, eternal, constant, quie
scent, everlasting28), purified by n ature, released from covering of
22

> JA 247 a. Cf. AS (beginning of Chap. I I , p . 469 b) BG quotes t h e first sen


tence from AS and regards t h e remaining as its own explanation. (BGS 801 c).
23)

citta-mano-vijna,

T. sems da yid da rnam-par es pa, C. ^[j* Jl JHf H *

(but AS & BG S, |_j^ ^g, @^C). These three are synonymous with each other and here
seem to have no special meaning as in th e Vijnavda. (in BG S, however, P aram rth a
interprets t h a t ' citta ' means th e ' former ' (i.e. th e usual set of) 6 vijnas, ' manas '
' dna-vijna ', and ' vijna ', ' layavijna '. I t is quite against t h e Vijnav
din's way of in terpretation .)
24)
i. e. th e chain of causation (prat tyasamutpda), starting with ' avidy '.
"> T. mi skye( ba), C. ^
^J (BGS A^ ^ ) . ' ajti ' = ' anutpdnirodha \ The
term ' ajti ' reminds us of t h e idealistic philosophy of G audapda.
26
> MS 221 c. Cf. BG 801 (quotation from MS).
27

> andiklika, T. thog ma med pahi dus can, C. |P jf [ ^ jf& i f r ^ ] . This


is usually an adjective to ' dhtu \ See S. p . 72, 1. 13.
28)
These 4, nitya, dhruva, iva, & vata, (T. rtag pa, brtan pa, shi ba, mi hjig pa;
C. I^J ' t Vpf /K *> S ! ) a r e f ten u s e d i n this treatise as the modifiers of ' dharmakya' or t h e Absolute Truth. See below (S. p . 20,1. 10; p . 53, vv. 81, 82, p . 54, 1. 12 ft.,

etc.) Cf. AS (which has the passage after ' asamskrta ' up to the end of this quo
tation), ^ ' H tt> respectively (496 b) BG ^ ? ft B S 8 6 $& ( 8 0 1 c ) '

[ 167 ]

all moral defilements, and endowed with inseparable and unthinkable qualities of the Buddha, which are far more than the sands of
the Gag in number 29>. And this very Absolute Body of the Ta
thgata, 0 Lord, [when it is] unreleased from the covering of moral
defilements, is called the Matrix of Tathgata. " 3 0 )
Thus all the determination of the Truth of Extinction of Suffering should
be understood wholly and in detail according to Sutras.

4. The D octrine as the Truth of P at h 3 1 ) .


4) uddhi, 5) abhivyaktikarana & 6) pratipaksat: N ow indeed, the
way to attain the Absolute Body of Tathgata named Extinction of
Suffering is th e P ath of perception and practice 32) based upon th e non
discriminative Wisdom (avikalpa-jna) 33\ And this [Path] is to be known
as similar to the sun with threefold common characteristics 3 4 ) . [N amely]
1) through the common characteristic of purity of the disk, because of
being apart from all th e minor defilements and stains; 2) through the
common characteristic of being the manifestor of forms, because of mak
ing manifest knowable things of all kinds; and 3) through the common
29)
. . . gagvlikvyativrttair
avinirbhgair
acintyair
buddhadharmaih
samanv
gatas .... F or this expression, see N ote 1 23. (quotation from AAN ). The term ' amuk
tajair ' had better be inserted after ' avinirbhgair ', because, except the present Skt.
text and T., all other editions i.e. C , MS (both T. & C ) , AS & BG , have this term.

(C. 4 N $fc 4 ^ j | | ) ; MS, T. brol bar es pa ( = muktaja), C. ^


^

$ ? $fc ^ ; AS;

TW t= B^ A* fjjf Jiff ^ ? the last two seem to show the best translation.)
T h e t e r m ' samanvgata
30)

tathgatakyo

' m a k e s t h e i d e a sign ified b y ' gagvlik

' vinirmuktakleakoas

tathgatagarbhah

. . . q u i t e c le a r .

T h i s is a fa m o u s

definition of the term ' tathgatagarbha \ Chinese refer to this often by ' f\ \ p | | ^\ f

31

> Cf. BG 802 a (j|ft $ 0 ) .

32)

darana mrga, T. mtho-bahi lam, C. J^J, j|| ; & bhvan mrga, T. sgom pahi

lam, C. y@g 3JH, ' darana mrga ' signifies the first Stage of the Bodhisattva, and
* bhvan mrga ' those Stages after the second one.
33)

T. mam par mi rtog pahi ye es, C. ^


ft
$1] ^?.
Similarity of ' jna' to the sun is also referred to in S. p . 58, vv. 93 ff.,
p. 107 ff. (sryavad iti, an d forth), etc.
34>

[ 168 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

characteristic of hostility against darkness, because of being the enemy


of all kinds of obstacles against the true perception35*.
And t bondage ' (vibandha) 36> means th e origination of D esire, H atred
and Ignorance 37> preceded by the thought 3 8 ) which takes its basis [of
cognition] upon th e characteristic of unreal things Z9\ I t is due to the
union of th e state of tendency (anuaya) with manifested state (paryut
thna) [of defilement] 40>. Indeed, people regard the unreal, i.e., 'n ot of
its nature (atatsvabhva) ' thing as th e [real] characteristic because of
its desirable looks (ubhkra) 41> when Desire comes forth from its state
of tendency; when H atred comes forth [from its state of tendency], [they
regard th e unreal thing as th e real characteristic] because of its detestable
looks (pratighkrena); and when Ignorance conies forth, then it is the
same because of its obscure looks (avidykrena). And of those people who
35)

T. de kho na mtho-ba ( = tattva darana). By reason of th is T. translation


as well as by th e reading ' sarvkrasya tattvadaranavibandhasya ' in S. p . 13, 1. 17, the
uncertain passage in Ms. B. (see J . fn. 8 in S. p . 12) should be read ' tattva ' instead of
' satya ' inserted by J .

C. h as no equivalent term , bu t BG S, _fpl. J ^ .

36

> T. gegs, C. 0 t f p *? (the thing to be dispelled), BG B|f fift.


seems to stan d for ' timira ' in th e krik.

This word

37

' rga, T . hdodchags, C . Jjt^ ; dvesa, T . shesda, C p j ^ moha, T . gtimug, C. 7JIJE,


respectively.
38)

manasikra, T. yid la byed pa, C. /MR - J) ft'] j]l^ . As being based upon
the unreal feature, it should be ayoniomanasikra ' in its implied sense. Or ' ayonio
manasikra ' = ' abhtavastunimittarambana manasikra
'. See belo w.
39
' abhta vastu nimitta rambana,
T . ya-dag-pa
ma-yin-pahi
dos-po
rgyumtshangyi yul, C. >P}A'/1>* Jp|^ "^p" ^ffl. T. regards t h e t e r m 'rambana' a s ' visaya'' (sen se
o bje c t ) a n d c o n n ec t s i t wit h ' abhta vastu nimitta
' b y t h e gen it ive c ase. As for t h e rela
t io n of t h is ' rambana ' t o ' manasikra ', T . seem s t o r e ga r d i t a s bein g a p p o sit io n a l.
O n t h e c o n t r a r y, C. u n d e r st a n d s 'rambana'' in t h e sen se of ' t a k i n g h o ld o f o r 'grasp in g '
T h is ve r b a l sen se seem s b e t t e r h e r e t h a n t h e n o m in a l sen se, be c a u se ' armbana' is a
kin d of a c t , d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r ist ic of ' manasikra '. I n o t h e r wo rd s, ' manasi
kra ' h e r e is d e t e r m i n e d a s ' abhtavastunimitta rambana',
i. e . t h e a c t of t a k i n g
h old of ' abhtavastu nimitta
' [a s r e a l] . F r o m t h e p o in t of S k t . gr a m m a r , h o wever,
t h e c o m p o u n d ' abhta . . . rambana ', bein g a p p o sit io n a l t o ' manasikra ', m a k e s
a B a h u vr h i c o m p o u n d , a n d h en c e is t o b e u n d e r st o o d i n t h e sen se ' [manasikra]
wh ose rambana is abhtavastunimitta ' a n d ' rambana ' c a n be t r a n sl a t e d in t o ' sen se
o bjec t '. I f we c o n st r u e T . t r a n sla t i o n i n t h e ligh t of t h is S k t . wa y, ' can ' sh o u ld
be in se r t e d a ft er
'yul'.
40)

anuaya,

T . bag la al-ba, C. ^ p ^

s t a t e ', ' p o t e n t i a l s t a t e ' ; a n d for paryutthna,


ally H I ) = paryavasthna
41)

F o r ' ubhkra

A^ t w

( S. 67, 1. 17). See n o t e


', C . ^

( b u t usually ||f S|^) ' sleeping

T . kun nas

[ 169 ]

Idan pa.

I X 77.

C . o m . ( b u t u su

J . TAKASAKI

incorrectly take hold of characteristics of Desire, H atred and Ignorance


42
as th e basis of cognition \ the Irrational Thought occupies their mind. F or
those people whose mind is occupied with the Irrational Thought, there
takes place the Defilement of any one of D esire, H atred and Ignorance.
Due to this [origination of Defilement], they make the actions born oi
Desire by means of body, speech and thought, and also [in the same way]
they produce th e action born of H atred, the action born of Ignorance.
F urthermore, from Action there results Rebirth. Thus these people,
having tendencies [of D esire, H atred and Ignorance], regarding th e
[unreal] characteristic [as real], and making it the basis of cognition,
43
[affectionally] hanging on it >, produce the Irrational Thought, from which
consequently arises Defilement. Because of origination of Defilement,
there arises Action; from the origination of Action, there arises Rebirth.
And all kinds of impurity (samklea) 44> of these Defilements, Action R e
birth, etc. come forth because people do not know, nor perceive the one
45)
46
[real] essen ce
as it is \
42)

rgadvesamoha nimittam ayathbhlam rambanam kurvatm.

H ere, for ' rambana ', T. dmigs pa, C. as before ( IA). ayathbhtam can be regarded
as an adjective to rambana, but from the context, I rendered it into an adverbal sense.
43)
H ere ordinary beings (bala) are said to be ' anuayavat', ' nimitta grhin '
and ' rambana carita ''. (C. om. the la t t e r two). F or ' nimitta grhin ', T. mtshan par
hdsin pa can, and for ' rambana carita ' T. dmigs pa la spyod pa. H ere ' rambana
seems to show more clearly the sense of ' an action to hang on '.
These three show
successive activities of mind preceding to ' manasikra '. Cf. BGS 802 a: J J ^ Bpf [yp.

(tattvadarana vibandha) pf| , ,& / . | , %M. \m M ' l l ffiE > ^ C K ffi Me

t i (anuaya) M H
(ayonisomanasikra)
(The tattvadaranavibandha means (1) a complexed action of mind, (2) klea sam
klea, (3) karma samklea, and (4) janma samklea. [Of them ], (1) a complexed action
of mind is [a m ental activity], of which the Defilements in dorm ant state are causes,
affections towards th e five sense objects are conditions, and the I rration al Thought i3
the cause of associated origination. Because of the association of these three, it is called
' a complexed action of mind ') .
44)

samklea, T. kun nas on-mos-pa, C. z?t (7P1E ^Rc) A general term for klea,

karman & janman, etc., i. e. all the phenomena^ life.


45

> eka dhtu, C. ' *gf ft 5?" > ( B G ' 5^) T. khams gcig. I t may be termed

dharmadhtu, dharmat, i. e. the Absolute. I t is also identical with cittaprakrti.


46)
About the process of origination of the phenomenal life (samklea) see S. p. 42 f.
(v. 58 f.). I n this process, ' ayoniomanasikra ' occupies the im portan t role, and
this ' ayoniomanasikra ' is defined as ' vikalpa ' (S. p . 12, 1. 2) or ' abhtavastunimit
trambana-manasikra ' (S. p . 13, 1. 1) (see N ote 38, 39). The function of ' ayoniomana
sikra ' is to be compared to t h a t of ' manas ' in th e Vijnavda.

[ 170 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

[On th e other hand] these impurities should be seen in the same man
per as by a perfect investigator 47 ) who does not perceive an y [unreal] cha
racteristic nor any basis of these impurities. [Because], when he perceives
48
neither characteristic nor basis, then can he perceive the Reality ). Thus,
49
these elements > are perfectly realized by the Tathgata as equal through
equality50). And thus, this realization of all natures by Wisdom, as being
equal without any addition nor diminution because of these two facts,
i.e. because we cannot see any characteristic nor basis of non being51), and
we can see th e real character of being as th e absolute truth , this is to be
known as th e ' enemy ' (pratipaksa) of all kinds of obstacles against th e
true perception. And because of th e origination of this enemy, there is
absolutely no association nor harmony 52) of th e obstacles. This is indeed
the P ath of perception and practice based upon the non discriminative
Wisdom, which is th e cause of attaining the Absolute Body [of the Tath
gata] an d which is to be understood in detail according to th e Stra
named Prajpramit 53>.
47

> parigavesayat (one who investigates) ( < p . pres. of parigavesayati, caus. of pari

gavesate, seeks for, investigates. BH S D ie. s. v.), T. yos-su btsal-ba, C. US, ^y.
For ' nimittam rambanam v ', T. rgyu mtshan nam dmigs pa, C. $$. /f\ (as if
* nimittrambana ' as in the previous cases). Here the use of ' rambana ' is obviously
objective.
48
> bhta, T. ya-dag-pa, C. *g f 4
> dharmh (pi.), C. 'ff f 4 , but BG ~ffl n ? (sarvadharmh).
60)
By t h e term * iti ', t h e content of realization is shown.
51)
asad nimittrambana, which had literally better be translated into ' unreal basis
of characteristics '. (Skt. has the sg. g. case-ending) T. med-pahi rgyu-mtshan-gyi dmigs-pa
and C. /MR 3 C < TR (unreal characteristics of things) a'nd om. ' rambana '.
52)

asamgati,

T . bral ba;

asamavadhna,

T . med pa;

C . ^ i ^ "\ ^

^r. jr * fo r b o t h

together.
B3)

e. g. Astashasrik Prajpramit (Wogihara's Edition of AAA pp. 332, 1. 9 12;


333, 1. 4 7 & 11 15; 334, 1. 2 5 & 15 16; 334, 1. 22 335, 1. 1; 353, 1. 12 14 & 17 18; 354,
1. 5 9). Cf. AAA (GOS Edition, p. 230 ff. where a passage from ASP is quoted, for which
the original reading is as follows:
" . . . tatra bodhisattvaynikah pudgalo yair vastubhih anumodeta yair rambanair
yair krais tac cittam utpdayet api nu tni vastni tni v rambanni te v krs tatho
palabhyeran yath nimittkaroti ". (Wogihara, p. 332, 1. 9-12).
C. inserts a short quotation, running:

#H.if4iiin3Kjjn^^ftfj| J5']-. (e.g.

VIII, p. 335 b).

[ 171 ]

IV.

TH E JE WE L OF TH E COMMUNITY

Now, from the Jewel of th e D octrine of the G reat Vehicle, there


arises th e Jewel of th e Community of Bodhisattvas who are abiding in
the irreversible st at e 1 ) . Therefore, immediately after [the explanation
of] th e former, we have one loka referring to the latter.
(Krik 3.)
2

I bow before those who, having understood > perfectly


The extremity of non substantiality of all the worlds as quiescent,
Because of their perception of the unreality 3> of defilements
Through th e brightness of the innate pure mind of all the world 4) ,
Perceive th e Buddhahood 5> penetrating everywhere;
Those whose intellect is unobscured,
And whose eye of Wisdom has its objects
In th e pureness and infinitude of th e living beings. // 13 //
*) avaivartika ( = avinivartan ya), T. phyir mi ldog pa, C. ^V* ^ g J p ||. About the
equivalence of this state to the Bodhisattva's i bhmi'' or (vihra\ there is a variety
among the M ahyna texts. At the beginning of the development of the 'bhmi' theory,
there seems to have been 4 divisions of states on account of the Bodhisattva's rank, namely:
prathamacittotpdika, carypratipanna, avaivartika & ekajtipratibaddha or abhiseka (of
these 4, see S. p. 52,1. 16 ff.). Besides this division, the division of 10 stages also seems
to have an old history and as a result of the combination of both, the former 4 have
got their place among 10 stages, being ranked as the 1st, 3rd, 7th & 10th, respectively.
Confusion occurred after the apperance of the Avatamsakastra which established the
41 stages of Bodhisattva, ranking the old 10 stages at the beginning under the name
of 10 ' vihra 's, and newly creating the 10 ' bhmi 's, P ram udit & c. as the highest group
of Bodhisattva's stages. As for ' avaivartika ', it is regarded on one hand as the name
for the 7th ' vihra\ but on another hand, as being equivalent sometimes to the 1st bhm ,
sometimes to the 7th bhmi. H ere the commentator seems to have used the term ' avai
vartika ' as indicating the Bodhisattva on the 1st bhmi. (Cf. S. p. 15, 1. 13). See S. p. 16,
1. 13; N otes IV 31.
2)

prati vidh, T. rtogs( pa), C. j | j (or ^ P ) .

3)

asvabhva, T . o-bo-med[-pa],
C. -/S 0f_ .
' tat' of t h e 2nd line of v . 13 i n d i c a t e s ' sarvajagat'
m e a n s ' p e o p l e i n t h e world ' .
4)

i n t h e 1st line, t h e ' j a g a t *

6)
sambuddhat, T. rdsogs pahi sas-rgyas (om. t), C. j?fj f * *" rlE v r C. has
some misunderstanding on the third line and due to this misunderstanding, C. changes
the order of the commentary.

C 172 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

1. Manner and Extent of the Perception of the Community.


What is shown by this loka?
Because of its purity of perception by introspective knowledge,
So far as its manner and extent are concerned 6) ,
The Community of irreversible Bodhisattvas
[Is endowed] with the supreme qualities 7>. // 14 //
By this it is explained, in brief, that the Jewel of the Community
of irreversible Bodhisattvas is endowed with supreme qualities, because
of its purity of perception by supermundane knowledge, with respect to
two aspects, [manner and extent] i.e. 'bein g as it i s' (yathvad bhvikat
and 4 being as far as ' (yvad bhvikat) 8\
6)

yathvad yvat,
T . ji bshin,
C . r efer s o n ly t o ' yathvat'
c o m m e n t a r y befo re v. 16.
7)

8)

ji-sed, C. KU ^[ a n d o m . yvat.
h e r e , a n d c o n se q u e n t ly r e p la c e s t h e fo llo win g p r o se

T. ji lta ba bshin yod pa & ji~sed-yod-pa,


res

respectively: C. %,\\ J8^ \v 'fT &

M ls> ^"3* '


P- C. ' 'jjg* 4~T ' f ' bhvikat' is probably a misreading, but see
BGS 802 b where these two are said to be the cause of ' virgadharma ' representing ' bh
van mrga ' under the names of %\ \ K g | ^ & >flj H i \ e

This term ' \ g ' is

however, replaced by ' "^j ' after the next occurrence ($U *3

p^3 & KU JUT J^J ).

Cf. AS ^ 0 J L #H j i t (470 c); Yogcrabhmi (Bodhisattvabhmi) #H 0 ^


&

S I $ T -ft ft (Taisho, XXX, 486 b etc., BBh, p. 39, 11. 1-2, 215, 1. 2, 258, 11. 5-9);

Sandhinirmocanastra, T. ji lta ba bshin du yod-pa-id & ji-sed yod-pa-id

(Lamotte's

edition, p. 98 & 99), C. t\\ 0 f ^ft tt & ffi 0T ~f ft (Taisho, XVI, 699 c). As
for their meanings, Sandhinirmocana
defines them, ' kun-nas on-mos-pa
dan mampar byabahi chos mamsla rnampa rabtu dbyeba thamscadkyi mthar thugpa
ga-yinpa deni jised-yodpa yin . . . ' , & ' kunnas onmospa da mampar
bya-bahi chos de-dag id-kyi de~bshin-id ga-yin-pa
de-ni ji-lta-ba
bshin-du
yodpaid yin . . . ' , respectively. It means ' yvadbhvikat' signifies all phenomena,
pure and impure, while ' yathvadhbvikat' signifies the essence or the Absolute
(tathat) inherent in all phenomena. While the Bodhisatlvabhmi says t h a t yath
vadbhvikat of dharmas means their ' bhtat ', and yvadbhvikat of dharmas means
sarvat, by both of which the two kinds of ' tattvrtha' are represented. It seems
to show the original sense of these terms. On the other hand. 0 translates the
terms into 'Absolute and Empiric'al character', i.e. as if ' yathvad bh.' signified
p aramrtha-satya ', while ' yvad bh.\ ' samvrti satya \ This is t h e traditional way
of in terpretation in Tibet. But as far as this text is concerned, both of these relate
to ' lokottara-jna'1 or ' lokottara-praj ' (S. p. 14, 1 19, p . 15, 1. 11), i.e. ' avikalpa
jna' and not to ' laukika ' or ' tatprsthalabdha-jna '. This is rather close to the
original interpretation, the only special feature being th at the ' yvad bh. ' is said to
relate to the perception of ' tathgatagarbha asiitva' in all living beings. Therefore, O's
way seems an overinterpretation.

[ 173 ]

tt

J.

TAKASAKI

a) Right Manner of Perception (yathvad bhvikat).


Their manner [of perception] is ' as it is ' ,
9
Because they have understood the quiescent nature ) of the world,
And this [understanding] is caused by
The purity [of the innate mind] and
Their perception of th e defilement as being destroyed from th e
[outset 10 ). / / 15 //
H ere, 'bein g as it is {yathvad bhvikat)' should be understood th us:
because, [with respect to the manner], th ey (i.e. Bodhisattvas) have under
stood the extrem ity of non substantiality (nairtmyakoti) of the whole world
called Individualities and Separate Elements (pudgaladharma khya) as
it is (yathvat). And this understanding, relating to the non annihila
tion U ) of Individualities and Separate Elements because of their nature
of absolute quiescence from the outset, is produced, in short, by two
causes. N amely, because of their perception of the innate brightness
(prakrtiprabhsvarat) 1 ofthe mind, and because of their perception of
* being destroyed from the outset ' (diksaya), i.e. the extinction of defi
lements on th e mind. H ere, these two, i.e. th e innate brightness of the
mind and th e defilement on the mind, are quite difficult to be understood
in relation to the fact t h at , in the immaculate sphere, there is no succes
sion ofa second mind because both minds, good and bad, act together
as one and th e same. Therefore, it is said 13>:
" 0 Lord, a good mind is momentary 14>; it cannot be afflicted by
defilements. The bad mind is [also] momentary; even this [bad]
mind cannot be afflicted by defilements. 0 Lord, defilements cannot
9)

nta dharmat, T . shi bahi chos-id, C. ;>g5 jg=p" - j | | , f^ . * } ' .

for ' iv nairtmyakoti


10)

diksaya,

This is a word

' i n k. 3 .

T . gdod nas

zad, C . 7JC ^

3> .

11}

avina, which shows t h e denial of t h e conception of destroying something.


See S. p . 12, 1. 4 5 (on ' nirodha satya '). T. hjig pa med pa. C. h asa long interpretation:

ittif^ife t * * * g i * t f t , #S Stiff
ff
rr fc j j A / {

W*J* 5 p ^hl (Real perception means the perception of th e non existence and quiescence
of individuality and separate element from t h e outset, an d n ot such a perception as
existing after the realization by dispelling t h e defilements.
H e r e , ' avina

' = diksaya,

nirodha,

12)

T . ra-bshin-gyis hod-gsal-ba(-id),

13)

M S 2 2 2 b.

14)

ksanika,

T . skad cig ma,

nihsvabhva.

C. g f^ V ^ VT (=

C . 7^lJ J& j j .

[ 174 ]

prakrtipariuddhi).

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

touch th at mind. [And the mind cannot be touched by the Defi


lements] 15h O Lord, how is it possible th at th e mind, of unto
uchable character 16) , can be afflicted by darkness? O Lord, still
there is defilement and there is defiled mind. Moreover, O Lord,
the meaning th at th e mind purified by nature is defiled 1 7 ) is dif
ficult to be understood ".
Thus, with reference to [the manner of] ' being as it is ', the explana
tion of th e meaning ' difficult to be understood ' should be understood
in detail according to th e Stra.
6) U nlimited Extent of Perception (yvad bhvikat).
Their extent [of perception] is *as far as ',
Because they perceive th e existence
Of th e nature of Omniscience 1 8 ) in all living beings,
By th e in tellect 1 9 ) reaching as far as
the limit of th e knowable 20>. // 16 //
H ere, 'being as far as (yvadhhvikat)' should be understood thus:
because [with respect to the extent], they perceive th e existence ofthe
Matrix of the Tathgata in all living beings, up to those who are in the
animal kingdom, by means of the supermundane intellect (lokottara-praj)
which reaches as far as th e limit of all knowable things 21>. And this
perception of Bodhisattvas takes place in th e first Stage of th e Bodhisa
ttva, because [verily in th at Stage], the Absolute Essence is realized
in the sense of all pervading ' (sarvatraga).
15)

mos-pa

Ace. to T. & C , one sentence should be added here (as in brackets). T. sems onya ma-lags

na, C. Jjj'* '"i x jgQ !K|| '[pg = npi dttam

samklistam

bhavati.

16)

aspara dharmin,
T . reg pahi chos can ma lags pa, C . 'A^ }3y f C
17)
T h e r e a d i n g ' upaklertho ' is p r e fe r a bly t o b e c o r r ec t ed i n t o ' upaklistrtho
Cf. S. p . 22, 1. 2, cittasyopaklistat
dusprativedhy.
18)
sarvaja-dharmat
= tathgatagarbha
( in t h e com m .)
19)
dhl = praj (lokottara
praj).
20)

C . i n p r o se : ififfl y@g<fj* (yvadbhvikat)

Q , gpf jtfijj ~\

jQ i

'.

* y) Xfc

"7T S \ (jeya-paryantagatay),
Jfc
*~%JJ J^K t - ^
* "MJ fc3 W. (sarvasattvesu
sarvajstitvadarant).
('dhy'
in t h e 1st lin e a n d ' d h a rm a t ' i n t h e 2n d lin e a r e
omitted).
21)
Cf. S. p . 22, 10 ~ 24, 9 (Quotation from Avat S. Tathogatotpattisambhava
nirdea).

[ 175 ]

J. TAKASAKI
2.

Introspective Character of Bodhisattva's Perception.


4

Thus, what is called understanding in such a way %


That is th e perception by one's own wisdom.
I t is pure in th e Immaculate Sphere,
Because it is free from attachm en t
and has no hindrance 2 2 ) . / / 17 //
* Thus, in such a way' (ity evam), by this way, i.e. through 'bein g as
l
l
it is ' and being as far as ' ; what is called un derstan din g' (avabodha) of
the supermundane path, is here intended to be th e perception of the
Saints by th e supermundane wisdom of their own (pratytmam), i.e. unco
23
mon to others >. And this [perception] is called perfectly pure in com
24
25
parison with ) the superficial knowledge of everyday life ) because, in
brief, of two reasons. Which ones? Because it is 'free from any attach
m en t ' (asaga), and because it 'has no hindrance' (apratihata)2e\ Here,
as its field is the innate purity of the essence of living beings through its
being as it is, the perception [of the Saints] is free from any attachment;
and through its being as far as, its field is the unlimited number of
knowable objects, therefore, that perception has no hindrance 27>.
3.

Superiority of Bodhisattva's

Community.

Through the purity of their perception by wisdom2 8 ) ,


It is superior as [being the same as] Buddha's Wisdom 29>
22

) C. again i n prose.
i. e. uncommon to Srvakas, Pratyekabuddhas and ordinary people.

23)

^ > sv , / u A / v Tf
24)
upanidhya, T .
l a Itos nas.
2S
* itaraprdeikajna,
T . , ciges i-tshebahi
the knowledge of rvakas and Pratyekabuddhas.
26

yees.

C. / [*

C . t a k e s i t a s sh o win g

(=jp f4j U=F J x. UP n i t |3 )

* asaga, T. chagspa medpa, C. -j|| |ip.; apratihata

(apratigha in t h e verse),

T. thogs-pa med-pa, C. 3H PH ( = ^v $11); BGS 5 ^ | ^flf & fJPJ |j, respectively.


27)

BGS adds some more sentences o n 'yathvad bhvik at ' a n d ' yvad bhvikat ',
sayin g t h a t t h e fo rm er is ' hetu ', wh ile t h e l a t t e r is ' phala ', o r i n c o m p a r iso n wit h t h e
n a t u r e o f ' viuddhi hetu
of t h e fo rm er, t h e l a t t e r is ' pariprna hetu
' (802 b).
28)
T h e sh o r t a ge o f sylla ble s a ft e r ' . . .uddhy' c a n b e m a d e u p b y 'hi' o r ' e t a '
(uddhyaiva). T. has ' na ' after ' dag pas '.
2

> For v. 18 a b, C. %\ \ H ^ J jg, i f ^ ffi ^ ft | ? (jft) (Because of

their perception of pure ' buddhajna ' through the P ath of the true intuition).
C. has no word equivalent to ' anuttar ' in the verse, but 'jfzr
shows it.
[ 176 ]

in the commentary

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga
30

Therefore, the Saints abiding in the irreversible state >


Are [worthy of being] the refuge of all living beings. // 18 //
Thus, this ' purity of perception by wisdom ' of Bodhisattvas who
mounted to the Stage of being irreversible 31> is to be known as 4 the
32)
supreme ', because it approached the highest purity of the perception
33
of Buddha's Wisdom; or otherwise >, because it is superior to the other
qualities of Bodhisattva, donation, moral conduct, etc.3i\
On account
of this purity, it is said th at Bodhisattvas in the irreversible state are
worthy of being the refuge of all living beings.
There is no mention of the Jewel of Community of the rvakas,
immediately after the Jewel of Community of the Bodhisattvas, because
the former is not worthy of being worshipped 35>. Indeed, there is no
wise man who, having known the distinction of qualities between Bodhi
sattvas and rvakas, casting off the new moon like Bodhisattvas, who
30)

The reading ' avaivartyd bhavanty ryh ' should be corrected into ' avaivar
ty bhavanty ryh ' ace. to both T. & C.
31

' avinivartanlyabhmisamrudhnm bodhisattvnm, C. ^/ J ffijj, pj ^ 1 j^ B^j

|*li J^i ?llL '* X S *^i ^Pv I* is clear t h a t avinirvartanya-bhmi is here regarded
as the 1st bhmi of Bodhisattva on which stage he accomplishes ' darana mrga '. In
this sense, th e term ' jnadaranasiddhi ' has th e implied meaning of ' daranamrga '
as in C. translation of v. 18.
32)
upanisadgata, T. e-bar gnas-par hgyur-ba.
Cf. AA III, 2. samyag sannato
ditah (produced by sitting perfectly near).
3S)
v, T. (r)am (after phyir) I t denotes another in terpretation of ' anutar '.
34)
The first two of the 6 pramits are mentioned.
3S
' C. h as one verse on the superiority of bodhisattvasaga from 10 points, and a
prose commentary thereon. It seems the present Skt text is lacking one paragraph
which was in the original text of C. translation. 10 points of superiority mentioned
in C. are as follows:
1) ^5i "^i ' visaya ', (fpL JJTT), superiority in perception of objects; 2) ijffj Jyj JJ1
"TH^t i ^ Wfe
gunh,

>cs fen

jfiS feo H$

(JrJJ jig* J # f) , su p . in q u a lit ie s; 3) g S ^

^Jg nirvana, (^rfc ^ /3ZT)

SU

adhigama,

uddhi, amala, ( t f ^

^ samprn, mahkarun, {]

sup. in

P - i Nirvana as being obtained after


(|ffj Jill )3/ r)?

SU

*n their

]j# ),
SU sup.
n in purity; 7) $j? J ^C

"=ff ^L^ 9^*)'

regarding people equally; 8) ^ / fe ^ P ^

Wr),

salvation of all living beings; 5) j|ff JQi bhmayah,

Stages; 6) W M S

(S ^3

P i

their compassionate mind

^ < jtis tathgatakule, ( ^ ^ ) , sup. in

their birth, because their birth is ajti (/J f ) in its ultimate sense; 9) J^- / .
<K iffl vaitbhijsampad, (0$ j \

JJTT),

sup. in their supernatural powers, 10 vaits,

6 abhijs, etc.; 10) Jf^ Ijfjp ^


^
_ C anuttara phala, ( ^ ^ ) sup. in the ac
complishment being th e Supreme Enlightenment, (letters in parentheses show the
terms in com m entary).
[ 177

J . TAKASAKI
have th e lustre disk of Wisdom and Compassion filling with great accu
mulation of merits and knowledge 3 6 ) for the G reat Enlightenment, and
are standing in th e illumination over the group existence (ganasamtna) 37)
of innumerable living beings and entering the way favourable for going
toward the full moon of th e supreme Tathgata, tries to bow before the
rvakas, who in their turn , although having attain ed certain limited
superficial knowledge 3 8 ) , are standing in th e illumination for their own
39
existence (sva samtna) like stars >. Indeed, even those Bodhisattvas
who have resolved to attain th e Enlightenment for the first time 40> by
the quality based upon th e purity of altruistic intention , can overcome
the holy rvakas who are pitiless 4 1 ) , indifferent to th e nourishment of
others 4 2 ) , although having attain ed perfect purity of immaculate moral
conduct and discipline 43>. How much more is th e case of th e other
qualities of Bodhisattvas, 10 Controlling Powers, 44> etc. ? Really, it will
be said 45> :
36)

punya-jna sambhra, T. bsod nams da ye es kyi tshogs, C. om . (usually,


&& * S . t3 C 5 ) ' Of the 6 pramits, praj pramit
is called ' jnasam

bhra ' , a n d t h e o t h e r 5 a r e c a lled ' punya s


37)

'.

C. [^K 5 fa :] fT ^ W (gahana samtna?), T. om. The meaning is clear


as being compared with ' svasamtna ' in case of Srvakas.
38)
prdeika jna.
See above (N ote IV 25).
39)
The whole passage illustrates t h e comparison between Buddhas, Bodhisattvas
and Srvakas by an example of moon and stars, saying t h a t th e Buddha is like th e full
moon, Bodhisattvas are like t h e new moon; both of them have illumination for others,
while t h e Srvakas, being like stars, h ave light only for their own illumination.
40
' prathamacittotpdika . . . bodhisattva, T. sems dapo bskyedpahi byachub-

sems-dpah, C. $J jtfe SI # SI *l> f t # K ^ (1PJ M 'fr # K).


41)
42

niranukroa, T . rjes su brtse ba med pa, C. om .

* ananyaposiganya, T. gshan rgyasparbyedpa mildanpa, C. ^1^* ^fjj /flj -fifc

ftli ^ ^ - ^ . C. ' ^ | - i } - ' for 'posin' is probably a misreading for 'poso',


which, in its turn, has the same sense as ' purusa ' in BHS. See BHS Die. s. v.
43)

samvara, T. sdom-pa (%>\). See BHS. D. dasamvara (under samvara [1]).


' 10 vaits are namely: 1) yurvait, 2) cittav., 3) pariskrav. (wealth), 4)
karmav., 5) upapattiv., 6) adhimuktiv., 7) dharmav., 8) pranidhnav., 9) rddhiv.,
& 10) jna v., (M vyut. 27).
45)
' vaksyati hi ' in S. shows t h a t th e following verses belong to th e same text, but
not to a quotation from another scripture. Though both T. & C. regard only the following
44

verse as a quotation (T. ga-gi phyir . . .shes gad do, C. ^ C T~^ r$9 ) > ** seems that
the whole passage after ' na hi jtu pandit ' (Indeed, there is no wise m an who . . .)
up to t h e end of th e verse is a long quotation from some Stra (source unknown). The
style of these passages seems n ear t o t h e stra style. If it be so, t h e passage only
available in C will be ascertained to be th e original stra passage for which this long
quotation is mentioned as th e authority.
[ 178 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

One who feeds 46> moral conduct for his own sake,
Apart from compassion on the living beings of bad conduct 47>,
And who is endowed with pure wealth of moral conduct only for
48
his own nourishment, >
Such a saint is never called a man of pure conduct.
One who, having aroused the highest Compassion toward others
And having accepted the moral conduct,
Renders services for others' livelihood like fire, wind, water
and earth,
Such a one is a [real] moral man, and others are of sham 49> morality.
46)
47)
48)

bibharti ( P r e s. 3 sg. o f bhr), T . rnam rgyas i


(= vivrddhy?), C. \ % < f7*.
prauddha,
T . rab dag pa,
C. o m .
tmambhari,
( l i t . n o u r i sh i n g on eself, o n e wh o n o u r i sh e s h im se lf) T . bdag-id

rgyas-byed, C. J^l @ g J|- fjfc .


49

' pratirpaka T. gzugs-bren, C. | ^ 7 p

[ 179 ]

V.

TH E TH R E E JEWELS AS REF U G ES

Now, for what purpose and for the sake


teach2) the 3 Refuges (arana traya) ?

l)

of whom did the Lord

3)

In order to show [the virtues of]


The Teacher, the Teaching and D isciples,
With reference to those who belong to 3 Vehicles
And to those who devote themselves to religious observance 4)
Three Refuges were taugh t 2 ) [by the Lord]. // 19 //
[in 3 forms,
1.

3 Refuges from the Empirical Standpoint.

The teaching: " the Buddha is a Refuge because he is the highest


among human beings " 5 ) ; it was established 2) , in order to show the virtue
of the Teacher (str), for the sake of those people who approached the
6)
7)
nature of Buddha i.e. who belong to the Vehicle of Bodhisattva and
those [people who] devote themselves to the highest religious observance
of the Buddha.
The teaching: " the D octrine is a Refuge because it is the highest
of what are devoid of passions "; it was established, in order to show the
x)

' adhikrtya' has a more concrete sense than usual here. T. ' dbah du byas nas '

as usual, but C. J $ cfSj ^

\)

(for the sake of).

) prajapta (made known = taught), C. B^_] . But, T. rnam-par gshag-pa (vyavasthita) in the introductory sentence and in v. 19. In the commentary, however, there
is used ' deitam prajaptam ', for which T. bstanshi mampar gshaggo, C.
I t seems t h at the term prajapta' has both senses here.
3
' arthena = .. guna udbhvanrthena (in the comm.).

VJU

)/ .

4)
kra (BH S), C. f^ ^ . (= pj, 'h om age, worship') (Cf. BH S D ie. s. v.).
U sually this term is accompanied by ' kriy ' and other forms delivered from kr as in
the prose comm. T. translation ' byed ' or ' bya ba byed ' shows nothing special.
&
* dvipada. I t is interpreted doctrinally th at the Buddha is standing on the basis

of 'jna' and ' karun '. (T. rka-gis rnams, C. pj*) / . ) .


s)
buddhabhva (= bodhi), T. sas-rgyas-kyi dos-po-id, C. j^p ^jjtf J< .
7
* The reading is preferably ' bodhisattva ynikn * instead of *bodhisattvn' in
comparison with the uses of ' pratyekabuddhaynikn ' and ' rvakaynikn' in th e
following paragraphs. Also, T. bya-chub-seemsdpahi theg-pa-bahi.

[ 180 ]

The

R a t n a go t r a vibh ga

virtue of the Teaching (sana) of the Teacher, for the sake of those
people who approach the enlightenment of profound D octrine of the depen
8
dent origination by [depending on] themselves *, i.e. who belong to the
Vehicle of the P ratyekabuddha and those who are devotees to the highest
religious observance of the D octrine.
The teaching: " the Community [of the disciples] is a Refuge because
it is the highest of communities " 9 ) ; it was established, in order to show th e
virtue of Disciples (isya) well enrolled in the Teaching of the Teacher,
for the sake of those people who approach in order to understand the
voice heard from others, i.e. who belong to the Vehicle of rvaka, and
those who are devotees to the highest religious observance in the
Community.
Thus, in short, for these three purposes, for the sake of six kinds
of people, distinctively did the Lord establish the teaching of these three
10)
Refuges from the empirical standpoint , in order to make living beings
11}
enter the regular m et h o d .
2.

The D octrine and Community are not the U ltimate Refuges.


As being abandoned, being of deceptive n ature,
Being non existence and being possessed of fear 12) ,
The two kinds of D octrine and the Community
Are ultimately not the highest Refuge. // 20 //

[respectively],

) Ms.B reading 'svayam gambh ra pratitya dharmnubodha' is preferable. T. ' ra-

id rten-hbrel-gyi chos zab-mo rje-su rtogs-pa . . . ' , C. Q f^v jf[, /\* "f^ -fjjj yQ f
pfc |2y n$i i Here, 'pratitya' (T. rten-hbrel, C. |2vJ /ffc) seems to mean 'pratltya
samutpda'. P retyekabuddha is said to be a buddha who enlightened the doctrine of
prat tyasamutpda.
) About these three formulae on ' ratna traya ', see M vyut. 267.
10)
samvrti pada sthnena. That is to say, from th e empirical standpoint, there
are 3 Refuges, bu t from th e highest standpoint, only th e Buddha is the Refuge. See
below.
n )
anuprvanaya. T. equals 'yna' instead of ' nay a', but C. ty\ , f^ . ' The regular
method ' means ' from the lower standard to the higher standard, i.e. from being adhimukta to ynika, from saga-arana to buddha arana, from rvakayna to bodhisatt
vayna, according to th e faculties of living beings.
12
) F or these four reasons, th e terms used in S. T. & C. are as follows:
1) tyjya (T. span, C. ~j J ) ;
2) mosadharma (T. slu-bahi chos-can, C. /MR 3C)?
3) abhva (T . med. C. $} $]);
4) sabhaya (T. hjigs-da bcas-pa, C. Pf|j "py).
T. (D.). reading, * sda' is to be corrected into * span' (fut. of ' span-ba ').

[ 181 ]

J. TAKASAKI
The D octrine has two kinds, i.e. the D octrine as Teaching (dea
ndharma) and th e D octrine as Realization (adhigamadharma)1 3 ) . Of them ,
the D octrine as Teaching is [the D octrine] of stra and other teachings
and it consists of the collection 14) of name, word, and letter. And it is
said t h at this Teaching is akin to the boat 1 5 ) because it ends 1 6 ) with
the acquisition 17) of th e P at h . The D octrine as Realization is [again]
twofold by the division of cause and result. That is to say, the Truth
4
of P ath and the Truth of Extinction in the sense, by which realized '
4
18)
and
t h at which in realized ' , [respectively]
. Of them , the Path, is
included in th e artificial character. That which is included in the arti
ficial character is of false, deceptive n ature (mrsmosadharmin) 19). That
which is of false, deceptive n ature is untrue (asatya), th at which is untrue
is not eternal, and th at which is non eternal cannot be a refuge. And
the Extinction realized by this P ath also represents, according to th e
system (naya) of rvaka 2 0 ) , th e mere absence of Defilement and Suffering,
just like th e extinction of a lam p. Also, a non existence (abhva) cannot
be a refuge nor a non refuge.
4

The Community ' is a term for the community [of th e Saints]


belonging to three Vehicles21> . And they are always possessed of fear
(sabhaya), because, as learned people, they have taken refuge in the Tath
gata and are seeking for deliveran ce 22) ; [but still] they have [many]

13)

On these two categories of ' dharma ', see S. p . 70 (v. 145 and comm.) T. bstan

pahi chos & rtogs pahi chos, C. jy\ BJ i A & fy\ nS. *7* r e sp .
14

) kya,

T . tshogs, C . rEf*.

As fo r t h e se t h r e e kyas.

ls

> kola, T. gzis, C. $ p f f l j . For 'koiopama'


(kullpamo dhammoy

See M vyu t , 104, 95 97.

Cf. Vaj. C. p. 23; MN, I, 134,135


J

*>G * ~ ^^ t j *.

16)

paryavasna,

T . mthar thug pa

(paryanta).

>?H T J Tup ^ J P G ' catches t h e meaning well.


17)
18)
19)

^t^

C . t r a n sla t io n ' |J_ i l l , **v v$G

(This t e r m is for tyjya i n v. 20) .

abhisamaya, T . mon-par rtogs-pa, C. nj i l l


See S. p . 11 ( v. 10 a n d c o m m . ) .
( ' mosadharma ' i n v. 20) . P a li mus mosa dhamma.

sified fo rm of ' mus ' ( d ec ep t ive) . C. Jm t 3 c > T . brdsun pa

' mosa ' i n P a li is t h e in t e n


slu bahi

chos can.

See B H S

Die., P TS D ie, s. v.
20)
I t is remarkable in this text th at whenever the subject refers to the unworthiness
of D harma or Sagha, the author substitutes Srvaka for it and never refers to t h at of
Bodhisattva.
ai)
F or t h e following passage, see SMS 221 o. This passage is exactly an extract
from t h at stra.
22)
nihsarana, T . e-bar hbyu-ba, C. JSJP; tST |HJ ( = loka-nihsarana). It is
synonymous with ' moksa \
[ 182 ]

The

R a t n a got r a v ib h ga

things to be done (sakaran ya) and are approaching (i.e. have not yet
realized) 2 3 ) the H ighest Perfect Enlightenment 2 4 ) .

How are they posses

sed of fear? As the Arhats (the Saints of the Vehicle of rvaka), th ough
having extirpated r e bir t h
D efilements],

25)

, have not yet destroyed th e Impression [of

there therefore exists always and

notion of fear in all physical life


with raised sword

28)

27)

con stan tly26) a strong

, as if standing in face of the executioner

. So th ey have not attain ed the ultim ate delightful

22

D eliverance '. Indeed, [that which is] a refuge

[by itself] never seeks

for refuges

having

[in others].

Just

as living beings,

frightened by this or t h at fear, and consequently seek

no refuge, are
for

th e D eli

verance, similarly even th e Arhats have their fear, and, being frightened
by fear th ey take refuge

in the Tath gata

29)

And thus one who seeks for a refuge because of his being possessed of
fear, will inevitably seek for th e deliverance from fear.

And as being a

seeker of deliverance, with reference to the destruction of th e root of fear,


a learned man 3 0 ) is

one who has things to be done ' (sakaran ya) 3 1 ) . As

being a learned man, he is 'one who has undertaken ' (pratipannaka) to


attain the fearless, highest state 3 2 ) , i.e. the H ighest Perfect Enlightenment.
For this reason, the Community, being a partial refuge,

cannot be the

23)
pratipannaka (Pali patipannaka = maggatthaka, one who has entered upon
the P ath). I t is used here in th e sense of ' gone towards ', ' entered th e way ', bu t
not ' attained [the Enlightenment] ', and th e emphasis is on th e approach. H ence

c * % % tk ?t i t ffl ft n m & n H i i H # K ' is quite


correct. On th e contrary, T. ' shugspa ma yinno ' is probably due to a misunder
standing of this ' pratipannaka ' for th e actual attainment of Enlightenment. (F or th e
parallel passage in SMS, T. shugs pa lags so, where th e negative ' ma ' is n ot used).
24
> Cf. MS 221 a.
26)
punarbhava, T. ya-srid-pa, C. ^ J J ^ ( = ssravadharma).
26)

satata samitam (BH S), T. rtag tu rgyun mi hchad par, C. <ffj .

27

> samskra, T. hdu byed, C. ^ f ^ ^f f .


The text should have Danda between ' vadakapuruse' and ' tasmt '. F or
vadakapurusa, T. gad mahi skye bu.
29
' C. regards this passage (arhatm api . . . aranam upagacchati) as a quotation
from SMS, and before th e quotation has the same commentary passage as th e Skt. text
up to ' pratyupasthit bhavanti\
Cf. SMS 219 6.
991: # l j" II
30)
aiksa, T . slob pa, C . jJq" ^fg; J\,.
31)
On the contrary, Buddha is said to be * aaiksa'. (Cf. aaiksa sntnika, S.
p. 39, 1. 3.)
32)
rsabha (Lit. coming from a bull, rsabha), descendant of Rsabha (name of a
former Buddha), Pali *sabha ' means a hero or great man and is an epithet of the Buddha.
T. khyu mchog (the highest bull). C. om. ' rsabha '. ' rsabha sthna ' = Pali sabhatt
hna, th e first place, leadership.
28)

[ 183 ]

J. TAKASAKI

ultimate refuge. Thus these two Refuges, (i.e. th e D octrine and the
33)
Community), are called ' temporary refuges' .
3. Only th e Buddha is the Refuge from th e H ighest Standpoint.
F rom th e ultimate stan dpoin t 3 4 ) ,
Buddhahood is the sole Refuge of th e world,
Because th e Sage has th e body of th e D octrine,
And because in th at the Community sets th e ultimate goal 8 5 ) . // 21 //
As hasbeen said before, the Sage (muni), represented as neither becom
ing originated nor disappearing, is endowed with th e body of th e Doc
trine, liberated from passions and [characterized 36*] as the Two Truths of
purification (i.e. the Truth of P ath and th e Truth of Extinction), and
in the purity of this Body of the D octrine ( = th e Absolute Body, dhar
makya), th e Community [of th e Saints] belonging to the three Vehicles
sets th e ultimate goal of acquisition 37) . Therefore, from the ultimate
standpoint, th at which is th e imperishable Refuge, eternal Refuge, and
everlasting Refuge, which lasts as long as th e utmost limit 3 8 ) in the un
protected and refugeless world, is [only one] 3 9 ) , th at is to say, th e Tath
33)
paryantakla arana. ' paryantakla ' is a Bahuvr hi comp. meaning ' having
kla which has paryanta, the end '. Both T. & C , putting a negative, interpret this
term as ' ntyantakle arane '. But it is wrong. (T. mtharthungpahi dusna skyabs
rib t^Z fr g. t-l-~ r^.
f
mayinpa, C. ^f~ zHu Ji^L .f f T$C eSSii' A correct translation is shown in SMS, where
for *paryantakla ', T. dus kyi mthah mchis pahi, C. ^pj p R (having limitation, limited).
(MS 221 a).
About ' sabhayat ' of t h e Srvakas, see v. I , 32 and comm.
34)
pramrthikam. I n Skt., it is an adjective to ' buddhatva \ But T. takes it in th e
adverbial sense, saying ' dam pahi don tu ' (paramrthatah), which seems better to grasp
the meaning in comparison with the Empirical standpoint in v. 19. Also, see the prose

comm. on this verse. (C. /fK ^ - being an adjective to buddhatva as S.).


35)
nistha = nisthdhigama-paryavasna,
a n d tannisthatva
=
dharmakyaviudd
hinistha.
See belo w.
36)
T. inserts ' mtshan-id ' (laksana) after ' vyavadana-satya-dvaya '. It is helpful t o m a k e t h e m e a n i n g clear. See S. p . 1 1 , 1. 14 (vyavadnasatyadvaya laksano
virga
dharma iti). C . r e a d s p r o b a b ly '
ivdvayavirgadharma).
37)
nisthdhigama-paryavasna,T.
mthar thug pa thob pas mthar phyin par
hgyur ba,
r< iJi^ Jfi> !. .iSS i=Ef .
.
.
ti. ~7\_t Jjfo t p i^Jr gtSi (ova., adnigama).
38)
aparntakotisama,
T . phyi-mahi
mthahi mu-da mam-pa,
C. 58 > p ^ r ^ Wf>
=P^ J^L ( a s if * prvntakotinistha
').
39)
' ekam ' should b e inserted after ' pramrthikam
t e r m ' ekatra ' i n t h e ver se. T h e sa m e wit h T .

[ 184 J

\ be in g t h e e xp la n a t io n of t h e

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga
40)

gata, the Arhat, th e Perfectly Enlightened one . And this teaching of


the unique, eternal, ever lasting, quiescent and unchangeable Refuge is
to be understood in detail according to the ryar ml stra41).
4. The Meaning of th e 3 ' Jewels \
[They are called] ' Jewels ', because
Their appearance is difficult to obtain,
They are immaculate and powerful,
And because of their being th e ornament of the world,
And being th e highest and unchangeable. // 22 //
In short, by th e sixfold common nature with Jewels, these three
named Buddha, D octrine and Community, are called ' Jewel '. That is
to say, 1) through th e common nature of their appearance being difficult
42)
43)
to obtain ; because those people who have not ripened
th e root of
virtue cannot get an y chance to meet them, even during a long succession
of eaons 4 4 ) . 2) Through the common nature of being immaculate; because
45
they are apart from all kinds of ' dust. 3) Through th e common nature
46)
of power ; because they are endowed with th e quality of unthinkable
power, th e 6 Supernatural Powers (abhij) 4 7 ) and so forth. 4) Through
the common nature of being th e ornament of the world; because they are
the cause of beauty 4 8 ) intended by th e whole world. 5) Through the
common nature of being superior to the artificial 4 9 ) jewel; because they
are supermundane. And 6) through the common nature of being un
changeable by praise, blame etc. 5 0 ) ; because of their non artificial nature.
40)
41)

42)

pi. in the text.


S M S 221 a. T h i s ' ekayna
durlabhotpdabhva,

^R" ^ f ) .
43)

' t h e o r y is o n e of i t s m a i n p o i n t s of t e a c h i n g.

T . hbyu~ba

dkon-pa,

C. THT | H j | f j / fv : ( i n v . 2 2 , | U '

For this passage, cf. BGS 808 a.


anavpta, T. ma bskrun pa, C. A^ fjft

f?f (unable to obtain).

** kalpa, T. bskal pa, C. if} .


45)
I accepted T. reading ' sarvkra ' instead of ' sarvcra '.
a s ' sarvassravadharma '.

C. translation is

46)

prabh, T . mthu, C . ^
f|r |.
1) divycaksus,
2) divyrotra, 3) ceta paryya jna,
4)
prvanivsnusmrtijna, 5) rddhividdhi-jna,
& 6) sravaksaya jna.
Cf. M vy u t . 14.
48)
obh, T. dge ba, C. om.
49
* prativarnika, T. bsanpa, C. om.
50)
These are called ' asta lokadharmh, i.e. lbha, albha (gain & loss); yaas, ayaas
(praise and blame); nind (blame), praams (praise); sukha, duhkha. Cf. M vyut. 125.
47)

* stuti'

is for praamsa.

So, instead of ' stuti ninda ', C. TfiT \ Q\ J\

[ 185 ]

iS

VI.

TH E G ERM OF TH R E E JE WE LS I N FOU R ASPECTS

Imraediately after th e explanation of the Three Jewels, there is one


loka with reference to th e question, in what circumstances are there born
the Three Jewels, what is th e birth place 1} of purity, mundane and
supermundane.
(Krik 4)
The Reality mingled with pollution,
And [the Reality] apart from pollution,
The Immaculate Qualities of th e Buddha, and his Acts;
[These are the four aspects of] th e sphere
2)
Of those who perceive the H ighest T ru t h ,
3)
From which arise the pure Three Jewels . // 23 //
What is elucidated by this loka ?
The G erm of these Three Jewels
2)
Is th e sphere of th e Omniscience ,
1}

yoni,

2)

paramrihadarin

T . skye bahi

gnas,

C. o m .

= sarvadarin

( in v. 24) = sarvaja

(in c o m m . ) C. jffj yjp ,

tta 1/K XH ^N , for the respective case. (T. has literal translations). Cf. Saddharmapundar ka, I, v. 97, etc. (paramrthadarin).
3)
This is the stanza by which the basic subjects of this text are shown. Each
one of these four is treated in each chapter (I I V), and also these 4 stand for the latter
4 of the 7 vajrapadas.
There is a Stra named " Anuttarrayastra " (AS), of which now only the Chi
nese translation is available (C. ?R _. \rf\. I t )

Taisho, No. 669). This stra also men

tions the same 4 subjects with which the main part of the stra is formed, namely: yf"
(dhtu) of the Tathgata in Chap. I I , ^

(bodhi), in Chap. I l l , S$) f^

(guna), in

Chap. IV, and ^fl (kriy) of the Tathgata in Chap.V. I t seems th at this Stra, though
it bears the name of ' stra ', has been composed after the Ratna., probably in order to
authorize this theory of the 4 subjects. D etailed discussion of this problem is given in
my Introduction.

[ 186 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a

And it is inconceivable in fourfold


For four reasons, respectively. // 24 //
4)

H ere, 1) *The Reality mingled with pollution (samal tathat) '


is a term for 4 th e Essence (dhtu), unreleased from the sheath of defile
m en t s', i.e. th e M atrix of Tathgata. 2) 4 The Reality apart from pollu
tion ' (nirma tathat) 5 ) is a term for th e same Essence, when it is chara
cterized as th e Perfect Manifestation of Basis (rayaparivrtti) 6 ) in the
Stage of Buddha, i.e. th e Absolute Body of th e Tathgata. 3) ' Imma
culate Qualities of th e Buddha ' means Supermundane Qualities of the
Buddha10 Powers and so onin this Absolute Body of the Tathgata,
characterized as th e Perfect Manifestation of Basis. 4) ' The Buddha's
Act ' means th e automatic 7 ) , highest act of these Qualities of the Buddha,
10 Powers, etc., which continues to give prophecies 8 ) to Bodhisattvas,
without end 9 ) , without interruption, unceasingly. And also, these
four subjects are inconceivable 1 0 ) for four reasons, respectively; therefore,
they are called th e Sphere of Omniscience 1 ] ) .
Then, for which four reasons ?
4)

samal tathat, T . dri(-ma-da)

5)

nirmal tathat, T . dri ma med pahi de-bshin~id,

bcas(-pahi)

de-bshin-id,

C. If. ^flj -""M ?P|

C. jlM. fift pFfcl t f vfv rfc

6)
T . gnas yos-su gyur-pa, C. Jp--|! r E p . T h e t e r m ' raya parivrtti
' se e m s t o h a ve
so m e h o w a differen t sen se t h a n t h e ' rayaparvrtti ' o ft en u sed a m o n g t h e Vij n a
v d i n . T h e differen ce is p r o b a b l y d u e t o wh a t is m e a n t b y ' raya '. H e r e ' raya '
signifies ' dhtu ' o r ' gotra ' i n t h e sen se o f ' tathgatagarbha ' ( see v. V, 7) , wh ile i n case
of ' rayaparvrtti ', ' raya ' sign ifies also ' dhtu ' b u t i n t h e sen se of ' layavijna '
(see S. p . 73, c o m m . o n t h e ve r se q u o t e d fr o m t h e Mahynbhidharmastra).
An d h e r e
' dhtu ', be in g ' cittaprakrti ', is r e ga r d e d a s t h e sa m e a s ' dharmakya ', i. e . t h e R e a l i t y.
O n ly be c a u se of ' gantukaklea ' a t t a c h e d t o i t , i t c a n n o t m a n ife st it self fully. B y r e m o v
in g su c h ' klea ', t h is dhtu be c o m e s m a n ife st e d fully, a s be in g t h e r e a lit y itself. T h is
p o i n t is called ' parivrtti '. O n t h e c o n t r a r y, ' layavijna ' n o lo n ger r e m a i n s t h e sa m e
wh e n ' rayapravrtti ' t a k e s p la c e, a n d t h is c h a n ge of ba sis is called ' parvrtti \ S e e
m y I n t r o d u c t i o n I I I , wh e r e t h e u ses of t h e se t e r m s i n t h e Strlakra a r e d isc u ssed .
7)

pratisvam, T. so-so-ra-gi (of its own), C. y

8)

f^

(natural).

vykarana kath,
T . lu-bstan-pahi
gtam, C. ^ ^ ( ^ ^ $ 3 ) p C
on t h e a t t a i n m e n t of t h e Highest E n l i g h t e n m e n t .
9)

T h e prophecy

anisthita, T. med-par ma gyur-shi* C. ^ (?) ' nisthita ' means ' being done,
ready, fixed or completed, i.e. coming to an end. So, ' anisthita' means ' always not coming to an end '.
10
> Cf. AS 469 6 (beginning of Chap. I I ) .
n
> See note VI 2.

[ 187 ]

J . TAKASAKI

1. Inconceivability of th e 4 Subjects.
Because, [the G erm is] pure but defiled [at one and th e same time],
[The Absolute Body is] of no impurity, and yet purified,
12)
[The Qualities are] of inseparable n a t u r e
[from th e Absolute
[Body], and
[The Acts are] effortless and of no discrimination. // 25/ /
H ere, 1) 4 th e Reality mingled with pollution ' is always, at the same
time, pure and defiled; this point is inconceivable 1 3 ) . [H ere, ' inconcei
vable ' is] in th e sense t h at even for th e P ratyekabuddhas who believe in
the way of profound D octrine 1 4 ) , this is n ot an understandable sphere 1 5 ) .
Because it is said 1 6 ) :
" O G oddess 1 7 ) , these two points are quite difficult to be cognized.
I t is difficult to be cognized th at th e mind is pure by n ature. I t
is also difficult to be cognized th at this very mind is defiled. 0 God
dess, those who can hear these two points [with understanding] are
only either yourself or Bodhisattvas who are endowed with th e great
qualities. O G oddess, for th e other rvakas and P ratyekabuddhas,
these two points are to be understood only through th e faith in th e
Tathgata "18>.
2) ' The Reality apart from pollution ', though it is originally not
defiled by pollution, yet it is purified afterwards; this point is inconceiv
able. Because it is said 1 9 ) :
20)
" The mind is clear by nature . This is th e real knowledge as
21)
22)
it is . Therefore it is said : [the Tathgata] perfectly enligh
12)

avinirbhgadharma,
T . rnam par
dbye ba med
chos, C . ^V* i ^ R T P PjE f2
> Cf. AS 470 c. ( e n d of C h a p . I I ) . ( = S. p . 2 1 , 11. 17 18) .

13

14)

The doctrine of relativity (prattya-samutpda), so C. pft jA| ^ ^ f C. men


tions *rvaka ' along with v pratyekabuddha '. So does AS, too.
15)

agocara visaya, T. spyod yul du ma gyur pahi yul, C. ^ p > f|j ^ff* .
> MS 220 c.
17
* Indicatin g Sr mldev , th e heroine of th e Stra.
18)
Cf. AS 473 c (end of Chap. I I I ) . ( = S. p. 22, 1. 5).
16

> DRS 20 6. (JtU * .. . P 'l> tt


20}
41

prakrti prabhsvaram cittam, C. >&


* tat tathava jnam, T. de ni de khona bshin es so (tat tattvavad jnam,

c in W . >i> * ifijta * in & p.


22>

C. J ; j$ M i J . but DRS itself has this sentence saying ' ^

_
( fig llf '.

It seems the following saying is an old aphorism taken from some other source.

[ 188 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga
23)

tened the Supreme


Perfect Enlightenment by the Intellect en
dowed with contemplation at one m om en t 2 4 ) .
N ext, 3) 'I m m aculate Qualities of the Buddh a' are always25 ' found?
26)
even in the stage of those ordinary people who are absolutely
defiled,
of no differentiation through the inseparable nature [from the Absolute
Body]; this point is inconceivable 27) . Because it is sa id 2 8 ':
44
There is no one among the group of living beings in whose body
the Wisdom of the Tathgata does not penetrate at all 2 9 ) . Ne
vertheless, as taking [wrong] conceptions 3 0 ) , he cannot cognize
the Buddha's Wisdom [residing in himself]. By removing this
taking of conceptions, the Wisdom of Omniscience, self born Wis
31)
dom, makes its appearance again unobstructedly . O Son of the
Buddha, suppose there would be a big painting cloth 32 ', of the size
equal to the G reat 3 thousand thousands of Worlds. And indeed, on
this big cloth, the whole G reat 3 thousand thousands of Worlds would
be described completely. The G reat E arth would be described in
23)
24

The text om. ' anuttar ', but both T. & C. have it.
' ekaksanasamyukta', ilaksana'> after 'ekaksana" in the Text should be omitted.

So do T. & C. T. skad cig ma gcig dan Idan pa, C. " " ^ , l\ j* ^ Q J ^ (citta, instead of
laksana). This is a modifier of ' praj ' by which the Buddha has attained ' anuttar
samyaksambodhi ', i.e. ' praj ' in which both praj and dhyna are associated at one
moment.
25

' paurvparyena, T. saphyir, C. |I| |j; ')$. |^f^ .

26)

eknta, T. gcig-tu, C.

27

" [p] .

> Cf. AS 475 c (end of Chap. IV). (

28

tt

' The Avatamsakastra,


)S

S. p. 22, 11.8 9).

Chap. XXXI I . Tathgatotpattisambhavaparivarta (itU

P O), Taisho, I X, 623 c 624 a (N o. 278).

This Chap. XXXI I is identical

with another independent Stra named Tathgattpattisambhavanirdea (C. 3\U > s. ^ t *


MM ^EC I tr. by D harmaraksa, Taisho, N o. 291).
29
' ' tathgatajna ' in this Stra is identical with ' dhtu' and igotra\ and
shows the origin of the tathgatagarbha theory. See my Introduction IV. Cf. ' buddha
jnntargamt' (v. I, 27).
30
' samjgrha, T. hdueskyi hdsinpa, C. lj|f| pel] (viparyasta).
31
' asagatah, T. thogs-pa med-par, C. ^Jf V ^ - ' asaga' is a modifier of [Buddha's]
jna, see S. p. 241, 1. 2 (asagena tathgatajnena). Cf. Lank. p. 157, 1. 14, 16; Gau
dapda Krik IV, 96.
32
' mahpusta (big book), T. dar yug (a narrow ribbonlike piece of silk stuff (Jschke).

* dar ' & ' j"& ' both mean silk. The use of such silk is for painting.), C. ^gn ^f (roll of
scripture). T. mentions the material and C. shows the form of the ' big book ', according
to the manner peculiar to each country.

[ 189 ]

J. TAKASAKI

the exact size of th e G reat E arth . The 2 thousand Worlds


[would be written] in their own full size. [In th e same way] the
thousands of Worlds, the F our Continents, th e G reai Ocean, th e
Southern Continent of Jamb, the Eastern Continent of Videha,
the [Western] Continent of G odvar , th e N orthern Continent of
Kuru, th e Mount Sumeru, th e Palace of Gods living cm the earth,
th at of Gods living in the Sphere of D esire, and of Gods living in
33
the Sphere of F orm '; all of these would be written in their own
size. And [thus] this big cloth would have th e same size as the
expansion of the G reat 3 thousand thousands of World's. F urther
more, this very big cloth would enter within one particle of an
34)
atom . Just as this big cloth lies within one small particle of
35)l
an atom, in th e same way, in each of all th e other
particles of
atoms, too, there enters a big cloth of th e same size. Suppose there
33

' This passage describes various worlds, from larger one to smaller one, according
to th e Buddhist cosmology. All th e terms mentioned here are as follows:
1) trishasra mahshasra lokadhtu, T. sto-gsum-gyi sto-chen-pohi hjigrten-gyi khams, C. j ^ I y C | TUT v r ;
2) (mahcakravla) (S. & C. om. bu t T. has it), T. khor yug chen po;
3) mahprthiv , T. sa chenpo, C om;
4) dvishasra lokadhatu, T. ston-gis-pahi. . . , C.
5) shasra lokadhtu, T. sto-gi hjig-rten-kyi

. ~ | * IHT yf~

khams, C. -'J'* ~~| 1HT T f i

6) cturdv pika, T. gli bshihi hjig-rten-kyi khams, C. ['y] y\.


7) mahsamudra, T. rgyamtshochenpo, C. om;
8) jambudv pa,

',

T. hdsam buhi gli, C. om. (but usually,

|* ;

[] {-f- Jg /T| or

mm
9) prvavidehadv pa, T. argyi lus hphags kyi gli, C. om.
10) godvar dv pa, T. nub kyi ba-la spyod-kyi gli ( = avara godn ya dvpa),
C. om. ([/| ^f* j i [ yTl); ' godniya"1 is preferable.
11) uttarakuru-dvpa, T. bya-gi sgra-mi san-gyi gli, C. om. (Hu J'^c i . yy|)
12)

sumeru, T. ri rab, C. ^ f

13) bhmyavacaradevavimna,

Uj

(~F.):

T . sala spyodpahi

lhahi gshalyas-*kha, C. ffity

14) kmvacara-d., T. hdod-pa-na spyod-pahi. . . , C. '\x\ J \ ^ ;


15) (rpvacara-d.,) (T. gzugs-na spyod-pahi...,
C. A ^J^ *af
C. has ^K I*-1; ~y\ Q (rpyvacara-d.) after ' rpvacara d.\
here. Cf. M vyut. 153 155.

but it is not the case

34}

paramnu, T. rdul phra rab, C. W ( ^jf|.


anya, bu t T. ma lus pa (aesa) and om. sarfla.
See below (S. 1. 13: tathesebhyah paramnubhyas...).
35)

[ 190 ]

C. om. anya bu t retains sorra.

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

should appear one person, well learned, clever, intelligent, wise


36)
and possessed of the skill to approach there (i.e. to the big cloth).
And his divine eyes were perfectly pure and clear. With these
divine eyes he would perceive [and say]: Why does this big cloth of such
a great nature st ay 3 7 ) here in such a limited small particle of an
at om ! I t is of no use to anybody! So he would think: N ow, I
will break this particle of an atom by the force of great efforts 3 8 )
and let this great cloth become useful for th e world. Then, produ
cing the strength of great efforts, he would break this small particle
of an atom with a subtle diam ond 39 ' and would make th at great
cloth useful for th e world as was his intention. N ot only for one
particle of an atom but also for [all] th e rem aining40) atoms, he
would act in th e same way 4 1 ) .
Similarly, O Son of the Buddha, the Wisdom of the Tathgata,
which is th e immeasurable wisdom, th e profitable wisdom for all
living beings 42> , thoroughly 4 3 ) penetrates within th e mentality 4 4 )
of every living being. And every mental disposition of a living
being has th e same size as th e Buddha's Wisdom 4 5 ) . Only th e
ignorant, however, being bound by misconceptions 4 6 ) does neither
know nor cognize nor understand 4 7 ) nor realize th e Wisdom of the
Tathgata [within himself]. Therefore, th e Tathgata, having ob
served th e state 4 8 ) of all th e living beings in all the universal re
36)
37)

m mms,
anutisthate

T . spyod pa ( = cary,
( t m a n e p a d a ) .

'habit'),

C. o m .

38)

C J|7J \ p fj jlc. (upyena or upya sawjanayitv). T. adds ' vajrena ', which
appears in the next sentence in S.
39
' C. o m . ' sksmavajrena '.
40)
The reading is preferably ' tath esebhyah ' instead of * tathesethyah '. Bu t
T. reads ' lus pa med pa mthah dag las\ as S.
41>
C. o m . t h e wh ole sen t en ce.
42)

C. in st ea d h a s ' :J|y? / I 'M f=3 HH^ vftv t?(l f^3 ^ H ' (animittajnam

gajnam).
43
' sakalam,

T . ma-tsha-ba

med-par

asa-

(aesena).

44)

citta santna, T. sems kyi rgyud, C. [^fC ] J[\ See BH S D ie. ' santna \
Often ' santna ' alone is used in the same sense.
45)
T . ...ye es
dan hdra bar tshad med do.
(sattvasantna,
b e i n g e n d o we d wi t h
tathgatajna,
is also apramna.
C . o m . t h i s se n t e n c e .

"> samjgrha, C. M @| M ( S 38 M 181 . A S SI ffil).


* 7 ) anu \ bh.

C. A*

5 n=j 'I j* (not producing faith in . . . ) .

verb.
48J

bhavana,

T . gnas ( = sthna).

[ 191 ]

C. om. the last

J . TAKASAK1

gion 4 9 ) by his unobstructed Wisdom, resolves to be a teacher [and


says:] 'Wh at a p it y! These [living beings cannot cognize pro
perly the Wisdom of the Tathgata, though it penetrates them . O !
I shall try to withdraw all the obstacles made by wrong concep
tions for the sake of these living beings through the teaching of
50)
[8 fold] H oly P ath , in order th at they would by themselves,
by accepting the power of the H oly P ath , cast off the big knot of
conceptions and would recognize the Wisdom of the Tathgata
[within themselves], also t h at they would obtain equality with
the Tathgata '. [In accordance with this declaration], they re
move all the obstacles made by wrong conceptions through the
teaching of the [H oly] P ath of the Tathgata. And when all the
obstacles created by wrong conceptions are withdrawn, then this
immeasurable Wisdom of the Tathgata becomes useful to all the
world ".
Now, 4) ' the Buddha's Acts ' proceed forth at one time, every
where, always, without efforts, without discrimination, according to the
intention [of the living beings], according to [the faculty of] the living
beings who are to be disciplined 5 1 ) without fault 5 2 ) , in conformance with
their merits 5 3 ) ; this point is inconceivable 5 4 ) . Because it is said 5 5 ) :
" I n order to enroll the living beings [in the Buddha's D octrine] 5 6 )
the Acts of Tathgata, though they are unlimited, are taught as if
49
' sarvadharmadhtu sattvabhavanni, T. chos kyi dbyis sems-can-gyi gnas thamscad-la, T. regards ' sarva ' as relating to bhavana. But cf ' sarvadharmadhtuprasrtam
tathgatajnam ' (Rsfraplapariprcch, p. 4, 1. 12) C. om. ' dharmadhtu '.
60
' ' ryena mrgopadeena ' in the text. But it should be corrected into ' rya
mrgopadeena \ since 'rya' modifies 'mrga' but not ' upadea ') . T. hphags pahi

lam, C. ,3=L iU=L See below (S. p . 24, 1. 5: ryamrgabaldhnena.) (F or this mrga,
T. reads jna, probably by mistake).

> So in C. ( | t )lH "5J <ffc *fc } fll H i) , and it makes the meaning clear
and supports the reading 'yath ' in the text. Therefore, the reading is preferable ' vai
neyikesu (vaineyika > vineya C. Bj 'j'LJ, T . gdul bya)
s2)

aksnam, T . mtsha-ba
D ie. ' aksna').

med-ci,

in st ead of ' vainaikesu '.

C. ^V* p g ^ I N j j | ^ . ksna = dosa (see B H S

5S)

anugunam. C. |^|^ ;'[f{ (probably om. ' guna'), T. rjes su mthun par.
' Cf. AS 476 b (end of Chap. V) where the following quotation from D R S is
utilized. ( = S. p . 24, 1. 9; p . 25, 1. 3).
S5)
D RS 21 c.
64

66

> I accepted C reading ' ^ " t $ ^

^ A

[ 192 ]

ft

V tf* (in buddhadharma) \

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

they were somewhat lim ited 57) , with summarized n u m ber 5 8 '.
H owever, o N oble Youth, th at which is the true act of the
Tathgata is immeasurable, inconceivable, uncognizable by all th e
world, indescribable by letters, difficult to be acquired by others,
established 5 9 ) in all Buddhas' lands, rendered in equality with
60)
all th e Buddhas, far beyond all works of exertion , of no discri
mination as being equal to th e sky, of no differentiation 6 1 ) as
being th e act of the universal essence " 6 2 ) &c.
Then, after showing the example of pure, precious Vaidlya stone 6 3 ,
it is taught as follows 6 4 ) .
44

O noble youth, in this manner 6 5 ) , this Buddha's inconceivable


Act should be known as rendered in equality [with all th e Buddhas],
66)
67)
nowhere blam able , related to th e three divisions of t im e , and
not interrupting th e lineage of th e 3 Jewels 6 8 ) . Residing in this
inconceivable Act of th e Tathgata, th e Buddha never casts off
69)
the sky like nature of his body
and he shows himself in all th e
Buddhas' lands; without casting off th e indescribable nature of his
67)

pramnatah, T. tshad-da Idan-par, C. ^pj JT .


> samksepamtrakena. C. om.

68

S9)

adhisthita. T. gnas pa. C. ' / [* yf. ^g, ' shows a different reading (apratipra

rabdha).
60

> bhogakriy, T. hbad rtsol dan bya ba, C. ^ ffi f p l f .


nirnnkranam (Ms B. reading corrected by T. Chowdhury in his introductory
note to the Skt. text) is acceptable, but it is preferable to read ' . . . karana ' instead of
61)

' . . .krana '. See B H S D ie. ' nnkarana '. T . thadaddu dbyermedpa, C. -Jft J j ^ 5>T
^yx* Art-- M>tS}
* dharmadhtu kriy. So in T. C. fC |fE S (dharmadhtu svabhva).
") See S. p . 5, 1. 9 ff.

62

*) D R S 21 c.
*6 )

> anavadya,
67)

Cf. AS. 476 b.

anena paryyena,

T . rnam-gras

hdis, C. Y{\ I t t ^ p R|K (by this example).

T. kha-na-ma-tho-ba

med-pa,

C. A^

]* Hf (AS $ f ^ ) .

T . & C. agree t o p u t o n e e p it h e t m o r e befo re ' triratnavama...

da rjes-su hbrel-pa (tryadhvnubaddha), C.

*, UL

'. T . dus gsum

\~ ^rf (tryadhvasamam). Cf. AS

fog, 4 T .""*. |P ~ W L (prob. as T.). T. reading is here accepted.


68)

t r i r a t n a v a m a , T . dkon mchog gsum gyi

gdu, C.

69)

". ^ ^ ( A S _~ZL ^ C I ' ) '

kasvabhvat.
C. jifft ^ ^ fJZ Mf". H ereaft er t h e referen ce is t o t h e 3
actions, by deed, word and mind. C. failed to catch this point, But AS is apparently
correct.
[

193

J. TAKASAKI
speech, he teaches the Doctrine for the sake of living beings through
the proper word-communication; and being apart from all objects of the mind 7 0 ) , still he can understand the deeds and intentions of the minds 7 1 ) of all living beings.

2.

The Germ as Cause and Conditions of the 3 Jewels in its four Aspects.
The object to be enlightened, the Enlightenment,
The attributes of the enlightenment,
The act to instruct the enlightenment 7 2 ) ;
[Of these four], respectively,
One subject signifies the cause,
[The remaining] three are the conditions
For the purification of the former 7 3 ) . // 26 //

Indeed, of these four subjects, with reference to their inclusion of all


knowable objects, the first subject should be known as c the object to
be enlightened' (boddhavya)'?4:). The second subject, 'the Enlightenment'
(bodhi) should be known in the sense that the object to be enlightened
has been awakened, therefore it is the Enlightenment. Being the portions
of enlightenment, they are called Buddha's attribute; in this sense the
third subject, 4 the attributes of the Enlightenment (bodhyaga)' is to be
known. Only through the attributes of Enlightenment is there instruction
for others; in this sense the fourth subject, ' the act to instruct the
Enlightenment (bodhana)9 is to be known75). Thus with reference to these
70)

sarvacittrambana,

C. " 'fcJJ i^K j *lj" jy\ ^^ H I ; . N o t e C. t r a n s l a t i o n of

' rambana' by f^t or jy\ ; g^ I|JL and compare to S. p . 11,1. 2 (v. 9), where ' ram
bana ' is translated by ' 3 L ftp '. Also see S. p. 110 (v. IV, 73): nirlambe (C. 3J9?
H ) . See N ote I I I 5, 39. (Cf. AS J ^ | f).
71)

cittacaritaym

ca. T . sems kyi

spyod pa dan bsam pa yah, C. jffj 'Li"* 4~T"

(om . aya).
Cf. AS. ^ f ^ t f^ J ^ ^
(citta indriya aya?).
Ace. t o T . , t h e
readin g is preferably corrected in to ' cittacaritn ayms ca ', otherwise ' ca' is t o b e
rem oved as a n excess.
72)
Four subjects from the standpoint of Enlightenment (bodhi).
73)
i.e. ' the object to be enlightened '. I t correspond to ' gotra ' itself.
74
> 'bodhya* in v. 26.
76)
Of these 4, C. has confusion in its interpretation, C. translation of the first line

is as follows: * 0 f ft (bodhya) # j g (bodhi), "fife # S | ft (bodhyaga) %\\


1=4 !& 73 ^&C \Ck (bodhana, the reading bodhan is to be corrected into bodhana),
[ 194 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

four subjects, the arrangement of th e Germ of the 3 Jewels in the state


f cause and conditions is to be known.
H ere, of these four subjects, the first one, as being the seed of the
supermundane thing, should be understood as th e cause (hetu) of origina
tion of the 3 Jewels with reference to its ( = of the Germ) purification ba
sed upon ' each own ' correct thinking. Thus " one subject signifies
the cause ". H ow are there three conditions ? The Tathgata, having
realized the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment, manifests the Act of Tath
gata of 32 features 7 6 ) , being endowed with the Virtuous Qualities of the
Buddha, 10 Powers, etc. This is to be understood as the condition (pra
tyaya) for the origination of the 3 Jewels with reference to the purification of
Germ based upon the voice of others 7 7 ) . Thus " [the remaining] three
are the condition ".
H ereafter, of these four subjects, a detailed and analytical explana
tion will be made known in the remaining chapters.

^ 9t ^

S '

T li

e last pada ' ^

|* jfjj

^ J H ' should be taken as an

explanatory adjective to ' bodhana % and be read ' bodhana, by which the people attain
the en lighten m en t'. N evertheless, C. applies each phrase for each subject in the prose
commentary. I t is obviously wrong.
76)
Cf. S. p . 6, 1. 16 ( a c e . t o D R S ) .
77)
paratah, which corresponds to ' pratytma ' (each own) with reference to ' hetu ',
Of this correspondence, C. has no interpretation in the prose commentary, but in the
verse C. adds 2 padas showing this. H owever, C. again failed to catch the sense and re
gards the former two subjects as relating to ' svrtha ', and the remaining two as ' parr-

* Mug

mSfermsto

[ 195 ]

I.

VI I .

SAMAL TATH AT

TH E SERMON : ALL LIVIN G BEIN G S ARE POSSESSED


OF TH E MATRIX OF TH E TATHAG ATA.

N ow, wit h referen ce to ' t h e R ealit y m in gled wit h p o llu t io n ' , it is


said: All livin g bein gs are possessed of t h e M at rix of t h e T a t h ga t a X ) .
2)
By wh ich m ean in g is it said t h u s
?
x)
This formula shows a principle common to a group of Sutras and Sstras which
express the tathgatagarbha theory. The first appearance of this formula seems to be in
the Tathgatagarbhastra on which the Ratna. mainly depends. The Stra, of which the
Skt. text is missing now, is retained in both T. & C.: T. Kg Mdo XXI I , Tohoku N o. 258,

C. Taisho, N o. 666 ' ^ C ~J^ ^

# P 3fv ^

' tr. by Buddhabhadra between

408 429 A.D. and N o. 667 ~)\ , ~}j | | f # 0 ^ ^


^M ' tr. by Amoghavajra in the
8th cent. A. D. H ereafter C. N o. 666 will be used for the reference with the abbrevi
ation, TG S.
This formula runs in C. as follows:

l ffi H &

t&MM

(TGS, 457 r).

Prior to this sentence, the Stra says:

* I?, m * Bg. to%i&


(With Buddha's eyes, I observe t h at all living beings, though they are among the
defilements of hatred, anger and ignorance, have the Buddha's Wisdom, Buddha's eye,
Buddha's body sitting firmly in the meditating form).
This shows the reason for the statement mentioned above, i.e. " sarvasattvs tath
gatagarbhh ' and as this idea of the penetration of buddhajna is expressed in the Ava
tamsakastra (Tathgatotpattisambhavapariv, see N ote VI28, 29, and my Introduction),
it is clear t h at TG S borrowed this idea from t h at Stra and established the above formula.
After the first sentence, the Stra furthermore says:

& ft 'A* 'H; (ibid.).


(es dharmnm dharmat, utpdd v tathgatnm anutpdd v sadavate sattvs
tathgatagarbhh) (quoted in S. p. 73).
This third one shows t h at the formula is the eternal truth , and by combi
Note 2 on foil. p.

[ 196 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga
(Krik 5)

3>

The m ultitudes of living beings are included


in the Buddha's Wisdom 4 ) ,
Their immaculateness is non dual by n ature,
Its result 5 ) manifests itself on the Germ of the Buddha 6 ) ;
7)
Therefore, it is said: all living beings
are possessed of the Matrix of the Buddha. // 27 //
[What is shown by this loka ?]8 )
The Buddha's Body penetrates everywhere,
Reality is of undifferentiated n ature,
And the Germ [of the Buddha] exists [in the living beings].
Therefore, all living beings are
always possessed of the M atrix of th e Buddha. // 28 //
ning these three sentences together, we can get the main doctrine of the stra.
H ere in the Ratna., the main purpose of the teaching is to emphasize this point and,
basing himself upon the TG S, the author analysed and systematized the tathgatagarbha
theory. F irst of all, the author picked up the fundamental characteristics of tathga
tagarbha in the 3 meanings, he next explained its features and functions summarized
in 10 points, and lastly, the 9 illustrations in order to show how living beings are cover
ed with defilements.
2
* The order of the text differs among S., T. & C. S. keeps quite a regular order start
ing with the Krik (v. 27), but omits th e usual heading before the next commentary
verse (v. 28). T. has clearly confasions in th e prose commentary as J suggested. About
C , on the contrary, starting with the commentary verse (v. 28) like T., it puts v. 27 after
' tathgatagarbhastrnusrena nirdeo bhavisyati ' with the heading: as said in the Krik
text (V{,\ \ |$ g /Q. ^ ). As regard this point, it looks all right and it is imaginable that the
text used for C. translation had this order, i.e. v. 27 was put after the explanation.
But from ' prvataram tu ' up to ' uddnam ' is missing in C. and v. 28 is followed by
v. 29 with no heading.
3)

ri, T . tshogs, C . ffi.

4)

' buddhajnntargamt

sattvareh ' m e a n s gr a m m a t i c a l ly t h a t sattva ri

goes

in t o buddhajna.
B u t T . a s t r a n sla t i o n , C. 'A^* p|ji; j^ R t^3 ( bein g n o t se p a r a t e d
from B u d d h a ' s Wi sd o m ) . T h is id e a is sh o wn i n t h e Avatamsaka
q u o t e d i n S. p . 22.
(see a bo ve , N o t e VI I 1 ) .
5)
T h e r e su lt of i m m a c u la t e n e ss i. e. buddhat, dharmakya,
e t c . o r of sattvari.

Is C. ' ? J f 4 ^ ' identified with it ?


6)
bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacrt.
F o r upacra, T . er-brtags. (In t h e sense of
* carati ', resides). C. translation of this line is as follows: ffc
. J-T -dte- /&) 3 ^ . ffijC
\\\
jJ ra
P i i^ "^ff
'
\\\
Oj/J
ra D
DP
** * |_E =^T (because of the body of real nature, equal to all the Buddhas). I t is
difficult to identify it with the present Skt. reading.
7)
sarve dehinah = sarvasattvh
= [sarva] ar rinah ( in t h e fo llo win g ve r se ) .
8)
Inserted according to the conformity, (anena kim daritam / ).

[ 197 ]

J . TAKASAKI

In short, by three kinds of meaning, it is said by the Lord th at all


living beings are always possessed of th e Matrix of Tathgata. That
is to say, by the following three meanings: 1) the Absolute Body (dharma
kya) of the Tathgata penetrates all living beings; 2) the Tathgata
being the Reality (tatht), is th e undifferentiated whole; and 3) there
exists the G erm of the Tathgata (tathgatagotra) [in every living being] 9 ) .
And of these three subjects 1 0 ) , the [detailed] explanation will be made
n )
below
according to the Tathgatagarbha stra. Prior to it, however,
there is [another] meaning by which this meaning in all its aspects is in
dicated in th e Scripture 12 ) with no variance an ywh ere l 3 ) . With refe
rence to th at as well, I shall now explain.
9)

1) (sarvasattvesu)
tathgata dharmakya parispharanrtha,
T.
de bshin gegs
chos kyi skus hpho bahi don;
2) tathgata tathat 'vyatirekrtha,
T . de bshin gegs pahi
de-bshin-id
rnampar dbyer med-pahi don;
3) tathgata gotra sambhavrtha,
T . de bshin gegs pahi
rigs yod pahi
don.
C. h a s n o e q u i va l e n t wo r d fo r e a c h su b je c t . T h e t e r m ' sambhava ' wo u ld m e a n
b o t h ' b e i n g ' a n d ' b e c o m i n g '. T . ' y od pa ' sh o ws t h e first sen se, b u t i t se e m s t o b e
not enough to express the idea contained here, in comparison with the phrase: ' gotre.. .
upacrt ' in v. 27. Th at is to say, the sense ' origination ' or ' manifestation ' is to be
implied here. These three are the fundamental characteristics of tathgatagarbha, as well
as the ground of the statem en t: sarvasattvs tathgatagarbhh. Equality through dhar
makya, tathat and tathgatagotra is also a point of emphasis in the text. These are called
pahi

* trividha svabhva ' of tathgatadhtu (S. p . 69, 1. 17). Cf. BG 808 a, V^ r % , ^ P $Q ,


* ii*

IL.lL.

UP p ' respectively. The threefold meaning of the term tathgatagarbha mentioned


below (S. p . 70, 1. 16 18; p. 71, 1. 10 12; p. 72, 1. 7 9) as well as in BG (795 c ff.) is also
an implication of this same idea.
Three terms in BGS are as follows:
1) A/T Vv $&

tathgata, as garbha in which sattvas are ' enveloped ';

2) BH v L $$ ' garbha in which tathgata is ' hidden ';


3) H b tPRF $lxi' sattvas possessed of garbha of tathgata, i.e. of garbha ' enve
loping ' tathgata.
The first one shows the all pervadingness of' dharmakya ' the 2nd should be applied
to ' samal tathat ' in the sense ' sarvakleakoopagdho dharmakyah', and the 3rd
shows the existence of 'gotra'' among sattvas. See N ote X 139 140 150 151 169 170.
10)

arthapada, T . don kyi gnas, C. uJ I f |.

> Se e S. p p . 6 9 7 3 .
pravacana. This sentence is missing in C. T. reads this word as the subject
(gsu-rab) See below.
13)
aviesena. Significance of this sentence is as follows:
The 3 meanings mentioned above are applicable exclusively to Tathgatagarbha;
on the other hand, the following meanings, beginning with svabhva, are applicable to
any subject (sarvatrviesena) and are already used in the scripture. See Appendix I I I .
12)

[ 198 ]

VI I I .

AN ALYSIS OF TH E G ERM FROM 10 POIN TS OF VIEW


1J

Summary :
The own nature and th e cause,
The result, function, union and manifestation,
Various states and all pervadingness,
The qualities always unchangeable and non diiFerentiation;
In these [points of view], there should be known
The im plication 2) of th e Absolute Essen ce 3) . // 29 //
In short, with reference to 4 ) these 10 meanings, there should be un
5)
derstood the various aspects of the Essence of th e Tathgata, which is
the sphere of th e highest true knowledge 6 ) . What are th e 10 meanings ?
They are namely : 1) th e own nature (svabhva) [of the G erm]; 2) th e
cause (hetu); 3) the result (phala) [of its purification]; 4) th e function
(karman) [towards th e purification]; 5) th e union (yoga) [of th e G erm];
6) th e manifestation (vftti) [of the G erm]; 7) th e various states (avasthpra
bheda) [of its manifestation]; 8) all pervadingness (sarvatraga) 7 ) [of the
G erm]; 9) unchangeability (avikra) [of the Germ through various states];
and 10) non differentiation (abheda) [of th e G erm with th e R eality] 8 ) .
x>

uddna, T. sdom, C. "jfg ij . This verse on the 10 meanings (v. 29) has a doubtful
position as the original Krik, though it is mentioned in the Krik text of C. Because
it follows immediately upon th e word ' vaksymi ' in the last sentence, it seems th at
this uddna was composed by the commentator prior to explaining following Kriks.
Therefoie, I ventured to omit this verse from the line of Kriks.
2)

arthasamdhi, T. dgos-don (implied meaning), C. <$? | | | | y\.


order of the excellent meanings).
Art3)

paramrtha-dhtu,
T . don-dam-dbyis,
of tathgatadhtu, i.e. gotra).
4)
abhisamdhya,
C . |f\ . . . .
B)
6)

C. 5f?

5f? (succeeding

t v y+- ifctf-

* - J i . f^ jffE (dhtu in t h e sen se

vyavasth, T . mam par


gshag pa, C . 5 | / ; ' J .
paramalattva jnavisayas tathgatadhtuh. An explanation of the term para

mrthadhtu in the verse. C rendering of tathgatadhtu here is ' \f$ |f '


7)
sarvagatva i n t h e v e r s e.
8)

Corresponding terms for these 10 in T. & C. are as follows:

1) Ao-bo, 'tH; 2) rgyu, 0 ;

3) hbras[-bu], ^ ;

[ 199 ]

4) las, | f | ;

5) Idan-pa,

(I) SVABHVA & (I I ) H ETU 9)

Now, with reference to the meaning of


there is one loka.

own n a t u r e ' and ' cause *

(Krik 6)
[The M atrix of the Tathgata] is always undefiled by nature
Like the pure jewel, the sky and water;
n )
I t follows after
the faith in the D octrine,
The highest Intellect, Meditation and Compassion 12>. // 30 //

1.

10)

The N ature of the Essence of the Tathgata.


H ere, what is shown by the former half of this loka ?
Because of its own nature of power,
Identity, and being moist; in these [three points]
[The Essence of the Tathgata has] a resemblance l 3 )
To the quality of the wish fulfilling jewel, the sky and water.
// 31 //

T0 J/* 6) hjug pa, 4~r ' > 7) gnas skabs kyi rab tu dbye ba, H ^ 3*[? / j'J
bheda), 8) kun tu hgro ba, 3

' %}] | ; 9) mi-hgyur-ba, A,^ !>;

(kla pra

dbyer-med-pa,

Cf.BG7966: 1) g f| ffi ; 2) 0 ffi ; 3) ^ ffi ; 4) ^ | g ffi ; 5) jffi


3il ft J a n ' ^ these 10 categories, the first 6 are common to the 8 categories on
' nirmal tathat ' (Chap. I I ) , and the application of the same 6, from svabhva to vrtti,
is also observed in YBh. (Taisho, XXX, 36 a), MSA, I X, 56 59, comm., etc. Also the
Mahynadharmadhtvaviesastra (DAS) mentions 12 categories with respect to ' bo

dhicitta ' (DA 892 a), namely: 1) J |c ; 2) g j ; 3) g ft ; 4) J | | ^ ; 5) M ^

# '] ;

6) # ft; 7) 31 Ife; 8) $T fi; 9) ffi |K; 10) S ft ^ fI], ii) f


^

^ I j;

12) *

ft.

See Appendix I I I .

> Cf. BG 796 b (I. svabhva & II hetu), DA 892 a (3.

10)

ft,

2. 0 ) .

prakrty asamklista. F or prakrti, T. ra-bshin, C. y


p . The subject term
for this and the following Kriks is ' jinagarbha ' in v. 45.
n )
anvaya, T. ...las byu-ba (come out from...), C. om.
12
* dharmdhimukti, adhipraj, samdhi, karun, respectively, which show the
cause of purification. See below.
13)

sdharmya, T. chos mthun-pa-id,

C. ^ Q fJ, ^

[ 200 ]

W$ ffc .

The

R a t n a got r a v i b h ga

* In these ' three [points], which are already mentioned above 1 4 ) ,


the resemblance of the Essence of the Tathgata to the purified quality
of the wish fulfilling jewel, the sky and water, respectively, should be
known with reference to its particular and common characteristics. Now,
first of all, a resemblance to the wish fulfilling jewel is to be known
of the Absolute Body of the Tathgata, with reference to its particular
l5)
characteristic, the own nature of powers (prabhva), fulfillment of desired
16)
objects
etc. A resemblance to the sky is to be known of the Reality,
with reference to its own nature of identity [everywhere] (ananyathbhva) as
the particular characteristic. A resemblance to water is to be known 1 7 ) of
the G erm of the Tathgata, with reference to its moist nature (snigdhabhva)
of mercy towards living beings as the particular characteristic. And
now, of all t hese, with reference to their being undefiled always, absolutely,
by nature, i.e., t h e innate purity as the common characteristic, this very
resemblance [of the Essence] to the purified qualities of wish fulfilling
jewel, the sky and water is to be understood.

2.

Obstructions and Causes of Purification

18)

Now, what is shown by the latter half of the loka (v. 30) ?
There are four kinds of Obstructions 1 9 ) :
Enm ity 2 0 ) to the D octrine and perception of the Self,
u )

vv. 27, 28 and its commentary, i.e. trividhasvabhva of tathgatadhtu.

1B)

samrddhi,

16)

T . grub pa (= siddhi), C. ff ^

(as T.).

cintitrtha, T. bsam-pahi don, C. 0 f fj\ (C. ' 0 f ft ' after ' 0 f &% ' is

probably a misreading of prabh for bhvan). C. has a lacuna after samrddhi up to the
end of the commentary on v. 31, but it puts ' JS '/ m ' (cmf t) * before ' tathga
tadharmakye ' and it seems to correspond to ' jQfr f lH? ', in v. 31 of C , but not
found in S.
17)
F or these 3 terms showing the similarity in particular characteristics, T., C.
& BG (796 6) runs as follows:
_

1) T. mthuhi o-bo-id, C. ft
2)

T . gshan du

ma-yin-pa-id-kyi

j] , BG #H ^
ra-gi

XJ f^

o-bo, C. s\* ^ , BGS Tf ; ^ ^ ' j ^ ;

3) T. brlan-pahi ra-gi o-bo, C j^C Wv BGS ^p^ ^fl* 'KX


> Cf. B G 797 a.

18

19)

varana, T . sgrib, C. |*!p. ^ ^ .

20)

praligha,

T . kho-khro

( h a t r e d , w r a t h , e n m i t y ) , C. pjj (abuse).

[ 201 ]

f^;

J. TAKASAKI

Fear of Suffering in this world,


21
And indifference to the profit of living beings );
// 32 //
22
[These are respectively] of the Icchantikas \
Of the H eretics23) , the fvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas 24>;
The virtues, the faith [in the D octrine] etc., are
The four Causes of purification. // 33 //
In brief there are those three kinds of living beings among their mul
titudes 2 5 ) : 1) those who cling to the worldly life (bhavbhilsin), 2) those
who seek for deliverance from it (vibhavbhilsin), 3) those who wish nei
26
ther of both (tadubhaynabhilsin) >. Of them, 1) those who cling to
the worldly life ' should be known as twofold, a) The people whose
intention is against the path to Emancipation and who never belong to
the family of the perfect N irvana (aparinirvnagotraka) 27), Those are
only seeking for Phenomenal Life and not for N irvana. And b) Those
28
people who, although belonging to this Our Religion (ihadhrmika) >,
29)
have definitely fallen into the former's way . Some of these are
hostile to the D octrine of the G reat Vehicle. With reference to them,

21

' The reading should be ' sattvrthanirapeksat ' (or arthe nirape ) instead of
* artham nirapeksat ' in the text. T. sems can don la Itos med pa.
22

> icchantika, T. hdod chen, C. HR J ; ( ' W] J H ) (of this literal meaning, BH S


D ie. s. v.). As a Buddhist technical term, it means one who longs only for worldly plea
sure ( = bhavbhilsin, see below), more strictly, one who abuses the Buddhist doctrine,
esp. t h at of M ahyna. The capacity for Enlightenment of this Icchantika is usually
denied as being ' aparinirvnagotraka '. But from the viewpoint of the tathgatagarbha
theory, the Iochantika is said to be able to get Enlightenment as taugh t in this text
(S. p . 37, 1. 1 fli.).
23)

t rthya, T. mu stegs, C. y\

jg[ ( = anyatrthika) ttrthika.

24

> svayambh in the text (T. ra-byu, C. @ 5t).


") Cf. AS 471 a; BG 797 b ff.
26)

Of these 3, 1) T. srid pa hdod pa, C. ^

C j S . F P <^ "W
pectively.

Cf. AA II, 6.

^ f ; 2) T. srid-pa-da bral-bar hdod-pa,

) de-gis-ka mon-par mi-hdod-pa, C. A^

<K l K IH, res-

27

' T. yos-su mya-an-las mi-hdah-bahi rigs-can, C. vS /r 5 5 I-E This sentence and the next show the definition of Icchantika.
28

> T. chos hdi-pa-id, C. ^ $j? ffc ^ (within the Buddhist fold). The word
* iha ' here means ' in this religion ' but not ' in this world '. Cf. Pali idha, which is used
in this sense in Vibhaga 245 (PTS Die. s. v.).
29)
i.e. ' sarnsram eva icchanti na nirvnam ', C. [/ jQ yj\ j {Z ' p] Pflj :Ja JpJ \ \ L
(as same as Icchantika in their position).

[ 202 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga
30)

the Lord said as follows :


" I am not their teacher; they are not my pupils. O riputra, I
say of them th at they are chiefly filled with darkness, as migrat
ing from darkness to another darkness, from gloom to greater
gloom 3 1 ) .
N ext, 2) i those who seek for deliverance from this worldly life ' are
also twofold, a) Those who have fallen into a methodless way (anupya
patita) and 6) i those who are in [the correct] method ' (upyapatita) 3 2 ) .
H ere, 't h o se who are of no m et h o d ' are again divided into t h ree 3 3 ) .
i) Outsiders of this Religion (itobhya) 34>, i.e. various kinds of H eretics
(anyat rthya), i.e. th e Carakas35), the P arivrjakas36 ', th e J a in s 3 7 ) , etc.
ii) & Hi) Insiders of Our Religion, but whose conduct is in common with
the H eretics 3S \ They, though being faithful in [Buddhism], take hold
of bad conceptions 39>. Then, what are they ? They are namely, ii) those
who have th e perception of the substantial Ego (pudgaladrsti) 4 0 ) and
have no faith in th e H ighest Truth. With reference to them, the
Lord said 4 1 ) :
" One who has no faith in N on substantiality is not different from
the H eretics ".

30
> AAN 467 c. Cf. AS 471 a. C. (and AAN as well) ' I will call them icchantikas\
instead of ' tamobhyisth '.
31

> tamasas tamo * ntaram andhakln mahndhaklagminah, C. '< j^ J y\ . \ ja\ ,

"$. ~^C y\

"J^C

But T. mun pa las kya ches, mun-pa chen-por hgro-ba.

32)

Of these 2, 1) T. thabs ma-yin-pa-la shugs-pa, C. 38 ? R i l l ~/J iSl


2) T. thabs-la shugs-pa, C. ^ | <fc i H /J US., respectively.
33)

C. ' two ', combining the latter two in S. & T. into one. So do AS. & BG .
This seems to be th e original reading.
34)
I n contrast with ' ihadhrmika '. The word ' itobhya ' is literally an adjective
to ' trthya '. T. hdi-las phyi-rol-tu gyur-pa, C. om.
as well.

35)
36)

caraka (lit. wanderer), T . tsa-ra-ka,


( lit . religio u s wa n d e r e r ) , T . kun tu

C. regards t h e m as t h e S m k h ya ( I f
rgyu ( o n e wh o goes everywh ere) , C. r e ga r d s

them as the Vaiesika ( H i "tit $$).


37)
nirgranthi putra, T . gcer~bu ba (naked people), C. / |$ |Sfc ^=f J t "j
39

' durgrh tagrhin, T. dkah bahi Ita ba hdsin pa (durdrstigrhin), C. l j||| |33
(viparysagrhin). T. reading is accepted in this translation.
40)
41

C. mentions Vts putr yas (^fH ~J


* The source is unknown.

PP)

[ 203 ]

a s

a n

example.

J. TAKASAKI

Hi) Those who have the conception of th e N on substantiality and are


proud of it are doubtless at th e door of Emancipation through th e N on
substantiality 4 2 ) in this religion 4 3 ) . But as they are intoxicated with
this N on substantiality, it follows for them th at N on substantiality itself
becomes a [wrong] con ception 44) . With reference to these, he ( = the
45)
Lord) said [in the Scripture] :
" O Kyapa, really even such a conception which maintains
substantial Ego as much as M t. Sumeru is better than th e
conception of N on substantiality on th e part of those who are
proud of it ".
H ere, b) 'th ose who are in [the correct] m eth od' are again twofold.
i) Those who belong to the Vehicle of the rvaka and ii) those who belong
to the Vehicle of th e P ratyekabuddha. [Both of them] have proceeded
46)
on the fixed way of rightfulness .
And next, 3) ' those who wish neither of both th e worldly life and
deliverance from it ' are the people who are standing firmly amidst the
G reat Vehicle and are of th e highest, talented faculty. They are not
seeking for th e Phenomenal Life as the Icchantikas do, nor are they those
who are in no method like H eretics, nor those who are in th e correct me
thod [for deliverance] like rvakas and Pratyekabuddhas, but, having
47>
48)
entered
the P ath to obtain
[the intuition of] the equality of this
Phenomenal Life with N irvana, they intend not to stay fixedly in the
N irvana (apratislhitanirvna) 4 9 ); their activities 5 0 ) are based upon Phe
51)
nomenal Life
but without being defiled by it, and their root is perfectly

42)
43)

tad vimoksamukhe.
iha.

C. ^y

The same use as in ' ihadhrmika '.

45>

C jp >fJi ^ c *y* (Ratnaktastre). This is a passage in Kyapa parivarta


of th e Ratnaktastra. (Taisho, XI , p . 634 a). Cf. AS 471 6; BG 797 b (quotation
from AS); Lank. p . 146, 11 13.
46)
samyaktva niyma, T. ya-dag-par es-pa-id.
C. om. the whole compound.
47
' pratipanna, T. shugspa (to enter), see Note V23.
48)
patti in th e text, but T. thob pa, (C. offers no help). As by J.'s suggestion,
pti had better be accepted. (Cf. S. p . 29 1. 4 samatpti-mrga pratipannh).
49

* T. mignaspahi myaanlashdas-pa. (T. adds brtenpa (rita) after nir

vana), C. A^ ft VM 5 S A ft Btl S iSS) This is the highest and ideal feature


of nirvana in the Mahyna doctrine. See S. p. 35, 1. 2 ff.
50)

prayoga, T. sbyor ba can, C. jl| 4 T

61)

samsragata, C. THT [Mj ' f T .

F or ' gata ', T. brten pa(= rita).

[ 204 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

pure as being grounded in the firm Compassion and Superior Intention 52) .
53)
And here , 1) those people who cling to this wordly life, i.e. the
Icchantikas and5 4 ) those who, though belonging to this Our Religion,
have definitely fallen into the former's way are called (A) the group of
people who conform in th e wrong way (mithytvaniyatah sattvarih).
2 o) ' Those people who seek for deliverance from the worldly life but have
no method ' are called (B) th e group of people unconformed (aniyatafi s.).
2 6) ' Those people who seek for deliverance with th e correct method '
and 3) ' those who wish neither of both and have entered th e path through
which [the intuition of] the equality [of the Phenomenal Life with the
N irvana] is attained are called (C) the group of people who conform in the
right way {samyaktvaniyatab s.).
Of 55) these [groups of living beings], keeping aside those people who
stand firmly in the G reat Vehicle and follow the unobstructed way 56>,
other people are [fourfold] 57\ i.e. the Icchantikas, the H eretics, the r
vakas and the P ratyekabuddhas. Of these [four groups], there are four
kinds of Obstructions on account of which they cannot understand or
realize th e Essence of the Tathgata. What are then th e four Obstruc
tions ? That is to say, 1) the enmity 5 8 ) to the D octrine of the G reat Ve
hicle (mahynadharmapratigha). This is the Obstruction of the Icchanti
kas, and its Antidote 5 9 ) is the practice of the faith in the D octrine of the
G reat Vehicle (mahynadharmdhimukti-bhvan) by th e Bodhisattvas.
2) The conception of th e Self (tmadarana) on the separate elements
(dharmesu). This is the Obstruction of th e H eretics, and its Antidote is
the practice of Supremacy in the transcendental Intellect (prajpramit
bh.) by th e Bodhisattvas. 3) The notion of Suffering
(duhkhasamj)
[or rather] the fear of Suffering {duljkha bhlrutva) in Phenomenal Life.

62)

adhyaya, T. lhag pahi bsam pa, C. Y^ ^ | ' u * (the in ten tion to attain Nirvana).

63

* H ereafter, reference is made to th e relation between th e 3 kinds of people above


mentioned and th e 3 groups of people.
84
' ' ca ' should be inserted before ' ihadhrmik ', though it is missing in S. & T.
C. has it .
65)
H e r e a ft e r , referen c e is m a d e t o t h e 4 kin d s of p eo p le a n d t h e i r i m p e d i m e n t s.
66)
anvarana gmin
( o n e wh o goes wi t h o u t a n y o bst a c le ) . B u t T . sgrib pa
med pa
rtogs~pa ( o n e wh o kn o ws t h e u n o b st r u c t e d t h in g) a n d C. JC / J^ /Hfe |*ip. flfjfc j J L
( on e wh o seeks for t h e u n o b st r u c t e d wa y) . H e r e ' anvarana ' in d ic a t e s st r ic t ly N i r va n a .
I p r efer r ed C . t r a n sl a t i o n .
s?)
S. o m . ' caturvidha ', b u t b o t h T . & C. h a ve i t .
68

> T. sa-ba, C. %%.

69)

pratipaksa, T. gen-po,

Cf. BG fff

C. 3?J fpj .

[ 205 ]

This is th e Obstruction of those who belong to the Vehicle of the rvaka


and its Antidote is th e practice of Meditations (samdhi bh.), Gaganaga
60)
j etc., by the Bodhisattvas. 4) Aversion to the profit of living beings
{sattvrtha vimukhat) or Indifference to the profit of living beings (sattva
arthanirapeksat). This is th e Obstruction of those who belong to th e
Vehicle of th e Pratyekabuddha and its Antidote is th e practice of G reat
Compassion {mahkarun bh.) by t h e Boddhisattvas 61>.
These are the four kinds of Obstructions of th e four kinds of living
beings. And having practised th e four kinds of Antidotes to these Obst
ructions, i.e. the faith [in th e D octrine of th e G reat Vehicle] etc., th e Bo
dhisattvas attain th e highest purity, th e highest truth, i.e. the Absolute
Body. And, accompanied by these four causes of origination of purity,
they become th e sons of the Religious King in the Buddha's family. How
are they ? I t is said 6 2 ) :

) T. nam mkhah mdsod, C. Jan. ^? ^ ^ (kagarbha). C. adds ' ragama '

( J3 f\^r
61)

/Ht) as a name of samdhi.


The terms for the 4 obstructions in T. & C. are as follows:

1) [thegs pa chen pohi] chos la sa-ba, p5!? ft*


2) bdag-tu Ita-ba, =g* pQ;
T . Yf~f ILL. Q Q ~W*

3) hkhor-ba-la sdug-bsal hjigs-pa, pfjj "p^ \VT JQJ "Q*;


~h> fffc Jjtftl -nSdu i L .
4) sems-can-gyi don-la mi-ltos-pa, ff fSftt: ^^=5* ^j< ^r.
And the terms for the 4 causes of purification.
AX.

>J.

1) [thegs-pa chen-pohi] chos-la mos-pa, JJ=J fC


2) es rab [ kyi pha rol tu phyin pa], 73X.

^ f;

3) ti-e-hdsin, , \ IJJC;
4) sih-rje chen-po, y\^ ^ ^ .
The following verse is probably a quotation from some canonical work. At
least, the idea must be borrowed from an old source. The same idea is expressed with
slight difference in the following Sstras; each of them , however, regards it as its own.
62)

1)

MSA IV, 11:


dharmdhimuktib jt pramitresthamtrto jtah
dhynamaye sukhagarbhe karun samvardhik dhtr

C. has no corresponding verse, but in the commentary there is a passage saying:

? L # t
[ 206 ]

(T aisho, XXXI, p. 596 6).

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

Those whose seed is th e faith in th e highest Vehicle,


Whose mother is th e transcendental Intellect 63 \
On account of th e origination of Buddha's D octrine;
Whose abiding womb is th e blissful meditation
And whose nurse is called Mercy;
64
They are the sons, the after comers > of the Buddhas.

// 34 //

( I I I ) P H ALA & (IV) KARMAN

Now, with reference to th e meaning of i result ' and ' function ', there
is one loka.
(Krik 7)
The Supreme Virtues65) of P urity, U nity66>, Bliss and Eternity;
[These] are its results [of the purification] 67) ;
[Towards this purification] it has th e functions,
Aversion to Suffering, longing for and praying for
the acquisition of Quiescence 68) . // 35 //

2) BG 798 a: H #[I 3 ^ 5 h ~~ l # #H f*f, Zl 1fc j h #H


H it Ba IZQ Jffij jg/fc W
fL 1% (hetu is like pitr, pratyaya
garbha, and siddhi like dhtrl).

3) DA v. sMMMcUf
^C ffi L
63)

A . Cf. C. translation of the Ratna.:

prajpramit

64)

anujta,

65)

guna pramit,

is often called ' buddhamtrka '

in the

Prajpramitstra.

T . r/ es[ su] s&yes, C. > (0 "H ^ ^ P ( t o ge t h e r wit h ' p u ro ' ) .


T . yon tan

pha rol[ tu]

phyin pa,

86)

C. '$>C _ ^ j} f ^ .

fm a n , T . bdag, C. ^ ^ = paramtman.
H e r e ' tman '
in t h e sen se of ' dharmakya ' o r ' dharmadhtu ' as t h e u n ive r sa l
wh ic h r e p r e se n t s, i n i t s t u r n , t h e N o n su b st a n t i a l i t y (nairtmya)
a n d in d ivid u a ls.
67)
As be in g i n t h e series o f K r i k s, v. 35 a b h a d b e t t e r
pramit phalah
' ( B a h u vr h i c o m p . ) , wh o se su bje c t o r viisya is
68)

like mtr, raya like

ama prpti,

T . shi thob pa,

C. V T 5+S ( = nirvana)

[ 207 ]

sh o u ld b e u n d e r st o o d
essen ce o r t r u t h itself,
of se p a r a t e e le m e n t s
b e r e a d a s ' . guna
'jinagarbha'
i n v. 45.

and om.

prpti.

J.

TAKASAKI

1. The F our Supreme Virtues as the Result of Purification 6 9 ) .


H ere, what is shown by the former half of this loka ?
70)

Because of the change of value


in the Absolute Body,
The results of these [4 causes] are, in short,
[The P urity, etc.] represented as the Antidote 71>
To the four kinds of delusion 7 2 ) . // 36 //
Those terms, 4 the faith ' etc., have been taught 7 3 ) as th e causes of
purification of the Essence of th e Tathgata. ' Of these [four causes] ',
in brief, th e four kinds of Supreme Virtues {gunapramit) of the Absolute
Body of the Tathgata are to be understood as i the results' on account of
their being Antidotes to the opposites of four kinds of delusion, respecti
vely. N ow, there is a notion of being eternal (nitya), blissful {sukha), of
substantial Ego (tman), of being pure (ubha) regarding the separate
things consisting of form and oth ers7 4 ) wh :ch are really non eternal, full
of sufferings, of no substantial Ego and impure, respectively. Such a no
tion is called ' t h e fourfold delusion' (viparysa). Being opposite to this
notion, there should be known 4 t h e fourfold non delusion (aviparysa) 7 5 ) .
Which four ? That is to say, the notion of being non eternal, full of suffe
rings, of no substantial Ego, and impure regarding just those separate
69

> Cf. BG 798 a, AS 471 c.

70)

viparyaya, T . bzlog pa, C. |$j] (lit. reversed).

This word does n o t in clude t h e

sense of ' wrong ' or ' mistake '. On the other hand, 'viparyasta''
used in a bad sense. See below.
71)

or 'viparysa ' is always

pratipaksa, T. gen-po (antidote to poison), C. [f|| 4T"j 3?J I O VS

72)

viparysa, T. phyin ci log (anything wrong, deceptive), C. l||f| [i] [<]. The
context of this verse is not so clear. According to the prose commentary, these 4 pra
mits should be the antidotes to ' viparysaviparyaya ', i.e. aviparysa. I n this sense,
by the reading ' caturvidha aviparysa ', instead of ' caturvidha viparysa ', it will be easier
to catch the meaning, though it has no support in T. & C. Or otherwise, this ' caturvidha
viparysa'' should be taken as including two kinds of '4~fold delusion'. T. translation
shows the following meaning: " These results are, in short, shown as pratipaksa of vipa
ryaya of th e 4 fold viparysa in dharmakya. "
C. picks up three phrases, viz. caturvidha viparysa, dharmakye viparyayah (instead
of viparyayt), and pratipaksaprabhvita, as being correspondent to ' viparysa ', ' vipary
sa viparyaya ' and *gunapramit ', respectively.
73)
The insertion of ' ukth ' after viuddhihetu, indicated by T. Chowdhury, is
supported by T. as well as C. (T. bad pahi, C. [nj j|J ).
74)

rpdike vastuni. C. JjQ t**, -=^? 38v l l "^P" ^P

anitye).
75)

T. phyin-ci ma log-pa, C. ^

@J $ .
[ 208 ]

T. as C. ( = rpdi-vastuni

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga

things of form, etc. Such a notion is called th e fourfold Opposite of delu


sion (viparysaviparyaya) 7 6 ) . And again, this very [notion of non delu
sion] is implied as ' delusion ' with reference to th e Absolute Body of the
Tathgata whose characteristics are eternal, etc. Being the Antidote of
this notion, there is established th e fourfold Supreme Virtue of the Abso
lute Body of the Tathgata. That is to say, th e Supreme Eternity (nitya
pramit), th e Supreme Bliss (sukha pramit), th e Supreme U nity (t
ma p ), and the Supreme P urity (ubha p.)77>.
And this subject 7 8 ) is to be known in detail according to the Scrip
79)
ture . [I t runs as follows]:
" O Lord, th e people have a miscomprehension regarding the phe
nomenal things consisting of five personality aggregates which cling
to existence 80 '. They have a notion of eternity on th e non eter
nal things, a notion of bliss regarding painful things, of substantial
Ego regarding non substantial things, and have a notion of purity
regarding impure things. Even all th e rvakas and Pratyeka
buddhas, O Lord, also have a miscomprehension in regard to the
Absolute Body of the Tathgata which is th e sphere of th e Wisdom
of Omniscience and has never been seen before 8 1 ) just because of
their knowledge of N on substantiality82 '. O Lord, if there would
be th e people who have the notion of Eternity, U nity, Bliss, and
P urity [regarding th e Absolute Body], they would be the legal 8 3 )
76)

C t H @] J }pi (the reading '/f* ' before ' H ffij ' in the Taisho edition,

sh ould b e r e m o ve d ) .
77)
T h ese 4 pramits a r e t a u gh t in SM S, M P S , e t c . a n d a r e p ecu liar t o t h e garbha
t h eo r y. T h e first a p p e a r a n c e of t h is t h eo r y is p r o ba bly in SM S.
78)
grantha, T . bshu, C. o m .
79
> M S 222 a .
80)
upttesu pacaspdna skandhesu. F or uptta (Pali upta), T. zin pa (finished,
raised). O gives the translation: as far as manifesting themselves in an individual. The
meaning is ' skandha in the form of individual or phenomenal things and not in the form
of each separate element '. U sually when ' paca-updnaskandha ' is spoken of, this
sense is implied.
81)

So C. merely ' 'M, |^ fjj '.

adrsta prva,

T . sar ma mtho-ba,

C. ,2pC jjyf

/ j

J ^ .

82>

nyat jna, T. slon-pa-id-kyi ye es, C. 5 ^ ^ 3 . About this nyat jna,


see S. p . 76 (a quotation from the same Stra).
83)
aurasa ( < uras) (produced from the heart), T. thugs las skyes pa, but C. instead
has ' jj=3 |9p

frj B \ ' (because of their believing in the Buddha's word).

AS as C.

But in the last sentence of this quotation, C. jpl. ~Jr and adds ' ^yt I/P M ^ ^ (pro
duced from the Buddha's mouth), f ] ffi 3 i ^ '? ft ^fe 1 # V tfe M*
being as the explanation of the word ' aurasa putra'.

t 209 ]

Cf. Manu Smrti IX, 166.

sons of the Buddhas and be of no miscomprehension. O Lord,


[verily] they would be of perfect perception. F or what reason ?
[Because], O Lord, the Absolute Body of the Tathgata is verily
the Supreme Etern ity, the Supreme Bliss, the Supreme U nity and
84)
the Supreme P urity. 0 Lord, those people
who perceive the
Absolute Body of the Tathgata in this way, perceive perfectly.
Those who perceive perfectly are, O Lord, the legal sons of the
Buddhas " &c. 85>.
2.

Concordance between 4 Supreme Virtues and 4 Causes of Purifica


tion 8 6 ) .

And again, of these four Supreme Virtues of the Absolute Body of


the Tathgata, one should know the reversed arrangement 8 7 ) according
to the order of causes. H ere, 1) being opposite to the taking of delight
in 8 8 ) the ' impure ' Phenomenal Life by the Icchantikas who have hatred
against the D octrine of G reat Vehicle, it should be understood th at the
acquisition of the Supreme P urity is the result of ' Practice of the F aith
in the D octrine of G reat Vehicle' by the Bodhisattvas.
2) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the perception 8 9 ) of
unreal Ego by the H eretics who perceive an Ego in the individual things
consisting of five personality aggregates, it should be understood th at the
acquisition of the Supreme U nity is the result of 4 practice of supremacy
in the transcendental I n tellect'. Indeed, all the other H eretics consider
the things consisting of form, etc. as the Ego though they are of the unreal
n ature. And this very thing as has been perceived by the H eretics does
90
not correspond wit h ' the [real] characteristic of Ego, hence it is always
non Ego. On the contrary, the Tathgata has attained the highest supre
macy, 9 1 ) [knowing 92) ] non substantiality of all the phenomena by means
84)

T . a d d s 'sarve'
after * te'.
Cf. AS 471 c f. (for t h e wh o le q u o t a t i o n ) .
86
> Cf. B G 798 b f.; AS 472 a f.
85)

87

) pratiroma krama,

T . bzlog ste, C. m e n t io n s t h e a c t u a l o rd er Q^p* 3>C ~ ^ ).

88)

abhirati, T . mon-par

89)

graha, T. hdsin-pa,

term 'jjfljl
90)

91

dgah-ba, C. ['L*] ^ r c ? a n d adds ' g HX ' (graha).


C. gff ^ X

For ' tman'

of t h e H eret ics, C. uses t h e

^ ' .

visamvditva,

T . slu ba da

' para prami prpta,

Idan pa

T . dam pahi

(slu ba,

pha rol tu

falseh ood), C. }jfi[ % j


phyin pa

bres,

IK. ^ p . ' para ' in the sense of ' parama '.


92)
So C. (/JJ...). T. regards 'para' as an attribute to ' nairtmya\
[ 210 ]

^ ji l j.

C. H?IJ f^

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga
93)

of his Wisdom perceiving th e t ru t h


. And this very non substantiality
has been perceived by th e Tathgata is quite consistent with 9 4 ) th e
a s
characteristic of non ego, hence there is always the implication of Ego
(tman) 9 5 ) , by taking n on E goity {nairtmya) in th e meaning of Ego,
as has been said:
44

H e stands by application of no standing p la c e "

93

> yathbhta jna, T. ya-dag-pa ji-lta-ba-bshin-kyi


instrumental case ending). _
94)
avisamvditva, C. sY* fm>. 3 C 7 r DUt PR]

96)

ye es, C. 3(0 jH . S3 (om.

> tmbhipreta. C. KN 38 ^ C -%3 ynf ^rl ^ C a n ^ seems to omit ' nairtmyam


eva tmani krtv'.
96
) C. om. this quotation whose source is unknown, and adds th e explanation of
95

' nairtmyam eva ' (ts|J 7 T?C) and ' tmbhipreta ' ( ^ 3 ^ ^ ^ J ^ > 0 ' saying that the
former is in the sense of the absence of the Heretical tman, while th e latter is th e
Buddha th at has attained th e ' mighty Ego '. And furthermore, with reference to this
' supreme Ego ', C. adds a verse with commentary thereon. I t runs as follows:
H aving attained t h e highest N on substantiality,
As the pure and real emptiness,
The Buddhas obtained th e pure body.
Therefore, it is said th at they attained th e great body.
H ere ' attained t h e great body ' (^Tf y\ .

*T ) means th at th e Tathgata has

attained the highest pure Reality, th e Absolute Body ( 5f| " VPf ^ j | - KU V
which is the real nature ( g PC) f ^11 the Buddhas.
ling body ( y /ffc 1S)>

ne

ot

^),

Having attained the self-control-

the pure body (Vpf ^ * ^ " ) . Therefore the Buddhas

are said to have attained the pure controllingfpower] ('frf V ^F @ 'TE)* ^ n

tn

*s

sense the Buddhas could be the highest powerful Ego (5fy


* ^]^^ 0 /ffc TA,) in the
Immaculate Sphere.
And again, with reference to this meaning, the Absolute Body of the Tathgata
is not called th e being (/ ^). Because [all phenomena are] of non substantial nature
(?! T?C ^TH)' f

tne

nature of non-being (Tkf V2* T0)* Hence he cannot be called

' the being '. Because, as his nature, he himself is absent (flW ^ C ^ ^U 7 38 W^).
At the same time, with reference to the same meaning, the Absolute Body of the Tathgata is n ot called *non being ' (Ti). Only because his body is the Reality itself (J^X
PfE ^ 1 I K jl| KU ^ C WEL)- Hence, we cannot say there is no Absolute Body. Because,
as his feature, he does exist. For this reason, when Heretics asked the Buddha whether
the Tathgata would have body (f Jf" 1 $ ) after death or not ( ^ J^f* jf|$), etc., he

did neither explain (A* ff2) nor reply {/V* ^ - ) ".


The verse mentioned at the top has a similarity to the verse IX-23 of the
[ 211 ]

is

3) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the cessation 9 7 ) of Suf


ferings of the Phenomenal Life alone by those who belong to the Vehicle
of rvaka and who have fear of the sufferings of Phenomenal Life, it
should be understood th at the result of the practice o" various kinds
of meditation, named Gaganagaj, etc. is the acquisition of the Supreme
Bliss 9 8 ) concerned with all m atters, mundane and supermundane.
4) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the isolated 9 9 ) abode
by those who belong to the Vehicle of P ratyekabuddha and who are
indifferent to the benefits of living beings, it should be understood th at
the Bodhisattvas' practice of G reat Compassion has th e acquisition of the
Supreme Eternity as its result, because practising [for the sake of others]
Strlakra, which runs as follows:
" nyatym viuddhym nairtmyn mrgalbhatah /
buddhh uddhtmalbhitvd gat tmamahtmatm / / ".
Also, we can find a similar passage of th e prose commentary mentioned above in
the following passage of the Strlakra along with the next verse (IX 24) and the
commentary thereon. I t runs as follows:
" tatra cnsrave dhtau buddhnm paramtm nirdiyate / him kranam ? /
agranairtmytmakatvt / agram nairtmyam viuddh tathat s ca buddhnm
tm svabhvrthena tasym viuddhym agram nairtmyam tmnam buddh
lbhante uddham / atah uddha tmalbhitvd buddh tmamahtmyam prpt
iti paramtm vyavasthpyate I j
na bhvo npi cbhvo buddhatvam tena kathyate /
tasmd buddha tathprane avykrtanayo matah / /
tenava kranena buddhatvam na bhva ucyate j pudgaladharmbhvalaksanatvt
tdtmakatvc ca buddhatvasya / nbhva ucyate tathatlaksanam bhvt j ato
buddhatvasya bhvbhvaprane bhavati tathgatah param marann, na bhavatty
evam dir avykrtanayo matah / / (MSA p. 37 38).
Most probably th e verse kept in C. is a quotation from th e MSA by the commentator
from th e same source he quoted in other passages (e.g. S. p . 71) and the present Skt.
text has a lacuna of this passage. One strong reason for this supposition is th at BG ,
which has parallel passages with the Ratna. throughout the text, also mentions this verse
in the equivalent passage, but without commentary and regarding it as a ' stragth '

% ) . saying: Zl ^ E ^
t ic$H $C (798.).

# M 3fe B & S # W

As for the prose commentary, however, it was probably not in the original text,
but we have no definite proof for saying this.
97)

upaama, T, e-bar shi-ba. C. om. it along with ' abhirati ' and instead has
' b h r u ' (fear).
98
' T. and C. add parama. (paramasukhapramit).
" ' asamsarga, T. hdu hdsi med pa (samsarga means ' company ') , C. /JjX. fffi
13 <J5. RET ^

or

osamsargavihrbhirati).

[ 212 ]

( |^

The

R at n a go t r a v i b h g a
100)

as long as the world exists, without interruption, their attachment


to th e benefits for living beings is perfectly pure.
Thus, 4 kinds of Supreme Virtues named P urity, U nity, Bliss an d
Eternity are brought about on th e Absolute Body of the Tathgata as
the result of Bodhisattvas' 4 kinds of practices, namely, those of F aith [in
the D octrine of G reat Vehicle], t h e Supremacy in th e transcendental
Intellect, t h e Meditations and t h e G reat Compassion, respectively.
An d l 0 1 ) because of these four [Supreme Virtues in the Absolute Body]
it is said, th e Tathgata is th e highest Absolute Essence, he reaches up to
the limit of th e space and he lasts as long as th e utmost limit [of th e
world] 1 0 2 ) . Indeed, th e Tathgata, through th e practice of faith in t h e
highest D octrine of th e G reat Vehicle, has attained th e highest state of
the Absolute Essence which is th e ultimate purity, hence he has become
the highest Absolute Essence. Through the practice of the supremacy in
103)
the transcendental Intellect, [the Tathgata] has realized perfectly
the
non substantiality of living beings and of the material world, just as th e
l04)
sky [reaches up to the limit of th e wo rld]
and, through the practice of
100)

phaligodha in th e text. T. yos-su sbyo-ba (D) (pariodha, same as Ms. B.)


T. shows a sense similar to ' pariuddha ', bu t from th e context, th e meaning ' attach
ment ' or ' clinging to ' seems better. F or this meaning we have a word ' paligodha '
(BHS D ie. s. v.) and if we change a letter ' ' into ' r' in T. sbyo, we get this meaning,
hence ' yos-su sbyor-ba ' might be the translation of ' paligodha ' . As for the form ' phaligodha ' instead of paligodha, we should record this form as a varia lectio, but most probbably it is a wrong reading. (' pali ' is a rather common transformation of the prefix
' pari ' in Middle Indie. Cf. Pali paligedha).
101)
102)

C 3 H i >ft =il On this passage, cf. AS 472 a; BG 798 c.


Cf. Daabhmikastra (ed. by J . Rahder, p . 14).
" dharmadhtu vipulam kadhtu paryavasnam aparntakotinistham "

s. 545&, etc.).

These are used there as modifiers of 'pranidhna' of Bodhisattvas. Cf. AS 472 a:

RT i. B Jit m H V) in *
tV XL ^

tt^^ft^JI

m ft 5f ^ * * *
H ^7]t3cffi. BG 798c:

(therefore it is taught by the Buddha), ^ jtfc 0 f| "gj%\\ ^


103)

nisthgamana ( lit . r e a c h in g u p t o t h e li m i t ) , T . mthar~thug-pa-id-tu


rtogs-pa.
kopama ( T . nam mkhah
Itar) is r e la t in g t o nisthgamana.
C. r e n d e r s t h i s
passage as follows: T h e T a t h ga t a c o m p le t e s t h e sky like dharmakya
t h r o u gh [ t h e
104)

r e a liza t io n o f] t h e a b so lu t e ( ^ L _ ^ L nistha) n o n S u b st a n t i a l i t y of bhjana loka ( o m .


sattva).
The reading ' sarvatra parama ' is to be corrected into lsarvatra parama ' (in
one compound).

[ 213 ]

J. TAKASAKI

various kinds of meditations named Gaganagaj, etc. he has perfectly


perceivd th e omnipresence 1 0 5 ) of the power of th e highest truth every
where. Because of these two acquisitions, he reaches up to th e limit
of spaci [And lastly], through the practice of the G reat Compassion,
[he has mercy towards all living beings beyond th e limitation of time.
Therefo3, with reference to 1 0 6 ) this point, it is said he lasts as long as the
utmost imit [of th e world].
3. 4 inpediments to th e Attainment of th e Supreme Virtues 1 0 7 ) .
Am now, for th e acquisition of these four kinds of Supreme Virtues
of th e absolute Body of th e Tathgata, there are four Impediments
(paripatha) 1 0 8 ) even in case of th e Arhats, Pratyekabuddhas and those
Bodhisatvas who have obtained [10] Controlling P owers109) , though they
are abidng in th e Immaculate Sphere 1 1 0 ) . That is to say, 1) 4 pheno
menon <f condition' (pratyayar laksana); 2) 4 phenomenon of cause' (hetu
laksana)3) 'phenomenon of origination (sambhava laksana); and 4) 'ph e
nomenon of destruction ' (vibhava laksana) 1U).
H ere, 1) ' Phenomenon
of condi o n ' means the Dwelling place of Ignorance (avidyvsabhmi) 1 1 2 ) .
los) prama dharmaivarya,
chos kyi
dba-phyug
dam-pa.
C. r e n d e r i n g of t h i s
passage isas * sarvatra sarvadharmesu aivarya prptatvt
\
108)
pdya.
T . & C . sh o w i t b y a b la t i ve c a se e n d in g o n ly.
107
> f. AS 472 b; B G 799 a .
108) ^ gegs, C . |*Jp.. I n B U S , i t is m o st l y c o n c e r n in g t h e o b st a c le s o r i m p e d i m e n t s
i n B o d h i sjt va s fo r a t t a i n i n g bodhi. Cf. t h e Rstraplapariprcch,
p . 18, 1. 1 fF.
109)

zitprpta bodhisattva,

T . dbah thob pahi

bya-chub-sems-dpah,

C. y ^ ~J\

pj* ^ 1 t is not necessary to limit this qualification to those Bodhisattvas who abide on
the 10th lmi as mentioned in th e Tibetan commentary. We can regard this ' vait
prpta ' asan epithet for Bodhisattwas in general. (Cf. Lakvatra, p . 274, 1. 21: sarva
bodhisattvahmisu
vaitprptah).
110)
asravadhtu.
I t is e q u i va l e n t t o ' lokottara ' a n d i t s c o u n t e r p a r t is ' ssrava '
e q u iva le n t t o ' laukika ' . T h e c o n t r a st b e t we e n ansrava a n d ssrava will b e seen i n t h e
fo llo win g assage.
1 U )

C t h e se 4 t e r m s, T . & C . a r e a s follows:
1) kyen gyi mtshan-id,

i$fc 7^;

2) rgyuhi mtshan-id,

bahi mtsha-id, ^j ^ g ; 4) hjig-pahi mtshan-id, j ^ j | | 7^

[ A | 4*0; 3) hbyu-

. E: i) ^ in 4 5E; 2) m B 4 5E; 3) :# ^f 5E; 4) $


* * 9i (ffl U 1& B). AS: l ) 4 ! l l ; 2 ) 4 H i ; 3 ) f * ;
4) # & ^ j .
U 2)

C 5{{ W/j pE Ha b u t T. ma-rig-pahi

[ 214 ]

bag-chags-kyi

sa (avidy vsan

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

[It is th e condition of birth of the Body made of mind for th e Saints]


just as Ignorance (avidy) is [the condition] of Predispositions (sam
skrh) [for ordinary people]. 2) 'Phenomenon of cause' means th e
Immaculate Action (ansravam karma) ll3)
conditioned by th e Dwell
ing place of Ignorance [as the cause of th e Body made of mind], [and
it is to be] compared with the Predispositions [of ordinary people] 1 1 4 ) .
4
3) Phenomenon of origination ' means the origination of th e 3 fold Body
made of mind (manomaytmabhva.) 1 1 5 ) , conditioned by the Dwelling
place of Ignorance and caused by th e Immaculate Action, just as th e
origination 116) of th e Three Worlds (tribhava) n7) is conditioned by 4
118)
kinds of G raspings (updna)
and caused by th e Passioned Actions
bhmi). which agrees with Ms. B reading. See S. p. 33, n. 6. Ace. to SMS (220 a), there are
said to be five vsabhmis, of which avidyvsabhmi is th e basic and th e strongest.
The other four are 1) C. Jrj,
* ~LJJ J^a tEE -HHI T. Ita-ba gcig-la gnas-pahi gnas-kyi sa
(*ekadrstisthita vsabhmi); 2) C. 'ij/C 2sc 1l J u l , T. hdod pahi hdod chag la gnas
pahi . . . (*kmargasthita v.); 3) C. t L i3< t E ^a T. gzugs kyi hdod chag la gnas
pahi . . . (*rpargasthita v.), and 4) C. >^J ^ 5^ p E J lH , T. srid pahi hdod chags la
gnas pahi... (*bhavargasthita v.) t and are said to be th e basic Mesas from which all
the defilements in the form of intense outburst (paryavasthna or paryutthna klea)
come out. F urthermore, it is said, these four are ' ksanika ', while *avidyvsabhmi *
(T. marigpahi gnaskyi sa) is ' andiklik ' and cannot be destroyed except by
' bodhijna ' of the Tathgata; therefore, it is the strongest. I n this sense avidyvsabhmi
is here related to the defilement existing in Bodhisattvas (in another passage in th e
Ratna., this k ea is said to be th at of Arhats. see S. p. 67, 1. 17 19). As for th e
meaning of *vsabmi*, there are traditionally two ways of interpretation : one is shown
in C. and T. translation of SMS, the other is shown in T. translation of th e Ratna. I t
relates more or less to the etymology of the term vsan (from V r o s to dwell, or from
vas, to perfume). The second interpretation is also shown in this Ratna., v. I, 130
where the term ' vsan * is used for indicating ' avidyvsabhmi ' .
lls)
T. zag pa med pahi las, C. ^J ^|j ^ ^ . Here ansravakarman, of which th e
exact counterpart is ssravakarman, is compared to samskras in the sense t h at karman
is the cause of the next birth.
m
* C. has confusion in interpreting this passage. C. says ' hetulaksana ' means
' avidyvsabhmi pratyay samskrh ', and from this samskra, there is conditioned
* ansravakarman ', just as *vijna ' is produced from ' samskra ' . C. seems to regard
* samskra ' of avidy vsabhmi as something different from * ansravakarman ' . But
it may not be the case here.

115) ( _ manomaya kya), T. yid kyi ra-bshin-kyi lus, C. J^jf, :. The body
of the saints is said to be consisting merely of ' mano-skandha ', instead of 5 updna
skandhas as in the case of ordinary beings.
116)

abhinirvrtti,

117)

T. srid-pa gsum, C. Zl. 7 T ( == tridhtu).

T . mon-par

grub-pa,

C. ^ p .

118)

klea.

T . e-bar len-pa bshi, C. JZy ^ | [ >HX . H e r e ' updna'


is syn o n ym o u s wi t h
The four updnas are usually; 1) kma; 2) drsti; 3) lavrata and 4) tmavda.

I 215 ]

J . TAKASAKI
119)

(ssravakarman) .
4) ' Phenomenon of destruction ' means D eath as
the inconceivable Transformation {acinty prinmik
cyuti) 1 2 0 ) condi
tioned by the origination of the 3 fold Body made of mind. I t corre
sponds to the D ecrepitude and D eath (jarmarana) conditioned by the
Birth (jti) [in the Three Worlds].
Now, the Arhats, Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisattvas who have
attained (10) Controlling Powers, have not extirpated the Dwelling place
of Ignorance which is the ground of all the subsequent D efilements121) ,
hence they cannot attain the Supreme P urity as the end of rem oval 122)
of all the dusts of defilements with their bad smelling impressions123) .
And, on account of th at Dwelling place of Ignorance, and because of their
124)
being accompanied wit h
the arising of the subtle featured dualistic
view125) , they cannot attain ultimately 12 6 ) the Supreme U nity which is
characterized as no accumulation of Active F orce 1 2 7 ) . And, on account
of th at Dwelling place of Ignorance and Immaculate Action caused by the
arising of the subtle featured dualistic view conditioned by the Dwelling
place of Ignorance, there is [still] the arising of the Mind made aggregate
1191
12

T. zag pa dan bcas pahi las, C. ^J* $ | Jf|.

See above (Note VIII 113)

) T . mi khyabpar yossu bsgyurpahi hchi-hphoba, C. ^Y* f j j> g ^ | ^ ^

zh y^U (cyuti means literally ' fall '). The counterpart of this death in the case of
ordinary beings is called C. J) .J^x. ^ U T. rgyun-chad-pahi hchi-hpho (death as the
interruption of flowing). Cf. SMS 219 c (this term, seems peculiar to SMS).
121)

upaklea, T. e-bahi on-mos-pa, C. ,/yH *|^ (om. upa).

About avidy vsa

bhmi being the ground of all upakleas, see SMS 220 a:


j \ EH. r^y T f itX _ . AH TP r>V (e-bahi on-mos-pa ga-ghi klu-gi byema-las hdas-pa sed-kyi rten-du gyur-pa).
122)
. . . apakarsa-paryanta (lit. ending with the removal of . . ) . But the reading
is not clear. Both T. & C. take ' paryanta ' as ' atyanta ' and attach it to ubhapramit
as an attribute. About apakarsa, T. reads instead ' bag chags . . . da Idanpah phyir ',
and C. y]C \ f jM . POFE (apakarsparyantatvt).
123
' daurgandhyavsan. T. drirbahi bagchags, but connects drir ba with mala.
C. gives no translation of daurgandhya and has instead ' avidyvsabhmigata mala '.
124)

C . r e a d s a s ' . . . apakarsparyantatvt

' (7JC fTf TjC KJ$Q in st e a d of ' yogt \

125)

sksmanimitta prapaca,
C. ^ W /f^ ^|) pflg .
126)
C. as an attribute to tmapramit. T. takes it probably as an attribute to
anabhisamskra.
127)

anabhisamskra,
T . hdus ma byas pa,
C . 5{ y?& C. takes this as a n a t t r i b u t e
to all t h e 4 pramits
a lo n g wi t h atyanta.
T h e r e a d in g anabhisamskram
is, a t J ' s su ggest io n , t o b e c o r r e c t e d in t o anabhisam
skrm.

[ 216 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v ib h ga

(rnanomaya shandha) 128).


Therefore, they cannot attain the ultimate
Supreme Bliss as the extinction of this Spiritual Aggregate. And [lastly],
unless they realize the Essence 129> of the Tathgata as being arisen from
the entire extinction of all impurities in forms of D efilements, Actions
and Originations, they cannot remove D eath as the Inconceivable Trans
formation. Consequently, they cannot attain the absolutely unchange
able 1 3 0 ) Supreme E tern ity.
H ere, the Dwelling place of Ignorance is
purity of Defilements [in the case of ordinary
of Immaculate Action corresponds to the
the 3 fold origination of the Body made
Inconceivable Transformation corresponds
nation1 3 2 ) .

to be compared with the Im


131)
people]. The performance
I m purity of Actions. [And]
of mind and D eath as the
to the I m purity of Origi

And this passage is to be understood in detail according to the Scrip


ture 1 3 3 ) . [It runs as follows]:
" O Lord, just as, being conditioned by [4] graspings and caused
by passionate actions, there are produced the three spheres of
existence; likewise, O Lord, being conditioned by the dwelling
place of ignorance and caused by the immaculate actions, there are
born the 3 kinds of body made of mind of the Arhats, P ratyekabud
dhas and those Bodhisattvas who have attained the [10] Controlling
Powers. [Thus] O Lord, for the birth of the 3 fold Body made of
mind in these 3 lands 1 3 4 ) and for the origination of the immaculate
actions the dwelling place of Ignorance is the [inevitable] condition,
& c ".

and

Thus, in these 3 Bodies made of mind of the Arhats, P ratyekabuddhas


Bodhisattvas, there are no Supreme Virtues of P urity, U nity, Bliss

i2s) f>t yid kyi ra-bshin-gyi phu-po, C. ,^f jjjg .


129)
C. has instead ' dharmakya \

See above (Note VIII-115).

13

) atyantnanyathbhvu, T. gshandu gyurpa medpa, (om. atyanta), C. ' / l> * 2 ^

;Pv H a
131)

G. connects atyanta to nityapramit.

abhisarnskra, T. regards it as an apposition to ansravakarman. C. \ ^

132

^ samklea (T. kunnas onmospa, C. ^ < ) is a general term for all the process
of samsra in which klea, karman and janman are included. Sometimes, for janman, duhkha
is mentioned (C. ff* , 3^S., r i *for the three); also, it is replaced by ' vipka ' or iskandha
dhtv yatana \ I n all cases what is meant by them is th e same Phenomenal Life.
133
> MS 220 a.
134

tisrsu bhmisu, T. om., but C. [jfcfc] J H ^


[ 217 ]

(the lands of the 3 vehicles).

J. TAKASAKI

and Eternity.

Therefore, it is said

135)

" Only th e Absolute Body of th e Tathgata is the Supreme Eter


nity, the Supreme Bliss, th e Supreme U nity and the Supreme Pu
rity ".

4. The Motives of the 4 Supreme Virtues 136)


Verily137) , the Absolute Body of the Tathgata is pure
Because of his innate purity and removal of Impressions;
H e is th e highest U nity because he is quiescent,
H aving destroyed 1 3 8 ) the dualistic view of Ego and non Ego. // 37 //
H e is blissful because the Mind made Aggregate
And its causes have been removed [completely];
139)
He is eternal because he has realized
The equality of the Phenomenal Life and N irvana. // 38 //
In short, by two reasons there should be known th e Supreme P urity
in th e Absolute Body of the Tathgata. That is to say, 1) through his
being perfectly pure by nature, as th e common feature; and 2) through
his being perfectly pure by the removal of pollution, as the special feature
[to th e Buddha] 1 4 0 ) . The Supreme U nity, too, should be understood by
two reasons : 1) because of th e removal of false imagination of Ego by
rejecting the extremity peculiar to th e H eretics, and 2) because of th e
removal of false imagination concerning non substantiality by rejecting

> MS 222 a (C. J|_ fc ] g # ] # 1g M flf)


136)

Cf. BG 799 b; AS 472 b.

Both of them have one passage preceding to it,

on th e 4 troubles (ff]) corresponding to th e respective impediments, n am ely: 1) %g| '(pl

I fi 2) S I SB; 3) & ft. ffj; 4) } 3C I B (trouble by fault or death).


137)

C. treats these two verses in prose and regards them as the commentary on the
quotation above mentioned.
138)

139

140)

usual.

ksaya,

T . o m . , G . pjfl; ( h a vi n g r e m o ve d ) .

> prativedha,

T . rtogs( pa),

C . o m . tma .

C. f .

smnyalaksana
& viesalaksana,
C . | A | * R & Jj/ T T R r e sp e c t i ve ly. T . a s
H ere ' smnya ' means common to all living beings; therefore, it is the

cause ( |S |) for the attainment of the highest purity. On the other hand, removal of
pollution is not innate to living beings, and the Buddha got his appellation because of
his attainment of this purity. Therefore, it is peculiar to the Buddha and shows the

superiority (jffi) of the Buddha.

[ 218 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ga

the extremity peculiar to th e rvakas. The Supreme Bliss is to be known


likewise by two reasons: 1) because of the abandonment of th e origination
141)
of
o f all suflferings as well as th e extirpation of succeeding origination
Impressions; and 2) because of the realization of all sufferings as well as
the realization of extinction of the Mind made Aggregates142) . [And finally]
by two reasons the Supreme Eternity is to be known: 1) Because he does
not fall into th e N ihilistic Extremity through his not diminishing143',
neglecting the non eternal Phenomenal Life; 2) nor does he fall into the
Eternalistic Extremity through his not intensifying 1 4 4 ) th e eternal N ir
vana. I t is said as follows 1 4 5 ) :
" If someone would perceive th at all th e Phenomenal Worlds are
non eternal, O Lord, this view would be a N ihilistic Perception1 4 6 ) .
I t would never be th e true perception at all. If someone would
perceive that the N irvana is eternal, O Lord, this view would be
an Eternalistic P erception 147 '. And it would never be th e True
Perception at all ".

4' (The U nstable N irvana).


148)

Therefore, by this introduction to the t h eo ry


of th e Absolute Es
sence, it is said from the highest view point th at th e Phenomenal Life itself
is N irvana, because [the Bodhisattvas] realize the U nstable N irvana (apra
tishitanirvna), being indiscriminative of both [the Phenomenal Life and
141)

anusandhi, T. mtshams sbyor ba, C. om. This ' vsan anusandhi ' corresponds
to manomayakya of the Saints, and similarly ' duhkha ' signifies t h at of ordinary people.
142)
Both T. & C. have kya instead of skandha. (But th e meaning is the same)
Of these two columns, 1) shows an actual ' annihilation ' and 2), its cause. I n other
words, to annihilate duhkha means to realize t h at duhkha is extinguished by n ature, i.e.
there is no duhkha in the ultim ate sense. Logically, therefore, it would be better to consider
the annihilation of duhkha and t h at of vsan as ' two reasons '. C. shows this way of
interpretation, though it has some confusion on the way.
143) ^ in ) anapakarsana & asamropana, (a negative particle is required before
samropa. H ence the reading should be nirvnsamropana ). C. ^V* $s| & sv*

tjA

/ >%

respectively. BG ' | 3 j | *$% & 3S ^W ^Si > resp. F or apakarsana, T. has hbrid pa,
which means ' t o im pose' and is close to samropa (T. snon pa) in its sense. F rom the
context, th e reading in C. seems better.
145
> MS 220 a.

146) fa 147) ucchedadrsti


148)

& vatadrsti, respectively.

nayamukha, T. tshul gyi sgo, C fC \ 4 F or this passage,

[ 219 3

cf. BGS 799 C

J. TAKASAK.I

N irvana] 1 4 9 ) . Moreover, they are neither entirely involved among all


living beings nor remote from them 1 5 0 ) , for two reasons. H ere, therefore,
the explanation will be made merely about how to attain this U nstable
stability 1 5 1 ) . Then, for which two reasons ? H ere, in this world, the Bodhi
sattva is not entirely involved among all living beings because he has
completely rejected all tendencies of desires by means of th e Transcen
dental Intellect. [At th e same time], he is not remote from them since
he never abandons them owing to his G reat Compassion. This is the means
for the acquisition of the Supreme Enlightenment of which th e U nstability
is the essential n ature. By means of the Intellect, indeed, th e Bodhisattva
has exterminated without remainder th e tendency of desire, hence, being
deeply intent towards the N irvana for his own sake, he does not stay
in th e Phenomenal Life as th e lineage of no N irvana (aparinirvnagotra).
[At th e same time], owing to his G reat Compassion, he never abandons
those suffering people, hence, having activity 1 5 2 ) in this Phenomenal
Life, for th e sake of others, he does not abide in th e N irvana, as do those
who seek only for Quiescence (amaikaynagotra) 153).
Thus these two qualities (i.e. the Intellect and G reat Compassion)
are t h e root, i.e. th e foundation of th e H ighest Enlightenment. [So it
is said] 1 5 4 > :
[Though] H aving destroyed affection for himself
By means of th e Intellect, completely,
149

ubhayath'vikalpana, C. jJ t jfcfc Z l ffi A^ 'ft fy\ tfc Of this point, S.

& T. have no further explanation.

But C. puts one verse which explains this point:

(One who has non discriminative [Wisdom] distinguishes neither Phenomenal Life nor
N irvana, and perceives the equality of both N irvana and Phenomenal Life).
This verse has a similarity to some extent with v. 39 in its contents, but it is diffi
cult to identify both verses. C. om. the following sentences along with v. 39. These facts
seem to show th at the original text was as C. (but the verse is a quotation) and th at later
on th at verse was replaced by the following passage along with v. 39.
150)
sanna drl bhva. Lit. near and remote state.
m
' apratislhitapada, T. mignas pahi gnas.
The term pada signifies actually
nirvana.
152
' prayoga, T. sbyorba.
153)
T. shi ba bgrod pa gcig pahi rigs. I t signifies rvakaynika & pratyekabudd
haynika, in whom the mind of Compassion towards living beings is lacking. Being
opposed to either of them, aparinirvnagotra and ama kaynagotra, Bodhisattvas may
be termed as ' parinirvnagotraka ', and parinirvna is, in the ultim ate point, this apra
tisthitanirvna.
154) This verse seems to be a quotation even if the preceding prose commentary
is genuine.

[ 220 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

The Saint, being full of Mercy, does not approach


Quiescence because of his affection for the people;
Thus standing o n 1 5 5 ) both the Intellect and Mercy,
These two means of Enlightenment,
156)
The Saint approaches neither this world nor N irvana . // 39 //

The F unctions of the Germ for its Purification ( I V) 1 5 7 ) .

K 5.

N ow, with reference to the subject of ' function' which is previously


maintained (in verse 35), what is shown by the latter half of th at loka ?
jf 158) there is no Essence of the Buddha,
There will be no aversion to Suffering,
Nor will there be desire nor earnest wish,
Nor prayer for N irvana. // 40 //
So it is said

159)

44

O Lord, if there were no M atrix of the Tathgata, then there


would arise neither aversion to Suffering nor desire for N irvana,
nor earnest wish for it or ptfayer for it ".
160)

H ere, in brief, the Essence of the Buddha, the perfectly pure G erm ,
161)
even of those people who are fixed in the wrong way
has the two kinds
162)
of foundation
of its actions. That is to say, it produces disgust
155

* nihritya, T. brtennas. The form nihri is etymologically a wrong reading


for ni ri and probably caused by actual pronunciation, i.e. insertion of Visarga
after ni before double consonant bearing a sibilant at the head. (e.g. nihsyanda for
nisyanda).
156)
samvrti (covered) and nirvrti (dis covered) in the text. T. as samsra and
nirvana.
167)
Cf. BG 799 c 800 c (4. karman).
158)
sacet (BH S). Pali sace.
159

> M S 222 6.

160)

viuddhigotra, T. mam par

dag pahi rigs, C. Y ^F I n

| 2 | (viuddhi hetu).

(Cf., BG S, Ypf }^r* ifE) This is an apposition to buddhadhtu. See S. p. 6, 1. 9.


lei) F o r mithytvaniyata , C. <\ * _/ , ^ffc , (aniyata sattvari) and BGS agree with
C. (T. as S.) ' aniyata ' seems to be the original reading, since by the term ' mithytvani
yata~ s.' th e Icchantikas are implied and this passage does not refer to th e Icchantikas.
pratyupasthna, T. e-bar gnas-par byed-de (upasthita), C. f)b I P - ( t o
to work). See Note VIII-211.
162)

[ 221 ]

cause

J. TAKASAKI

witn Phenomenal Life basing itself upon 1 6 3 ) th e perception of th e fault of


Suffering, and it calls forth longing, desire, earnest wish and prayer for the
164)
N irvana, basing itself upon th e perception th at happiness is th e m erit .
165>
H ere, * longing ' (chanda) means * expectation ' (abhilsa) . * Desire '
(icch) means 4 unco war dliness ' (asamkoca) 166) for th e attainment of th e
intended object.
' Earnest Wish ' (prrthan) means ' searching for '
(parimrgan) 167) th e means to attain th e intended object. ' P rayer'
(pranidhi) means ' will ' (cetan) or 4 manifestation (abhisamskra) of th e
mind ' 1 6 8 .
The perception of Phenomenal Life and N irvana,
The former is full of Suffering, hence it is th e fault,
The latter is of bliss, therefore it is th e merit;
I t exists only in case th e G erm of th e Buddha exists,
And does not exist with people of no G erm. // 41 //
The perception th at Phenomenal Life is full of suffering, hence is th e
fault, and th at N irvana is blissful, hence it is th e merit, this perception
belongs to those people who are possessed of good virtues 1 6 9 ) and exists
only in case th e Germ [of th e Tathgata] exists. Thus this perception
does not take place without causes or without conditions. Indeed, if
it were without G erm 1 7 0 ) , without causes and conditions and were n ot
brought about through th e extirpation of sinm > , it would exist even with
163)

nihrayena,

164)

anuamsa, T. phan yon, C. ^5t WFC fr sukhnuamsa. H ere anuamsa stands

C . flv .

for guna in the following verse and corresponds to dosa in case of samsra.
i5) This sentence is lacking in S. But T. de la hdun pa ni mon-par hhod-paho;
C. has a similar sentence. The context shows its necessity. The rendering from T. is
as follows:
tatra cchando * bhilsah
166)

T . phyogs pa

(abhimukha,

goin g a h ea d ) , C. / [* | 2 ^ p .

167)

T. tshol-ba, C. j g 5JC & j j | j fnj . parimrgan is a u n iq u e form in B H S for


S kt . parimrgana.
F o r prrthan, T . don du ger-ba (to provide for, t o strive t o procure), C. "jj/ *\jf.
168)
169)

cetan cittbhisamskra,
C. {\ j^ ^jj* ^ y / fT b u t T . o m . cetan.
uklma, T . dkar po [hi] cha / (so J ' s fn ., b u t D . dkar pohi chos. . . (ukladharma),

C. E3 *VPV (

kualamla).

Cf. BG S, ^ p " JJ (as S.), t o get h er wit h a n exp la n a t io n of t h is

term (3 amas jjjg f|* ft (punya), jjf R ^

(mukti), i S 3t fr (adhigama)).

Cf. P a l i sukkmsa, b r i g h t l o t , f o r t u n e .
170)
gotram antarena.
T . & C. o m . i t .
lvi) >phe r e a d i n g should b e corrected i n t o * ppsamuccheddayogena
samucchedayogena
(ace. t o T . ) .

[ 222 ]

' from

ppa

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

the Icchantikas who are of the lineage of no N irvana. Really, it cannot


take place unless they bring about the G erm which is purified from
172)
accidental pollutions and the faith in any one of three Vehicles
through
173)
174)
being endowed wit h
the 4 kinds of good actions , beginning with
having contact with a personage of high virtue 1 7 5 ) .
(The saying: the Icchantikas are of no N irvana, is only conventional)

176)

I t is however said [in the Scripture] 1 7 7 ) :


" After this 1 7 8 ) the rays of the disk of the sun like Tathgata179>
172
> dharma is here used for yna.
anyatamadharma).

T. chos, but C. ^ t (C. '

* ^ J . ' stands for

173

> samavadhna, T . ya-dag-par


hbyor-ba, C. ' j ^ | (to practise).
catuhukla. T. hkhor lo bshi (catucakra), which are, according to O, 1) th e
reliance upon a saintly personage; 2) th e accumulation of virtue; 3) a favourable dwell
ing place; and 4) sublime vows and correct appreciation. They are th e 4 wheels of th e
great vehicle. There is, however, another fourfold group in Tibetan under th e name of
' catuhukladharma (dkarpohi chos bshi) ' or ' caturkaraukla (dkarpo mam bshi) ' (they
are nam ely: 1) dge bahi chos ma skyes pa bskyed pa, to produce good quality which has
not been produced; 2) skyes pa mi-ams-pa, to retain what is produced; 3) mi-dge-bahi
chos skyes-pa spo-ba, to avoid the bad quality already produced; and 4) mi-dgebahi chos maskyespa rnams mibskyedpa, to prevent the generation of bad quality
which has not yet appeared). The latter fourfold group seems not relevant to this
passage.
The third and perhaps the most suitable one is found in the Mahparinirvnastra
174)

of M ahyna. According to C. translation, it is called ' JiiJ p fjj ' (catuskualadharma,


but most probably for catuhukladharma), and its four items are 1) to approach th e per
sonage of high virtue; 2) to attend and accept the teaching; 3) to contemplate the meaning
of the doctrine; and 4) to practise according to th e teaching.
Cf. BG (Z9 i f } 1= fflg (catur[rya]cakra as T.), which are 1) # 0 *? ft U S
~T, ; 2) j g ^pp TCP |fj ; 3) |= } Spo) 1/ .?; 4) fff 7^ ^ y r&i.
tion of the term ' cakra '.
175)

satpurusa,
as laymen.

T. skyes-bu

dam-pa,

It ha^s an explana-

C. -jjj- ^P H f e ' which includes monks as well

"> Cf. BG 787 c 788 c ( $ J 2^L 5}" W> H tf* #JE '}* = 31 ft p p W> ')
wh ere discussion is h eld a r o u n d t h e exist en c e of ' buddhagotra ' a m o n g va r io u s sch ools
of B u d d h i sm .
177) Ava t S. 616 b ( in C h a p . 3 2 : Tathgatotpattisambhava parivarta),
ac c o rd in g t o
C. B u t a sen t en ce closer t o t h is q u o t a t i o n is fo u n d i n J A, 242 c. ( as O 's n o t e ) .
178) Tjjg r e a d in g ' yatra hy ha / tatra pacd' is so m e wh a t d o u bt fu l. T . ga-gi
phyir,
:

dehi hogtu ... shes gsusso ' (yata

ha I tatah pacd . . . ) , a n d C. ^<j JS\

= P Hfc TlE H* i T ' = (tasmd uktam Avatamsaka gotrotpattau j tatah pacd . . .).
179j
T. adds jna after tathgata.

[ 223 ]

J . TAKASAKI

fall upon the bodies of even those people who are fixed in the wrong
way and make benefits for them 1 8 0 ) . And furthermore producing
the cause of future [bliss] [in them], they cause them to thrive
181)
with virtuous qualities .
And also the saying : " the Icchantikas are by all means of the nature
of no Perfect N irvana " 18 2 ) is taught in order to remove the hatred against
the D octrine of the G reat Vehicle, this being the cause of their being Ic
183)
chantikas and refers to a certain period of time . Indeed, as there exists
the G erm which is pure by nature, none could be of the absolutely impure
184)
nature . Therefore, with reference to the fact th at all living beings,
with no difference, have the possibility185) of being purified, the Lord
186)
has said again
:
" Though being beginningless, indeed,
[The Phenomenal Life] has its end 1 8 7 ) ;
Being pure by nature,
I t is endowed with Eternity 1 8 8 ) ;
Being covered from outside
By the beginningless sheath [of defilements],
[This nature] is however invisible,
189)
190)
Just as the gold
concealed
[in sand and dust] ".

180)

Ace. to T. & C , one phrase of ' tn upakurvanti ' should be inserted.

(T. de

dag la phan hdogs par hgyur shin, C. \ y $K. ^j< ^ H ^*'J iSfc
iZ^
182

(ukladhamra).

' I n the Mahparinirvnastra, &c.

183) According to O's interpretation . T. dus gshan la dgos-nas, C. jiv VR ER mf .


The meaning is that the Icchantikas remain as aparinirvnagotraka only for the certain
period of time when they have hatred against the doctrine of M ahyna, but not forever.

Cf. BG 786 c: jj j ^ ffi tf* .


18 4

>

185)

dharman
bhavyat,

( ifc ) , T . o m . , C. f 4 .
T . ru-pa-id.
This sentence a n d t h e following verse are missing

in C.
186) Tjjg s o u r c e u n k n o w n .
18 7)
avasnika, T. tha ma dan Idan pa. About this beginningless n ature of sam
sra, see S. p . 72 11. 13 16. I t should be noted t h at samsra is not endless. See N ote
VI I I 242.
188)
dhruvadharma.
189)
suvarnabimba
L i t . ' t h e sh a p e of go ld ', T . gser gyi gzugs.
190)
paricchdita,
T . bsgribs ( = vrta).

[ 224 ]

The

Ratnagotravibaga

(V)

YOGA 191)

Now, with reference to the meaning of 4 Union ' {yoga), there is one
loka.

(Krik 8)
192 )

Being the inexhaustible storage


of jewels of immeasurable
[The Germ of the Buddha is] like the Ocean;
Lvirtues,
I t is akin to the lantern, because of its nature of
Being endowed with properties indivisible [from it] 1 9 3 ) . // 42 //

1. The Union of the Germ with the F actors of its Purification.


H ere, what is shown by the former half of this loka ?
Because it consists of the sources 1 9 4 ) of the Absolute Body,
Of the Buddha's Wisdom and Compassion 1 9 5 ) ,
There is shown the similarity of the Germ with the ocean,
Through being receptacle, jewels and water. // 43 //
On account of three points, the Essence of the Tathgata has a resem
blance to the great ocean in three ways, respectively, and through this

191)

U nder this subject of 'yoga\ two kinds of ' u n i o n ' are discussed. One is the
union of dhtu, in the sense of hetu, with dharmakya. The other is the relation of dhtu,
in the sense of dharmadhtu, i. e. phala, with its properties. And this union is an unsepa
rable accompaniment (samanvgama, avyatireka, sambaddha, avinirbhga). Th at is to
say, being possessed of hetu of dharmakya, consisting of praj and karun, a sattva is
called dhtu: and just because he is dhtu, consequently he is endowed with abhij,
jna and sravaksaya.
Cf. BG S 801 a (5. yoga), where ' rayaparivrtti ' and ' nirvana' are discussed along
with this subject.
192
' kara, T. gnas, C. ^pf .

> Cf. DA 893*: JD * ? | ft ft, * j g ft S f f i .


194)

dhtu, T. khams, C. ^ ^ ^j |5l sattvas are ' dhtu' because of their being ' dhar
madhtu samgraha ' of dharmakya. dhtu, here in the sense of ' hetu '. See commentary.
19sJ

C. inserts ' samdhi ' (>H,) between jna and karun.

[ 225 ]

J.

TAKASAKI

similarity, th e subject ' U n ion ' should be understood in th e sense t h at


the Essence of the Tath gata is provided with causes [of its purification]
(hetu samanvgama)

196)

Then, which are th e three points ?

They are

nam ely: [its being provided with] 1) th e cause of purification


Absolute Body {dharmakyaviuddhihetu) 197);

of the

2) th e cause of th e attain

ment of Buddha's Wisdom (buddhajnasamudgamahetu); and 3) th e cause


of th e manifestation of Buddha's G reat Compassion {tathgatamahkaru
nvfttihetu) 198).

H ere, 1) ' the cause of purification of the Absolute Body'

is to be known as th e practice of faith in [the D octrine of] the G reat


Vehicle; 2) ' t h e cause of th e attain m en t of Buddha's Wisdom ',
practice of th e introduction to the

the

highest Intellect and M editation;

and 3) ' t h e cause of th e m an ifestation 199 ' of Buddha's G reat Compassion',


the

practice of Bodhisattva's

G reat C om passion

200)

201

H ere, th e practice of faith in [the D octrine] > of th e G reat Vehicle


has a similarity to th e ' receptacle' because, in this [receptacle], there
is an accumulation 202> of th e jewel of Intellect and M editation as well as
the water of Compassion which are immeasurable and inexhaustible.

The

practice of th e in troduction to th e highest Intellect and M editation has


a similarity to ' jewel ' because of its being indiscriminative and being
endowed with inconceivable and powerful virtues.

The practice of Bod

h isattva's Compassion has a similarity to ' wa t er '

because, in all th e

world, it manifests th e highest moisture with th e feature of one and the


same t a st e 2 0 3 ) .

This coherence (sambaddha) 204)

196) x. rgyu dah Idan pa, C. "$C P 9 ^P? ^


ve r se is h e r e e xp la in e d b y t h i s ' hetiisamanvgama
197>
Aga in st J ' s n o t e , T . ( D ) h a s ' kya '.

i.e. th e accompaniment

ffi< W t ' dhtu samgraha ' in the


'.

198>

C . h a s ' ^ f f ' (prpti) i n st e a d of ' vrtti '. B u t T . hjug pa.


199) Again st J ' s n o t e , T . ( D ) h a s ' tathgatamahkarun
(de bshin gegs pahi
thugs
rje chen po).
Abo u t ' pravrtti ', T . always t r a n sla t e s i t in t o * hjugs ' wit h o u t prefix.
200) i ^ dist in gu ish es t h e karun of t h e B u d d h a from t h a t of t h e B o d h isa t t va b y
u sin g ' thugsrje ' for t h e fo rm er a n d ' si-rje ' for t h e latter.
201)
T . h a s ' dharma ' after ' mahyna '.
202
' samavasarana,
T . hduba ( m ixin g u p ) . C . sim p ly ' tasym
aparimeyaaksayat
vt'

a n d o m . ' prajsamdhiratnakarunvrisamavasarana

teM^S^C

ftaSffi:,:

'. B u t , B G S sa ys ' XtL H~^

fft W fflfflT,

which isapparently

equal to S.
203) >p# reads ' its n ature of t h e highest moisture in all t h e world is endowed with

one taste ' and om. laksana, which C. has. F or prayoga, T. dah Idan pa, bu t C. 4 1"
( = pravrtti). H ere prayoga has th e sense of ' presentation or manifestation ' in connection
with t h e term laksana (laksanaprayoga, C. /fJEJ 4~T
[ 226 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

(samanvgama)2 0 5 ) of these three things (the Absolute Body and others),


with these three causes, the practice of faith, etc., is here called
' U nion'.
The Union of the Germ with the Result of Purification.

Now, what is shown by the latter half of the loka ?


In the immaculate basis2 0 6 ) , the supernatural faculties,
The Wisdom and Immaculateness2 0 7 ) are inseparable from Reality;
Therefore, they have a resemblance to a lantern,
On account of its light, heat and colour 208 '. // 44 //
The subject, 4 Union ' is here to be understood in the sense th at
the Essence of the Tathgata is accompanied by the results [of its puri
fication] (phala samanvgama), through its similarity to a lantern in
three ways on account of three points, respectively. Then, which are the
three points ? N amely, [the Essence of the Buddha is endowed with] 1)
the Supernatural F aculties (abhij); 2) the Wisdom by which the evil in
fluence is destroyed, (sravaksayajna); and 3) the Extinction of Evil
Influence (sravaksaya) 209). H ere, the 5 Supernatural faculties210) have
a resemblance to ' light of flame ' because they have a characteristic of
engaging in 211) the extinction of darkness which is opposite to the know

204)

205

T. [ dan] hbral pa, C. ffl '"

> T. -dan Idan-pa, C. fll ^

A^

$jfl (absolutely inseparable).

206)

vimalraya, T. dri med gnas, C. 7 7 0 v r (vimala dhtu). H ere raya is


used for dhtu, and hence, vimalraya is synomynous with dharmakya.
207)

C. i f t | , ^ 5 , 38 "r > f r respective t e r m .

" > Cf. DA 893 b (v. 13): # 0 *

W 3& fe H jB t S

ffi

#H M.

209) T . & C. for these 3 terms are respectively:


1) mon-par es pa, i fs ( = Jj p li s) ; 2) zag pa zad pahi ye es, jfcW $ | gtf ^ 3
(jna in the verse, T. ye es, C. j^3) ; 3) zag pa zad pa, $j|j ^ff (vaimalya in the verse,
T. dri med, C. fp | i ) .
210
> 1) rddhi-visaya-jna skstkriy abhij;
2) divyacaksuh j. s. a; 3) divyaro
tra j. s. a.; 4) paracetah paryya j. s. a.; & 5) prvanivsnusmrti-j.-s.-a.
Cf. Mvyut. 14.
211)
pratyupasthna, T. e-bar gnas-pa (originally from Pali paccatthna). I n
C. ' ^ b ' f ' H b <O H b /<7 ' stands for this term and shows the meaning of ' being
capable of'.

[ 227 ]

j.

lAiiAS AKI

ledge which perceives an object 2 1 2 ) . The Wisdom by which the Evil In


fluence is destroyed is similar to * h ea t ' because of its characteristic of
engaging in consuming the fuel213) of the Active force and Defilements,
leaving no residue.
The Extinction of Evil Influence as the [result of] the Perfect Mani
festation of the Basis has resemblance to ' colour ' because of its charac
teristic of being perfectly stainless (vimala), pure (viuddha) and radiant
(prabhsvara). H ere, it is ' stainless ' because it has destroyed the 0b
struction caused by moral Defilements. I t is ' pure ' because it has de
4
stroyed the Obstruction on account of knowable things. I t is radiant '
[by nature] because these two [Obstructions] are merely of an occasional
214)
nature . Thus, in brief, the properties of those people who have nothing
215)
further to learn
summarized in these seven, i.e. the 5 Supernatural
F aculties, the Wisdom destroying the Evil Influence and the D estruction
[of Evil Influence] 216) , are in the Immaculate Sphere, inseparable from
217)
each other, not different [from each other] and coherent wit h
the
4
Absolute. This point is here called Union '.
And with reference to this subject of 4 Union ', the example of a lan
tern is to be understood in detail according to the Stra 2 1 8 ) .
" O riputra, just as a lantern is of indivisible nature and its
2l9)
qualities are inseparable from i t . That is to say, [it is] indi
visible [inseparable], from light, heat and colour. The precious stone
is also [indivisible, inseparable], from its light, colour and shape.
In the same way, O riputra, the Absolute Body, taught by the

212)

arthnubhava, T. don ams-su myo-ba, C. 5a / f ] ^ p - . T. om. jna.


C. om. indhana (T. bud i).
214) T. reads as ' tad ubhaya gantukal aprakrtitah ' (glo-bur-pa-id-kyi
rabshin ma yin-pahi phyir-ro, being gantukat, they are not the innate character).
313)

C. reads ' ftj g ft t f ^ f 1 fL ~ J i ^ 4 S t S ' (its being the body


of innate purity, these two are occasional defilements), taking prakrti as cittaprakrti.
21S

' aaiksasntnika, T. mislob~pahi rgyud, C. JJ^ rfi -f ,

216)

prahna, T . spas-pa,
C. pjfl; 'Jf| TE*I I t s t a n d s for rayaksaya.
I n s t e a d of
' sapta ', C . c o u n t s 6 ansravajnas
a n d prahna se p a r a t e ly. T . a d d s ansrava befo r e
abhij.
217) j r o r samanvgama,
C . h a s a p e c u lia r t r a n sl a t i o n , ' \ ~ =2f a p ? j ^ ' {samnvgama ?).
218)
AAN 467 a. C . o m . t h e wh o le p a r a g r a p h a ft e r ' esa ca yogrtham. . . '. Cf.
DAS 893 b, which q u o t e t h e same passage.
219)
avinirmukta-guna.
Here t h e word jna, wh ic h a p p e a r s i n t h e case of dharma
kya (avinirmuktajnaguna),
is o m i t t e d .

[ 228 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

Tathgata is of indivisible n ature, of the qualities inseparable


from. Wisdom (i.e. Enlightenment). That is to say, [indivisible,
inseparable], from the Properties of the Tathgata which are far
beyond the sand of the Gag in number ".

(VI)

Now, with reference


there is one loka.

VR TTI 220)

to the meaning of

manifestation'

(vrtti),

(Krik 10)
The Ordinary People, the Saints, and the Buddhas,
They are indivisible from Reality 221) ,
Therefore, the Matrix of the Buddha 222) exists among [all] living
beings;
Thus it is taught by the perceivers of the Reality. // 45 //
What is shown by this loka ?
The Ordinary People are of erroneous conception,
Being opposite to them, [the Saints are] the perceivers of the truth , 2 2 3 )
And being of the perfectly224) right conception,
The Buddhas are apart from the dualistic view. // 46 //
In connection with the introductory teaching 2 2 5 ) of the N on discrimi
native Wisdom, it has been taught, in the Prajpramit, etc., for the
Bodhisattvas th at the Essence of the Tathgata 226) has the general charac
220
>
221)
different
222
*
223)

224)

Cf. BG 805 c f. (6. vrtti).


^ reads as ' tathat vyatirekatah ' and inserts vrtti (manifests th e tathat in
way), but C. as usual.
jinagarbha = tathgatagarbha.
drstasatya = tattvadarin (C, JfjjJ, ^
yathvat = samyak.

' n ) T. bden-pa mthon-ba.

225)
mukhvadna, T. sgo la gdams pa, C. [ ( 3 ] fC | J (in the sense of dharma
mukhvadna).
226)

T . as locat ive, in t h e sen se ' wit h referen ce t o tathgatadhtu

t ive, b u t regard s dhtu as dharmadhtu

( ^jj

^N i S Vr

slight difference in t h e m ea n in g.

[ 229 ]

T/

'. C. also as loca

C on sequen tly, it shows a

J . TAKASAKI
227)

teristic of being Reality, the perfect purity, i.e. the Suchness


of all the
elements. On the basis of this general characteristic, it should be known
228)
in brief, there are threefold different manifestations (pravrtti)
of three
kinds of people:. . . of the Ordinary People who do not perceive the Truth,
of the Saints who perceive the Truth and of the Tathgata 2 2 9 ) who has
attained the ultimate purity. In other words, they are ' of the erroneous
4
conception ' (viparyasta), ' of the right conception ' (aviparyasta), and of
230)
the perfectly right conception
and of no dualistic view ', respectively.
H ere, ' of the erroneous conception' is because Ordinary People have
delusion on account of their conception, mind and perception 2315 . 'O f
the right conception ' is because the Saints, being opposite to them, have
destroyed the delusion. [And lastly], ' of the perfectly right conception
and of no dualistic view ' is because the Perfectly Enlightened Ones have
dispelled the Obstructions of moral defilement and of knowable things
along with their Impressions.

(VII)

AVASTHPRABHEDA 232)

Hereafter, with reference to this subject of ' manifestation ', other


four subjects should be understood through the detailed explanation [on
each subject]. Here, [first of all], with reference to the subject, ' different states (avasthprabheda) ' among these three kinds of people, there
is one loka.
(Krik 10)
Impure, [partly] pure and [partly] impure,
And perfectly pure these are said of
227)

tathat. I n this translation , I repeated the word tathat twice in order to make
the meaning clear.
228) _ Vrtti, T. & C. has the same tran slation as in the case of vrtti.
229)
C. adds dharmakya after tathgata.
230)
G. om. here samyag aviparyasta.
231)
samj, T. hdu es, C. 5 ; citta, T. sems, C. ' I J * ; drsli, T. Ita ba, C. ^
, res
pectively. Cf. Yogcrabhmistra vol. 8 (Taisho, XXX, p. 314 6): 1) samjviparyasta
means ' anitye vastuni nitya parikalpa pravrttih; 2) drsti v. means ' tatparikalpite chan
dah, abhilsah; and 3) citta v. means ' abhilasitakleasya kriy '. Also cf. BG S 806 a.
232
> Cf. BG 806 a; AS 469 c.

[ 230 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

The Ordinary beings, the Bodhisattvas 2 3 3 ) ,


And the Tathgata, respectively234) . // 47 //
What is shown by this loka ?
235)

The Essence [of the Buddha] , [hitherto briefly explained]


By these six subjects, beginning with ' own n ature ',
Is, in accordance with its 3 states,
D esignated by 3 different names. // 48 //
Any teaching referring to the immaculate Essence [of the Bu ddh a] 2 3 6 ) ,
taught by the Lord in detail through various divisions of Scripture 2 3 7 ) is
hitherto briefly summarized by six subjects, namely, ' own nature ', ' cause'
[of purification], ' result ' [of purification], ' function ' [towards purifi
cation], 'u n io n ' [with the cause and result], and 'm an ifestation ' 2 3 8 '. This
very Essence of the Buddha is here to be known as being taught through
the teaching of 3 different names in accordance with its 3 states, respectively.
That is to say, 1) in the ' impure ' (auddha) state [the Essence of the
Buddha is named) ' the Ordinary Beings ' (sattvadhtu) 239); 2) in th e
' [partly] pure and [partly] im pure' (auddhasuddha) state, the Bodhi
sattva; and 3) in the ' perfectly pure ' (suviuddha), the Tathgata.
I t has been said by the Lord2 4 0 ) .
" O riputra, this Absolute Body, when it is covered with the
241)
limitless
sheath of defilements, being carried by the stream of

233) p o r rya in the previous Krik. H ere it is specified th at rya is par excellence
the Bodhisattvas.

Ife * # # gl ft ft fit *P
235

For dhtu, C. ? ft f

236)

ansravadhtu.

F or dhtu, T. khams, C. V | E .

2 37 )

nndharmaparyyamukhesu.
C. ^jf *]. fC 1 J (mukhesu = dvrena).
238
' I t shows us t h at th e 6 subjects mentioned above are th e fundamental categories
by which any kind of teaching can be summarized, whereas the remaining four subjects
are peculiar to the tathgatadhtu, as forming sub divisions of the sixth category, vrtti
See note VI I I 8. As for the six padrthas, see Appendix, III.
239)

C. j^K f E Here sattvadhtu stands for prthagjana.


240) AAN 467 b. Cf. AS 469 c.
241)
aparyanta... koti ( gdha), T. bye ba mthah yas pas

regarded as a unit of number), C. ^

(gtums pa),

(koti

$$ 'tM & ft H [0T IK]


[ 231 ]

is

J. TAKASAKI

the Phenomenal Life and moving to and fro between death and
birth in th e course of the beginningless 2 4 2 ) Phenomenal Life, is
4
called th e [ordinary] living beings '. This same Absolute Body,
O Sriputra, when it has become averse to the Suffering in th e stre
am of Phenomenal Life and become free from all th e objects of desire,
doing th e practice towards Enlightenment by means of the 10
243)
244)
Supreme Virtues
as including and represen tin g
all of th e 84
245)
thousands groups of D octrin es , it is called ' t h e Bodhisattva'.
F urthermore, O riputra, this very Absolute Body, when,
having been perfectly released from all th e sheaths of defilements,
having surpassed all th e Sufferings, having rejected all stains of
subsequent defilements, it has become pure, perfectly pure, and,
abiding in the Absolute Essence which is th e highest point of
purity 2 4 6 ) , ascending to the stage to be looked upon 2 4 7 ) by all living
beings, has attained th e unexcelled, manly stren gth 2 4 8 ) among all
2121

anavargra, T. thog-ma da tha-ma med-pa (of neither bottom nor top, without

beginning nor end), C. *j]q, 3s* 5 o ^N (f beginningless time). As an epithet to samsra,


it has its origin in P ali anamatagga, which seems to mean ' whose beginning is unknown ',
(an' amata agga, o n ' anu, a prefix of intensitive sense), (viz. V. P . Bap at, Review
of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, ABORI, vol. XXXV, p. 234 5). By San skrit^
zation, anamata was changed into anavara (reason unknown) and regarded as the compound
of ' an avara agra ' . T. tran slation shows this sense. On the contrary, C. has retained
the original sense of this term . I n Sanskrit sources, however, this term was interpreted
in two ways. We have a good example in Candrak rti's Prasannapad.
prv prajyate kotir nety vca mahmunih j
samsro'navargro hi nsydir npi pacimam j / (MK XI , 1)
uktam hi Bhagavat j Anavargro hi, bhiksavo, jtijarmaranasamsra iti j
avidynivarannm . . . sattvnm . . . samsaratm . . . prvakotir na prajyata
iti II {Prasannapad, Poussin. p. 218) (Cf. SN I I , 178, 193: I I I , 144. 151, etc.).
H ere I suppose th at th e term anamatagga had originally the sense ' prv kotir
na prajyate ', bu t from th e literal meaning of its Sanskritized form ' anavargra ', a
new interpretation of ' nadir npi pacimam ' was added to its meaning.
243)

daapramith. Besides the 6 pramits taugh t in the Prajpramit, ' upya ',

' pranidhi\ ' bala\ and 'jna' are counted under this.
244)

antargata,

l i t . r e p r e se n t e d b y o r su m m a r i z e d i n [ t h e 10 p r a m i t s ] .

245

dharmaskandha, T. chos kyi phu-po, C. ^ P ^ (= ffi H e , V S b - The

number of group is usually counted as 84 thousand. It is used in nearly the same sense
as dharmaparyya or dharmapitaka.
246

> paramaviuddhadharmat, C. ^

247)

j ^ fft

V.

lokanya, T. blta-bar bya-ba, C. fj\ H&.

24S

* advit yam paurusam sthma, T. gis-su medpahi skyesbuhi mthu, C. ip*. -Jft

iSr 'flf (there is nobody superior to him).


[ 232 ]

The

R a c n a g o t r a vi b h g a

knowable spheres, and has attained the Controlling Power on


249
all separate elements, which is of no obstruction ' and of no
hindrance, then it is called the Tathgata, the Arhat, the Perfectly
Enlightened One ".

(VIII) SARVATRAGA 250)

The Essence of the Tathgata is ' all pervading (sarvatraga) ' in these
three states. With reference to this meaning, there is one loka.
(Krik 11)
Just as being of indiscriminative nature,
Space pervades everywhere,
Similarly all pervading is the Essence,
251)
The immaculate nature of the mind
. // 49 //
What is shown by this loka ?
I t pervades with common feature
252)
The defective, the virtuous and the ultim ate ,
Just as space occupies all the visible forms 2 5 3 ) ,
Either inferior, middle, or superior. // 50 //
254)

That which is the indiscriminative Innate Mind (cittaprakrti)


of the
ordinary people, of the Saints and of the Buddhas has a common feature
in these three states, irrespective of their being defective, virtuous or the
ultimate point of pure virtue. Therefore, just as space penetrates all the
receptacles regardless of material, whether clay, silver or gold, it is all per
249)

anvarana dharma, T. sgrib pa med pahi chos can, C. pijfl:

260)

Cf. BG 806 b ( 8. sarvatraga);

2B1)

cittaprakrti vaimalyadhtu,

"u)j P Ip..

AS 469 c-470 a.

T. sems kyi

ra-bshin

dri-med

dbyis, C. JEJ |_E

TR ^ 3 " LJ* (prakrtivaimolyacitta).


252)

dosa, T. ges-pa, C. JHQ ; guna, T. yon-tan,

C. j} j@ ; nisth, T . mthar thug,

^ |5 J ^ , respectively,
nisth is replaced by ' gunaviuddhinisth ' in th e commen
tary. Of these three, see next (I X) Avikra.
253)

rpagata ( = rpa). T. gzugs , C. f*^ . viz. BH S D ie. s. v.

264)

C. ft H ^ p 'l>. T. as in the Krik.


[ 233 ]

J. TAKASAKI

vading, all embracing, equal, of no difference and is present always 2 5 5 ) .


256)
For this reason, it has been said in the same scripture , immediately
after the explanation of different states:
" Therefore, 0 riputra, the [ordinary] living beings and the Ab
solute Body are not different from each other. The living beings
are nothing but the Absolute Body, and the Absolute Body is
nothing but the living beings. These two are non dual by meaning,
and different merely by letters ".

(IX)

AVIKRA 257)

N ow, the Essence of the Tathgata, being all pervading in these three
states, is, moreover, unchangeable (avikra) either by I m purity or through
puiification 258) . With reference to this subject, there are 14 lokas.
[Prior to the explanation of these lokas], the summarized meaning 2 5 9 )
of these lokas is to be known by the following verse:
Being possessed of faults by occasion,
I t is, however, endowed with virtues by n ature;
Therefore it is of unchangeable character
In the beginning as well as afterwards 2 6 0 ) . // 51 //
In the impure state as well as in the pure and impure state, which
are shown by the [first] 12 lokas and by the [next] one loka, respective
255)

prpt sarvaklam, C. ' ' "tj/J ftf ^ .

T., connecting nirviist with this

p h rase, h a s ' dus thamcaddu khyadpar medpar gyurpa '.


A quite equivalent passage is found in AS (469 c), which is quoted in BG (806 b)
with a heading ' ]\ \ vRv _Ll YI\ nixi = l ' ( a s n a s been said in the Anuttarrayastra).
256
> AAN 467 b.
25 7)
Cf. BGS 806 c (9. Avikra) U nder this subject, it treats ' avikritva ' from 6
points, viz. prva paryanta, samklea vyavadna, jti, pravrtti, sthiti, and bhaga. Furthermore it adds the 9 illustrations on klea there.
258)

samklea vyavadna, C. ^fc fjf

259)

pindrtha, T. bsdushas-pahi don, C. P)fy B/ , r- ^ ^ .

(impurity and purity).

260

> The same vexse appears in BG 806 c: ^

||| ^

{||

ffi

^f

ft

f^

#H J 5 ^fe SP I B J 3S 18 JH ffl It is regarded in BG as a verse from


the Sandhinirmocanastra ( ^ n 1 ^ @ ^ ^ ? ^ ^ t S l S P f f i S f l l W)- We
cannot, however, find out any similar verse in the present texts of the Sandhinirmocana.

For dharmat, C. J f f^

| , BG ^ g .

[ 234 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

ly, [the Essence of the Tathgata] is possessed of faults caused by funda


mental and subsequent defilements ' by occasion '. [On the contrary],
4
in the perfectly pure state, shown by the 14th loka, it is essentially '
261>
endowed with the Buddha's virtues
which are indivisible [from the
262)
Absolute Body], inseparable from Wisdom
, inconceivable and far gre
ater in number than the sands of G ang. Therefore it is explained th at
the Essence of the Tathgata 2 6 3 ) , like space, is of absolutely unchangeable
character throughout different states 2 6 4 ) .

(A) U nchangeability in the Impure State


F irst of all, with reference to th e subject of ' unchangeability ' [of
the Essence of the Tathgata] in th e Impure State, what is said in 12
lokas ?

(Kriks 12 23)
Just as space, being all pervading,
Cannot be polluted because of its subtle nature;
Similarly, abiding everywhere among living beings 2 6 5 ) ,
This [Essence 265*] remains unpolluted [by defilements].
261

' dharma

// 52 //

guna.

262)

amuktaju (BHS, adj.). This is an abbreviated form of ' avinirmuktajna '


which occurred in a quotation from AAN (S. pp. 3 & 39) and its first use is probably in
SMS (see quotations from SMS in S. pp. 55 & 76). This is a special adjective to buddha
dharma or guna, showing inseparability of guna from buddhajna, i.e. bodhi. Therefore,
T. bral mies or C. ' M^ /JJu ' (unreleased) does n ot exactly convey its meaning.
I t should be ' yees dan ma bralba '. See N ote 123.
263

> For dhtu, C. j t # P tt .

264)

C. treats this passage in verse.


265) A doubt about th e reading ' sattve ' in the text (for satvo in Ms. B) is raised by
Prof. V. V. G okhale, who, indicating the identification of this verse with v. XI I I , 32 in
the Bhagavadglt, suggested the reading ' sattvas ' instead of sattve, being the subject
noun for ' ayam '. {A Note on Ratnagotravibhga I, 52 = Bhagavadglt XIII
32. Stu
dies in Indology and Buddhology, Presented in H onour of Prof. S. Yamaguchi, Kyoto,
1955, pp. 9091). H owever, as far as the independent use of ' ayam ' is concerned, there
seems to be no problem, since this verse is in a series of Kriks and ayam denotes ' cit
taprakrtivaimalyadhtu ' in v. 49. (So C. translates ayam into ' j^p '( ', buddhadhtu).
A similar case is found in v. 54, where enam is also used independently, denoting the same
subject of cittapraknivaimalyadhtu (C. also ' y)p jf ' ) .
T. & C. seem to support
the reading in lo c , but T. reads the second line as ' sarvasattvesv avasthitas tatha'yam
ndpalipyate / H ere ' sattva' seems to be used in a collective sense, th e same as sattvadhtu

[ 235 ]

J . TAKASAKI

Just as the worlds have everywhere


Their origination and destruction in space;
266)
Similarly, on the basis of the Innate Essence ,
The sense organs appear and disappear 2 6 7 ) . // 53 //
268)
Just as space has never been burnt .
By t h e fire [at th e end of th e world];
269)
Likewise the fires of death, of illness and decrepitude
270)
271
Cannot consume
this [Essence of th e Buddha] . // 54 //
The earth is supported by water,
Water by air, and air by space;
Space has, however, no support
N either in air, nor in water, nor in the earth. // 55 //
Similarly all the component elements [of Phenomenal Life] 2 72 )
H ave their foundation in th e Active Force and Defilements,
And t h e Active Force and Defilements exist always
273)
On t h e basis of th e Irrational Thought
. // 56 //
The Irrational Thought is founded
274)
In t h e [innate] mind which is pure ,
The innate mind has, however, no support
In an y [of th e worldly] phenomena. // 57 //
All t h e component elements of Phenomenal Life

266)

asamskrta dhtu, T. hdus ma byas dbyis, C.

( = ansravadhtu).

It seems to indicate cittaprakrti (see v. 57).

)Cf.D A893(v.l2):in
268)

e J ffr H

dagdha prva.

269)

mrtyu, vydhi, jar: T. hchi ba, na ba, rga ba; C. y Q , jfj^f , ^Ei * resp.

S70)

G rammatically th e form should be ' pradahanti ' in stead of ' pradahati*.

893 a (v. ii). # n H ft A ^ $3 M S in Jb


272)

skandha dhtv indriya skandhyatanadhtavah (vv. 58, 61), T. phu-po [da]

kham [da] dba [-po] ( = skye-mched), C. PH - ^ f H ( 1 ^ - ^ A ) . By these, all the


Phenomenal world is indicated.
273)

ayonimanaskra

ayoniomanaskra,

ma yin yid[ la] byed[ pa]: C. ^


274)

ayoniomanasikra.

'fft, ^

cittaviuddhi cittaprakrti, cittasya prakni, prakrti.

[ 236 ]

T.

lE S
C.

tshul bshin

'I"S. ^ I E i

l j > , Vpf T

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

Are known as akin to the earth,


And the Active Force and Defilements of living beings
Are known as akin to water. // 58 //
The Irrational Thought is known
As having resemblance to air;
Being of no root and of no support 2 7 5 ) ,
The Innate Mind is like space. // 59 //
276)
Abiding in
the Innate Mind,
There occurs the irrational action of mind 2 7 7 ) .
By the Irrational Action of mind,
The Active Force and Defilements are produced. // 60 //
All the component elements of Phenomenal Life,
Originated from the water like Active Force and Defilements,
Show their appearance and disappearance [repeatedly],
278)
Just as [the world repeats its] evolution and devolution . // 61 //
The Innate Mind is like space,
Being of no cause or condition,
279)
Or complex [of producing factors]
,
I t has neither origination nor destruction,
Nor even stability [between two points]. // 62 //
The innate nature of the mind is brilliant
And, like space, has no transformation at all;
280)
I t bears, however, the impurity
by stains of desires, etc.
Which are of accident and produced by wrong conception 2 8 1 ) . // 63 //

275

> F or ' tad ', T. has ' de bshin ' (ladvat).

276)
277

l na ( l ) (c. ace) , T. gnas, C. fl\ . . . This word reminds us of layavijna.


' ayonio manasah krtih = ayonicmanasikra.

278>

C. j ^ | ,

tat samvarta vivartavat (lit. devolution and evolution). F or samvarta, T. hjig pa,
and for vivarta ( = vividham vartate), T. hchags pa, C. JJX,. These are two of

four periods within one Kalpa, a circle of world process.

The 4 are namely: vivarta (/ PC),

vivartasthyin (t )> samvarta (JiPI), and samvartasthyin (??, empty).


279)

280

smagr, T. tshogs-pa, C. ^ 0 '*

' T. shows negative sense: ' onmos mi-hgyur '.

*? fjH iVfff
But C. as S. (-TrT H& Al^

Negative interpretation of T. with respect to pollution by gantukaklea seems to


be the usual way in Tibetan tradition. See N ote VI I I 305.
281)

abhtakalpa, T. ya-dag min rtogs, C. M L ^ 5) Jv\ It stands for ayoniomanasikra. See S. p . 12, 1. 3 (vikalpa = ayoniomanasikra).

[ 237 ]

J . TAKASAKI
1.

U n origin ated C h aracter of t h e I n n a t e M in d.

By th is an alogy of space, h ow is t h e un ch an geable ch aract er of t h e


282)
E ssen ce
of t h e T a t h ga t a in t h e im pu re st a t e explain ed ? I t is said
283)
as follows
:
The accum ulation of water like Active F orce a n d D efilements
284)
C an n ot produce
t h is space like [I n n a t e M in d],
And even t h e growing fires of d eat h , of illness a n d old age
C an n ot con sum e [this I n n a t e M in d]. // 64 //
The origin ation of t h e world classified in t o [5] elem en t ary groups, [18]
com pon en t elem en ts or [12] bases of cogn ition is con dition ed by t h e accu
m u lat io n of water like Active F orce an d D efilements, which is, in it s t u r n ,
based u po n win d circle 2 8 5 ) of I rrat io n al T h o u gh t . Bu t t h is origin ation
286)
of t h e world n ever causes t h e evolution
of t h e I n n a t e M ind wh ich h as
a resem blan ce t o space. I n t h e sam e way, a group 2 8 7 ) of fires of d eat h ,
288)
of illness an d decrepitude arises in order t o d e st r o y
t h e world classified
in t o five elem en tary groups, 18 com pon en t elem en ts or 12 bases of cogni
t io n which is foun ded on t h e accu m u lat ion of air like I rrat io n a l T h ou gh t
and water like Active F orce a n d D efilements 2 8 9 ) . Bu t even b y t h is ari
282

> For dhtu, T. si-po, C. #fl ^R ft


' C. has other two verses before v. 64. From the context in the following commentary, both S. & T. seem to have a lacuna of two verses here.
Two verses in C. run as follows:
283

i) * E St 8S ttitfiCtii*. B'^'AQ 'S&f. fe


C. regards the first sentence in the commentary as the explanation of the first verse,
and the next sentence as that of the next two. And, as J suggested, the term ayonio
manasikra is required by th e prose commentary and also there might be terms such as
loka or skandhyatanadhtavah in verses. C. seems, however, to have failed to catch
the contrast between vivarta and samvarta by treating ayoniomanasikra and kleakarma
as something of destructive force.
J's further suggestion of v. 64 as a quotation is not reasonable, since this text puts
always a certain number of commentary verses after original Krik or Kriks.
284)

abhinivartayati.

C . ' Y$~^ >i9fy ' is p r o b a b ly a m i su n d e r st a n d i n g.

285

) vtamandala,

286

> vivarta = abhinirvarta.

T . rlu-gi dkyir-hkhor,

C. /5\ pj|j} .

F o r ' vivarto na bhavati ', C. ^\* ^ p sY* j r H .

287)

skandha, T. tshogs, ( = samcaya, ri, accumulation).

288)

astamgama, T. hjig par byed pa, C. jEfc ( = nirodha),

289

> C. inserts ' ft ' (samskra) after karma


[ 238 ]

C. om.

( | j | ft S

fS 7fc).

The

Ra t na g o t ra vi bh ga

:na of the fires of death, etc., it should be known that the Innate Mind
nnot be destroyed. Thus, in the impure state, though all the Impurity
a
f Defilements, of Active Force and Birth show their appearance and dis
290)
ppearance like the material world , the Innate Essence of the Tath
Therefore, it is explai
t a is, like space, of no origination and destruction.
ned as being absolutely of unchangeable character.
And this example of space which refers to the introduction to the light
291)
of doctrine
on the Innate Purity [of the mind] is to be understood in
292)
detail according to the Scripture
:
" O Honourable 2 9 3 ) Men, Defilements are the darkness 2 9 4 ) , the Pure
295)
[Mind]
is the light. Defilements are of weak power but the
correct intuition 2 9 6 ) is powerful. Defilements are merely accidental,
297)
but the Innate Mind is of a pure root
. Defilements are of
wrong discrimination, but the Innate Mind is indiscriminative.
For example, O Honourable Men, this great earth has its foundation
in water. Water is supported by air, and air is founded on space.
But space, in its turn, has no foundation. Thus, among these four
gross elements, space is more powerful298 ' than any of the other
three elements, earth, water or air. It is also firm, immovable,
neither increasing nor diminishing299 ', neither originated nor dest

290)

bhjanaloka, T . snod kyi

hjig rten, C. ^jjj |U"|0 j ( o p p . to sattvaloka).

291)

dharmlokamukha, T. chos sna-bahi sgo, C. f2^ I J ' dharmloka' would mean


' dharma as loka ', and hence dharmlokamukha means dharmamukha as C. translated.
292) Against C. attribution, this quotation is from the Gaganagaj pariprcch
as O found. Cf. ^

^C M ~X J ^ ^

j | ? . ^

IK #

& ^

$ 1 PO J A (Taisho, XIII, p. 124 c).

K ffi PPI M, vol. 8 (Taisho, XIII, 643 b-c).

293)

mrsa, T. dra-sro-chen, = maharsi C. jj$j ~f" ( ^ ^ "J").

294)

kavi (probably chavi is t h e b e t t e r reading), T . mun-pa

( = tamas), C. 58 H S (

JSSL 3 C , mrsa?). In contrast with ' loka', T. translation is better, and ' chavi' here
seems to mean 'coloured' or 'dark coloured' ( = krsnacchavi or black cloud?).

*^ prakrti, C. J it jftj

ft.

28

) vipayan, T. Ihag-mtho, C. ft ^ ^ $ R (usually, j R ) .


297
' mlaviuddh prakrtih, T. rabshingyis rnampar dagpa ni rsta-baho.
( = prakrtiviuddham mlam). But, ' prakrti ' here stands for cittaprakrti. C. om. from
mla ' to ' parikalph kleh '.
298) T h e read in g ' ball yo ' i n t h e t e xt sh ould b e corrected in t o ' ballyo ' ( c o m p a r a
tive degree).
299)
anupacayo ' napacayo. C. A^* fjpt. . / / P 1 p ( n eit h er com posin g n o r sc at t erin g
h im self). T . o m . ' anupacaya'
(for anapacaya, hgrib pa
med pa).
[ 239 ]

J. TAKASAKI
royed and is stable with its own essence 3 0 0 ) . [On the contrary],
these three gross elements [other than space] are possessed of origination and destruction, unstable 301) and of no long duration3 0 2 \
It will be perceived that these three gross elements are changeable,
but space is by no means changeable 3 0 3 ) . " In a similar manner 3 0 4 ) ,
all the component elements [of the Phenomenal Life classified into]
5 elementary groups, 18 component elements, or 12 bases of cognition have their support in the Active Force and Defilements.
The Active Force and Defilements are founded on the Irrational
Thought and the latter has its support in the Innate Pure Mind.
Therefore, it is said: the Mind is radiant by nature, [but it]is
polluted by the occasional defilements 3 0 5 ) " .
After this passage, it is continued as follows

306)

"Now, all these phenomena, the Irrational Thought, the Active

300)
301

svarasa-yogena, T. ra-gi ha-gis, C. Q f^ . (rasa = dharmat, nature).

* anavasihita, T. mignaspa, C. JJJ f3 *|]? pfc ( = abhtadharm ?).

302

> acirasthyin, T. yun ri-du mi-gnas-pa, C. ^IJ Jj\) ^\* pE


C. adds anitya and nitya after vikra and avikra, respectively. (Most probably
for arranging th e style of the Chinese sentence).
304
' H ereafter, the Skt. text has no vocative case (mrsh), and th e style looks as the
commentator's own explanation. But, from t h e context and C. which mentions *mr
sh ' or ' kulaputr' between sentences, t h e quotation seems still t o be continuing.
3os) ip # na klisyate ' (on ma mos-paho).
This sermon has its origin in Pali canon (e.g. AN I, 5, 9-10; IV, 1-2). But it seems
that not all the Buddhist schools accepted it. The Mahvibhsstra of Sarvstivdin,
who did n ot accept this cittaprakrti theory, mentions it as an opinion of the Vibhajya
3fl3)

vdin (# g\ \ m. SP>, saying:!!. , * #1 'l> tt M W. M ft JS'l t # .

flttt'fr+ewP. ***#!rest, shifts*.


(Someone, like the Vibhajyavdin, has th e opinion of viuddhi cittaprakrti. They say
th at th e mind is pure by nature, but, being polluted by accidental defilements, its feature
is impure) (Taisho, XVI I X, p. 140 b). See also ^ ^ ] }$J W % ji g Wft{riputrbhidhar
mastra ?) (Taisho, XXVI I I , p. 697 b), where this theory is attributed to the Vts putr ya.
I t is clear t h at T. interpretation has no foundation in th e stras as far as its literal
sense is concerned, but we have an example of the same interpretation as T. in the Mah
prajpramitstra (yK. H Z3C pfl) attributed to N grjuna, saying: y/ X. ; q }U *

^S^SJH I SBfSfe

(Taisho, XXV, p. 204 a). So there

seem to be two ways of interpretation with respect to ' pollution ', namely whether or
not cittaprakrti can be polluted.
306
The reading ' tatra pacd ' is somewhat doubtful. T. has simply de la (tatra).
C. om. t h e whole.

[ 240 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

Force and Defilements, and all of the component elements of th e


Phenomenal Life are originated by the complex of their causes
and conditions. When these causes and conditions lose their
com plexity307) they are immediately extinguished. On the con
trary, the I n n ate Mind is of no cause nor condition. Consequently,
it has no complex [of cause and condition] and hence there is nei
ther origination nor destruction of it. H ere, the Innate Mind is
like space, the Irrational Thought is like air, the Active Force and
Defilements are like water and all of the component elements of the
Phenomenal Life are akin to earth. Therefore, it is said:, all
phenomena are completely devoid of any root 3 0 8 ) and based upon
an unreal and unstable foundation, [because they are of unreal
nature, but at the same time] they are founded on a pure [essence]
which is, in its turn , of no root ".

2, Indestructible Character of the Innate Mind.


We have already explained t h at in the impure state the Innate
Mind has a resemblance to space on account of its i unchangeable '
(avikra) characteristic; the Irrational Thought and the Active Force
and Defilements, being founded on the Innate Mind, have a resemblance
to air and water, respectively, on account of their characteristic of ' cause'
(hetu), and [lastly] all of the Component Elements of Phenomenal Life,
being produced from the former two, have a resemblance to the earth on
account of their characteristic o f fruit ' (vipka). We have not, however,
discussed the similarity of the fires of death, illness and decrepitude to
309)
the gross element of fire as being the cause of the annihilation of Life
3l0)
and on account of their characteristic of being ' infection ' . So, on
this point it is said as follows:
The three fires, the fire at the end of the world,

307

) vismagr (losing complexity), T. [da] bral, C. tck.


mlaparicchinna
( wh ic h is t o b e in se r t e d a c e . t o M s. B . , as well a s T . ) , T . rtsa

308)

ba yos-su chad-pa, C. ^ 78v T P C ' T ^ T h e whole sayin g is as follows:


sarvadharm
mlaparicchinn
asraml apratisthnamlh
uddhaml amlaml iti Cf. AAS 496 b.
309)

vibhava,

T . hjig pa,

C . jflZ, / ^ Q ( a n a n a lo gic a l t r a n sl a t i o n ) .

310)

upasarga, T . mgohi nad, C . 3*Et nL> ( c a la m i t y) . T h r e e a sp e c t s of ' vikra ' i n


t h e P h e n o m e n a l Wo r l d a r e n a m e d h e r e ' hetu ', ' vipka'
a n d ' upasarga ', a n d all of
these stand for th e counterpart of ' avikritva ' of cittaprakrti or tathgatadhtu.

[ 241 ]

J. TAKASAK1
The fire of hell and th e ordin ary3 1 1 ' fire,
These are to be known respectively as t h e analogy
F or

th ree fires, t h at of death, of sickness and old age.

/ / 65 / /

The similarity of death , illness and old age to fire should be known,
for three reasons, respectively.

[Which are th e th ree reasons ?

n am ely]: 1) because [death] leads


to

destruction 3 12 ) ; 2)

th e

[internal] bases

of

They are
cognition

[illness] makes sufferings of various kinds of tor

m e n t s 3 l 3 ) ; and 3) [old age] leads the Active F orces to th eir ripen in g3 1 4 '.
Even by these fires, th e Essence of th e Tath gata in its im pure state
cannot be changed at all.
Scripture]

315)

With reference to this poin t, it is said [in the

" 0 Lord, something is dead, something is born, such sayings are


merely a worldly usage 316) .

The saying i something is d ead ', O Lord,

this means th e destruction


means, 0

317)

of sense organs.

Something is born

Lord, origin ation 318) of new sense organs.

H owever,

Lord, th e M atrix of th e Tath gata is never born, never

311)

prkrta,
nirmam
med par byed pa
th e other two as
312)

313)

decays,

T. tha mal ba, C. y\ , [,yv] (fire made by human being).


karana (cause to destroy something conceived as ' mine'), T. bdag gi ba
(bdag gi ba stands for mamatva). C. om. this phrase and regards
part of a verse.

vicitra krannubhavana, T. sdug-bsal sna-tshogs myo-bar byed-pa, C. 3 b

1 P 'ffi i"M c f For kran, T. & C. have ' duhkha '. The word kran (f.), being delivered
from Pali krana, has a sense of ' t o r t u r e ' or ' t o r m e n t ' , 'pu n ish m en t ', and is often used
along with kr, in the sense to make punishment, to make pain on somebody by torment \
Cf. BH S D ie. p . 178, 'krana'; P TS D ie. I I , 38 'kran'
1. (M. W. gives the
meaning *pain ', which is picked up from Daakumlacarita). H ere in connection
with anu bh, we can easily find out the sense, ' to feel pain as a result of experiencing
torm en t.
314

' samskra paripka, which means th e readiness for th e next birth, repetition
of life in samsra.
315)
M 222 6.
316)

lokavyavahra, T. hjig rten gyi tha-sad, C. [$] I t | $ [ R f 8 ] . vyavahra,


as th e sanskritized form of Pali vohra, has two senses, vyhra (speech) and vyavahra
(behaviour), and mixing both, th e sense ' usage' is attached to th e term vyavahra. This
vyavahra is also used as a synonym of ' samvrti' in connection with ' satya \ C. trans
lation shows this meaning. Cf. Prof. P . V. Bapat, A Review of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
Dictionary, ABORI, XXXV, p . 235.
317)

uparodha, T. hgags pa ( nirodha), C. ^ | .

318)

prdurbhva, T. thob pa ( = prpti), C. f t

[ 242 ]

The

K a t n a g o t r a v i D a g a

never deceases, never passes away 319) or arises [again]. For what
reasons ? Because, O Lord, the Matrix of the Tathgata, being bey
ond th e sphere characterized as being caused and conditioned, is
eternal, constant, quiescent and everlasting ".

(B)

U nchangeability in the Pure and Impure State

Now there conies one loka referring to th e meaning of U nchangea


bility ' in th e pure and impure state [of Bodhisattvas].
(Krik 24)
H aving t ru ly 3 2 0 ) realized th e Innate Mind
As being released 3 2 1) from birth and death
As well as from illness and decrepitude,
The Bodhisattvas have no calamity 3 2 2 ) of birth and so forth;
Still, because of the rising of Compassions towards th e world,
They assume th e cause of calamities 3 2 3 ) . // 66 //

1. The Pure Character and Impure Character of th e Bodhisattva.


What is shown by this loka ?
The sufferings of death, illness and decrepitude

319)

cyavate ( < cyu), T. hpho ba, C. 2^ (to change, to move from one place (life) to
another place (life).
320
' ananyath, T. ji-bshinid, C. 3UJ 13^ ananyatha'vagamya = yathbhtasya
darant (v. 68).
321) jijjg r e a ( i i n g vimuktm
', i n st e a d o f ' vimukt \ sh o u ld b e a d o p t e d . So C .
T . r e a d i n g is n o t c lea r . Cf. S. v. I . 54 (na pradahanty
enam
mrtyuvydijargnayah,
enam =
cittaprakrtim).
322)

vyasana, T. phos[-pa].

C. has ' fj y j j ' for janmdivyasana.

323)

tan nidnam . . . bhajante. C. / J> ?& ^R _l v$C (assume the existence of origi
nation and destruction), T. de~yi rgyus for tan nidnam, regarding this term as an adver
bial use. See BH S D ie. p . 295 (under ' nidna ' ) : tan nidnam, for t h at reason. Ace.
to C , however, nidna seems to mean the existence (bhava) on which janman, etc. take
place.

[ 243 ]

17

J.

1AK.AS AKI

Are destroyed by th e Saints to th e root;


There is a birth by th e power of Active F orce and D efilements;
As there is no birth [of such a kind]
The saints have no root [of defilements]. / / 67 / /
N ow, in th e impure state, th e causa materialis 3 2 4 ) of th e fires of suffer
in gs ' like death, illness and decrepitude is th e Birth based upon th e
I rration al Thought, th e Active F orce an d D efilements, just as th e fuel
[is th e causa materialis of ordinary fires]. I n th e pure an d impure
state, however, there is no appearance 3 2 6 ) whatever of such a cause that
we can know of; there is also no flame of fires of suffering at all in th e
Bodhisattvas who have attain ed th e Body made of mind.
325

They, being full of mercy, make appearance


Of birth , death, decrepitude an d illness,
Though th ey have got rid of327) birth, etc.
Because of their perception of t h e t r u t h . / / 68 / /
Indeed, because of their c o n t ac t 3 2 8 ) with t h e virtuous r o o t 3 2 9 ) ,
Bodhisattvas attach th em selves330) to t h e Phenomenal World consisting
of three spheres, basing themselves u pon 3 3 1 ) th e power of origination
by their will 332) . Also they make appearance of birth , of old age, of
illness an d of death. Still, there are in reality no such phenomena of
birth, etc. among them . Because 333) , of course, th ey have truly percei
334)
ved t h at th e Essence [of th e Buddha]
is of no birth and of no ori
335
gin at io n '.
(References to th e Scriptures)

324
325

' updna, T . e-bar len-pa, C. yi\ . .. ^fC ( = prvika).

> T . o m . duhkha.

326

' anbhsagamana, T . snabar medpar gyurpa, C. 7jC v$L tfg

3271

vinivrtta T . hdas gyur, C. jJg. ^ .

328)

samyojana (== samprayukta), T. kun-tu sbyor-ba, C. flp ! ! T. adds srid-pa


(bhava) before samyojana.
329)

kuala mla, T . dge bahi rtsa ba, C. 4T m


TO

3301

sam]/ lis T . ya-dag-par


sbyor[-ba],
C. ~7Jj ( t o m a k e a p p e a r a n c e ) .
331) fjjg form samnihraya for samniraya is notable.
332)

333

samcintya

(in d.), T . bsams bshin du,

C. ffc ' I j * .

' yathpi is omitted in T .

334

dhtu, T. khams, C. Jpf # 0 ft f 4

335) I n s t e a d of ajty anutpatti, C. has anutpatty anirodha.

[ 244 ]

The
S 2.

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a

Defilements endowed with Virtuous Root.

And this state of Bodhisattvas is to be understood in detail according


to the Scripture. I t is said 3 3 6 ) :
44

Which are the Defilements endowed with virtuous ro o t 3 3 7 ) that


cause [Bodhisattvas] to reside in the Phenomenal World ?
They
are namely: ]N on satisfaction 338) in searching for the accumula
339
340
tion of m erits '; Acceptance ' of existence through origination
341)
by their own will; The earnest wish to meet with
the Buddhas;
342)
U nweariness towards the perfect m at u rit y
of living beings.
Efforts for the perfect apprehension 343 ' of the sublime D octrine3 4 4 ) ;
345)
346)
E n deavour
after works to be d o n e
for the living beings;
347
N on abandonment of propensity ' of desire for phenomena; Non
348)
reluctance from fetters
of the H ighest Virtues. O Sgaramati,
thus are the Defilements endowed with the virtuous roots by which
the Bodhisattvas attach themselves [to this world], but they are
never affected by the fault of D efilements. . . . Then [Sgaramati]
asked: Why then, O Lord, are the virtuous roots called 'D efile
ments ' ? . . . [The Lord] answered: Because, O Sgaramati, by these
Defilements of such kinds Bodhisattvas attach themselves to the
Phenomenal World. And this Phenomenal World is of origination
336

> The Sgaramati pariprcch. C. ^ i l l S ^ I S ^ S i i S l f t


(Taisho, XIII, p. 46 74); ?% # K W fri W ^P ? & 0*. by I f &
of Suang.
simplified.
337

Taisho, No. 400).

This passage is in Taisho, XIII, p. 68 a, 6, but quite

' kualamla samprayukt kleh, C. * >^|K ^*pi J>E> Al 'U*I

338)

atrptat, T. mi-oms-pa,

C. ?P 4^J |ff^ / ,
,J_4y;

y..

J.CJ

339

' punya sambhra, T. bsod nams kyi tshogs, C. ^ : f : 4i3< (kualamlni).

340

' parigraha, T. yos-su hdsin-pa, C. ^pp *JX

341

' samavadhna, T. phradpa, C. Jj^, . See S. p. 13, 1. 18.

342)

343

paripka, T. yos-su smin-pa, C. ^5^. \Lk


' parigraha. T. & C , the same as above (Note 340).

344

' saddharma, T. dam-pahi, chos, C. [' \ J] ^

345)

f$j] ^ ? ffe

kimkaran ya, T. bya ba ci yod pa. C. ' 7pi\ ^^T ' i s implying the sense, * for
the living beings '.
346

> utsukat, T. hgrus pa, C. ^

flp.

..

347)
348

anuaya, T. bsam pa (intention), C.


' samyojono
r 245

from Defilements. There, to this very Phenomenal World, Bodhi


sattvas attach themselves at their own wishes by their skill of
m ean s 3 4 9 ) and through producin g350) th e power of virtuous roots.
Therefore, it is called ' Defilements endowed with the roots of vir
tuous qualities. [I t is called so] inasmuch as they attach themsel
ves to th e Phenomenal World, but not because of [actual] defile
ments on th e mind ".

3. Bodhisattvas' Compassion.

The parable of a H ouseholder.

" F or exam ple 351) , 0 Sgaramati, suppose there were an only


352)
son of some distinguished person o r
householder. Suppose he
were beloved, handsome, affectionate 353) quite agreeable in his
appearance 354 *. N ow suppose this boy, being a child, would fall
into a pit of night soil while playing. Thereupon the mother and
relatives355* of this boy would see him fall into th e impure pit. Upon
seeing this they would deeply sigh, lament and would cry out. They
356)
could n ot, however, take the boy out
by entering into th e pit.
After t h at the boy's father would come to t h at place, and would
see his only son fallen in th e pit of night soil. U pon seeing
th at sight, he being affected by th e intention to pull out his
357)
only son ,

349

' upyakaualya, T. thabsla mkhas pa, C. yj


\ J*z. fz yj
anvdhna, T. skyed pa, C. om.
351)
Continuation from 2 (quotation from th e same Stra). This parable is also
found in AS (470 a b).
352)
Both T. & C. insert a word for ' v '. So ' restino v grhapater v ' would be
a better reading.
350)

353)

manpa (BH S), T. yid du ho-ba, C. [^P] j ^ \ . (For the previous three, C. simply

354

med-pa,

' apratiklo daranena (lit. n ot disagreeable), T. mtho-na mi-sdug-pa

C. J^j, fff ||5 |j" . After daranena, there should be a D anda.


355)
C. inserts ' pita ', but it is not the case.
356)

adhylambati (BH S), T. hdon pa (pulls out), C. &J .


357) T h e r e a d i n g ' ekaputrakdhyayapremnun ta'
is d o u b t fu l a s J sa id . T h i s
translation is according to T., which reads ' bu gcig po hdon par hdod pahi sred pas
byas ' . The word ' hdon pa ' is used in the preceding sentence for ' adhylamba ', and for
' abhyutksepa ' in S. p. 48, 1. 8, in th e sense of ' taking out, pulling out ' . But C. seems

to omit this word and reads: ^j " ~ f~ afl


[ 246 ]

S i jsc nl> *& (having ekaputraka

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a

would hurry to enter the pit with full speed without any feeling
358)
of disgust, and would take out
his only son. O Sgaramati,
this example was made in order to make known a special meaning.
Which relation 359) should be known [between illustrations and illus
trated meaning]? O Sgamarati, ' a pit of night soil' is a name
i
for the Phenomenal Life.
An only son ' is a name for the living
beings, because Bodhisattvas have a notion of the only son towards
all living beings. ' Mother and relatives ' is a name for those
people who belong to the Vehicles of rvaka and P ratyekabuddha,
since they, having seen the living beings fallen into the world of
transmigration, are distressed and lament, but have no capacity
to rescue [the living beings]. i The distinguished person o r 3 6 0 )
the householder ' is a name for the Bodhisattva who is pure, unpol
luted, of unpolluted mind, has attained the direct perception of the
immutable Absolute 361) , but still, in order to bring living beings
to the m aturity, connects himself3621 to the Phenomenal World
by his own will. O Sgaramati, such is the G reat Compassion of
the Bodhisattva th at, being perfectly free from all bondages,
363)
he again assum es
the origination into Existence. Being pos
sessed of the skill of means and the Transcendental Intellect, he
is never affected by impurities; and, in order to extirpate all the
bondage of Defilements from the living beings, he preaches the
D octrine ".
3641

By this explanation of words in the Scripture , there is explained


the pure and impure state of Bodhisattvas who have the Controlling Power
through two points: [namely] the Bodhisattva attaches himself at his will
to the origination in the world, for the sake of others, by the powers of
virtuous roots and Compassion, but, at the same time, he is not polluted
by the world owing to the powers of means and the Intellect.
samj and premdhyaya). Cf. AS jg/ "j ^U^ j[ . (Instead of ' anun ta ', ' adhy
lambanatah ' would be preferable to accept).
3581

abhy ut\ J ksip, T. phyu-ba,

3591

prabandha, T. don, C. =f| (artha).


S. om. v, but T. & C. have it.

3601
3611
362)

asamskrta dharma.

C. p j .

T. as S., but C. 5w >is\j J^ >flj V v r ' (dharmadhtu).

pratisam V dh, T. mtshams sbyor ba, C. *Jjj.

363

> upa\ / d, T. len pa, C. 4p . 4 * .


C. regards this passage as a quotation from the same Stra (SgP.). T. om.
nirdea. F or pada, T. dum bu.
364)

[ 247 ]

J. TAKASAKI

4.

Bodhisattva's Perception on the Pure Mind.

Now, when a Bodhisattva has attained the correct perception of the


Essence of the Tathgata as being of no birth, no origination, then
365)
he can obtain this essential quality
as a Bodhisattva. This point
366)
should be understood in detail
according to the [same] Scripture. I t
is said:
'* O Sgaramati, perceive th at separate elements are of no real essen
ce, of no creator, of no substance, non existence, lifeless, of no
personality and of no owner 3 6 7 ) ! Indeed, these elements are illu
sorily created 3 6 8 ) according to desire. As being 3 6 9 ) illusorily crea
ted, they cannot cause [one] to think or to imagine 3 7 0 ) . Believing
in the fact th at separate elements are created illusorily sn\
O S
garamati, the Bodhisattva does never produce the feeling of dis
gust for any phenomenon. H e will be possessed of the pure and
immaculate perception based upon the Wisdom th at there is noth
ing which causes benefit or h a r m 3 7 2 ) . Thus, he knows correctly the
essential n at u re 3 7 3 ) of separate elements. And thus he does never
cast off the arm our 3 7 4 ' of the G reat Compassion 3 7 5 ) . F or example,
O Sgaramati, suppose there were an in valuable 376) Vaidrya
stone, well polished, well purified, well cleaned. Suppose it might
be thrown into mud and would remain there for a thousand years377> .
365

> dharmat, T. chos-id, C. ^} @ f H .

366

> T. om. vistarena. C. i t k j ^ ^ M ^ ^ l f l l f E l t S l (this word of the

S t r a h a s a lr e a d y be e n t a u gh t ) , a n d st a r t s t h e n e xt q u o t a t io n wit h t h e p a r a b le of t h e
Va id r ya st o n e. T h e q u o t a t i o n is from S gP . 68 a. Cf. AS 469 b c.
367)
asvmikat, T . bdag med-pa-id.
For nirtmat, T . bdag po
med-pa-id.
368)
vithapyante (pass. 3. p . of caus. of vi \f sth, a h yb r i d fo r m . Cf. B H S D i e . s.v.) .
T . o m . ' tath vithapyante vithapit
ca
samn'.
36
" samna ( = sat, aft er a d je c t ive ) ( P a li, t h e sa m e ) . Cf. B H S D i e . s. v.
370)
prakalpayati,
T . rab tu rtogs par . . . byed.
371)
dharma vithapan. T. gshan du mi hgyur bahi chos (ananyathbhvadharma)
is probably caused by a misunderstanding of the term dharma. After all, T. offers no
help to fix the meaning of ' vithapyate '.
372)
upakro v 'pakro v, T. pham hdogs paham gnod par byed pa.
373
' dharmat.
374)
samnha, T. go cha.
375)
C. o m . u p t o h e r e .
376

> anargha, T . rin tha-pa (mahrgha),


C. 5k> | ^ ,
Cf. SgP .: ' hundred years '. (But the second Chinese translation of the SgP .
' thousand years ') .
377)

has

[ 248 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

After the passing of a thousand years [in mud], this stone would
be drawn out from mud and would be washed 3 7 8 ) and cleaned. As
being washed well, perfectly cleaned and polished, it would never
abandon its nature of jewel, pure and immaculate. I n th e same
way, O Sgaramati, th e Bodhisattva knows the innate radiant
nature of th e mind of living beings. H e perceives also th at th e
same mind is defiled by the accidental defilements. Then th e
Bodhisattva thinks as follows: . . . These defilements would never
penetrate into the radiant Innate Mind of th e living beings. Being
accidental, these defilements are th e production of unreal, wrong
discrimination. I can teach the D octrine for the sake of these
living beings in order to remove their acciden tal 379) defilements.
Thus, he never has his mind demoralized 380) and, with great inten
sity, he gives rise to the intention towards liberation 381) in the
case of382) living beings. Again he thinks as follows: These
defilements have no power and ability. They are powerless, of
weak power. They have no real foundation at all. These defi
lements are [produced] by incorrect discrimination. These defi
lements, when they are inspected by th e real and correct percep
383)
384)
tion
, cannot be excited
by any means. They should be
investigated by us so th at they might not contaminate again. Inde
ed, it is a good thing not to be contaminated by defilements, not
a good thing to be con tam in ated 3 85 '. If I were contaminated by
378

> lodyeta (caus. opt. of V lud), T. sbya-ba, C. [/JC] f$Q

379)

T. om. gantuka and instead has upaklea.

This passage (S. p . 49, 1. 9p. 50, 1. 7) is quoted in P aram rtha's translation of the
Mahynasamgraha bhsya as from AS. (MSbh (P) 259 c 260 a). I t is notable t h at
P aram rtha's translation is, though abbreviated, rather closer to the Ratna.
passage
th an to AS, which has, in turn , insertions equivalent to other passages of the Ratna.
(S. p. 78, 11. 17 20; p. 45, 11. 3 9).
380)

avalyana
381)

avaliyan, T . shum pa, C. ' | ^ &f (timid). P r o b a b l y from Pali ollyan ( S k t .


?) Cf. B H S Die. s. v . aval yate, anavallyanat, e t c .
pramoksa citta, T. rab tu hbro ba (but it should be

hgrol ba), C. }p }$.

382

> -antike, T. thad-tu, C. H | jfjQ.

383) yathbhta yoniomanasikra,

T . jiltaba bshindu tshul bshindu

yidla byed

/>, C. I E J
384)

na kupyanti,

385)

C. o m . ' na punah

C. A*

fJb 'frf )E= (cannot rise).

lesah ', a n d for t h e fo r m er p a r t , h a s ' ), A*

[ 249 ]

^ j AH P*l

J.

TAKASAKI

defilements, how could I teach the D octrine for the sake of the
living beings who are bound by the bondages of defilements, in
order to remove these bondages of defilements ? Oh ! really, we
are not attached to defilements; therefore, we shall teach the
D octrine to the living beings in order to remove the bondage of
defilements. And moreover, in order to bring the living beings to
386)
their maturity, we should be attached to the defilements
, by
which we are bound to the world of transmigration, which are at the
same time endowed with the roots of virtues ".

5.

' Samsra ' in the Case of Bodhisattva.

And here, the expression ' World of tran sm igration ' (samsra) impli
es the three kinds of Body made of mind in the Immaculate Sphere, being
an image similar to t h a t 3 8 7 ) in the Phenomenal World. Indeed, it is the World
of Transmigration because it is manifested 388) under the influence of
immaculate roots of virtue. At the same time, it is the N irvana because
it is not manifested under the influence of the passionate Active Force
and Defilements. With regard to this point, it is said 3 8 9 ':
" Therefore, 0 Lord, there is the Phenomenal World, conditioned
as well as unconditioned. There is the N irvana, conditioned as
well as unconditioned ".
H ere, being endowed with the manifestation of mind and mental
st at es 3 9 0 ) m ixin g391) both, the conditioned and the unconditioned, this
is called ' the pure and impure state '.

6.

Bodhisattva in H is 6th Stage.

And this state is predominantly established in the 6th Stage of Bod


hisattva called Abhimukhl (ready for the E n lighten m en t) 392) . Because,
386)

C. inserts ' f^ 4 T ff $ %&. S

387) pratibimbaka,

T . gzugs-bran-yid,

388

> abhisamskrta, C. ffi i^T T > M S 221 b.

389

390)
391)

892)

>

as

' (

t0

practise

pramits).

C. /f\ \tyt \ffli 1 ^ V .


usual.

citta caitasika, C. C * Cl Wi V ^
samlista, T. hdres pa, C. om.

om

T. mon-du gyur-pa, C. |f| >^C...3% gj


[ 250 ]

citta

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga
393

rjn this Stage], the Bodhisattva, facing the acquisition ' of the Extinc
tion of Evil Influences 3 9 4 ) through his practices of unobstructed H ighest
Intellect and the G reat Compassion 395) , still does never realize th at ac
quisition in order to protect all living bein gs396 '.
With reference to this Wisdom for the Extinction of Evil Influences,
there is an illustration of a castle 3 9 7 ) in the Scripture.
398)
I t runs as follows: (. . . omission) .
393) abhimukh , T. mon-du phyogs-pa, C.
394) The word abhij in both S. & T. is better omitted. C. om. it and instead
has moksa.
395
> C. regards mahkarun bhvanay as being connected with askstkarana.
396

> sattvadhtu, T. as usual, C. ^p*

ffi.

397) x. (D ) has mi(= nara) instead of nagara. But it is not the case.
3 8

> The Ratnacda pariprcch

(C. ^

H ^ | is a mistake for 5 | I ff | ) . Chi

nese Tripitaka retains two versions of this Stra, namely 1) y\ C J]


3 ^ ^^

f^|

p p _5f$

* (Mahsamniptastra,

sattva parivarta), Taisho, XIII, p. 173 184; 2) ~fc fl* ^

Chap. 11.

| ^

^= f J\ .

3fc fl^,

Ratnacdabodhi

|5J ~ p ~fc H f

U s i^T $ * W (Mahratnaktastra, 47th Parisat) (originally called ^

I H l/ f |P J # X> Ratnacdabodhisattva pariprcch),


Taisho, XI , N o. 310 (47). The
illustration of a castle is available only in C , but probably S. & T. have a lacuna
here. According to C , the illustration is as follows:
" Suppose, O noble youth, there were a castle of one square yojana, which has
many gates, but the path towards its gates were steep and dark, and full of dangers.
H owever, the people who could enter this castle were enjoying a lot of pleasure. Suppose
again there were one person who had an only son and loved him. H aving heard of the
pleasure within the castle, he wanted to enter t h at castle leaving his son behind. By
skilful means, he could pass over the steep path and reach a gate of the castle. But when
he stepped inside with one leg, the other leg remaining outside, he would remember
his son and t h in k: Why h adn 't I accompanied my only son ! Who could nourish him and
let him get rid of suffering? And rejecting the pleasure in the castle, he would go back
to his only son. O noble youth, the Bodhisattva is also like him. F or the sake of the people,
he accumulated the 5 abhijs. H aving accumulated them and being ready for the acqui
ring of sravaksaya, he does never realize the Enlightenment. Why? Because, due to
his compassion towards living beings, he, without making use of his abhij for sravak
saya, does act among the world of ordinary beings. H ere, O noble youth, ' a castle' is the
parable for mahparinirvna; ' many gates' are for the gates of samdhi, 80 thausand in
number; ' t h e steep p a t h ' is for the various actions of demons; ' t o reach the gate of the
castle ' is for [the attain m en t of] 5 abhijs; ' stepped inside with one leg ' is for [the
attainment of] the Wisdom; ' the other leg remained outside ' is for the Bodhisattva's
non realization of moksa; ' the only son ' is for all living beings wandering in 5 paths
(gati): * to remember his so n ' is for the G reat Compassion; and ' to go back to his so n ' is
the parable for [the Bodhisattva's] leading of living beings. ' Though having the capacity
of attaining the Liberation, he does never realize i t ' . . . this is due to [the Bodhisattva's]

[ 251 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Thus, through the origination of the G reat Intention [towards the


399)
N irvana]
by great efforts and exertion, the Bodhisattva gives rise to
400)
the 5 Supernatural F aculties. H aving the mind purified
by the con
templation and Supernatural faculties, he becomes ready for the Extinc
401)
tion of Evil Influences. H aving cultivated
the Wisdom for the Ex
tinction of Evil Influences in order to rescue all living beings through the
origination of the mind of Compassion, he, with perfectly purified mind 402>,
produces the unobstructed Intellect in the 6th Stage and again becomes
ready for the Extinction of Evil Influences. I n this way is explained
the 4 pure ' state of the Bodhisattva who has obtained the power for
realization of the Extinction of Evil Influences in the [6th] Stage of the
Bodhisattva named Abhimukh . [On the other hand], he, though having
practised 4 0 3 ) correctly for his own sake, still wishes to save the living
beings who are on the wrong way 4 0 4 ) , owing to the G reat Compassion, saying:
I will lead the others also to this true practice 4 0 5 ) . While cultivating
the means for the bliss of the Quiescence, but not in order to taste it [by
himself] 4 0 6 ) he turns his face 4 0 7 ) away from N irvana, for the sake of the
living beings who are facing the world of transmigration. Though abiding
[in the desireless World of Form] with [4 kinds of] contemplations 4 0 8 )
in order to accomplish the factors for the acquisition of Enlightenment 4 0 9 ) ,

skilful means (upya). Thus, 0 noble youth, the G reat Mercy and Compassion of the
Bodhisattva is inconceivable ".
(Cf. RCP , Taisho, XI I I , p. 181 a).
The following passage is actually not a quotation, and the word ' kulaputra ' (S.,
T. & C.) is probably an excess. I ventured to omit this vocative word in this translation
and treated the whole passage as an explanation by the commentator.
399)

drdhdhyaya, T. lhag pahi bsampa brtan pa, C. | [yj *U \


T. reads as
' drdhdhyaya pratipatty ', which seems better.
40
) parikarmakrta, T. yossu sbyo-ba byaspa (pariuddhakrta), C. om.
401)
parijayam krtv. For parijaya, T. yos-su sbyo-ba, C. unclear.
y-

402)

-ill-

11

y*i

suparikarmakrtaceth. C. ^ * jfvV ** ^ 4T
attainm ent of the 4th and 5th Stages (bhmi) here.
403

inserts an explanation on

> [samyak ]pratipanna, T. [y an dag par] shugs pa (to enter), C. [ J ll]

the

[eg 47*.

404)

405

vipratipanna, T. log par shugs pa, C. j^ jjjj.


' samyakpratipatti, T. ya-dagpar rtogspa, C. not

406)
407)

ansvdana,
vimukha.

clear.

T . ro mi-mya-ba,
C . ^\* ^ Q " .
But both T. & C. read as abhimukhasya.

408)
(catur)dhyna, T . bsam gtan
dag (pi.), C. JZ3 f ^ > . I t is said t h a t b y t h e
p r a c t ic e of t h e se four dhynas, o n e c a n be b o r n in t h e Wo r ld of F o r m
(rpa dhtu).
409)

bodhyaga,
in number.

T. bya-chub-kyi

yan-lag,

r 252 ]

C. ^

J H ; JO . T h e y are said to be 7

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

k e voluntarily assum es410) again the existence in the World of Desire


J wishes to work for the sake of living beings as quickly as pos
n(
411)
sible [Thus] he has obtained the power for manifesting the body
f ordinary beings by assuming various births [even] in the form of ani
o
mals. From these points mentioned above his state is explained as ' not
perfectly pure '.
s 7. The Pure and Impure State of the Bodhisattva in comparison with
the Ordinary Being and the Buddha.
(Another interpretation of the verse 66) 4 1 2 ) .
There is another meaning of the loka (Krik 24, v. 66).
The son of the Buddha, though having understood 413> th at
This Absolute Essence is unchangeable,
Is still perceived by the ignorant
In the appearances of birth, etc.:
This is really wonderful! // 69 //
H aving attained the position of the Saints 4 1 4 ) ,
He is nevertheless seen among ordinary beings;
Therefore, he is, for the friends of all the world,
The H ighest Means and Compassion. // 70 //
Being superior to all kinds of worlds,
He is nevertheless not apart from the world,
He acts in the world for the sake of the world
Without being affected by the worldly pollution. // 71 //
Just as a lotus flower growing in the water
Is not polluted by the latter,
Similarly, though having been born in the world
He is never polluted by worldly m atters. // 72 //
His intelligence is always burning like fire
415)
For bringing about the welfare
[to the world];

410)

parigrahana, T . yos-su hdsin-pa, C. $lHj J .


C. o m . ' yvad u '.
412)
C. om. the whole of the following paragraph, which is therefore probably
a later insertion. The heading ' aparah lokrthah' also supports this suggestion.
413)
The reading pratividhya (Ms. B, as Chawdhuri noted) would be better th an pra
tivicya in the text. See S. p . 52, 1. 19: dharmatprativedht. Cf. BH S D ie:'pratividhyati'
( P a li pativijjhati).
T . rtogs nas ( h a vin g u n d e r st o o d ) .
414
) ryagocaj a. {gocara = caryvisaya).
415)
krtya sampdana, T. bya ba sgrub.
411)

[ 253 ]

J . TAKASAKI
416)

At the same time, he is always practisin g


Meditation and concentration on the Quiescence 4 1 7 ) ; // 73 //
418)
Owing to the continuing force
of th e previous life,
And because of being free from all discriminations,
H e does n ot use an y exertion at all
For bringing the living beings to their m aturity. // 74 //
The Bodhisattva, knowing who is to be trained
In what manner and by what means
[Performs it] in the proper manner:
By means of teaching, of two apparitional forms 4 1 9 ) ,
By conduct [of ordinary life] or by religious observances 4 2 0 ) . / / 75/ /
In such a way, he does always,
With no effort and with unobstructed Wisdom,
Bring benefits for th e living beings
Among th e world, limitless 4 2 1 ) like the sky. // 76 //
422)
H aving obtained this position ,
The Bodhisattva becomes equal to th e Tathgata
423)
On account of his act of conveying
th e living beings
In various worlds, to th e other shore. // 77 //
There is however a great difference
Between Bodhisattvas and the Buddha,
Such difference as lies between th e atom and th e earth,
Or in [the water] in a foot print of a bull 424) and in the ocean. / / 78/ /
Of these ten verses taken respectively, [the first] 9 verses refer to
the comparison [of the state of Bodhisattva] with th e absolute impurity
of those who rank below th e 1st Stage of Bodhisattva named Pramudit
416)

pratipanna, T. soms-par shugs-pa.


417) This a n d t h e following 5 verses ( v v . 74-78) were q u o t e d i n Am r t k a r a ' s T k a
on t h e Catuhubha of N g r ju n a , of wh ic h a S a n sk r it M s. wa s fo u n d b y P ro f. G . T u c c i,
a n d is e d it e d a lo n g wit h t h e T i b e t a n ve r sio n b y h i m . (Minor Buddhist Works, I I
p p . 236 246, I sM E O , R o m e , 1958).
418)
vedha, T . hphen pa ( ksipta).
' prvvedhavat ' o r ' prvvedht'
is t h e
u su a l fo r m . See B H S D i e . p . 109, vedha ( 2) .
419) j?OT deany rpakybhym,
Am r t k a r a ' s q u o t a t io n read s
dean rpak
ybhym.
B u t T . bstan dan gzugs sku dag dan ni, wh i c h su gge st s t wo rpakyas ( i. e .
sambhoga k, & nirmna k).
dean is a r a r e fo r m .
420)
ry patha, T . sbyod lam.
421
' paryanta, T . mthah Mas (ananta).
422) F o r gati^
x. tshul ( = naya).
*23) samtrana, T . ya-dag sgrol-ba.
424)
gospada (BHS. gospada in Skt.).

[ 254 ]

The

RatnagotraviDaga

(Joy) 425)> a n d the 10th verse refers to the comparison with the supreme
purity of the Stage above the [10th] Stage of Bodhisattva named Dharamegh (Cloud of D octrine) 4 2 6 ) (i.e. the Stage of the Buddha). [In
m
comparison with the states, both below and above], there is explained
in brief the purity and impurity of th e four kinds of Bodhisattvas in
the 10 Stages of Bodhisattva. The four kinds of Bodhisattvas are as
follows: 1) H e who has resolved upon th e acquisition for the first time
(prathamacittotpdika); 2) H e who is practising the way towards th e
acquisition (carypratipanna); 3) H e who has ascended the irreversible
stage (avaivartika), and; 4) H e who is expected to be the Buddha in the
n ext bir t h (ekajtipratibaddha)

427)

H ere, by th e first and second verses, there are explained th e pure


characteristics of qualities 4 2 8 ) of the Bodhisattva who is abiding on th e
Stage of Pramudit resolving upon the acquisition for the first time, because
429)
[in this stage] he has understood
the highest supermundane Essence
which had never been seen before since beginningless time. By the third
and the fourth verses, there are explained the pure characteristics of quali
ties of the Bodhisattva who is practising the way to the acquisition in th e
Stages beginning with [the 2nd named] Vimal 4 3 0 ) up to [the 7th named]
Dramgam (Far G oing)4 3 1 ) , because [in these stages] he practises th e
unpolluted practices. By the 5th verse, there are explained th e pure cha
racteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who has got the irreversible

425

> T. rab tu dgah ba (C. W K

428)

T. chos kyi sprin (C. VS

427) f<

j ^ sems da-po

bskyed-pa

(C. --jjjfj jg iU^);

2)

spyod-pa-la

shugs-pa

(C. T X i a ) ; 3) phyir mi-ldog-pa; (C. -^1^ ^ S $!r); ^) skye-ba gcig-gis thogs-pa (C. ' *
^p ' j ^ Ifei). Of these four, the first one is said to be equivalent to daranamrga and
the second to bhvanmrga. F rom the point of wiew of the development of the bhmi
theory, these four stages are regarded as older than the 10bhmis theory of the Daa
bhmik. The combination of these 4 groups with the 10 bhmis seems to be the latest
development, but how to combine both sets is not determined. Often these four are iden
tified with the first, the 3rd, the 7th and the 10th of the 10 vihras (C. \ j i ) , res
pectively.
428) phg reading ' gana ' in the text is corrected into ' guna \ in comparison with
the following three examples. T. also has ' yon tan '. F or viuddhi, T. yos-su dag-pa
(pariuddhi).
429)
prativedha (BH S for Skt. prati\ / vyadh), T. mtho-bahi phyir (darant for pra
tivedht).
430
> T . dri ma med pa (C. | |
43i) T. j n s t e a d has mi gyo ba (acal, the 8th Stage).

[ 255 ]

This is probably a mistake.

J. TAKASAKI

state in th e [8th] Stage named Acal (Immovable), because [in this stage]
he has firmly stood in the meditation as the practice immediately con
nected with th e acquisition of the G reat Enlightenment. By th e 6th, 7th
and 8th verses, there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the
Bodhisattva who is abiding on the 10th Stage named Dharmamegh, be
ing expected to be the Buddha in the next birth, because [in this last stage]
he, having attained the ultimate point of means for fulfilling all th e bene
fits for his own as well as for others, is connected with the Stage of the Bud
dha by one and th e last birth 432) on account of the acquisition of the
Supreme Perfect Enlightenment. By the 9th and 10th verses, there are
explained th e equality and difference between th e purity of qualities of
the Bodhisattva who has reached th e ultimate point with regard to the
aim of others and of his own, and th at of th e Buddha's qualities.

(C) U nchangeability in the Perfectly Pure State.


Now, we have one loka with reference to th e meaning of 4 unchange
ability ' in th e perfectly pure state [of the Buddha].
(Krik 25)
This [Essence of th e Buddha] is of unalterable nature4 3 3 )
Because it is endowed with inexhaustible properties,
I t is th e refuge of th e world
Because it has no limit in the future 4 3 4 ) ;
I t is always non dual
Because it is indiscriminative,
Also it is of undestructible nature
Because its own nature is not created [by conditions] 4 3 5 ) . // 79 //
What is shown by this loka ?
I t is n ot born, nor does it die;
I t does not suffer [from illness], nor is it decrepit.
Because it is eternal,
432)

buddhabhmy ekacarama janma pratibaddha.

433)

ananyathtm, T. gshan hgyur min bdag,

434)

anaparntakoti, T. phyi-mahi

C.

A^ 2B J ^ 1

See v * 66.

mthah-med myur-thug, C. 3? 3i |?J>

438

> For v. 79 d. C. f l A^ ^ L . ^ * fi^ ffl W^ j lj* J] $fc , which is difficult

to be identified with S.

[ 256 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

Everlasting, quiescent and co st an t 4 3 6 ) . / / 80/ /


Being eternal, it is not born
437)
Even with [the form of] the Body made of m in d ,
Being everlasting, it does not die
Even with the Inconceivable Transformation. // 81 //
Being quiescent, it has no suffering
F rom the illness of subtle defiling forces,
And, being constant, it does not become decrepit
By the accumulation of the Passionless Active Force 4 3 8 ) . // 82 //
Indeed, this Essence of th e Tathgata, in case it is abiding on th e
Stage of the Buddha which is absolutely immaculate, pure and radiant
by its own nature, is ' et ern al' in regard to its beginning. Therefore,
it is never born even in th e form of Body made of mind. Being ' ever
lasting ' in regard to its end, it does not die in the manner of the inconcei
vable Transformation. Being ' quiescent ' in regard to both, beginning
and end, it never suffers from illness depending o n 4 3 9 ) the Dwelling Place
of Ignorance. Thus, not falling into m isery4 4 0 ) , it is ' constant ', and
consequently never becomes decrepit through the transformation brought
about by the Passionless Active F orce.
H ere, the meaning of Eternity, etc.
In regard to the immutable Sphere 4 4 1 )
Is to be known, respectively,
By each couple of terms. // 83 //
436) These 4 terms are as follows: 1) nitya, T. rtag pa, C. ^

; 2) dhruva, T. brten pa,

C. f{3 ; 3) iva, T. shi ba, C. fff ^ ; 4) vata, T. gyu-dru, C. A^ 8 .


437)

manomayakya, etc. are of Bodhisattvas and don 't belong to the Buddha.
Because of the birth in the form of manomayakya and others, Bodhisattvas are regarded
as ' partly impure '.
438

> Cf. DA 892 b: (under th e item 1. phala of bodhicitta) D ^ $fr # fl ^fc

ftb

BJ tt *a * %R &* * &

mm

$6m

w. ^ k it st

w ffi* Si

439

> parigraha, T. yos-su hdsin-pa, C. y)\ gpj: (parigrh ta).

440)

anartha, T . don med pa,

C. ^^

JM T ( = t h e wo rld of t r a n sm igr a t io n ) ,

patita is t o b e r eso lved i n t o anartha apatita.

F o r apatita, T . ma thog pa,

441)

C. / \

anarth
L_@..

asamskrta pada, T. hdus ma byas kyi dbyis, C. 5v i^H J ^ 9 r (ansrava ).


(asamskrtadhtu in the prose comm.).

[ 257 ]

J . JLAJi ASAKI

Of these four terms, namely ' etern al', ' everlasting ', ' quiescent '
and ' constant% the distinction of the meaning of each term in regard of
the Immutable Sphere is to be understood by each couple of terms show
ing ' statement ' and 4 explanation ' 4 4 2 ) , respectively, according to the
Scripture 4 4 3 ) . I t is said as follows:
" This Absolute Body, O riputra, is Eternal since it is of un
alterable nature through its inexhaustible properties. This Ab
solute Body, 0 riputra, is Everlasting, the everlasting refuge,
because it exists as far as the farthest limit. Being of indiscrimi
native nature, 0 riputra, this Absolute Body is Quiescent, of
444)
non dualistic n ature. Being of uncreated nature , 0 ri
putra, this Absolute Body is Constant, of undestructible character ".

(X)

ASAM BH ED A 445)

448>

The Essence
of the Tathgata characterized as having reached
the ultimate point of perfect purification in this pure state is of undiffer
entiated (asambheda) n ature. With reference to this meaning of ' undif
ferentiation ' we have one loka.
(Krik 26)
I t is the Absolute Body, it is the Tathgata,
Also it is the H oly Truth, the H ighest 4 4 7 ) N irvana;
Therefore, being indivisible from qualities like the sun with its rays,
There is no N irvana, apart from the Buddhahood. // 84 //

*4 2 ' uddea & nirdea, T . bstanpa & bad pa, C. JQ , ^v!p, respect ively.
m )
AAN 467 b. T. (as well as Ms. B.) adds two verses here, which are no doubt
interpolations.
444)

akrtrima dharma, C. ^ p | p V S .
> Cf. B G 8 1 1 c ff. ( 10. Asa m b h e d a ) .
446) ^ h e r e a ( J i n g ' tathgatadhtor ' i n M s. B . d o es n o t h a ve t o b e c o r r e c t e d wi t h
' garbhasya ', b e c a u se i t wa s t h e u su a l c a se t o u se t h e t e r m dhtu i n su c h h e a d i n gs i n t h is
t e xt , a n d t h e r e is n o e sse n t ia l differen ce b e t we e n b o t h t e r m s.
447) phe c o m b i n a t i o n of paramrtha w i t h nirvana (nirvrti i n t h e t e x t ) is peculiar.
T . r e n d e r i n g is helpless to fix t h e m e a n i n g a n d C. o m . paramrtha.
Does i t m e a n Nirvana of the Buddha and not that of Srvaka and P ratyekabuddh a?
445

Cf. DA 893 c (on Ekatva): jft I P M. & #

I P J t *D #

#U j |

t mm^m mm^mm m us at mm mm
[ 258 ]

The
K 1.

R at n ago t ravibh ga

Synonyms of the Essence of the Tathgata.


H ere, what is shown by the former half of the loka ?
It should be known, in brief,
There are 4 synonyms, the Absolute Body and others
Since [the G erm] in the Immaculate Sphere
Has four meanings from different aspects. // 85 //

In short, there are four meanings in regard to the M atrix of the Ta


thgata as the Immaculate Sphere (or Essence). In accordance with
these 4 meanings, there should be known 4 synonyms 4 4 8 ) . Then which
are the 4 meanings ?
It is indivisible from the Buddha's Properties,
Its G erm has been perfected as it is 4 4 9 ) ,
It is not of false, deceptive nature 4 5 0 ) ,
And it is quiescent from the very outset 4 5 1 ) . // 86 //
1) The first meaning: [the Essence of the Buddha] is indivisible
from the Buddha's properties. With reference to this meaning, it is
said as follows 4 5 2 ) :
" O Lord, the M atrix of the Tathgata is not empty 4 5 3 ) [because
it is endowed] with the Buddha's Properties which are inconcei
vable, indivisible, inseparable [from Wisdom] 4 5 4 ) and are greater
in number than the sands of the G ang ".

448

* nmaparyya, T. migi rnam-gras, C. -^f

(ft

"9 tathgama, T. de bshin thob pa, C. Jp #H ("$ Jp $D f;^:


tathgamah). An explanation of the meaning of ' tathgata '.
450)

amrsmosadharmitva,

for tadgotrasya

C . f 2 * U s ^\ * /MM: 3 C

451

> diprakrtintat, C. f $ 7J ^

the meaning). Cf. BG ibid.: W < l #

0 J ' should be ' ^

' according to

1) '8J ft ? f t ^ ^ ffi 81 i

2) 'W m @ H; 3) # g B M ffll V; 4) * ^K 3g P .
2 MS 221 c.
453)
anya, T. mi-sto-pa, C. ^ ^ ^ ^ . On this conception, further explanation will
be given in S. p. 76, vv. 154-5 and commentary thereon. Lit. tathgatagarbha is not
empty of buddhadharmh (buddhadharmair anyam).
464)

amuktaja, T. bral mi es pa, C. ^ ^ /0U (lit. unreleased from the wisdom).

[ 259 ]

J . TAKASAKI
2) The second meaning: I ts G erm, i.e. th e I n n ate N ature has been
455)
456)
perfect ed
in an inconceivable m a n n e r
. With reference to this
457)
poin t, it is said as follows
:
44

[This G erm], having attain ed th e Absolute Essence, has come


down since beginningless tim e from one existence to another exi
stence 4 5 8 > assu m in g4 5 9 ) various forms consisting of six organs of
cognitions, (i.e. in th e form of various living beings) " .
3) The th ird meaning: I t is not of false, deceptive n ature.
reference to this point, it is said as follows 4 6 0 ) :
44

With

H ere, t h at which is th e H ighest T ruth is N irvana, whose n ature

is undeceptive.

F or what reason ?

Because the G erm is eternal

by its being quiescent " 4 6 1 ) .


4) The fourth meaning: I t is of th e n ature of absolute quiescence.
With reference to this point, it is said as follows4 6 2 ) :
44

Being in N irvana from th e very outset, th e Tath gata, th e Arhat,

the Perfectly enlightened One is of neither origination nor destruc


tion " .

455)

samudgama, T. thob pa. gama (in th e verse). C. has no literal translation.


acintya prakra, T. bsam gyis mi khyab pahi rnam pa. I t stands for tath
in the verse.
457
^ C. mentions the name of th e source, Sadyatanastra (or Sadindriyaristra)
458)

( y\

*T3 "H^y ^7 7 ?

\ \ X. jffc. ^EcX which is missing now.

The following quotation shows a quite unique

interpretation of the word tathgata. AS 469 b * %/J ^


flj?^ ?. BG quotes the sentence as from AS (812 a) f/ S | $ for ? H f). Cf. BBh. 3.
11. 24 (on prakrtistha gotra).
458)
parampara, T. brgyud nas (from ancestors).
459)

tdrah, T. de hdra ba (connecting with sadyatanaviesah), C. [ y \ ^pc] %14 _/ .


460) T h e source is u n c e r t a in . (Cf. AksP . 197 b). O a t t r ib u t e s i t t o SM S, b u t C. does
n o t m e n t io n t h e n a m e of t h e sou rce, a n d I could n o t find t h e exact p assage i n SM S. I
suppose t h is q u o t a t io n is also from t h e S a d ya t a n a s t r a , becau se, acco rd in g t o C , a
vo cat ive ' bhagavan ' is also in sert ed i n t h e previo u s q u o t a t io n a n d t h e S. a d ya t a n a s t r a
seem s t o h a ve h a d a st r u c t u r e sim ilar t o t h e SM S, i . e. so m eo n e is expressin g h is u n d er
st a n d in g i n fro n t of t h e B u d d h a a n d t h e B u d d h a ackn o wled ges i t .
461) T # r e a d in g shi ba(ama)

is preferable

2 H>C (vatadharmatay).
462
> J A 241 c.
[ 260 ]

from

t h e c o n t e xt . C . V s U s ^*

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

For these four meanings, there are four synonyms, namely, 1) th e


Absolute Body; 2) th e Tathgata; 3) the H ighest Truth, and 4) the
N irvana, respectively. I t is said as follows 4 6 3 ) :
" The Matrix of th e Tathgata, O riputra, is the name for th e
Absolute Body.
" O Lord, the Tathgata and th e Absolute Body, these both are
not different from [each ot h er 4 6 4 > . The Absolute Body is, O
Lord, nothing but th e Tathgata ".
" U nder th e name of the Extinction of th e Suffering, O Lord,
there is indicated the Absolute Body of the Tathgata, being
endowed with such properties ".
" The Sphere of th e N irvana, O Lord, is the name for the Abso
lute Body of th e Tathgata ".

2. The P oint: Buddhahood is N irvana.


Now, what is shown by the latter half of th e loka ?
Being th e Perfect Enlightenment in all aspects,
465)
And being the removal of pollutions along their root ,
Buddhahood and N irvana
Are one and th e same in th e highest viewpoint 4 6 6 ) . // 87 //
These four synonyms of the Immaculate Essence converge into the
undifferentiated 467' meaning of th e Essence of th e Tathgata. Therefore,
468)
these four are one in their sense, and hence, by means of
the D octrine
of non duality, the following fact is to be known. N amely, th at which
is called ' Buddhahood ' because of its Perfect Enlightenment regarding
all kinds of phenomena, and th at which is called 'N irvan a' because of
its removal of pollutions along with their remaining forces which takes

467 a ; M S 220c, 222 a, 220 c, r e sp e c t ive ly.


A n e ga t i ve p a r t i c le 'na' is t o b e i n se r t e d befo re ' a n y o dharmakyah'
( gato
nnyo
dharmakyah).
465) T n e fij.st o n e j s fo r buddhatva a n d t h e n e xt o n e is fo r nirvana.
See c o m m e n t a r y .
464)

466)

C. reads ' in separable from t h e highest t r u t h ' ( / p J |ft I f? *ffH ).

467)

T . o m . abbhinna,

for wh ich C.

* yq'C (ekarasa).

468

> nayamukhena, T. tshul gyi sgo nas, C. [ ? ] f*^ (' /f* | | 8 ' V f*l 'f*

Pjji:

* f^ *gg' for advayadharmanayamukhena).

[ 261 ]

J.

TAKASAKI

469)

place simultaneously wit h


the Perfect Enlightenment, these two are
470)
non dual, indivisible and inseparable
in the Immaculate Sphere.
471)

[So it is said] :
" Liberation is of the characteristic
Indivisible from the properties, which are
Of all kinds, innumerable, unthinkable and immaculate 4 7 2 ) ;
This Liberation, th at is the Tathgata ".
Also, it is said in the Scripture
of the Arhat and P ratyekabuddha:

473)

with reference to the N irvana

" [H ere], O Lord, the N irvana is merely a means used by the Ta


thgata ".
By this passage it is explained th at this [N irvana of the Arhats and
the Pratyekabuddhas] is a means made by the Perfectly Enlightened Ones
474)
who have the highest Controlling Power on [all] ph en om en a
in
order to protect them (i.e. Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas) against retreat;
it is just like the illusory city in the forest 4 7 5 ) made for the travellers
who are t ir ed 4 7 6 ) after their long way [in order to encourage them].
[On the other hand] it is said: 4 7 7 ) :
" By reason of having attained N irvana, O Lord, the Tathgatas,
the Arhats, the Perfectly Enlightened Ones are endowed with
properties showing the ultimate point of the entireness, immeasure
bility, inconceivability and purity ".
By this passage it is explained th at, having realized the N irvana
which is characterized as being inseparable from the accomplishment 4 7 8 )
469)

mahbhisambodht.
C. as S. B u t T . a d d s lhan cig ( t o get h er) , wh ic h m a ke s t h e
m e a n in g clear. C. o m . buddhatva & nirvana.
470)

C. a d d s o n e e p it h e t m o r e : sy* ^*g pjjffc

471

(avinirbhga).

> Both S. & T. are lacking the heading. But C. 0, ^

rfy

*^ S $

tf

{yata aha Mahparinirvnastre).


The place in MPS remained untraced.
sarvkra, asamkhyeya, acintya, amala, respectively. These 4 are called ' catu
rkragunanispatti ' in the commentary.
473
> MS 219 c.
474)
dharma paramevara. An epithet of the Buddha.
472

473)

atav , T. hbrog dgon, C. H H 5!*.

476

> parirnta, T. dub pa, C. ^


f^.
> MS 219 c.
478)
nispatti (the reading ' nispatsv ' in the text should be corrected. See S. p. 58,

477

1. 9 & 12), T. grub pa, C. ap? j^L.

nisthgata (in the quotation).


[

262

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

f properties of four kinds 4 7 9 ) , the Perfectly Enlightened Ones identify


480)
themselves with N irvan a ; therefore, as both of these, Buddhahood and
pftrvna, are endowed with inseparable properties, no on e 4 8 1 ) can realize
N irvana apart from Buddhahood.
o

K 3.

The Parable of the Painters.

Now, in the Immaculate Sphere, the Buddhas are possessed of all


kinds of properties since they have accomplished 4 8 2 ) the N on substantiahty
endowed with all sorts of excellency 4 8 3 ) . This is here to be known through
the illustration of the painters 4 8 4 ) .
485)

Suppose there were some pain t ers ,


[Each of them] expert in a different sphere,
So that whatever skill possessed by one of them,
486)
The others could not understand . // 88 //
Then a mighty king would give them
A painting clo t h 4 8 7 ) with the following commandment:
488)
On this [cloth] ye all should draw my portrait . // 89 //
489)
Then the painters, having promised
[to the king],
Would start their work of painting.
Of these [painters] engaged in this work,
479)

See N ote 471. H ere (in SMS), th e four terms are as follows: 1) sarva; 2) aprameya;

3) acintya; 4) viuddhi. Cf. BG 8 1 2 c : ^ ^ C , (ZU ^ 8

m i,

m M m m $ . = # s *i B

480)

tadtmakam bhavati.

481)

T. hgah ya (= kacid), C. J^, 38 | ^ A

482)

9J f^ ^ * , ^

" 'H I

(kasyacid . . . na).
TO

abhinirhra, T. mon-par bsgrubs-pa, C. 7JN * ^ .

483)

vara, T. mchog ( = restha), C. om.


484) This illustration of the painters is originally taken from the Ratnacdastra.
C. quotes the original account after the verses. Cf. RCS 176 a.
485)
citra lekhaka, T . ri mo hdri byed pa (for hdri, hbri, t o d r a w, wo u ld be b e t t e r
in sen se, t h o u gh t h e fo rm er is often u se d ) .
486)

avadhrayati

( t o u n d e r st a n d ) , T . zin pa

(to a p p r e h e n d ) , C .

/\\.

487

> dsya, T. ras, C. j j | (>) i t ] H .

488)
489)

pratikrti, T. gzugs, C. (ffS).

pratirutya, T . thos gyur


t h e c o m m a n d m e n t of t h e kin g) .

te ( h a vin g h e a r d of i t ) , C. ^ ^ ^J] ( _ , ( h a vin g a c c e p t ed

[ 263 ]

J. TAKASAKI

One would have gone abroad 4 9 0 ) . // 90 //


Because of his absence during his being abroad
This picture would remain
Without the completion of all parts;
Thus the parable is made. // 91 //
The painters who are meant here are
Charity, Morals, Patience and other dispositions 4 9 1 )
Being endowed with all kinds of these excellencies,
492
The N on substantiality is called the picture >. // 92 //
H ere, of these [excellent virtues], charity and the rest, each one is dif
ferentiated into limitless varieties in accordance with the Buddha's Sphere
493)
[of activity]. Therefore, it should be known as 'im m easurable' . On
account of its number and power, it should be known as being ' incon
ceivable ' and, having exterminated the remaining force of pollutions 4 9 4 )
495)
by its enemies, in the form of ' envy ', etc. , [each virtue] is to be
known as being ' pure '.
N o w 4 9 6 ) , through practice by means of Meditation on the Non
substantiality endowed with all sorts of excellencies, the N on origination
of [all] the elements 4 9 7 ) is realized. Because of this realization, [Bodhi
sattvas can] ascend to their 8th Stage called Acal (Immovable), where
they can get the knowledge of the P ath which is indiscriminative, fault
less 4 9 8 ) , without any break and bearing its own taste 4 9 9 ) . On th e basis
490) viyoga, T. ma tshan (incomplete), C. -jft491

* T. om. kra, for which C. \ X These are the so called satpramith.


' C. adds one verse saying: ' One painter is absen t ' means the lack of one kra,
' non completion of the king's p o r t r a it ' means the non endurance of the knowledge
of non substantiality. T. (D ) inserts unnecessarily one P ada between c and d of v. 92,
saying: de la mon-par sbyin rnams-kyi.
492

493)
aparimita, T. tshad med-pa, C. 3W iSk This is for aprameya, the 2nd of the
4 characteristics.
494
> T. om. mala, but C. has it.
49S

> 1) mtsarya (C. f|g) ; 2) kaukrtya (C. ^

f ^ ) ; 3) dvesa (C. Bji); 4) kaus dya

(C. \ $f / ); 5) viksepa (C. /f\ PuL); d 6) moha (C. 7^E) a r e vipaksas of dna, ila,
ksnti, v rya, dhyna, and praj, respectively.
496)
H ereaft er, o n t h e relat io n of t h e 4 ch aract erist ics t o t h e Stages of Bo d h isa t t va .
Cf. BG 8 1 3 > , M Sbh ( P ) , 258 b.
an

497)

anutpattika dharma, T. mi skye bahi chos-id, C. 3RT E I S 3o> ( = anutpattika dharma ksnti).
498)

nichidra,

T . skyon med pa ( wit h o u t defect), C. 5Sv |H i ( wit h o u t in t e r r u p t io n ) .

[ 264

> I*

f^ (natural).

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

f this knowledge, the entireness of Buddhas ' properties in the Immacu


late Sphere is completed. On the Stage of Bodhisattva called Sdhumati
/ perfect Knowledge), by means of immeasurable forms of Meditation and
500)
501)
magic formulas like the ocean
, they can obtain the knowledge
for
assuming the immeasurable properties of the Buddha. On the basis of
4
this knowledge, the immeasurability ' of [Buddhas'] properties is com
pleted. On the Bodhisattva's [last] Stage called Dharmamegh, basing
502)
503)
himself upon the knowledge revealing
the secret
state of all the
4
Buddhas, the inconceivability' of Buddhas' properties is completed.
Immediately after this stage, on the basis of knowledge which leads to
the liberation from all impediments on account of Defilements and Know
ables along with their remaining forces, aiming at the acquisition of the
Stage of Buddha, the highest ' purity ' of Buddh as' properties is comple
504)
ted. As the Arhats and the P ratyekabuddhas cannot perceive
these
four knowledges, the foundations of these Stages [above Acal], they are
505)
said to be far from the Sphere of the N irvana
characterized as being
indivisible from th e accomplishment of the properties of the [above men
tioned] four kinds.

4. Similarity of the Buddhahood to the Sun.


The Intellect, the Wisdom and the Liberation
Are [respectively] bright, radiant, and clear,
And they are inseparable 5 0 6 ) from [the Absolute Essence];
Therefore, they are similar to the light,
The rays, and the disk of th e sun. // 93 //
That which is indicated as the Sphere of the N irvana characterized
as being inseparable from the accomplishment of four kinds of properties
through the Intellect, the Wisdom and the Liberation, is explained to
soo) p

or

samudra, T. reads brgya-sto ( = atasahasra), bu t C. ff .

501)

C. calls t h i s jna

502)

aviparoksa, T. Ikog tu ma gyur pa, C. 5 ft Bill

' nya(t) j

na ' (^ r^ ^ 3 ) .

603

> guhya, T. gsa-ba, C. ^ J .

504)
605)

506

samdryate, T. mtho-ba, (as Parasmaipada), C. ' to be '.


Cf. MS 219 c (after th e explan ation of ' caturkraguna ' of the Tathgata):

> abheda, T. tha-dad-med,

C.

[ 265 ]

J. TAKASAKI
507

have similarity to the sun in four aspects, namely, by three aspects >
on account of the Intellect, etc., respectively, and by one [in general].
508)
H ere in th e Buddha's body
, 1) The transcendental Intellect which is
supermundane and indis criminative is, through its engaging in the destruc
tion of darkness [that hides] the highest true essence of everything cog
509
nizable, akin to the light [of the sun]; 2) The Wisdom of Omniscience >
510)
which is attained subsequently
is, through its penetrating everything
knowable of all kinds, without exception, akin to the radiance of the
net 5 1 1 ) of rays; 3) The Liberation of the I n n ate Mind, th e basis of the
above two (Intellect and Wisdom), has a resemblance to the purity of
the disk of the sun through its being perfectly free from pollution and its
being radiant; and 4) As these three are undifferentiated from the Ab
solute Essence, there is a similarity to the light and others through their
indivisibility [from the sun].
Therefore, without the acquisition of Buddhahood,
There is no attainm ent of N irvana,
Just as it is impossible to see th e sun,
Avoiding 5 1 2 ) its light and rays. // 94 //
Thus, within the Essence [of the Buddha] which is endowed with 5 1 3 )
the virtuous qualities as its own nature constantly associated 5 1 4 ) since
beginningless tim e, there exists the essential n ature 5 1 5 ) of the indivisible
properties of Tathgatas. Therefore, unless the Buddhahood 5 1 6 ) , i.e. the
true introspection 5 1 7 ) by the Intellect 5 1 8 ) free from attachm ent and of no
507)
krana i n t h e t e xt . I t is p r efer a bly corrected, in t o kra.
' tribhir ekena ca kranena '.
508)

buddhasntnika, T. sas-rgyas-kyi

rgyud-la

mah-ba,

( T . rnam pa).

C. j^p 1 <C =*7

509

> sarvaja-jna, T. es bya thams cad kyi ye es (sarvajeyajna), C.

510)

prsthalabdha,T.rjes lathob pa.

C. simply

|g

C. o m .

(in comparison with praj

* %)J
^t)

S11

> jla, T. dra ba, C. J H | P | .

512)

nirvrjya (fr. nir V vri >P a n nibbajjeti), T. spas-nas, C. ^ ^ ^^j .


upahita, T. -da Idan-pa.
514)
smnidhya, T. e-bar gnas-pa ( = upasthita).
C. om. from smnidhya up to
upahite, and instead has ansrava.
616)
avinirbhga gunadharmatva, T. yon tan mam par
dbyer med pahi chos-id
613)

yin-pa.
616)
617)

For dharmatva, C. {J^ =Ef ( dharmakya).


tathgatatva = buddhatva. T . om. tva.
jna darana, T. ye es kyi gzigs pa, C. om. darana.

S18

> T. om. praj, for which C. has ' J U ' .


[ 266 ]

The

R a t n a got r a v ib h ga

hindrance, is understood, th e acquisition will n ot take place, i.e. th e


realization of th e Sphere of N irvana characterized as th e liberation from
ll the impediments, just as we cannot see the disk of the sun without
a
5l9)
perceiving its light and rays. Therefore, it is said
:
" O Lord, there is no acquisition of th e N irvana for [those who
m aintain] the inferiority or superiority

of [all] the elements5 2 0 ) .

The acquisition of the N irvana is, O Lord, available [only] to [those


who know] the equality of all the elements.

[In other words],

Lord, it is for those who have the Wisdom of equality, those who
have the liberation of equality

521)

, or those who have attain ed th e

true introspection through the liberation of equality.


O Lord, it is said the Sphere
of equal taste.
with Wisdom

519

> MS 220 b.

S20

523)

522)

Therefore,

of th e N irvana is of unique taste,

Th at is to say, [it is of one and the same] taste


and Liberation " .

(Lit. therefore she (= rlmldevl) said).

' hinapranltadharmnm

( Ba h u vr h i co m p .) .

DAS also quotes th e same passage and, prior to th e quotation has an interpreta
tion of this subject. I t runs as follows:
" I t should be known, furthermore, th at there is only one way of the One Vehicle.
If otherwise, there should be another nirvana th an this. H ow m ayit be possible for th e
superior nirvana and the inferior nirvana to exist within one dharmadhtu? Also, we cannot
say we get one result on th e basis of higher or lower causes. If there were a difference
among th e causes, there would also be a difference among t h e results ". (DAS 894 a).
621

B22)

6!!3

samavimukti.
T . o m . dhtu, b u t C. h a s i t .

> vidy, T . rig pa, C. V$ .

[ 267 ]

IX.

TH E 9 ILLU STRATION S ON TH E G ERM COVERED WITH


D EF ILEM EN TS

1. The 9 Illustrations according to the Tathgatagarbhastra.


Thus have been explained the characteristics
Of th e M atrix of th e Buddha from 10 aspects;
Now, this M atrix, as concealed by th e covering of defilements
Is to be known by the following illustrations. // 95 //
2)

3)

Thus, with reference to the existence of the Essential N at u re ,


as eternal as th e ultimate limit [of the world] 4 ) , we have hitherto explained
the characteristics of the M atrix of the Tathgata from 10 points of
view. And hereafter, with reference to the fact th at the covering of
defilements is essentially unconnected 5 ) [with th e Innate Mind] although
associating wit h 6 ) it since th e beginningless t im e 7 ) , and th e pure
Essential N ature, likewise associating since th e beginningless time, is
essentially connected with it [as being its own nature], it should be under
stood, by 9 illustrations based upon the Scripture 8 ) , th at th e Matrix
of th e Tathgata is concealed by th e limitless 9 ) coverings of defilements.
Which are th e 9 illustrations?
(Kriks 27 57)
Like th e Buddha in an ugly lotus flower,
Like honey surrounded by bees,
x)

C. ^

2)

samvidyamnat,

m t S 0 1 8 PO I S A Cf. BG 806 c 808 c.


T . rig par

bya-ba-id,

C. n o t clear.

3)

dharmat,
T . chos-id,
C. VzC flU
* aparntakotisama,
T . phyi-mahi
mthahi mu dan mtshuspa.
T h i s f o r m u l a (aparntakotisama-dhruvadharmat samvidyamnat) is, together with th e n ext two formulae
(on kleakoat and ubhadharmat), originally taken from AAN. 467 6. See my Intro
duction, n. 66.
5)
asambaddha, T. ma hbrel ba, C. om.
8)
smnidhya, T. e-bar gnas-pa (upasthita), C. ' covered ' in the meaning.
4

7)

So T. (thog-ma med-pahi dus-nas) and C. (f8& # p 1 f r ?' :$). But S. andi .

8)

T G S 457a 460 6.

9)

F or aparyanta ... koti, C. j

[ 268 ]

The
10)

Like kernels of

R at n ago t ravibh ga
grains covered by the husk,

Like gold fallen in to im purities,


Like a treasure under th e ground,
Like a sprout, etc. grown from a small

fr u it

U)

Like an image of th e Buddha wrapped in a t a t t e r e d 1 2 ' garment,


13)

14)

15)

Like th e kin gh ood


in th e wo m b
of a p o o r
And like a precious statue in th e earthen mould;
In such a way,

// 96 / /
woman,

there abides this Essence

In the living beings obscured by occasional stains of defilements.


// 97 / /
[In these illustrations], pollutions are like
A lotus flower, bees, husk, impurities and th e ground,
Like th e bark of a fruit, like a tattered garm ent,
Like a woman of misery, and like earth torm en ted by the fire of pains;
And th e Buddha, honey, cleaned kern els

16)

, gold, treasure,

A N yagrodha tree, a precious image, th e H ighest Lord of the world,


And a purified precious statue,
The
(I)

excellent Essence has a resemblance to th em .

/ / 98 / /

The D efilements are like th e ugly sheath of lotus flowers, and

the Essence of th e Tath gata is akin to th e Bu d d h a 1 7 ) .


Suppose the Buddha, shining with a thousand marks [of virtue],
Were abiding in the in sid e 1 8 ) a faded lotus flower,
10)

x1

The edible part of grains.

' alpaphala, T. hbraschus, C. ; ^ ; (om. a pd).

la)
13

sra, T. si-po, C. ^ ^ .

praklinna = pti (v. 98), T. hrul, C. jfr1] j ^

' nrpatva,
' jathala,

14

dvipgrdhipa
(v. 98) T . mi-bdag,
T . lto[-ba] (belly).

($ ^ ) .

C. Jp|p $flfl -3. -

16)

(cakravartin).

jaghanya,
T . an ( u g l y ) , C. J g ^ Jfj @ ^ |H!2 (poor a n d u g l y ) .
susra.
17)
Cf. T G S 457 c. T h e s t o r y given i n t h e S t r a is a s fo llo ws: O n c e t h e L o r d , sit t in g
in t h e assembly of Bodhisattvas, showed a miracle. There appeared thousands of
lotus flowers having th e apparitional Buddha within and shining with splendour fra
grant. They came to blossom at the same time, bu t all at once they became faded and
began to give a bad smell. But still there was th e Buddha sitting within each flower.
Bodhisattvas were surprised at this sight and asked th e Lord for th e explanation of
this miracle. Then th e Lord started his pronouncement on the Essence of the Tath gata
abiding within each living being.
This idea of th e origination of the Tathgata is probably borrowed from th e Tath
gatotpattisambhavanirdea
o f t h e Avatamsaka.
16

'

18)

garbha vestita,

T . ...hi

kho gnas-pa,
[ 269 ]

C. {EE T ^ .

J. TAKASAKI

An d a m a n of im m acu lat e divin e sight would perceive h im


An d release h im from t h e sh eat h of p e t a ls 1 9 ) of lotus; // 99 //
Sim ilarly, t h e Lord, wit h h is Bu d d h a's eyes,
P erceives h is own n a t u r e even in th ose wh o are in t h e lowest world
An d, bein g im m acu lat e, st an d in g a t t h e u t m o st lim it 2 0 ) a n d being
full of Compassion
H e releases t h e m from t h e obscuration s. // 100 //
J u st as a person of divin e sight perceives
21)
A fa d ed
a n d ugly lotus flower an d t h e Bu d d h a with in it ,
An d ren ds asun der t h e petals [in order t o draw h im o u t ] ;
I n t h e sam e way, t h e Lord perceives t h e world,
The M atrix of t h e Bu d d h a, covered with t h e sh eat h of stain s, D esire,
H a t r ed 22>, et c.,
23)
24)
An d kills
it s Obscuration s
because of C om passion.
// 101 //
(II)
T h e D efilements are like hon ey bees, an d t h e Essence of t h e
25
T a t h ga t a is akin t o t h e h o n e y ' .
Suppose a clever person , h avin g seen
H o n ey surroun ded b y 2 6 ) cloudy bees,
An d wishing t o get it , wit h skillful m ean s,
Would deprive t h e bees com pletely of it ; // 102 //
Sim ilarly, t h e G reat Sage, possessed of t h e eyes of t h e Om niscience,
P erceivin g th is Essence kn own as akin t o h on ey,
Accomplishes t h e n o n c o n n ec t io n 2 7 ) of t h e Essence
Wit h t h e bees like obscuration s, com pletely. // 103 //
J u st as a m a n who is desirous of gettin g h on ey
H idden b y t h o u san d s, millions 2 8 ) of bees,
19)

pattra, T. reads padma instead of pattra. Here pattra stands for koa.

20

> = being eternal (C. ] H ^ 'Q |?).


2l)
sammijita, T. thum[-pa] (something packed or wrapped up), C. 7f Tfp , ^ g .
T. reads jalaruha as locative, instead of accusative in S.
22

> C. ' klea '. T . as S.

23)
24)

nir\ Jhan,

T . hjoms pa,

C . |Vij ( t o r e m o ve ) .

nivarana, T . sgrib pa ( = varana).


"> Cf. T G S 4 5 7 c 4 5 8 a .
26)
27)
28)

C . r e a d s a n a lo gic a lly ' ^ ^ ^ ' ( p e t a ls) .

upagdha ( c o n c ea led ) , T . bskor ( su r r o u n d e d ) , C . | M | i3>u ( as T . ) .


alesa, T . rab tu spo-ba ( = prahna),
C . sim ila r t o T .
sahasra koti niyuta, T. bya ba khrab khrig ston (niyuta koti sahasra), C. Q

ffi ffl E& "fill (ffl E3 "ftfe = nayuta, for niyuta).


[ 270 ]

|*

The

R a t n a got r a v i b h ga

D rives the bees away2 9 )

of the h on ey3 0 ) as
he wishes;
In the same way, the immaculate Wisdom in the living beings
Is like honey, and the Defilements are like bees;
The Buddha, like th at man, knows how to remove the stains.
and makes

use

1/ 104,/ /
(III) The Defilements are like the outer husk, and the Essence of
the Tathgata is akin to the inner kern el 3 1 '.
The kernel of grains covered with the husk
Cannot be eaten by any person;
32)
Those who wish to utilize it as food and the like
Take it out from the husk; // 105 //
Similarly, the Buddhahood in the living beings
Is polluted with the stains of Defilements,
And unless it is freed from the association of stains of Defilements,
I t cannot perform the Acts of Buddha in the 3 Spheres. / / 106/ /
Just as the kernel of grains like rice, wheat, barley, etc.3 3 ) ,
As long as it is unreleased from the husk and not cleaned
well 3 4 \
Cannot be the sweet edible for the people;
Similarly, the religious kin g3 5 ) residing in the living beings,
H aving his feature unreleased from the husk of Defilements,
Does not become one who can grant the pleasurable taste of the
D octrine,
To the people who are afflicted by the hunger of D efilements. / / 107/ /

29)

vinihatya
(fr. vi ni\ Jhan),
C. ^
%r ( killin g) . B u t T . bsal te (fr. sel ba, t o
r e m o ve ) , wh ic h gives a b e t t e r sen se.
30)
T h e fo r m madhv a s i n st . sg. of madhu ( n e u t . ) is p e c u lia r . ( I s i t a sp ec ial fo r m
in so m e P r a k r i t o r m e r e ly a wr o n g r e a d in g of
madhun?).
31
> Cf. T G S 458 a .
32
' anndibhir
(inst.) is g r a m m a t i c a l l y peculiar (usually i n l o c ) .
33)
kaguka-li kodrava yava vrihi.
All t h e se a r e va r ie t ie s of gr a in s, t h e i r equ i
va le n t s a r e n o t so clear. T h e la st o n e , vrihi seem s t o st a n d for c o r n o r gr a in i n gen er a l,
for wh ic h T . & C . a r e hbru,

jfjj , r esp ec t ively.

T . slu, bra bo, nas, hbru ( t h e sec o n d o n e

is a kind of wheat), C. ^ , f |$ , | f ^ff .


34

' khdy asusamskrta, T. gra ma can legs par ma bgrus (having hairs and not
yet cleaned) (bgrus means ' to step on th e bag filled with corns in order to remove

the husk). C. ^

}? f . See J's note 1 on S. p. 62.

35

> dharmvara, C. ft ^ V fE
[ 271 ]

J . TAKASAKI

(IV) The Defilements are like a dirty place 3 6 ) filled with impurities,
37)
and th e Essence of th e Tathgata is akin to gold .
Suppose a traveller would happen to drop
38)
A piece of gold in a place filled with impurities ,
And the gold would stay there for many hundreds of years
As it were, without changing its quality; // 108 //
Then a god possessed of immaculate divine eyes
Would see it there and tell a m an:
H ere is a piece of gold, fresh 39) and the highest of precious
things.
You should purify it and make use of it as a treasure; // 109 //
Similarly, the Buddha perceives th e quality of living beings
Drowned in the Defilements which are like impurities,
And pours th e rain of the D octrine over the living beings
In order to wash off th at dirt of defilements. // 110 //
Just as a god, perceiving a piece of gold, the most beautiful one,
Fallen into a dirty place filled with impurities,
Would show it to th e people in order to purify 4 0 ) it from dirt 4 1 ) ;
In th e same way, th e Buddha, perceiving the treasure of th e Buddha
in the living beings
Which is fallen into a big pit of impurities of defilements,
Teaches th e D octrine to th e living beings in order to purify th e
treasure. // 111 //
(V) The Defilements are like th e underground 4 2 ) , and th e Essence
43)
of th e Tathgata is akin to a treasure of jewels .
Suppose there were an inexhaustible treasure
U nder th e ground within the house of a poor man;
H owever this man might not know about t h at treasure,

36)

samkra dhna, T . Ijan ljin kyi gnas, C. simply ' impurities '.
dhna stan ds
here for dhna. samkra is replaced in verses by samkara.
37
> Cf. TG S 458 a b.
38)
samkara pti dhna, T. Ijan ljin rul bahi gnas.
39
> nava.
T. & C. o m . it.
40)
T . r e a d s ' kun tu dgah bar by a phyir ' ( in o r d e r t o gl a d d e n them, 0 . ), whic h
is p r o b a b l y a m i sr e a d i n g fo r ' kun tu dag par bya phyir ' .
41)
T . r e a d s ' blt' ( n a n gyi s) i n st e a d o f malt. B ut C . a s S .
42)
tola, T . mthil (depth), C. om .
43
> Cf. TG S 458 b. Also cf. M PS (Taisho, XII, p . 407 b).

[ 272 ]

The

R at n a got r av ib h ga

And the latter could not say to him 4 I am here '; // 112 //
Similarly, though there is a treasure of immaculate jewel,
The inconceivable, in exhaustible 44) properties in the mind,
The living beings of the world, without knowing it,
Constantly 4 5 ) experience the suffering of poverty in various ways.
// 113 //
Just as a treasure of jewels in the house of a poor man
4
Would not say to him 1 am here ',
N or the man could know ' here is a treasure of jewels ';
Likewise is the treasure of properties dwelling in the house of the
mind 4 6 ) ,
And the living beings are like a poor man;
To enable those people to obtain this treasure,
The Sage makes his appearance in the world. // 114 //
(VI) The Defilements are like the bark covering [of a seed], and the
Essence of the Tathgata is akin to the germ within a seed 4 7 ) .
Just as the germ of a seed inside the fruit of trees
48)
Of Mango, Tla , etc. is of an imperishable n ature,
And, being sowed in the ground, by contact with water, etc.,
G radually attains the nature of the king of trees; // 115 //
In the same way, the pure Absolute Essence, abiding in the living
beings,
Covered by the sheath within the bark of the fruit of ignorance
and the like,
[Grows] gradually by the help of this and th at virtue
And obtains [finally] the state of the king of Sages.
// 116 //
Conditioned by water, by the light of the sun,
By air, soil, time and space,
From within the husk of the fruit of the Tla or mango
There comes out a tree;
Similarly, the germ of the seed of the Buddha,
Residing within the bark of the fruit, the defilements of living
beings,

44)

aksayya ( = aksaya),
ajasram, T . rgyun tu,
C. o m .
46)
R e m i n d of a sim ila r it y wi t h t h e layavijna
theory.
47
> Cf. T G S 458 c.
48)
T . o m . tla, C . si m p l y ' va r i o u s k in d s o f t r e e '.
45)

[ 273 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Thrives by the help of this and th at virtue,


Resulting in the tree 49> of th e H ighest Truth. // 117 //
(VII) The Defilements are like a tattered garment, and th e Essence
of th e Tathgata is akin to a precious image 5 0 ) .
Suppose an image of th e Buddha made of precious jewels
Wrapped in the tattered garment of bad smell
51)
Were cast off
on the road, and
A god, perceiving it, would speak to travellers
52)
About this m atter , in order to retrieve it ; // 118 //
Similarly, the One who has eyes 5 3 ) of no obstacle
Perceives, even among those in the world of animals 5 4 ) ,
The nature 5 5 ) of the Buddha concealed by the stains 5 6 ) of various
kinds of Defilements,
And, for th e sake of its liberation [from Defilements],
Provides the means 5 7 ) [of deliverance]. // 119 //
Just as a god with divine eyes, seeing th e Buddha's image
58)
Wrapped in a bad smelling garment, and rejected
on the road,
Would show it to the people in order to retrieve it;
In th e same way the Lord, perceiving even among animals,
The Essence [of th e Buddha] thrown on th e road of transmigration,

40)
vitapa (small plant), T. hthon (coming out), C. \ Jp y C f JX1 for dharma
vitapa.
so) Q t XGS 458 c 459 a. The story given in the Stra is as follows: There was a
person who kept one golden image of the Buddha. H e was on the way to another country
along a dangerous path . F or fear of robbers, he wrapped th at image in tattered
garment so th at nobody could notice of it. As this person passed all of a sudden on the
way, the image was abandoned in a field and left unknown to travellers who thought
it merely a dirty cloth of no value. There happened to come a m an of divine eyes,
who, recognizing th e image within th e tattered garment, picked it up out of the garment
and saluted it.

61)

F o r ujjhita, T . gnas ( placed), C. ^ o r E J [ / (fallen) in v. 120.

62)

etam artham (this thing).


T . o m . caksuh, wh i c h C . h a s .
C. ' in th e lowest world (avici) ' .

63)
64)
S5)
66)

tmabhva, T. dos-po (nature), C. [KH yjv] -*J" ( = kya).


T. om. mala, which C. has.

87)

abhyupya, T. thabs, C. ~/ J ]*,. F or vidadhti, T. ston mdsad, C. fij


(preaches the highest doctrine).
B8)
ujjita in the text should be corrected into ujjhita.

t 274 ]

The

R at n a got r a v ib h ga

With the covering of the tattered garment of Defilements,


Taught the D octrine for the sake of its deliverance.
// 120 //
59

(VIII) The Defilements are like a pregnant wom an ' and the Essence
of the Tathgata is akin to an Emperor contained in the Embryonal
elements 6 0 ) .
Suppose an ugly woman without a protector 6 1 )
62)
Were abiding in an orphan age ,
63)
And, bearing the glory of royalty as an em bryo ,
64)
Might not know the king in her own womb . // 121 //
The generation of worldly existence is like an orphanage,
65)
Like a pregnant
woman are the impure living beings,
66)
And the immaculate Essence in them is like th at embryo ,
Owing to the existence of which, they become possessed of protec
tion. // 122 //
Just as a woman, whose body is covered with a dirty garment
And having ugly features, experiences in an orphanage,
The greatest pain when the king is in her womb;
Similarly the living beings abiding in the house of misery,
And whose mind is not quiet by the power of Defilements,
Imagine themselves without a protector
Though the good protectors 6 7 ) are residing in their own bodies.
// 123 //

59)

panna sattva nrl,


T . sems can shugs pahi
a n e m b r yo ) , sattva h e r e m e a n s a n e m b r yo .

mi mo

( a wo m a n wh o is b e a r i n g

60)

kalala mahbhtagata. F or kalala, T. mer mer po, C. flf/ V #l [3&E]


t h e first s t a g e of e m b r y o . Of t h i s e x a m p l e , cf. T G S 459 a.

kalala is

61)

antha (Lit. without a protector) T. mgon med, C. j|J\ $ (^* m e a n s 'abandoned


by her husban d', or ' widow ').
62)
antha vasatha,
T . mgon med hbug gnas, = antha la ( T . . . . khyim),
antha
veman

( T . . . . kha-pa),
C. ^ ^ 3J " | * .
garbha, T . mal. mal m e a n s ' w o m b ' a n d n o t ' e m b r y o ' , b u t h e r e garbha seems
to m e a n e m b r y o . See below.
64)
kuksu, T . he (centre), C. ' inside of b o d y '.
63)

65)

antarvat,

66)

tad-garbhavat.

t h e w o m b ) , C. ^ ^
67)

sanntha,

T . mal-ldan

(garbhavat),

C. | f ! t ) j o (possessed of e m b r y o ) .

F o r garbha, T . mal-gnas

( = garbha-sthita,

t h a t w h i c h is within

T ^ JjP ( e m b r y o w i t h i n t h e w o m b ) .
T . mgon bcas,

C . >^J mfi fvC &&. B o t h t a k e s i t a s

[ 275 ]

santha.

J. TAKASAKI

(IX) The Defilements are like an earthen mould 6 8 ) and the Essence
69)
of the Tathgata is akin to a golden statue .
Suppose a man who knows [how to make a statue],
Seeing that the statue, filled with melted gold inside
And covered with clay outside, had become cool,
Would, for purifying the inner gold, remove the outer covering;
// 124 //
Similarly, the One who has got the highest Enlightenment,
70)
Perceiving always
the radiance of the Innate Mind
And the occasionality of the stains,
Purifies the world, which is like a mine of jewels, from obstructions.
// 125 //
Just as a statue made of pure, shining gold
Would become cool within the earthen covering,
And, knowing this, a skillful jewel maker would remove the clay;
In the same way the Omniscient perceives th at
The Mind 71) , which is like pure gold, is quiescent 72) ,
And, by means of a stroke 73) [called] the method of teaching the
74)
He removes the obscurations. // 126 //
D octrine ,
The summarized meaning of the illustrations is as follows:
Inside a lotus flower, amidst bees,
Inside the husk, impurities, and the ground,
Within the bark of a fruit, within a tattered garment,
In the womb of a woman, and inside clay, respectively,
Like the Buddha, like honey, like the kernel of grains,
Like gold, like a treasure, and like a tree,
Like a precious image, like the Emperor,
And like a golden statue, // 128 //
The Innate Mind of the living beings
Which is pure from beginningless time,

// 127 //

68)

mrt-paka-lepa, T. sahi hdam gos-pa, C.


> Cf. TGS 459 a-b.
70)
T. om. sad, which C. has.

89

71

> manas, T. yid, C. ^fC J 2 . |y|j |zfc manas here stands for cittaprakrti.

72

> F or Siva, C. f||

73)

prahra,

74)

dharmkhyna naya,

(firmly).

T . brdeg spyad,

C. ^*[ ( h a m m e r ) .

T. chos hchad tshul, C. pt V S

[ 276 ]

The

R at n agot r avib h ga

And is not bound by the covering of Defilements,


75)
Though being within them from the outset is thus illustrated .
// 129 //
In brief, by this explanation of the illustrations given in the Tath
gatagarbha stra, there is shown the fact th at, for all living beings,
the defiling elements [which cover] over their mind from the beginningless
time are [merely] of an accidental nature, whereas the purifying elements
existing in the mind since beginningless time were born together [with
76)
the mind], and hence, they are of an indivisible nature . Therefore, it
is said 7 7 ) :
" Owing to the impurities on the Mind, the living beings are defi
led; owing to the Mind [itself], pure [by n ature], they are purified ".

2.

9 Kinds of Defilements the Impurities on the Mind

78)

H ere, which are the impurities on the Mind, with reference to which
the 9 illustrations, a sheath of lotus flower, &c, have been explained?
D esire, H atred and Ignorance 7 9 ) , and their intense outburst,
80>
[Ignorance in] the form of Impression
75)

C . a b b r e vi a t e s t h e se 3 verses i n t o t wo b y a vo id in g r e p e t i t i o n of t h e 9 e xa m p le s.

C. d ist in gu ish e s t h e si t u a t i o n of kleas

a n d cittaprakrti

b y u sin g ' ^pj ' for t h e fo r m e r

a n d ' 3 JEp ' ( e n d o we d wi t h ) for t h e l a t t e r .


76)
H e r e is given t h e c o n t r a st b e t we e n citta samklea dharma
and
citta vyavadna
dharma, n a m e l y t h e fo r m e r is m e r e ly gantuka, wh ile t h e l a t t e r is sahaja a n d avinirbhga,
a lt h o u gh b o t h a r e andismnidhya
( S. p . 5 9 , 1. 12 ff.) wi t h sattvas. T h is c o n t r a st is e xp la in e d
in a p r e vio u s p a ssa ge b y t h e t e r m s asambaddha a n d sambaddha.
77)
T h e so u r c e of t h i s q u o t a t i o n is u n k n o wn , b u t we h a ve a sim ila r e xp r e ssio n i n
t h e Vimalak rti nirdea
(Taisho, XV, 563 b). T h is i d e a se e m s t o be q u i t e old a n d p e r h a p s
we c a n t r a c e b a c k i t s o r igin as far as t h e P a li N i k ya s (e.g. SN I I I , 151) .
78
> Cf. B G 806 c.
79)

C . a d d s a wo r d ' ^ *y 7fcf| ', of wh ic h t h e e q u i va le n t in S k t . is n o t c lear. P r o b a b l y

it st a n d s for anuaya o r bandhana ( lit e r a lly ' ^ R ffp| ' is n e a r t o bandhana, b u t in t h e c o m


m e n t a r y, t h e se t h r e e kleas a r e said t o be in t h e st a t e of anuaya, a n d fu r t h e r m o r e , ban
dhana is u su a lly r e n d e r e d in C h in ese b y ' / n 151 % wh ile in t h is t e xt , t h e sa m e ' flip (JJ^'
(or / {|Q ) is o ft en u se d for anuaya.

I f so, even m o r e c u r io u s is t h e u se of t h is ' jppf > | | Q ' for

tivra paryavasthna
in t h is ver se. I t seem s q u i t e wr o n g.
F o r paryavasthna,
T . h a s kun ldan ( = kun nas Ida-ba) ( paryutthna).
See
v. 137.
80)
H e r e vsan st a n d s for avidyvsabhmi.
See p r o se c o m m e n t a r y o n t h is ver se .
T h is u se of vsan seem s t o su p p o r t t h e T i b e t a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e t e r m avidyvsa
bhmi.
See N o t e VI I I 1 1 2 .

[ 277 ]

J. TAKASAKI
81)

The pollutions [which are to be removed by ]


The P ath of Perception and th at of P ractice 8 2 ) ,
And those remaining in the impure and the pure Stages [of Bodhi
sattva, respectively], // 130 //
These 9 kinds of [defilements] are illustrated
By the example of the sheath of a lotus flower and others;
83)
In their variety, however, the coverings of Defilements
Extend beyond the limit of extremity in number. // 131 //
In brief, these 9 kinds of Defilements make always their appearance
84)
[on the Essence of the Tathgata] as the incidental [attachment] , although
the latter is perfectly pure by nature, just like the sheath of a lotus flower
[covering] over the Buddha's image, and other examples. What are the
9 Defilements? They are, namely: 1) the Defilement characterized as
the dormant st a t e 8 5 ) of Desire (rgnuayalaksana klea); 2) the Defile
ment characterized as the dormant state of H atred (dvesnuayalaksana k.);
3) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state of Ignorance (mo
hnuayalaksana~k.); 4) the Defilement characterized as the intense
outburst of D esire, H atred and Ignorance (t vrargadvesamohaparyava
sthnalasana k.); 5) the Defilement contained in the Dwelling Place of
Ignorance (avidyvsabhmisamgrh ta k.); 6) the Defilement to be extir
pated by means of Perception (daranaprahtavya k.); 7) the Defilement
to be extirpated by means of Practice (bhvanprahtavya k.); 8) the
Defilement remaining in the impure Stage [of Bodhisattva] (auddhabh
migata k.); & 9) the Defilement remaining in the pure Stage [of Bodhi
sattva] (uddhabhmigata k.) 8 6 ) .

81

' T. inserts spos (= hey a, prahtavya) after mrga. I t is better for understanding.

82)

dr-mrga bhvan.

83)

upasamklea,

But T. & C , in usual order of darana bhvan mrga.

T . e-bahi

on-mos,

C. , K | | jpSa .

86

> anuaya, T . bag la al, C. ^


(BG |5f|
> F or these 9, T., C. & BG have as follows (BG in parentheses):

86

1) hdodchags bagla algyi mtshanidkyi

m n m. m is*

onmospa, J ^

[^ J^\

|pq

2) **.*, m m t i . <ffi BE B m m*
3) Pi-mug, M f. 'JR t i , M SS M 1%;

4) hdod-chags da she-sda da gti-mug drag-pos kun-nas Ida-bahi mtshan-id,

S t i , (M B m ^ S S -t 'li'SR*
[ 278 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

Now first of all, l) 3), there are those Defilements which are in the
bodies8 7 ) of those worldly people who are freed from 8 8 ) D esire, and,
being the causes of Forces which accumulate the motionless St at e 8 9 ', give
rise to the Material and the Immaterial Sphere, and which are to be kil
led 9 0 ) by means of the Supermundane Wisdom. These are here termed
the Defilements characterized as the dormant state of D esire, H atred
and Ignorance. 4) N ext, we have those Defilements which exist in the
bodies of those living beings who indulge in Desire and the rest, and
which, being the cause of Forces th at accumulate merit and demerit,
give rise only to the Sphere of D esire, and are to be killed by means of
the Wisdom, [obtained] through the Contemplation of I m purity 9 1 ) , etc.
They are called the Defilements characterized as the intense outburst of
Desire, H atred and Ignorance. Then, 5) there are those Defilements which
are in the bodies of the Arhats, and, being the cause th at produces
the Immaculate Actions, result in the birth of the pure Body made of
mind, and are to be killed by the Tathgata's Wisdom of Enlightenment.
These are called the Defilements contained in the Dwelling Place of
Ignorance 9 2 ) .
There are two kinds of individuals who undergo training [on the

5) ma rig pahi bag chags kyi sas bsdus pa, fJH P/ j |3 jtfy

fy\

W ft fift*
6) mtho-bns span-bar bya-ba, ^

*J 0f Jjf *(g fS . (.SI

7) bsgom-pas span-bar bya-ba, % M. Bf S S t8 , ( f


8) ma-dag-pahi sa-la brten-pa, ^

ffi

9) dag-pahi

jQi jfg^ *|pg , Q=

sa-la

brten-pa,

^p

$& Jg

sntnika, (of santna, lit. flux, stream), T. rgyud la yod pa, C.

88)

vita, T. dan bral ba. C. failed to catch the sense, but BG {|ft

89)

nijya-samskrpacaya

hdu-byed-la

S)

f$

87)

T . mi-gyo-bahi

?j

sogs-pa,

^\ .

C. /y* JUJifQl ^ f e

jy\ 3^v. About nijya ( = anijya, anijya, Pali nejja), see BH S D ie. s. v. Along with
punya and apunya, this ninjya forms samskra which accumulates the Phenomenal
Existence (bhava). See below.
90)
91

vadhya, T . gshom par bya ba, C. H flf.


' auddhabhvan (text reading bhva should be corrected), T. mi sdug pahi sgom

pa, C. /f* ^
H . See BHS Die. s. v., Mvyut. 52.
92)
About avidyvsabhmi, ansravakarman and manomayakya, see N ote VI I I
112, 115. (where Bodhisattva is also included in this group).

[ 279 ]

J. TAKASAKI

P ath] 9 3 ) : a) the ordinary beings and b) the Saints. Now, 6) the Defi
lements which exist in the body of ordinary beings training on the P ath
94
and which are to be killed by the Wisdom [obtained through] the first >
Perception of the Transcendental Truth are termed the Defilements to
be extirpated by means of Perception. And, 7) the Defilements which
exist in the body of the Saints training on the P ath and which are to be
killed by the Wisdom [obtained through] the Transcendental Practice
of the Truth according to their [Transcendental] Perception 95> are called
the Defilements to be extirpated by Practice.
[Lastly there are two kinds of Defilements associating with Bod
hisattwas]. 8) Those which are in the body of Bodhisattvas who have
not reached the ultimate perfection, and which are the enemy to the
Wisdom [attained] on the [first] 7 Stages 9 6 ) and are to be killed by
means of the Wisdom [obtained through] the Practice of the 3 Stages
beginning with the 8th, these are called the Defilements remaining in
the impure Stage [of Bodhisattva]. 9) The Defilements which exist in the
body of Bodhisattvas who have reached the ultimate perfection, and
which are the enemy to the Wisdom [attained through] the Practice on
the (last) 3 Stages beginning with 8th and are to be killed by means of
the Wisdom [of the Buddha, obtained through] the Meditation called
't h e D iamond like' 9 7 ) , these are called the Defilements remaining in the
pure Stage [of Bodhisattva].
These 9 8 )

93)

aiksa, T. slob pa, C. | p J\ .


They may be called ' bodhisattvaynika ', i.e. Ma
hynist. 'rya\ here, seems to denote those Bodhisattvas who are below the 1st Stage,
in comparison with no. 8. But usually the attain m en t of daranamrga is said to take
place on the 1st Stage of Bodhisattva.
94
' T. regards prathama as prathamabhmi. C repeats lokottara and seems to render
this prathama by prathamalokottaracitta ($)

pj

\ jt ffl] 'L^)

But BG inserts ' 3f| $pj

I , ^Ts. ^ C E J^L *g ' (andikldrstaprva) before prathama. I t seems to be a good


interpretation of this prathama. That is to say, in comparison with ' yathdrsta ' in the
next, ' prathama ' means t h at this darana has never been observed by the H naynists
and is to be attained ' for the first time ' by the M ahynist. P aram rtha gives a
detailed explanation on this subject in his commentary on BGS (BGS 807 b).
95)

yathdrsta. See above. C. 3?M J^Q J ^ J (yath prvadrsta).


i.e. those which are not exterminated by the Wisdom attained in th e first
7 Stages.
97
* vajropama samdhi. I t is said to be th e meditation in th e highest stage of prac
tice. (Mvyut. 21 & 55).
98
' The following verse is, as J suggested, not a verse at all. This passage is merely
961

[ 280 ]

The

Ratnagotrav1baga

Nine Defilements, beginning with Desire,


Being taken in short, respectively,
Are illustrated by 9 examples,
That of the sheath of a lotus flower and others.

// 132 //

And, if taken in detail, [these Defilements] which are differentiated


into 84,000 groups, are as infinite as the Wisdom of the Tathgata.
On this point, therefore, it is said th at th e Matrix of th e Tathgata is
concealed by the coverings of Defilements which extend beyond th e limit
of extremity in number 9 9 ) .
(Variety of Living Beings according to their Defilements).
The impurity [retained] in th e ordinary beings,
The Arhats, th e individuals in training [on th e P ath],
And the Bodhisattvas is [explained], respectively,
By these four, one, two and two kinds of pollution. // 133 //
I t has been said by the Lord th at all living beings are posses
sed of th e M atrix of th e T ath gata 1 0 0 ) . H ere, 'all living beings ' are
said to be, in short, fourfold: namely, 1) th e ordinary beings; 2) th e
Arhats; 3) the individuals in training [on th e P ath]; and 4) th e Bod
hisattvas. Their impurity, on account of [which they cannot identify
themselves with] th e Immaculate Sphere, is here explained by [the first]
four, [the next] one (the 5th) and two (the 6th & 7th) and again by
101)
two (the 8th & 9th) kinds of P ollution,
respectively.

3. Concordance between the 9 Illustrations and th e 9 D efilements102'.


Now, how should the resemblance of 9 Defilements be known, Desire
and th e rest, to the sheath of a lotus flower and others, respectively,
and how should the similarity be understood between the Essence of the
Tathgata and [the examples], the Buddha's image and the rest?

an explanation of v. 131 ab and the following sentences are those of v. 131 cd.
C. keeps the original form.
99) Qf^ T G S ( T h e se c o n d fo r m u l a o n
tathgatagarbha).
100)
Cf. T G S ( T h e first fo r m u la o n tathgatagarbha).
( T h e r e a d i n g garbha
be corrected into garbh iti).
101)
klea mala. T. om. mala.
102
> Cf. BG 807 c 808 a.

[ 281 ]

Perhaps

iti is t o

Just as the lotus flower born from the mud


103)
Is delightful
in its first appearance,
But later on [when it withers], it is no more attractive;
Similar to it is the delight of D esire. // 137 //
Just as the honey bees 1 0 4 ) , being excited,
105)
Sting sharply [and cause p ain ] ;
In the same way, H atred, being aroused,
Produces suffering in the heart. // 135 //
106)
Just as the kernel of rice
and others
Are concealed 107) by the outside husk,
Similarly, the perception of the Essential T r u t h 1 0 8 )
1091
Is hindered by the covering
of ignorance. // 136 //
Just as the impurities are somewhat disagreeable;
110)
Likewise those who have got rid of desire
[Regard] Passion as something disagreeable,
Being characterized as devoted to [such] Passion,
The outburst of Passions is repulsive like impurities. // 137 //
111
Just as the people ', because of their ignorance,
Cannot obtain the treasure hidden under the groun d 112 ',
In a similar way, they cannot obtain the Buddhahood
H indered by the Dwelling Place of I gn oran ce 113 '. // 138 //
Just as a sprout and the like, growing gradually,
103
' mano rama, T. yid dgah, C. ^ ^ .
quite artificial.

The analogies in the following verses seem

104

' bhramarh prninah (pi.), T. srog chags sbra-ma, C. ffp 3*f.


' C. interprets: ' when they are making honey, they bite the flowers '.
106)
For li, T. hbras ( = vrhi, corn).
107
' avacchanna = samcanna, T. bsgribspa.
los

108

> srrtha, C. J^J ^


^ .
' andakoa (lit. egg shell).
no) jp o r *km virginm *, T. reads ' chags da bcas rnams-kyi ' (kma avirgi
109

nm, as J suggested). But C. reading ' jfj flp J i ^ yS* p$g ' (similar is the case with
the wise m an's observation of rga), though being far from the literal translation, is still
close to S. And BG has ' jsjP: / y\ tcL. J\ .' (virgin) in the parallel passage, which
supports the text reading.
U1
' T. reads as jane (skye la). But janh is the subject word of punyur and is
used for both illustrating and being illustrated. C. shows this reading by repeating janh.
112)

vasudh antarita,
C . J Q i *"P . T . 'nor ni bsgribs pas na ' for t h is a n d ' mi es
gter ' for ajnd nidhi is a m isr e a d in g cau sed b y t h e r e a d in g of jane for janh.
113) phe r e a d in g *avidyvsabhmy vrt
h a d p referably b e c o r r ec t ed i n t o -vrtam,
being a n adjective for svayambhtvam,
i n c o m p a r iso n wit h t h e illu st r a t io n a bo ve . So
h a ve T . & C .

[ 282 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ga

Break o u t t h e h u sk of t h e seed,
Sim ilarly, b y t h e I n t u it io n of t h e T r u t h ,
Those D efilements are rem oved which are t o be ext irp at ed b y
114
P er c ep t io n ) . / / 139/ /
Those wh o h ave destroyed t h e groun d of con ception of person al
115
lit y >
116)
Are followin g
in th e [P ractice of t h e] Sain tly P a t h ;
Therefore, t h eir D efilements wh ich are t o be rejected
By t h e Wisdom of P ract ice are said t o be like a t a t t e r e d gar
m e n t . // 140 //
Th e stain s rem ain in g in t h e [first] 7 Stages
Are like 1 1 7 ) t h e im pu rit ies of t h e receptacle of a n em bryo 1 1 8 ) ,
An d t h e n on discrim in ative Wisdom h as a resem blan ce
To t h e m a t u r ed form of an em bryo delivered from it s coverin g. / / 141 //
T h e stain s con n ected wi t h 1 1 9 ) t h e [last] 3 Stages
Are kn own as bein g like t h e eart h en m ould,
An d are t o be destroyed b y t h e Wisdom of t h e Bu ddh as 1 2 0 )
[Obtain ed t h ro u gh ] M editation called ' t h e D iam on dlike ' . // 142 //
T h u s t h e 9 pollution s, D esire a n d t h e r e st ,
H ave a resem blan ce t o a lot u s flower a n d o t h ers,
An d t h e Essen ce [of t h e Bu d d h a ] , con sistin g of 3 fold n a t u r e ,
Bears a sim ilarity t o t h e Bu d d h a an d t h e rest . // 143 //
4.

T h e 3 fold N a t u r e of t h e E ssen ce, t h e P urifyin g E lem en t with in


t h e M ind, a n d it s C on cordan ce with t h e 9 I llu st rat io n s1 2 1 ) .

T h e resem blance of t h e M at rix of t h e T a t h ga t a , bein g t h e cause for puri


122)
fying t h e M in d , in 9 fold, i. e. t o t h e im age of t h e Bu d d h a a n d so
114) The analogy is not clear. C. says: ' daranamrga removes the defilements and
makes th e Stages grow up gradually '.
115)
hata satkya srnm.
T . hjig tshogs sni-po bcom rnams-kyi.
C. o m . sra.
116)

anusaga,

117

> prakhy,

T . . . . da hbrel-pa

( = sambandha),

T . . . . da mtshus,

C. $fj!f *JC

C. | # H .

118

> garbhakoamala, T . malsbubs drima, C. j j n fy\ ffijj? .

garbhakoa

m eans

uterus.
119)

anugata,

120)

mahtman,

T . rjes hbrel
T . bdag-id

( = anubaddha),
chen-po,

C . 7^[J ( k n o wn ) .

C. y*C H

ff| " S * $ 1 1 , wh ic h is n o t c o r r e c t .

i> Cf. BG 808 a (# 0 ^ H fll S tt).


"2) C. reads * = ( , g ft ffl" ^ >\ j\ %W ^K jg|' and connects them
with each of trividha svabhva, respectively.

[ 283 ]

XAJVA.SAJ4.1

forth, is to be understood in the reference to the 3 fold N ature (tri


vidhah svabhvah) of the Matrix of the Tathgata 1 2 3 ) . What is the 3 fold
N ature?
The N ature of this [Essence] is the Absolute Body,
The Reality, as well as the G erm,
Which is known by the examples,
Three, one and five, [respectively]. // 144 //
By th e 3 examples, i.e. those of the image of th e Buddha, honey
and the kernel [of grains], this Essence is to be understood as being
of the nature of the Absolute Body (dharmakya svabhva). By one
example, i.e. th at of gold, its being of the nature of Reality (tathath
svabhva), and by [the remaining] 5 examples, i.e. those of the treasure,
the tree, the precious image, the highest Lord of U niverse, and the
golden statue, its being of the nature of the Germ (gotrasvabhva)
124)
from which the 3 kinds of Buddha's Body are origin ated
[is to be
understood].
a)

Dharmakya.
H ere, how is the Absolute Body?
The Absolute Body is to be known in 2 aspects,
[One] is th e Absolute E n tity which is perfectly immaculate,
[The other] is its natural outflow125) , the teaching
Of the profound [truth] and of the diverse guidance. // 145 //

The Absolute Body of the Buddha is to be understood in 2 aspects.


[N amely], 1) the perfectly pure Absolute E n tity itself (dharmadhtu) 126),

1231
C. , . ^"] ^p^ HS The following passage is a detailed explanation of v. 27 and
v. 28 (S. p. 26). It is also to be compared with (I) svabhva (the first of the 10 meanings
of tathgatadhtu, S. p . 27).
124)
Cf. v. 23 (K. 4) & v. 24, where gotra is explained as the germ of ratnatraya. F rom
the viewpoint of ekayna, ratnatraya is ultimately resolved into one ' buddha ratna '.
I n this sense, these two different explanations of gotra are identical.
125)

nisyanda, T. rgyu mthun, C. (E|[ -ff* (which is a peculiar translation. Usually,

* "^r v i ') This is interpreted in the commentary by ' tat prpti hetu '.
126) ^jjg r e a d i n g ' dharmadhtor avi ' is t o b e c o r r e c t e d i n t o ' dharmadhtur
B o t h T. & C. read it as nominative.

[ 284 ]

avi ' .

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

which is the acting sphere of N on discriminative Wisdom; and this is to


be known in the reference to the Truth realized by the Tathgata through
introspection (pratytmdhigamadharma). And, 2) the natural outflow
of the perfectly pure Absolute Entity {dharmadhtunisyanda) as the
127)
128)
129)
cause for its attain m en t
, which produces
the communication
among other living beings according to their faculties in disciplin e 130 '.
And this is to be known in the reference to the Truth as the doctrine
131)
to be taught (deandharma)
.
This teaching is again divided into two, owing to the difference of
132
133
means for exposition ' of the D octrine, whether subtle or exten sive '.
N amely, 2) l) the Code of Bodhisattva 1 3 4 ) , the teaching by the profound
means for exposition 135) of the D octrine referring to the H ighest Truth
(paramrthasatya), and 2) 2) the Aphorism, the Scripture in prose and
verse, the Prophecy, the Verse, the Solemn U tterance, the Statement
13 6 )
of subject m atter, &c.
which are the teaching by various kinds of
means for exposition of the D octrine and are related to the Empirical
Truth
(samvrti satya) 137).
Bein g su p erm u n d an e, n o t h in g can be given
As a n exam ple for t h e E ssen ce, in t h is world;
Therefore, it is shown in it s sim ilarit y
127)

In the sense that, by means of dean dharma, sattvas are led to bodhi.

128

> prabhava, T. hbyu, C. 1$C . . . ~>f .

129)

vijapti, T. rnam-par rig-pa, C. f^ (?).


' yathvainayika is to be corrected into yathvaineyika. T. gdul bya ji lta bar.

130

C. 5]* f t So has BG (0f ft).


131

' See back, the passage on dharmaratna (S. p . 10 ff.) and on aranatraya (S. p. 18,

1. 14 ff.). Of these two divisions of dharma, BG: j ^fff ffi Jj & I E t Sl ' ? " % ,
respectively. Also cf. the Mahaynasamgraha bhsya (tr. by P aramrtha), Taisho,

XXXI, P . 268 c: J #P ? & IE t Wi.


132) vyavasthna,
133)

sksma,

T . rnampar

T . phra ba,

hjogpa.

C. om .

C . flpffl , & audrika,

dharmavyavasthnanayabhedt.

T . rgya chen,

C . gggg, r e sp .

134

' bodhisattvapitaka,
T . byachubsemsdpahi
sdesnod, C. p f ^ ^ -TZ-C zllxi
135>
T. om. vyavasthna. C. Jjfej... {^ WL for vyavasthna naya dean.
13 6
' stra, gey a, vykarana, gth, udna, nidna, respectively. These are the first
6 of dvdaga-dharmapravacana (see Mvyut. 62). They are here regarded as the doctrine
for Srvaka and P ratyekabuddhaynika. Cf. BG S: ^ ^
. 0 ^ J\ R>J Jfcfc jf l gg .
137) These two divisions of dean dharma correspond to n trtha and neyrtha,
respectively. (Cf. Abhidharmakoa vykhy, Wogihara's Edition, p . 174). Also cf. Lank,
p. 147, 171: siddhnta naya & deannaya.
[ 285 ]

J . TAKASAKI

To the [apparitional form of the] Buddha himself. // 146 //


[The D octrine] taught by subtle, profound means
Is to be known as being akin to honey of one taste,
And taught by various kinds of means,
l38)
As being similar to the kernel of various grains
. // 147 //
Thus, by 3 examples, those of th e image of the Buddha, the honey
and th e kernel, in reference to th e meaning th at all living beings, with
no exception, are penetrated by the Absolute Body of the T ath gata 1 3 9 ) ,
it is explained th at 'these, all living beings, are the Matrix (interior)
of the Tath gata 1 4 0 ) , (i.e. the Matrix in which the Tathgata penetrates).
141)
Indeed, there is no one among the living beings
who stands outside
142)
the Absolute Body of the T ath gata , just as no kind of physical
form can exist outside of space. Because it is said 1 4 3 ) :
" Just as space is considered to be all pervading always,
Similarly, i t 1 4 4 ) is held to be always all pervading;
Just as space pervades all visible forms,
Similarly, it pervades all the multitudes of living beings ".
138)
anda sra, T . sbubs-si ( = koa sra), C . ( y|| ^M) J P ^ '*fc (of d ifferen t t a st e ) .
T h e m e a n i n g of anda h e r e is n o t c lea r .
139) > p^ 26, v. 27 a : buddhajnntargamt
sattvareh; v, 28 a:
sambuddhakya
spharant; & 1. 8 : sarvasattvesu
tathgata dharmakya parispharanrthena.
140)
tathgatasya ime garbhh sarvasattvh. This is the first way of interpreting th e
term tathgatagarbha, regarding this Bahuvr hi compound as consisting of two words
whose interrelation is th e dependent determinative (Tatpurusa). H ere, ' garbha ' means
' interior ', and hence the compound has the sense of ' one who is within the Tath
gata ' . This meaning comes from the idea of ' antargama of buddhajnna ', i.e. the pene
tration of the Absolute into everything from inside and this signifies the all pervadingness

of the Absolute. In this sense, BG calls this 1st meaning ' /3/f $uf U K' (garbha in the
sense of samgrh ta). By the way, T. translates the above sentence into ' de bshin
gegs pahi si-po-can (being possessed of the essence of the Tathgata). C. shows no
difference between this and the subsequent other two interpretations (^pj >(U ^ $|x).
141)
sattvadhtu, as a c o llec t ive n o u n , t h e a ggr e ga t e of livin g be in gs. T . & C . a s
u su a l (for dhtu, T . khams, C . 5r )
142)
C . in se r t s ' tathgatajnd
bahir ' a ft e r ' dharmakyd
bahir '. B G S r e ga r d s
t h i s p a ssa ge a s a q u o t a t i o n fr o m so m e sc r i p t u r e ( 808 a ) . Also , see M S b h ( P ) , 252 b.
143) ]V|SA I X , 15 ( wh ic h h a s rpagana i n st e a d of rpagata).
144)
" tat " st a n d s fo r buddhatva, a c e . t o t h e c o m m e n t a r y o n M S A. F o r t h e 2 n d
and 4th P ada, C. has a rather free rendering, saying:
' similarly, sattvakya is indivisible from buddhajna \ & ' therefore, it is said
t h at sarvasattvs tathgatagarbhh \ respectively.

[ 286 ]

Th e

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h g a

Tathat.
Being unchangeable, by nature,
145)
Sublime , and perfectly pure,
Reality is illustrated
By the analogy with a piece of148) gold.

// 148 //

That which is the Mind, though it is associated with 1 4 7 ) the pheno


mena 1 4 8 ) of Suffering [caused by] innumerable forms of Defilement, is
unable to be shown as being alterable because of its being radiant by
nature. Therefore, it is called 'R ealit y' in the sense of being unchange
i
able like excellent gold. This very Mind gets also the appellation of the
149
Tathgata ', whenever it perfects the purification ' from all accidental
pollutions even in the case of those living beings who are ranked among
the groups in the definitely wrong way, since all of them are not dif
ferent by n ature. Thus, with reference to the sense th at Reality is
the undifferentiated whole 1 5 0 ) , it is explained by the one example of gold,
that ' the Tathgata, being Reality, is [identical with] the Matrix (i.e.
151)
the inner essence) of these living beings . H aving in view [this] I nnate
Mind, the pure and non dual Essential N at u re 1 5 2 ) , it is said by the
153
Lord ':

145

> C. om. kalyna.

F or these three qualities, BG : 1) f^

H f & H ; 3):MW teH (8086).

^ J | J l .;

2) J?Fj

146

) mandalaka, T. gzugs ( = rpa), C . o m .


' anugata, T . rjessu hbrel. C. o m . t h e wh o le se n t e n c e .
148
> T . o m . dharma.
149)
viuddhim gatas. An e t ym o lo gy of t h e t e r m tathgata. See t h e q u o t a t i o n belo w.
150) f_ g^ p^ 26, v. 2 7 : tamnairmalyasydvayatvt,
v. 2 8 :
tathat'vyatibhedatah,
a n d 1. 8:
tathgata tathat'vyatibhedrthena.
151
' tathgatas tathat esm garbhah sarvasattvnm.
T h is is t h e sec o n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
of t h e t e r m tathgatagarbha, i n wh ic h t h e t wo wo r d s tathgata a n d garbha a r e r e la t e d a p p o
sit io n a lly t o e a c h o t h e r , i.e. garbha be in g tathgata. H e r e t h e wo r d garbha m e a n s ' essen ce ',
i.e. tathat wh ic h is r e p r e se n t e d b y tathgata. Be c a u se of t h i s id e n t ific a t io n wi t h tathat,
tathgatagarbha is c alled ' samal tathat '. T h e differen ce, if t h e r e is a n y, b e t we e n tath
gata a n d tathgatagarbha is m e r e ly i n t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e , t h e fo r m e r be in g ' uddhim gat
tathat',
i. e. ' nirmal tathat ' a n d t h e l a t t e r be in g ' samal tathat '. F r o m t h is p o in t ,
tathgatagarbha is a sp ec ial n a m e for tathat wh e n i t is h i d d e n b y ( or c o ve r e d wi t h ) k eas.
147

I n this sense, BGS calls this second interpretation ' \f f ^ ^ ' (garbha in the form
of upagdha).
152)
C. reads this passage curiously as th at ' cittaprakrti, though it is uddhi, still
is advayadharma by n ature; therefore. . .
153
> JA 247 a.

[ 287 ]

J.

TAKASAKI

44

Here, O Majusr , the Tathgata is one who has the full know
ledge about the root of his own substratum 1 5 4 '. Through his self,
purification, he has understood 1 5 5 ) the purity of living beings. That
which is the purity of his own and th at which is the purity of
the living beings, these two are one and the same, they cannot be
divided into two 1 5 6 ) .
[Also] it is said 1 5 7 ) :
44

Though being undifferentiated among all,


Reality, in case the purification is perfected,
Is [called] Buddhahood; therefore,
All living beings are possessed of the Matrix of Buddhahood ".

c)

T athgatagotra.

The Germ [of the Buddha] is known to be twofold,


Being like a treasure and like a tree [grown] from a seed;
The I n n a t e 1 5 8 ) [Germ] existing since the beginningless time
And th at which has acquired the highest developm ent 159) . // 149 //
From this twofold G erm, it is considered 1 6 %
The 3 Bodies of the Buddha are obtained ;
F rom the first one, the first Body,
And, from the second, the latter t wo 1 6 1 ) . // 150 //

154)

tmopdnamla, T. bdag gi e-bar len-pahi gshi-rtsa, C.

^ ) BG ^

I , M4 fSjJfc.

fa ffi ^

F o r

parijtvin,

T. as ' protected by parij ', BG

I t seems t h at to know tma updna means to purify his mind '.

155)

anugata, T . rtogs pa ( = gata), C . y^ J .


' kro ti ' sh o u ld gr a m a t i c a l l y b e ' kreti '.
157
> M SA I X , 37.
156)

158

> prakrtistha ( gotra), T. ra-bshin gnas-pa, C.

f 4 trt ^

C^.

Cf. BG

BE E3 pi T_ BGS gives 6 points of similarity of prakrtistha gotra to a treasure,


but they are exactly identical with those in Ratna. v. I , 22 (S. p. 20) where ratnatraya is
referred t o .
189

> samudnita ( gotra), T. ya-dag bla-ba, C. \$ \

[3fP? _ L ] i f l . Cf. BG *J [

t M |_ . As for these two kinds of ' gotra ', see BBh p. 3. MSA I I I , 4. comm.
(prakrtistha, paripusta or samudnita).
i6o) pjjg r e a d m g ' mat ' is acceptable in the light of T. & C. T. thob par hdod pa
yin (prptir mat), G. ^ P .
lei) J ? r o m t h i s statem en t, dharmakya seems to be divided into two: one is dhar'

i 288 ]

The

Ratnagotravibhga

The Body of the Absolute Essence 162) is pure


And is known to be like the precious image,
Since, by nature, it is non-artificial163)
And is the substratum 164) of precious properties. // 151 //
The [Body of] Enjoyment165' is like the Universal Lord
Since it is the great Emperor of Religion166);
The Apparitional Body167) is like a golden statue
Since is has the nature of being an image 168) . // 152 //
Thus, by these 5 examples, namely, those of a treasure, a tree, a
precious image, a Lord of the Universe, and a golden statue, in the refer-

madhtu or tathat which is called here the first body, and the other, dharmakya as bodhi,
i.e. the result of purification of dhtu, which is included in th e second kya being (sva )
sambhogakya. I n other words, it signifies the separation of jna from dharmakya
remaining the latter as pure reality or truth . This point is, however, not clear in this
text, and in a later passage dharmakya is spoken of as being the truth inseparable from
wisdom (Chaps. I I , I I I ) . I t was BG S which, basing itself on this passage, made this point
clear and regarded sambhogakya as a part of dharmakya being svasambhoga.

i2> svbhvika kya, T. o-bo-id-sku, C. j=( ft ffi ^


163

> akrtrima, T. byas min, C. A^ ^

"*) raya, T. gter ( = nidhi), C. ^

H I (unchangeable).

f | ({J Sfi | | "ftf f | ) .

fP^ j/ jtjL . BG S m en t ion s 4 kin ds of sim ilarity of dharmakya


first
fy\

(BG ? J).
Cf. BG 0 f

t o gold. Of t h e m , t h e

t h ree are t h e sam e as th ose m en t ion ed h ere, t h e last o n e is called ' *\ * ^ p


yj ' (sama prpta),

wh ich m ean s t h a t an ybo d y can o bt ain dharmakya, ju st as gold

does not belong to any particular person ( ^ P iMl vP i fj 3 E > ^ r t s^ ^ C -T3 ) ( 8 0 8 c )165)

smbhoga, T . rdsogs-los, C. om., BG J ^ rtf*.


166) p o r ' mahdharmdhirjatvd ', T. reads ' chos chen rgyal srid du Idan phyir '
(mahdharmdhirjyatvd '). Probably it is a better reading. C. ^ yV^ <2C ~H \ V.
(attaining the position of a great religious king). BGS gives 4 qualities to this kya, viz.
1) r K \ \ \ (based upon the former merit); 2) [fl l ( = Jrt "1 rf > prptavya); 3) lK
J~p ( = J[^ flj, prpta); and 4) I r t *3C / n (sambhoga) and regards each of these
qualities as being correspondent to t h at of cakravartin.
167

nirmna, T. sprul ba, C. "fl^ ft, BG \ \ i ** The same terminology on


trikya is used in MSA (I X, 59): svabhvadharmasambhoganirmnair, ibid., 60:
svbhviko ' t/io smbhogah kayo nairmniko.
168

) pratibimba, T. gzugs-bran, C. 3 ^ i^fc . BG maintains 3 characteristics of nir

mraa, through which the similarity to pratibimba is observed: 1) ^pj / fQ (having appa
ritional form); 2) | -/J y j (produced by 'pranidhna"1 (therefore, artificial); 3) ^
^

^py (having beginning and end, therefore, not eternal) (808 c).

[ 289 ]

HP

J . TAKASAKI

ence to th e nature as th e G erm from which th e 3 Bodies of th e Buddha


are origin ated 169) , it is said th at 4 the M atrix (i.e. the inner essence)
of these living beings is th e Essence (i.e. th e cause) of the Tathgata ' 170)t
171)
Indeed, th e Buddhahood is usually manifested
in the 3 Bodies ofthe
Buddha. H ence, it is said th at th e Essence of th e Tathgata is th e cause
for th e acquisition of these [3 Bodies]. H ere, th e word *dhtu ' (essence)
i
172)
173
is especially used in the sense of hetu' (a cause) . So it is said ':
44

And now, in every living being, there exists th e Essence of the


Tathgata arisen, in the form of embryo 1 7 4 ) . But these living beings
do n ot know about it ".

(Reference to the Abhidharma stra on th e i Essence ' ) 1 7 5 ) .


169)

Cf. S. p . 26, v. 2 7 : bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacrt,


v. 2 8 : gotratah, a n d 1. 8 9:
tathgatagotrasambhavrthena.
170)
tathgatadhtur esm garbhah sarvasattvnm. This is the third interpretation
of the term tathgatagarbha, ' garbha ' here means inner essence (dhtu), being the cause
(hetu) from which the Tathgata is arisen. This stands for the original sense of the term
tathgatagarbha. BGS gives a name of * fjft $%% ^llxj' (garbha in the sense of samgrahaka,
i.e. th at which contains the Tathgata).
171)

prabhvita, T. rab tu phye ba, C. ff fo fpfc (has got the appellation).


172) Throughout this text, those terms, garbha, gatra, and dhtu, are used synony
mously, being possessed of the meaning of ' hetu \ And this hetu means ' raya ' as will
be explained.
173) fh g s o u r c e o f this quotation is not yet identified. C. om. this quotation. The
idea is close to the Avatamsakastra.
174
' garbhagata, T . sipor gyurpa.
175)
A quotation from the Mahyna abhidharmastra, of which no S., T. or C.
version is available now. This Stra is regarded as one of the important sources of the
Vijnavda and often quoted in the works of th at theory. As for this verse, it is quoted
in the Mahynasamgraha bhsya of Vasubandhu (MS bh (P), p. 157 a) and also in Sthira
mati's commentary on th e Trirnsik of Vasubandhu (Skt., ed. par Sylvain Levi, p . 37).
In these two cases, the word dhtu is applied to lyavijna. One interesting point to
be noted is t h at , in the case of Trimikbhsya, dhtu is translated by ' dbyis ' in T. and
by ' v r ' m C., instead of by ' khams' and ' ' p t ' as in this text. The different way of
translation seems to show the difference of meaning implied by these different theories.
But as a matter of meaning in each language, the distinction is not so clear. In the
case of C , ' yf''
means originally ' boundary ' ' sphere of certain limited extent',
and derivatively, * region ', ' universe ' and is usually used for the ' dhtu ' ofdharmadhtu,
ill

nirvnadhtu, lokadhtu, traidhtuka, or sattvadhtu. At th e same time, ' yj"r' is used


for dhtu of skandhadhtvyatana, prthividhtu, kadhtu, etc. showing th e sense of
'elem en t'. This last sense|cannot be derived from the Chinese word ' y f*' , but is merely
a translation of the Skt. word dhtu. On the other hand, the Chinese word ' p t ' n a s
a sense of ' nature ', * character ', ' essence' or sex. I t is usually used for the tran

[ 290 ]

The

Ratnagotravibhga

Indeed, it is said [in the Scripture] as follows:


" The Essence that exists since beginningless time
Is the foundation of all the elements,
Owing to its existence, all Phenomenal Life176),
As well as the acquisition of Nirvana exists ".
Here, how is it that 4 it exists since beginningless time ' ? With reference to this very Matrix of the Tathgata, it has been taught and ascer
tained by the Lo rd : "An initial limit is not to be p erceived "1 7 7 ) .
4

178)

About the Essence ', it is said as follows :


u
O Lord, this Matrix of the Tathgata is the transcendental
Matrix; the Matrix, perfectly pure by nature ".
station of such Skt. words as ' svabhva\

'prakrti* and * t ' , ' t r a ' , affixes showing

an abstract sense. To translate dhtu into ' p ' as in this text is a rather peculiar
case. But it is quite suitable here (' | ' is also used for ' gotra ' here, which is usually
replaced by ' J x ') . I n short, of ' j'' and ' p ' as translations of Skt. dhtu, the former
shows the meaning of something spatial, while the latter, of something internal or essential.
In the case of Tibetan, the distinction between ' dbyis ' and ' khams ' is not so clear
as between the two C. translations. Both Tibetan words have a similar sense of ' place '
or ' region ', but as the translation of Skt. dhtu, the former is used in the cases of dhar
madhtu, nirvnadhtu, and kadhtu, while the latter, in the cases of lokadhtu, the
4 elements other than kadhtu, 18 component elements, sattvadhtu, and in this text,
the tathgatadhtu of whicL. we are now speaking. Originally ' khams ' seems to relate
to the human body in the sense ' physical state of body ' or sometimes ' body ' itself,
and derivatively to things smaller than the human body, like each of 18 elements, and
also to worldly things in general. On the contrary, ' dbyis ' always relates to something
transcendental or heavenly. But this distinction is not absolutely fixed. As far as this
text is concerned, C. shows a better and clearer distinction between the two senses of the
word dhtu.
17 8

> gati, T . hgro, C. *f|


_^
C. regard s t h is wh ole sen t en ce as a q u o t a t io n from SM S (cf. SM S 222 b:' ~\2 H ? ,

177)

5 E * ik ftl * m, 121 #H * m ft ffi * P g * "5T ftl'). Originally


t h is fo rm u la is a n e xp la n a t io n of samsra (cf. S N , I I , 178, 193, e t c . See N o t e V I I I
( VI I ) 242, o n anavargra).
I t is SMS which has inserted ' tathgatagarbham adhikrtya ' t o
t h is fam o u s fo rm u la for t h e first t im e in o rd er t o sh ow t h a t t h e tathgatagarbha is t h e
basis of samsra.
Cf. M Sbh ( P ) , p . 157 a. ( Q u o t a t io n is a p p a r e n t ly from S N ) .
178)
SM S 222 b, wh ere t wo o t h e r e p it h e t s a r e given of t h e tathgatagarbha wh ich

are mentioned in C. (Hfc # , #H $t &, ^

, j V ^

S |, V #

^ ,

ft

T0T |n l t _ C # ic > H \~E Vfl ^F %t, These four, viz. dharmadhtu garbha, dhar
makya g., lokottara[ dharma] g., and prakrtipariuddha[ dharma] g. are used in a later
passage (S. p . 76, 1. 16 ff.) as corresponding to 4 kinds of people. BGS mentions them

[ 291 ]

The statement ' The foundation of all the elements ' means as fol.
179
lows ':
" Therefore, 0 Lord, the Matrix of the Tathgata is the foundation
the support, and the substratum 1 8 0 ) of the immutable elements
(properties) 1 8 1 ) which are essentially connected with, indivisible
from [the Absolute Entity], and unreleased from Wisdom 182>.
[At the same time], this very Matrix of the Tathgata is also, 0
Lord, the foundation, the support, and the substratum of the [world
ly] elements th at are produced by causes and conditions, which
are by all means disconnected, differentiated [from the Absolute
183
Essence], and separated from Wisdom '.
4

The statement Owing to its existence, there is all the Phenomenal


Life ' means as follows 1 8 4 ) :
" Owing to the existence of the Matrix of the Tathgata, there is
Phenomenal Life, this, O Lord, is the proper saying on account
of the Phenomenal Life 185 '.
along

with tathgatagarbha as th e 5 meanings of garbha ('I t |Jgxj =J3$, 796 6).


P aram rth a makes use of this 5 fold meaning of garbha established in BG twice
in his translation of M S bhsya: once explaining ' dhtu ', i^e. in th e passage equivalent to
this Ratna. passage (MSbh (P ), 157 o), and another, explaining ' dharmadhtu ' (ibid.
264 b). Also, we have another modified application of this set of meanings to the explan
ation of ' svabhva ' of trisvabhva (parikalpita and others) in th e H sien~shih lun (JHf|
Hip? pjflj) translated by him. This theory is unique to those works translated by P ara
m rth a, and its originality seems to be due to P aram rth a himself.
179
> MS 222 6. Cf. M Sbh (P ) 157 a (Q. from MS).
180

> niraya, T. gnas, C. f$C ; dhra, T. gshi, C. *Jvf ; pratisth, T. rten, C. $

respectively.
have it .

j ,

C. has one more word ' f3* "J^f ' after ' frf ', but C. tr., of MS does not

181)
F or dharma, C. y)\ j fA (Buddha's Properties). C. adds acintya and some more
adjectives.
182)

amuktajna, T. bral mi es pa, C. 'Y* fljfl: ^


(not separated from jn a).
' asambaddha, vinirbhgadharma, muktajna, resp. These terms are used as
adjectives to samskrta dharmas in contrast with sambaddha, avinirbhgadharma, amukta
jna in case of asamskrda dharmas, i.e. buddhadharmas.
"*) MS 222 b. Cf. MSbh (P) 157 a (Q. from MS).
183

185) pjjg

rea

d i n g ' iti parikalpam asya vacanyiti ' is doubtful.

C. reads ' ;g ^

c HAL ' (this is called a good saying), which agrees with C. t r. of MS. T. reads for the
whole sentence ' de bshin gegs~pahi si^po mchis-na (tathgatagarbhe sati), de la hkhor
ba shes tshig gis gdags pa lags so (samsra iti vacanena asya prajaptam) '. On the other
hand, T. tr. of SMS says: * . . . mchis-na, hkhor-ba shes mchi-na ni, tshig de rigs-pa

[ 292 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

The statement ' There is also the acquisition of the N irvana ' is said
18 6 )
the following sen se :
" 0 Lord, if there were no Matrix of the Tathgata, there would
not take place aversion to Suffering, or arise desire, earnest wish,
or prayer for N irvana ". &c.
laes so ( .. . samsra iti yuktam etad vacanam). At least the Skt. reading should be cor
rected into ' iti parikalpitam... ', but parikalpitam probably means here ' prajaptam*
as given by T. But SMS shows better sense, so I read it according to SMS.
"> MS 222 b. Cf. M Sbh(P) 157 a (Q. from MS).

[ 293 ]

X.

TH E ESSEN TIAL CH ARACTERISTICS OF TH E MATRIX


OF TH E TATHAG ATA

1. The Saying: All Living Beings are Possessed of the M atrix of the
Tathgata is the H ighest Logical Truth.
Now, this M atrix of the Tathgata, being united wit h 1 } the Abso
lute Body, having the characteristics inseparable from Reality, and being
of the nature of the germ properly fixed [towards the attainm ent of the
2)
3
Buddhahood] , exists everywhere, at whatever time and without exception '
among the living beings, this is indeed to be perceived in the light of the
4)
5)
Absolute Essence as the [highest] logical groun d . I t is said :
" O noble youth, such is the essential nature of the elements 6 ) .
Whether the Tathgatas appear in this world, or whether they do
x)

avipralambha. The reading is not clear. I n comparison with two other epithets,
i.e. those relating to tathat and gotra which stand for trividhasvabhva along with dhar
makya, this word has to express an idea similar to ' parispharana '. T. reads this passage

as ' dharmakya( vat) vipulah ' and C, ' ^t

"SL #H Sv ffi ^

' (probably ' ^

2 ~ /7\I ' i connected with tathat and is a translation of asambhinna). We can get some
idea from T. reading, though it is probably caused by a misreading. C. ' fo^ J ^ L '
(atyanta) is also not the proper translation at all. On the other hand, M. W. records a
sense of ' disunion ' for vipralambha as taken from Wilson's vocabulary. If the reading
is correct the only meaning which can construe the sentence would be ' not disunited ',
i.e. ' united with '. (In this case, avipralabdha would be better th an avipralambha).
2

' niyatagotrasvabhva, T. espahi rigskyi rabshin, C. 3p? _5TL /^

[yp | ||_s.

s)

niravaesa yogena, T. khyad par med pahi tshul du, C. 5IT ^ J 3n* (' khyad par
med pa ' nirviesa.)
4)
dharmatm pramnkrtya, T. chos-id tshas-mar byas-nas, C.
means ' dharmat is pramna, i.e. only the truth is the authority for knowledge '.
B
> TG S 547 c.

> dharmnam dharmat, C. jlfc ? ft f f ffi @ f 4 1? ffi , TGS


[ 294 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga

7)

not , these living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of the
Tathgata ".
That which is meant by this i essential nature ' (dharmat) is here
synonymous for 8 ) the ' argument ' (yukti), th e mode of proof (yoga)
and the means [of cognition] (upya) 9 ) , in th e sense: such is th e real
10)
state of things and n ot otherwise . I n an y case only th e Absolute Es
sence is th e reso rt U ) for th e contemplation of the m in d 1 2 ) , only th e
Absolute Essence is the argument for the proper un derstan din g13 ' of

7)
utpdd v tathgatnm anutpdd v. This expression is quite popular since
the Pali Canon. F or instance, SN vol. 2, p . 25:

" jti paccay, bhikkhave, jarmaranam, uppd v tathgatnam anuppd v


tathgatnam, thit va s dhtu dhammatthitat dhammaniymat idappaccayat " .
In this example, the emphasis is on idappaccayat (Skt. idampratyayat = prattyasamutpda) as the eternal t ru t h {dhtu, fem. in P ali). I n a similar manner, this expression
is here used for emphasizing the garbha theory as the eternal t ru t h . BG S has a similar
quotation regarding it as from the Sandhinirmocanastra, saying:

g ? (812 a).
Actually, however, we have no equivalent passage in the present text of the Sand
hinirmocana, except for a reference to ' dharmadhtu sthitit ' being ' dharmat naya '
(iZ * pJp<j JtE3r 3 ^F,), where the phrase ' utpdd v tathgatnm anuntpdd v'' is used.
{de la debshingegspa rnams byu ya rujma byu ya run stejchos gnaspar byabahi phyir, chos-id dbyis gnas-pa-id ga-yin-pa de~ni chos-id-kyi rigs-pa yin-no)

(E. Lamotte's Ed. p. 258) ( f f i f H ,

=fg #H 3fc ^ & Ufc 5g ^ & Ufc ,

Also see Lank. p. 143, where the eternity of truth is called ' dharmadhtu sthitit '.
8)

paryya. Both T. & C. have no translation of this word. So I take it as a predicate.

9)

T . rigs pa,

sbyor ba

& thabs;

C. f S ^"H JtfE; V S j

iffi.

an d om .

yukti.

(' ii% *^a ' seems to be a repeated translation of dharmat).


10

* evam eva tat sytj anyath nava tat syt.

X1)

C. adds: ' i t is therefore acintya.

pratiarana, T. rtogs pa ( adhigama), C. fi\ (or j ^ ) . C. reads for ' dharmata va

pratiaranam, dharmata va yuktis ', ' \ j\ VS > tK. {/ .^P." r$C VA Im '
12
' cittanidhypana {nidhypana fr. ni V dhyai, to observe, meditate), T. sems
e-bar rtogs-pa, C. ^L^ _/,. This corresponds to pratiarana.
13)
citta-samjpana, T. sems ya-dag-par es pa (T. takes som in the sense of
somyafe ), C. ^Ij*{^" {citta pariuddha).
yukti.

T. gives the best sense. This corresponds to

[ 295 ]

J. TAKASAKI

the mind. This essence itself is not accessible to imagination nor to


14
discrimination. I t is accessible only to faith '.
2. The 4 Kinds of Individuals to Whom the F aith in this Essence is
15)
N ecessary .
The H ighest Truth of th e Buddhas 1 6 )
Can be understood only by faith,
Indeed, th e eyeless one cannot see
The blazing disk of th e su n 1 ". // 153 //
I n brief, there are four kinds of individuals who are defined as being
18
blin d ' with regard to the perception of th e M atrix of th e Tathgata.
Who are these four ? They are namely: 1) the ordinary beings; 2) the
rvakas; 3) the P ratyekabuddhas; and 4) the Bodhisattvas who have
recently entered the Vehicle 19 '. I t is said 2 0 ':
" O Lord, the Matrix of the Tathgata is not th e accessible sphere
for those who have fallen into th e erroneous conception maintaining
the existence of individuality21 ', for those who are attached to
delusion 22) , and for those whose mind has deviated from the
conception of N on substan tiality"2 3 '.
14

' Ace. to T. & C , the reading of this sentence is preferably corrected into the
following:
. . . na vikalpayitavy [kevalam tv\ adhimoktavyeti / .
(T. hbah shigtu, C. HJ ). C. om. cintayitavy.
15
' Cf. BG S 812 a if., where th e 4 kinds of people are connected with the 4 synonyms
for dharmakya, viz. dharmakya, tathgata, paramrthasatya and nirvana, respectively.
See VIII-(X). Cf. MSbh (P) 258 b-c. (Commenting of MSA verse quoted.)
16
' svayambh. T. reads paramrtha as th e subject (raddhya vnugantavyah para
mrthah svayambhuvm / ). C. reading is uncertain bu t reads paramrtha as a locative and
connects it with raddh (paramrthe raddh. . .) , and om . anugantavya. H ere th e
tran slation is ace. to T.

i"Cf.M S222:i|# n l'^ ; JE^ / fe -fc H H ^ J i H $&.


18)

acaksumat, C. ^ p |= | J\ .

(jtndha).

19

' navayna samprasthita, T. theg pa la gsar du shugs pa, C.


(nava bodhicitta).
20)
M S 222 a.
21)

satkyadrsti patita, T. hjig tshogs la Ita bar Ihu-ba, C. ^f

22

' viparysbhirata, T. phyin-ci-log-la

23

' nyat viksipta citta,

mon-par

T. stoA-pa-id-las

[ 296 ]

^/J 5f !j>3 ' u *

JrJ,

hdod-pa, C. i^

sems rnam-par gyes-pa, C.

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a

H ere, 4 those who have fallen into the erroneous conception mainta
ining the existence of in dividuality' are the ordinary beings. Indeed,
having fully24 ' adm itted 2 5 ' those elements classified into [5] groups and
others, which are possessed of Evil Influences 2 6 ) , as being the real Ego
and its belongings, they are clinging to the conception of 4 Ego ' and
4
Mine ' 2 7 > , and, due to this conception, they cannot believe even in the
Immaculate Essence which represents the annihilation of the [conception
of the] existence of real individuality28 '. Being so, how is it possible
for them to cognize the M atrix of the Tathgata which is the object
accessible only to the Omniscient ? There is [absolutely] no room
for it.
4
Now, those who are attached to delusion ' represent 2) the rva
kas and 3) the P ratyekabuddhas. Why ? Because, although the Matrix
of the Tathgata is to be considered as 4 et ern al' in its transcendental
sense 2 9) , they indulge in the contemplation of the 4 evanescence ' [of the
30)
4
phenomena ] instead of meditating upon the etern ity' of the former.
Likewise, although the M atrix of the Tathgata is to be considered as
' blissful' in its transcendental sense, still they indulge in the contempla
tion of the 4 suffering ' [of the phenomena] instead of meditating upon
the 4 bliss ' of the former. Although the M atrix of the Tathgata is to
be regarded as 4 the [highest] U nity ', they nevertheless cling to the prac
tice of meditation on the idea of 4 non Ego ' [of the separate elements]
instead of concentrating their mind on the notion of the U nity of the
former. And, though the Matrix of the Tathgata is to be considered
as 4 pure ' in the transcendental sense, they devote themselves to the
practice of meditation on the notion of the 4 impurity ' [of the Pheno
menal World] without doing meditation on 4 P u r it y' of the former. Thus,
24

' The reading should be atyantam (adv.), instead of atyanta

25

' upagamya, T. khas-blas-nas, C. .EJX


' C. om, ssrava. C seems to read ' atyantbhtarpdiskandhn dharmn '

in the text.

26

27

' ahamkra & mamakra, T. ar-hdsin-pa & a-yir hdsin-pa, C.

28)

satkya nirodha (as an adjective

to ansravadhtu),

T. hjig tshogs hgag pa,

C P3p: ==r J^L ^f f v$(t ftp (nirodhasatya represented by the removal of satkyadrsti,

etc.). For ansravadhtu, C. ffPj i ^ fffc, and adds ' "p ^g. ^_ ^ ' (amrta dharma).
29)

uttari bhvayitavya, T. bsgom par bya ba, C. J ^ j ^ \ ~$ (T. & C. om. uttari),
' uttari' as a preceding part of a compound has a sense of ' further, beyon d', etc. (BH S
Die. s. v.). So it seems not to have so important sense in this compound.
80
' C. inserts sarvadharmesu. The sense is th at those people know only about ani
tyat of sarvadharma, but cannot notice nityatva of tathgata behind the phenomena.

[ 297 ]

in such a way, all the rvakas and P ratyekabuddhas are attached to


the P ath which is quite opposite 31 ' to the realization of the Absolute
Body, and hence the Essence [of the Tathgata] which is characterized
as the Supreme Eternity, the Supreme Bliss, the Supreme U nity, and the
Supreme P urity, is said not to be accessible to them, too.
About 32) this inaccessibility of the Essence to those who are attached
to delusion, i.e. who have the notion of Evenescence, Suffering, Imperso
nality and I m purity [as the almighty maximum], the Lord has made
331
it clear
in detail in the Mahparinirvnastra with the example
of a jewel in the water of a pond. I t runs as follows 3 4 ) :
" Suppose, for instance, 0 monks, th at in the hot season, the people,
35
putting on the bathing underwear ', were playing in the water with
36
various ornaments and equipments for their individual pastim e '.
37
38
Suppose then, someone would cast ' into the water the gen uin e '
Vaidrya stone. Thus, in order to get this Vaidrya stone, all the
people, leaving aside their ornaments, would dive into the water.
They would mistake pebbles and gravels in the pond for the real
jewel, seize them and draw them out, thinking: I have got a
jewel. After having stood 39 ' on the bank of the pond, they would
notice: I t is not the real jewel at all! At th at moment, the water
of t h at pond would, owing to the power of th at jewel, shine
as if water itself were shining, and seeing th at water sparkling,
they would say: O the jewel is still there [in the water], and
would notice how th at jewel had great quality 4 0 ) . Thereafter, one
who is experienced and clever would really get the jewel out.
In the same way, 0 brethren, ye who are ignorant of the real
31

32

' vidhura, T. . . . da hgal-ba. C. has no literal translation.


' Better to change the paragraph after ' yath ca sa viparysa . . . (S. p . 74, 1. 19).

33)

prasdhita,

34

MPS 377c 378a.


salila bandhana, T. khrus ras (bath cloth), C. om. This compound word seems
not been recorded anywhere else.
svaih svaih mandanakopabhogair. T. ra-ra-gi rgyan da e-bar spyod-pa

>
35
'
to have
36
'

T . rab tu

bsgrubs, C. M/^J .

dag-gis, C. )ffo ^ i 7Jp $j} ^|) (playing bathing and boating). The concrete idea is
uncertain. T. reads * mandanaka (= alakra) and upabhoga (any equipment for pastime) '.
H ere I followed T. reading.
37
' sthpayati, T. gshag pa. But C. y^_ (has lost by mistake).
38)

jtya, T. rigs da Idan-pa, C. (jlT.).


' T. reads as ' drstv ' instead of sthitv. But S. shows a clearer sense.
40
' C. om. ' aho manir iti guna-samj pravartate ' and instead has ' just as one
sees the moon in the sky '.
39

[ 298 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga
41)

essence of things , maintaining th e general conception th at all


things are evanescent, th at there is only suffering, and th at everyth
ing is impersonal and impure, practise th e meditation [on th at
conception] repeatedly, and increasingly. But all th at was attemp
ted 4 2 ) by you, [ye should keep in mind], is [in reality] of no use.
Therefore, O monks, ye should become skilful in order not to be
determined by this [false conception] like th e pebbles and gravels
in th e pond. O monks, with those elements which ye maintain
to be in every case evanescent, suffering, impersonal, and impure,
and on which ye practise th e meditation [on th at notion] repeatedly
and increasingly43) , there exists [an essence which represents]
the Eternity, th e Bliss, the P u rit y 4 4 ) , and th e H ighest U n it y".
Thus should be understood in detail, according to th e Scripture, th e
teaching of th e incorrectness with regard to th e feature of the highest
true nature of th e elements.
Lastly, i those whose mind has deviated from th e conception of N on
substantiality ' denotes 4) the Bodhisattvas who have recently entered
45)
the Vehicle, [since] they are deprived of [the cognition of] th e Matrix
46)
of the Tathgata in regard to the true meaning of N on substantiality .
They are the people who look toward N on substantiality as the medium of
Liberation 47) in order to destroy th e substan ce 4 8 ) , thinking th at the
perfect N irvana means th e Extinction, i.e. th e destruction of th e elements
[for the Phenomenal Existence] in future 4 9 ) . There are also some people
41

' dharmatattva.

T . , a s if ' dharmrthatattva

\ C. J l ^ . }=% ( a p p a r e n t l y o m .

42)

ghatita, T. e-bar gshags-pa ( = upasthita), C. jy\


by practice).
43)
C. om. this repetition.
44
' ' obha ' in the text is a misprint for ' ubha '.

[eg p | (being accumulated

45)

vipranasta,

46)

tathgatagarbha nyatrthanaya, T. sto-pa-id-kyi

T . ams-pa

dharma),

(disappeared), C. ?$.
tshul-du (unyat nayena,

om. artha) as adverbial use and reads ' tathgatagarbhatah vipranasth',

C. ~xL. i\ U ^N

$g\ ||= ; (nyat tathgatagarbhrtha, the meaning that tathgatagarbha is nyata). What
is m e a n t h e r e is t h a t t h e garbha t h e o r y r e p r e se n t s t h e r e a l m e a n i n g of nyat.
47)

vimoksa mukha,
3 vimoksamuhhas.
48)

C o gn it io n of N o n su b st a n t i a li t y is o n e of t h e

bhva vinya, C. J il 5 ^ I B J | ^B? ' S U S ^ ' (things changeable)

is fo r bhva.
49)
uttaraklam,
nirvana'.

C . / *pp ftfc \ J .

T . dus phyis.

C . r e a d s ' after d e st r o yin g exist en c e, o n e c a n ge t

T h is c o n c e p t io n a m o u n t s t o t h e n ih ilist ic view.

[ 299 ]

Cf. B G S ^ [ 3Jw

J . TAKASAKI
4

among them who think th at there is something substantial called the


N on substantiality' which is quite different from ' fo r m ' and other
[elements], and t h at is the one which we should understand, upon which
we should meditate, and, fancying50) N on substantiality in this way,
51)
they are persuaded of
N on substantiality.
3

The True Conception of the Matrix of the Tathgata as Representing


N on substantiality 5 2 ) .

Then how is what is called here i [the cognition of] the Matrix of
the Tathgata in regard to the true meaning of N on substantiality' ?
H ere there is nothing to be removed
And absolutely nothing to be added;
The Truth should be perceived as it is,
And he who sees the Truth becomes liberated
60)
51)

upalambha,
T . dmigs pa, C . 'fT f.
pratisarati, T. brten pa, C. om. Cf. BH S D ie, s. v.

53)

. // 154 //

This conception represents

the eternalistc view. Cf. BG ^


^ f.
52)
The following is actually a part of the explanation on ' nyatvikasiptacitta '.
Cf. BG 812 b.
53)
This is one of the most famous verses in M ahyanistic literature. Besides this
occurrence in the Ratna., there are 9 occurrences of this verse recorded in Melanges
chinois et bouddhiques, 1. 394. They are:
1) Tibetan version of Prattyasamutpdahrdayakrik, v. 7, by N grjuna
(Ace. to Prof. V. V. G okhale's report, however, the original Skt text, has merely 5 kriks,
and hence the authorship of N grjuna for this verse is doubtful. See V. V. G okhale,
Der Sanskrit Text von Ngrjuna's Prattyasamutpdahrdayakrik, Studia Indologica,
F estschrift fur Willibald Kirfel, Bonn, 1955, S. 101 ff.);
2) Nma samglti (Tib.) 6 5, attributed to N grjuna;
3) Sumagala-visrani of Buddhaghosa (in Pali), part I, 12. (a similar idea attri
buted to the Buddha;
4) Saundaranandakvya of Avaghosa, XI I I , 44;
5) Abhisamaylakra, V, 21, which has a little difference in b. (prakseptavyam
na kimcana);
6) uklavidaran (Bendall Mss.);
7) Bodhisattva bhmi, Wogihara's ed. p. 48. (not in verse);
8) Madhyntavibhga vykhy by Sthiramati (as a quotation, it is identical with
th at in the Abhisamaylakra);
9) Mahyna raddhotpda, Suzuki's tr., p . 57 (not in verse).
We now can add one example to this list. BGS mentions this verse along with v. 155
as a quotation (812 b), saying:

[ 300 ]

The

R a t n a got r a v ib h ga
54)

The Essence [of the Buddha] is [by nature] devoid


Of the accidental [pollutions] which differ from it;
But it is by no means devoid of the highest properties
Which are, essentially, indivisible from it. // 155 //
What is explained by this ? There is no defiling element 5 5 ) which
is to be removed from this Essence of the Tathgata, perfectly purified
by nature, since it is by nature devoid of accidental pollutions. Also,
there is no purifying element which is to be added to it, since it is by na
56)
ture indivisible from the pure properties [of the Buddha] . On ac
57)
count of this point, it is said [in the Scripture] :
" The Matrix of the Tathgata is devoid of all the sheath of De
filements which are differentiated and separated [from the Abso
lute Essence]. The Matrix of the Tathgata is by no means de
void of the Buddha's Properties which are indivisible, inseparable
[from the Absolute Essence], inconceivable and far beyond the
sands of the Gag in number ".
Thus, wherever something is lacking, this is observed 58 ' as 'vo id' (nya)
in th at place (tend), whatever remains there, one knows th at this being
must exist here 5 9 ) : This is really the true [conception of N on substanti
This is no doubt a quotation from the Ratna. and shows a closer translation of
the original th an C. tr. of the same in the Ratna.
In the case of such a verse of widely applicable idea, there was probably a custom
in those days to borrow the same expression without permission or mention of the source
in order to express one's own idea freely, and hence it is not necessary to regard this
v. 154 as a quotation from any particular source. The originality of the Ratna. on account
of this verse lies in its application to the explanation of ' garbhanyatarthanaya '
shown in the second verse (v. 155). As for the second verse, cf. DAS 813 6 (v. 14).
B4)

nya, T. sto, C. 33* . This is an original sense of the term nya. See below.
' samkleanimitta, T. kunnas onmospahi rgyumtshan, C. simply ' klea '.
56)
T. inserts dharmat after suddhadharma.
55

B7

> M S 2 2 1 c.

58)

sam anupayati, T. ya-dag-par rjes-su mtho(-ba), C. %\\ ^^_ Jrfj 7U


sam- = samyak.
69
' yad yatra nsti tat tena nyam iti samanupayati j yat punar atrvaistam
bhavati tat sad ihst ti yathbhtam prajnti I. T. gashig gana medpa deni
des sto~o . . . gashig lhagpar gyurpa deni dela rtagpar yoddo. (For sad, T.

reads * ,te'). C *U Jg JJl M ^ S t i . iX i*J ^ |K $. 4ll &. * *


f

P I i

M N

[ 301 ]

'

104

> etc

(Suata-vagga,

J. TAK.ASAKI
60)

ality] . [Thus], by removing th e extremities of affirmation and nega


tion 6 1 ) , th e real 6 2 ) characteristic of N on substantiality is explained b ir
these two verses.
Now, those individuals whose mind has deviated from this principle
63)
of N on substantiality, and, turning in various directions , neither me
64)
4
ditates nor concentrates upon it, we call them by this very reason those
whose mind has deviated from [the true conception of] N on substantiality.
65)
Indeed, without th e introduction
to the knowledge of the highest truth
of N on substantiality, nobody can attain or realize 6 6 ) the non discrimi
67)
native Sphere
[of the Tathgata]. Implying this point, it has been
68)
said :
44

The Wisdom cognizing th e Matrix of th e Tathgata is nothing


but the Wisdom about N on substantiality of th e Buddhas. And
lasuatasutta)
yam hi kho tattha na hoti, tena tarn suam samanupassati;
yam pana tattha avasittham hoti, tarn santam idam atthti pajnti.
There are two kinds of usages of the term ' nya' : 1) ' A is nya of B '
(B with instrum ental case ending), as in the case of ' nyo dhtuh '; 2) ' B is nya
(in A) ' (A with locative case ending, sometimes in BH S with instrumental), as used in
the aphorism mentioned above. The first usage is also observed in the same P ali canon
(migramtu psdo suo hatthi-gavssavalavena
. . . , i n t h e preceding illustration),
where t h e t e r m ' nya'
(sua) is t o be t r a n s l a t e d into ' e m p t y of', ' v o i d of', or
* devoid o f ' . I n t h e second usage, ' nya ' is syn o n ym o u s wit h ' na asti' (na hoti),
a b se n t , a n d t h is u sa ge r ela t es t o t h e ftieaning of ' nya ' i n B u d d h i st d o c t r in e as a p
p e a r in g i n t h e st a t e m e n t : nyam sarvam '. See N o t e XI 14. Cf. B B h , p . 48.
60)
I n t h e t r a n sla t i o n , ' true ' r e p r e se n t s b o t h , ' sam ' of samanupayati
a n d ' yath
bhtam ' .
61)

samropa & apavda, T . sgro hgod pa


& skur pa hdebs pa, C . ^ 2 | Tflv, r e s "
pectively.
62
' The reading ' aparyantam ' is to be corrected into ' aviparyastam ' according
t o T . (phyinci malogpa) a n d C . (jjt\ \ fS^,
yathbhtam).
63)
visarati, T. rnam par hphrol (hphrol fr. bral ba, to separate).
' cittatn viksipyate visarati',
>,

nayd,

t-tr.

* j ^ p 3 Jf yf''
(buddhagocaravisayd).
ekgri bhavati, T. rtse-gcig-tu . . . hgyur-ba, C.

* T. om.

66)

67)

skst\ jkr,

nyatrtha-

B3

64)

86

C , instead of

simply ' / \ * ^| j fjfgi ' (ayogyam), and for

* ^U*.

It signifies cittaikgrat

mukha.
T . mon-par

avikalpa dhtu,
for dhtu, dbyis.
68
> M S 221 c.

hdu-bya-ba

( abhisamayati,

abhisameti),

C. ^ W 7J # ' J *^x V T T . in se r t s uddha

[ 302 ]

C. Jrj .

b e t we e n t wo a n d

The

R at n a got r avib h ga

this Matrix of the Tathgata has never been seen, has never been
69)
realized by the rvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas
" &c.
, this Matrix of the Tathgata, inasmuch as it represents the
Matrix of the Absolute Essence, is said to be a sphere not accessible to
4 those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the
existence of individuality ', because the Absolute Essence is an antidote
70)
against such erroneous conception . Inasmuch as it represents the Ma
trix of the Absolute Body, or the Matrix of the Transcendental Element,
it is said not to be accessible to ' those who are attached to delusion ',
since the Transcendental Element is spoken of as being an antidote aga
inst the mundane elements of such nature as evanescence, etc. [F urther
more], inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the properties, perfectly
pure by nature, [the Matrix of the Tathgata] is said not to be accessible
to ' those whose mind has deviated from N on substantiality ', since the
71)
[Buddha's] pure virtuous Properties , being represented by the Trans
cendental Absolute Body which is indivisible from them, are by nature
devoid of accidental pollutions.
H ere, to perceive th at the Transcendental Absolute Body is perfectly
72)
pure by nature, by means of the cognition of the un ique introduction
to the Wisdom which is essentially connected with the Absolute Essence,
implies here the True I n tuition 7 3 ) . On account of this perception, it is
said that [even] those Bodhisattvas who are abiding in their 10 Stages
69

' C. adds a few sentences more which are not available in the present SMS
except for the passage ' only the Buddha can obtain it ' and are probably an insertion
by the translator.
70
* H ereafter, the commentator tries to combine the 4 meanings of tathgatagarbha
mentioned in SMS (see N ote IX 178) with the 4 kinds of people to whom the former 4
have the power of being pratipaksa, respectively:
1)
2)
3)
4)

dharmadhtugarbha is not accessible to satkyadrstipatith;


dharmakya[garbha], and
lokottaradharmagarbha are not accessible to viparysbhirath;
prakrtipariuddhadharmagarbha is not accessible to
nyatviksiptacitth.

For 1) dharmadhtu, T. as ' dharmakya '; in 3) T. & C. om. dharma; in 4), instead
of prakrti, T. as dharmakya, and C. adds nya, tathgata, dharmadhtu in place of dharma.
But S. is identical with those mentioned in SMS. See note IX 178
71

' guna dharmh, T. yon tan gyi chos, C. Mj ^ ^

72)

ekanaya,

73)

yathbhta darana.

T . tshul

gcig po,

into ' jnena samdaranam '.


object of darana.

C. "

}f/^.

* H^C ^ = f H^C (ekarasa

T. adds ' samyak'' before it.

samarasa).

T. resolves ' jnadarana '

C. $ 0 *J=^ j,\\ Jj^, and adds ' J L 3(Q ' (tathat) as the

[ 303 ]

J. TAKASAKI

can [but] slightly understand the Matrix of the T ath gata 7 4 ) . Indeed
thus it is said 7 5 ) :
[ 0 Lord], thou art unable to be seen fully,
76)
Just as here the sun, in the sky with torn clouds ,
Even by the Saints, of pure intellectual vision,
Since their intellect is still partial;
O Lord, only those whose Wisdom is illimitable
Can completely perceive th y Absolute Body
Which pervades everything knowable
That is infinite like space "7 7 ) .
74)

C. regards this sentence as a quotation from some Stra. Cf. MPS 41 a.


C. regards this verse as a commentary verse and adds one verse in the middle
showing the sense th at rvaka cannot see the Buddha. The source of this quotation is
unknown.
75)

76)

chidrbhra, T . sprin-mthon,
C. ^I|j[ - 3 ^ ( t h i n cloud). T . ' m t / i o n ' is t o b e c h a n g e d
i n t o mthos', w h i c h m e a n s ' a n o p e n s p a c e i n a d e n s e f o r e s t ' , h e n c e d e r i v a t i v e l y ,
4
slit, s m a l l hole ' , e t c .
77)

nabhas-tala. For tala, T. dbyis (dhtu). C. Jjut E f r t n e whole. T. seems to


have failed to catch the meaning of this verse by omitting one pronoun ' te ' in the third
Pada.

[ 304 ]

XI .

TH E P U RP OSE OF IN STRU C TION 1 '

[Someone may ask]: If this Essence [of the Buddha] is thus so


difficult to be cognized inasmuch as it is not fully accessible even to
the Saints of the H ighest rank who are abiding on the Stage characterized
as being completely free from an y at t ach m en t 2 ) , then what is the use
of this instruction to the ignorant and ordinary beings ? [For replying
to this question], we have two lokas summarizing the purpose of instru
ction 3 '. [Of them], one is the question, and the second is the answer 4 ) .
(Kriks 58 59)
I t has been said here and there [in the Scriptures]
That all things are to be known everywhere
4
5)
As being u n real', like clouds, [visions in] a dream, and illusions ;
Whereas, why has the Buddha declared here
That the Essence of the Buddha 6 ) 4 exists ' in every living being ?
/ / 156/ /
There are 5 defects [caused by the previous teaching]:
7)
8)
The depressed mind , contempt against those who are inferior ,
9
10
Clinging to things u n real ', speaking ill of T r u t h ',
1}

C. ^

2)

C . a d d s: ' i t is accessible o n ly t o sarvaja

| tft pp H !

t.

Cf. BG 787 a b (Nidna parivarta), 8116.


'.
rSf,

3)

/zrt

r*

Aft,

dean prayojana,
T . bstan pahi dgos pa, C . {Jftfy I ^ J 5JS; R7L).
vykarana ( e xp la n a t io n ) , T . lam bstan pa, C . o m .
6
' Especially in the Prajpramit, which is at the same time the basic scripture
of the M dhyamikas. Cf. MK, VI I , 35:
yath my yath svapno gandharva nagaram yath /
tathotpdas tath sthnam tath bhaga udhrtam / / .
4)

6)

buddha dhtu, T. sas-rgyas si-po ( = buddhagarbha), C. jfP ^

f^.

' linam cittam, T. sems shum, C. |2^ IpJ ^L*. See v. 161.
8
' h nasattvesv avaj, T. sems can dman la bsas-pa, C. jOj* *[ |ffj| ^pC 'ffi .
See v. 162.
' abhtagrha, T. ya-dag mi-hdsin (bhta agraha), C. igpj, ^ ^ jif 3 c V2* See
v. 163.
10)

bhtadharmpavda, T. ya-dag chos-la skur, C. g Jp J\\ mt


gards this bhtadharma as tathat or buddhadhtu. See v. 165 a b.

[ 305 ]

|_E (C re-

J. TAKASAKI
X1

And besides \ affection for one's self*'.


[The teaching about Essence of th e Buddha] has been taugh t
12)
In order t h a t those who are possessed of these defects
Might get rid of their defects. // 157 //
The meaning of these two lokas is briefly to be known by th e follow
ing ten verses.
I t has been said [in th e Scriptures]
All kinds of phenomena, made by causes an d conditions
And known in the forms of D efilement, Action and Result 13>
Are, like clouds, etc., deprived of realit y 1 4 ) . // 158 //
The D efilements are like th e clouds,
U ndertaking of Act ion s1 5 ) is like th e en jo ym en t 1 6 ) in a dream;
Being th e Results made by D efilements an d Actions,
The G roup of elements are like illusions made by m agic 1 7 ) . // 159 //
So has it been ascertained 4 before ' ;
But now, in this ' u l t i m a t e ' D o ct rin e 1 8 ) ,
llj

adhikah, T. lhag pa (which is connected to ' sneha ').

12)

tmasneha, T. bgag cag, C. g y Mf ^% }Jp 5X ( = tmadrsti, bu t it is not the


case here). See v. 165 c d. Of these 5, BGS gives t h e following terms:

5) $ci*L.
13)

klea karma vipka. ' vipka ' stands for janman or duhkha. These three are the
principal factors of samsra or samskrtadharmas. See N ote VIII 132. Also see vv. I,
56 ff., where vipka'* is replaced by skandha dhtv yatana.
14)
viviktam bhtakotisu. C. ) fi 3 c f r the whole. T. dben-pa (solitary) for vivikta,
and regards bhtakoti as th e subject and reads ' bhtakoti (the reality) is apart from sam
skrtam '. F rom th e context, C. reading seems better, since ' bhtakotisu viviktam ' here
stands for nyam in th e Krik (usually vivikta is used for denoting purity of moksa
or nirvana, in t h e sense ' separation from kleas,). As for t h e use of bhtakoti in the
plural, I could n ot trace it anywhere else.
15)

krtyakriy, T. bya ba yi las, C. fffi f^

16)

C. o m .

17>

my nirmita,

18)

uttara tantra, T . bla mahi

^ .

upabhoga.
T . sgyu ma

spral ba,

C . 2 J ( o m . nirmita).

rgyud, C . Jx, J ^ L pfflj . T h i s is t h e wo r d wh ic h gives

t h is wo r k i t s t it le . H e r e t h e t e r m ' tantra ' (for wh ic h C . pjflj = stra) h a s n o t h i n g t o d o


with Tantric Buddhism. The meaning is simply ' doctrine ' or ' philosophy '. Signifi
cance lies more in the word ' uttara' th an in ' tantra \ since by the term ' uttara', the author
of the Ratna. declared his aim and the position of this theory in th e currency of Buddhist
philosophy. I n one sense, this theory is opposite to t h at of ' prva', by which is
m ean t here clearly th e doctrine of t h e Prajpramit and of th e Mlamadhyamaka,
[ 306 ]

The

R a t n a got r av ib h ga

In order to remove the 5 defects [caused by the previous teaching],


I t is shown th at the Essence of the Buddh a 1 9 ) exists.
/ / 160/ /
Indeed, if [the people] have not heard of this teaching,
Some of them, being possessed of depressed 20) mind,
May have a fault of self depreciation 21', and hence,
The Will towards the Enlightenment does never arise in them.
// 161 //
22
Even if someone has resolved towards Enlightenm ent ',
Then he, being proud of it, saying: I am superior to [others],
Will produce the notion of inferiority for those
Whose mind is not aroused towards Enlightenment. // 162 //
With him who thinks like t h a t 2 3 ' ,
The true knowledge will never arise, and hence,
He clings to unreal things [as if they were real]
And does not cognize the true meaning. // 163 //
[I n deed] 2 4 ) , the defects of living beings are unreal
25)
Because they are non genuine and accidental
since the ' former ' one emphasizes ' nyat \ i.e. unreality of things, while this ' latter *
one emphasizes ' astitva ' of buddhadhtu. In another sense, however, this doctrine is not
against the former, but a real successor of the former, as being the ' answer 'giver to the
problem which has never been explained ' before '; in other words, as we had already
known by previous passages, this ' buddhadhtvastivda' is a synthetic nyavda of
nya and anya, and hence it is the ' ultimate '. T. ' hla ma"1 shows this sense.
19)

dhtu, T. khams, C. J | jflj


explanation of buddhakyatraya).
20

> nlca, T. shum pa, C. ff^ ^

ft

F or these 3 verses, cf. BG 811 b (after the


^

= Una.

21

' tmvajna, T. bdag~ la bras-pa, C. J|p | y =Ej*. This self-depreciation is the


first defect, and towards those people having this defect, BGS says, the Buddha has
taught tathgatagarbha '' asti '.
22)
F or ' bodhicittodaye 'py asya\ T. reads as ' bodhicittdaye yasya ' and relates
this ' yasya ' to ' tasya' of the next verse. But in relation to the preceding verse, the word
api ' is quite necessary, while ' tasya ' of the next verse can stand for that which is described in this v. 162 without any relative pronoun.
This ' self-pride ' is the second defect (lack of the notion of ' equality'), for removing
it, it is taught that ' sarva '' sattvh tathgatagarbhh'' (BG S).
23)

C. ^H ; H H t H A . (such a man of self pride). In this 3rd defect, emphasis


lies on the ignorance about tathgatagarbha, which causes the affection toward the unreal
thing.
24
' This verse expresses the true meaning (bhtrtha). T. as S. but C. puts the word
'** 7l-I' (does not know) and regards this verse as explaining the 4th defect.
25
' krtrima, T. bcos-ma, C. om. For these two, i.e. krtrimatva & gantukatva, BG S:

[ 307

J. TAKASAKI

But th e nonsubstantiality26) of such defects is real,


That is, th e virtues [of living beings], pure by n ature.
// 164 //
If a man of intelligence 2 7 ) perceives [only]
That th e defects [of living beings] are unreal,
And depreciates [their] virtues which are real,
H e cannot obtain benevolence 28) by which
One regards [other] living beings as equal to oneself. // 165 //
29)
On th e contrary , if one hears of this teaching,
30
There arises in him great exertion ',
31)
Respect [for all living beings] as for th e Teacher ,
321
33
Intuition, Wisdom , and great Benevolence ';
These 5 properties having become originated, // 166 //
H e, being free from [self ] depreciation 3 4 ) ,
Obtaining equal regard [for every body],
26)

nairtmya, T . bdag med pa.


' guna ' b e in g o p p o sit e t o dosa, m e a n s t h e ' e m p
t in e ss ' of dosa, a n d t h is is r e a l.
27)
dhmat, which represents ' navaynasamprasthita bodhisattva
'. H e is in t e llige n t
b e c a u se h e c a n p e r c e ive ' dosbhtatva ', b u t t h is kn o wle d ge is m e r e ly o n e sid e of t h e t r u e
kn o wle d ge . C o n se q u e n t ly, h e m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e is n o t h i n g r e a l, a n d h e n c e t h is c o n c e p t io n
is nothing but the ' depreciation of reality '. This 4th defect seems to be the most im portan t
among the 5. I t clearly implies the defect caused by certain Mdhyamikas whose position
gave rise to the appellation of ' nstika ' for Buddhists.
28

' maitr , T. byams pa, C. J . The lack of maitr , which is the 5th defect, is the
n atural consequence of th e 4th defect.
29)
H ereafter, referring to the 5 gunas which are the antidotes for the respective
5 dosas. About the 5 gunas, cf. AS 469 b c.
3

> protsaha, T. spro, C ^

j ] (BG ] E jfj >\ j*) . . .(1)

31

> str gaurava, T. ston pa bshin gus, C. $Ht $ & 1fr ^

T. catches the meaning better.

Hfc B^f ^

4 ^

J | ^

(BG $j$ 1 ^ 4 J | )

. (2)

But the best explanation is given in AS, which runs:

^ C ffi ^

(having aroused the mind of respect

towards living beings, he produces strgaurava.


32)
praj (3) & jna (4). C. " ^ & ^IE* 0 n a n opposite order). H ere ' praj '
represents 'prajpramit'' of the Mdhyamika or iavikalpajna'' of the Vijnavda,
and its function is said to be the intuition of ' nyam sarvam ', while ' jna ', repre
senting ' tatprsthalabha-jna ' being laukika jna, has a function of ' manifesting the

reality (BG ft ffl #& % ffi IS I f %


33)

maitrl (5) = mahkarun (C. ^ ^ , BGS y C f|2>). Manifestation of the reality


is for the sake of living beings, t h at is to say, because of ' mahkarun ', hence BGS
interprets t h at praj and mahkarun (instead of mentioning of jna) are the two
upyas by means of which one can attain the state of apratisthitanirvna.
34)

For niravajya, C. <\ * 3J3 f ? (avivarta).

[ 308 ]

The

R at n agot r avib h ga

Being devoid of defects and possessed of virtues,


H aving love, equally for himself and for living beings 3 5 ) ,
36)
Attains the State of Buddh a
at an early date. // 167 //
Finished is the first Chapter entitled ' the Matrix of the Tathgata '
in the AN ALYSIS OF TH E G ERM OF TH E JE WE LS, a Treatise on
the U ltimate D octrine of the G reat Vehicle, with the commentary
[named] ' t h e Summary of Meaning of the lokas '' 37) '.
6

' F o r tmasattvasamasneha,
C. J\ l " %)] ^ < f f(\ \ ^ C ^
all livin g bein gs as n o t be in g differen t fro m h im self) .
36)

buddhat

( = buddhatva,

bodhi),

T . sas-rgyas-id,

(anuttarabuddhabodhi). Cf. BG ^

?!? J ^ ( r e ga r d in g

C. 38v _ t

\yft ^jjff

J(

J ; , AS ^ K A W f ^ S t ^ t i (bodhi

sattva c a n e n t e r t h e avivarta st a t e ) .
37)
lokrthasamgraha vykhynatah.
T . o m . t h e a b la t ive c a se en d in g. C. h a s n o
e q u iva le n t t e r m . ' lokrthasamgraha vykhyna
' seem s t o b e t h e n a m e for t h e c o m
m e n t a r y, wh ile ' loka ' st a n d s for t h e ba sic K r i k s.

[ 309 3

C H AP T E R I I .

THE ENLIGHTENMENT i>


2. NIB.MAL TATHAT
XI I .

G EN ERAL CH ARACTERISTICS OF T H E REALITY F R E E


FROM POLLU TION S

We have finished th e explanation of 4 th e Reality mingled with Pol


lutions '. H ereafter, we shall speak of th e undefiled Reality. N ow,
what is this ' Reality free from Pollutions ' ? I t is th at which is called
' the Perfect Manifestation of th e Basis (i.e. th e Germ of the Buddha) '
(rayaparivrtti), since, in the Immaculate Sphere of the Buddhas, [this
Reality] is [absolutely] freed from all kinds of pollutions21 . And this
undefiled Reality is to be known in brief in th e reference to th e 8 cate
gories3' [which show its characteristics]. Then which are th e 8 categories ?
[The
The
The
And

Buddhahood 4 ) is] th e purity 5 ) , th e attainm ent 6 ) ,


7)
liberation [from obstructions] ,
8)
action in behalf of oneself and others ,
th e foundation 9 ) of these two kinds of actions ;
F

11

Cf. AS Chapter III (Bodhi-panvarta), 470 c-473 c.

> AS 470c: f| ft gft ] 81 ft $ M # tfl W 7}t ft $ |1$

t,* rfeoj n o \ / T%
ifc i / i
<S5 H T r/ J 1&" (' TW H v ' fr ' rayaparivrtti ' ) .
3)
F or ipadrtha\ T. simply ' don ' (artha).
4)
T h e wh o le of t h is ve r se se e m s t o b e m e r e ly a r o w of t e c h n i c a l t e r m s. H o we ve r ,
as all those terms, uddhi and so forth, show the various aspects of ' buddhatva ', the term
Buddhahood may be suplied here as the subject term .
6

uddhi, T. dag, C. }? . . . (1).

6)

prpti, T. thob, C. ^ T f. . . (2).

7)

visamyoga, T. bral-ba, C. j j ^

8)

svaparrtha, T. ra-gshan-don, C. {= "fty, ^ I J . . . (4).


(tad-) raya, T. (de )brten, C. ft i L (5) C. adds ' ^

9)

This reminds us of the ' jnpti'

in v. I, 3.

. . . (3).

[ 310 ]

] | S ' (yoga) before

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a

Being profoun d 10) , magnificent and magnanimous,


I t [manifests itself] as long as the world exists,
In a manner as it is U ) . // 1 / / .
12)

Thus, by this verse , these 8 subjects are indicated according to


order; namely: 1) the own n ature (svabhva); 2) the cause (hetu); 3) the
result (phala); 4) the function (karman); 5) the union (yoga); 6) the mani
festation (vrtti); 7) the eternal (nitya), and 8) the inconceivable (acintya)
character [of Manifestation] 1 3 ) .
1) F irst of all the Essence [of the
by the Lord

Buddhahood], which is called

the M atrix of the Tathgata ' when it is unreleased from

the sheath of defilements, is to be understood, when it is ' perfectly purifi


raya. The term ' /f*p J ^ ' has probably no ground in the Ms. used for C. translation.
But in th e commentary, C. regards it as th e term indicating th e fifth subject, and reads
' r$C | 1 , ' i n connection with t h e next subject.
10)
The reading should be ' gmbhlrya ' instead of ' gambh rya ' in th e text, and
is to be written without separation from th e succeeding ' audrya ' (gmbh ryaudrya ).
For this 6th category, S. gmbh ryaudryamhtmya, T . zab da rgyache da bdagid

chen-po, C. Sctfc;k...<6). Cf. AS 472 c, 1) # gg fit Q !; 2) J|j ; $ t * I ;


3) H f l S t 31 BG 811 a, 1) # gg; 2) Jg| ^ , 3) ffl # ;
n )

F or these two categories, S. yvad kalam, yath ca tat; T. ji srid dus,

C #H ^L 0 T ^

ji-lta-id;

lf| in the Krik text, and ffif ||j( ^H $L 7 ^ in the commentary.

(The latter matches S. better). T. om. ' ta t\ These two subjects have the same characters
as ' yvadbhvikat ' and ' yathvadbhvikat ' used in th e characterization of th e Jewel
of th e Community (IV 1).
12)
I t is q u it e d o u bt fu l wh e t h e r t h is verse belon gs t o t h e K r ik t e xt , t h o u gh C.
in cludes i t wit h in t h e K r ik t e xt . O n e reaso n is t h a t t h is verse is m er ely a r o w of c e r t a in
t e r m s a n d does n o t m a k e a sen t en c e b y itself. Su c h is n o t t h e case wit h K rik verses
wh ich we h a ve picked u p i n C h a p . I , a n d also wi t h o u t t h is verse, we c a n u n d e r st a n d
t h e id ea expressed i n t h is C h a p . I I . An o t h e r reaso n is t h a t t h ese t erm in o lo gies a r e n o t
utilized i n t h e followin g K r ik s a t a ll. Wi t h t h e sa m e p r o ba bilit y as fo r v. 29 i n
C h ap . I , t h is verse is t o b e o m i t t e d fro m t h e lin e of K r ik t e xt . See m y I n t r o d u c t i o n .
13)
F o r t h ese 8 su bject s, T . & C. give t h e followin g t erm in o lo gies:
1) o-bo; "Jf^ H i , 2) rgyu, |Zi| ;
J^;

6)hjug-pa,

<fj*;

7) rtag-pa,

3) hbras-bu, ;?fc; 4) las, |if|;

5) Idan, 7[f\

ffj ; and 8) mi khyab-pa, A* ^ J f* ! .

Cf. AS 470 c, which mentions 10 categories, viz. 1) y 'pf; (svabhva); 2) | 2 | ?rcK


(hetu); 3) jgj* pjp. (paripantha); 4) ^ p ;?f^ (phala); 5) \ p ^fl (karman); 6) ^ P ^ f

(yoga); 7) ff | (vrtti); 8) ^ ft

(nitya); 9) ^

(venika); 10) > 5 ~5j S

(acirelya). Of them, t h e first 4 are identical with th e first 3 subjects of 10 categories on


4
tathgatadhtu ' in Chap I , while th e latter 6 agree in their contents with those (4) (8)
in this chapter (9th is a part of ' yoga ' here). See N ote VI I I 8.
[ 311 ]

fff

J. TAKASAKI

ed ' (viuddhi) 14), as the 'own n at u re' of the [Reality] characterized as


the 'P erfect Manifestation of the Basis'. I t is said 1 5 ) :
" O Lord, one who has no doubt about th e M atrix of the Tathgata
as it is concealed under the millions of coverings of all defile
ments, shall likewise have no doubt about the Absolute Body of
the Tathgata which is 1 6 ) freed from the coverings of all defile
ments ".
2) There are two kinds of knowledge. One is th e ' Supermundane,
non discriminative [Wisdom] ' and the other, the M un dan e 17 ) Wisdom
which is acquired afterwards [based on the former]'. This supermundane
and mundane Wisdom is the ' cause ' of the Perfect Manifestation of the
18
Basis >, and is indicated by the word ' at t ain m en t ' (prpti). [H ere] it
is called ' at t ain m en t ' in the sense ' th at by which something is atta
19
ined ' >.
3) The ' resu lt' [obtained by] these [two kinds of Wisdom] is the
4
20
liberation ' (visamyoga) >. There are two kinds of liberation, viz. the
liberation from the obstructions of defilement, and the liberation from
the obstructions on account of the knowable things, respectively21).
14

> Cf. AS 470 c: ff Hf, ;q; - | f (dhtu) ^C $fe tS! > 3fe t ft 4 a

3(fJ ^ R $ixi, ^ p . ffijiC Vpf" ^=p* jg fc jplp j | \ V ^ ,


t _

t*i~ |

whereafter, the stra mentions 4


Cz^jt*

~4*J+

characteristics of ' rayaparivrttV, namely 1) * p jpCt /J*^C uX. (utpattinirayadnatvt);


2) $9G ^ff /rlK W C (nirodhanirayadnatvt)', 3) JjQ ^ffk j|^ Ep.~ Jy\ 7^4 f S Trv W C
(vipka mano jeyadharmaphalatvt);
madhtusvabhvatah).
15)
1 6 )

4) 3jj ^ ^ " ^ * ^ ^ *jX" *! W C (pariuddhadhar

M S 2 2 1 6.
T h e readin g

sh o u ld

be

' . . . vinirmukte

tathgatadharmakye

' . . . vinirmuktes
tath \
17)
' laukikam ' is t o b e i n st e r t e d aft er prsthalabdham,
18)

F o r ' rayaparivrtti

19)

prpyate

tyupya,

', C. ft

' neneti prptih.

'pi\

a c e . t o T . a n d M s. B .

l h 4~T

(prpti

m e a n s h ere t h e m e a n s of a t t a i n m e n t =

p . 80 1. 1) T . hdis thob pas na thob paho, C. f$C I ^ L ir{ > "f^f (

be p la c ed i m m e d i a t e ly after ' ^

i n st e a d of

T J y ^ 1^1 '

20)

t m s

prp

sen t en c e is t o

See belo w) .

T h e r e a d in g, ' tatphalam dvividham j ' is d o u bt fu l, a lt h o u gh T . c o m p let ely agrees


wit h S. F o r t h is, C. r e a d s as ' jndhigamo eva (tat) phalam / ', and omits ' dvividham '.
W h a t is signified b y t h e t e r m dvividham is quite uncertain. (Ace. to v. I l l , 2 & 3, i t m a y
refer to ' visamyoga-phala ' a n d ' vipka phala ', b u t t h e t e r m vipka is u sed n o wh e r e
in C h a p . I I ) . F r o m t h e c o n t e xt , t h erefo re, i t is p referable t o r e a d ' tatphalam visamyogah/ ',
for ' . . . dvividham/ ' .
21)
' yathkramam
' befo r e ' svaparrtha-'
shoul d b e connecte d w i t h t h e preceding

[ 312 ]

The

R at nagot rav ihh ga

4) The function * is the accomplishment of one's own aim and


that of others.
22
5) [The point that] the foundation (adhisthna) > of this function
j s ' provided (samanvgama) with ' [ the inmeasurable properties] is [here
called] ' union '.
23
6) 8) The ' manifestation > means that [ this Perfect Manifestation
of the Basis] manifests itself in the forms of three Bodies of the Buddha
which are characterized by profundity, magnificence, and magnanimity,
respectively (gmbh rya, audrya, mhtmya), and [ manifests] ' eternally ',
4
4
i.e. as long as the world exists ', and in an inconceivable ' manner.
S ummary.
The own nature, the cause, and the result,
The function, the union, and the manifestation,
Its eternal and inconceivable character;
By these points, there is the establishment [of the Essence]
24
In Buddhas' S tages >. // 2 //

sentence,
ence, ( visamyoga ca yathkramam / sva ).

So does C. (($ P ;q

(There is no correspondence between each of the two kinds of visamyoga and


of the two kinds
d of artha sampdana).
h )
H ere C. has again confusion in its arrangement. ' |$ g Jff jtSL PP: 5JC ^fe "IB '
should be placed after ' jp ^\ jM. Plfc ' The correct arrangement of these passages
in C. should be as follows:

ffiifirfHlft*T%",>lit;flM#.

22)

T. rten[ pa], C. |~ h "jvf (=raya in the verse). I t signifies Buddhahood charac


terized as muktikya and dharmakya (v. I I , 30). F or the whole sentence, C. reads:

ffln# ._jMmflimuvi m. ^mnft# ,


s

u te

&&

T 0 J > 8' r^f ^ | p JAS W C I* ^ * i difficult to render this C. translation, but in


the light of v. 30, we may interpret it as follows: The union means that the immeasurable
qualities which are obtained by svaparrtha (-sampatti) are always and ultimately united
with the foundation (yoga iti svaparrthaprptnumeyagunnm nityam acintyam adhi
sthne yogah / ).
23)

C . m e n t i o n s nitya,

24)

buddhabhmi (pi.).

acintya

a l o n g w i t h vrtti.

[ 313 ]

(<\ ~X | ^ i , ^ ^ Jii;\ g ^ ^ Q ) .

Xin .

8 POIN TS ON TH E UN DE F I LE D REALITY
(I) SVABHVA & (I I ) H E TU

N ow, we have one loka on Buddhahood and the means for its attain
1
ment ) referring to the subjects of 'own n a t u r e' and 'cau se' respectively.
(Krik 1)
Buddhahood has been spoken of as being radiant by nature,
[however] as being covered with the net of the multitude of clouds,
In the form of [obstructions on account of] defilements
And knowable things which are of accidental nature,
Just as the sun and the sky 2> [are often interrupted by clouds
Though they are radiant and immaculate, respectively] 3);
This Buddhahood is now eternal, everlasting and constant,
Being endowed with all the the pure properties of the Buddha,
4)
And is attained when the elements [of existence] take resort
5)
To the N on discriminative and Analytical Wisdom . // 3 //
The meaning of this loka is to be known in brief by the [following]
4 verses.
Buddhahood, which is represented by 6>
The indivisible virtuous properties,
11
2)

prptyupya.
I t stands for 'prpti' ( = hetu) in the preceding passage.
C. says instead ' the sun and the moon '.

)Ct DA 893 (v. 10: ft tyj f H ' S g ^ f l T S I f & t i B S


4)

dharmnm.

. . rayt.

B u t b o t h T . & C. r e a d t h is dharma as c o n n e c t in g wi t h

avikalpa: T . chos la mi rtog, C. vJyj JO J7IJ Jffj V/ ^ . T h er efo r e, t h e r e a d in g ' dharm


nm* is somewhat doubtful. Or is it an irregular Skt. style peculiar to the Buddhist t ext ?
5)
akalpana & pravicaya-jna,
T . mi-rtog & rnam-hbyed ye es.
C. for t h is lin e,
' / l > * Ji / jlj lff ^
frf 7R $ ^ M (dharmesv avikalpd,
ansrava tattvajnam
pyate).
H e r e t h e referen ce is, h o we ve r , t o t h e t wo kin d s of jna, i.e. avikalpajna a n d
tatprsthalabdha-jna.
6)
prabhvita.
C . h a s n o e q u i va le n t wo r d for i t . T . rab dbye ba
(prabhinna).

[ 314 ]

The

R at n agot r avibh ga

H as a resemblance to th e sun and th e sky


7)
I n both its characters, knowledge and removal . // 4 //
I t is endowed with all th e properties of th e Buddha,
Which are beyond th e sands of the Gag in number,
8
And are radian t and of uncreated n ature >,
And whose manifestations are indivisible [from itself] 9 ) . // 5 //
Because of their being unreal by n ature 1 0 ) ,
Because of their pervadingness and occasionality,
The obstructions u> of defilements an d of ignorance
Are illustrated as being like clouds. // 6 //
The cause of dissolving12) these two obstructions is Wisdom,
Which is again considered as13 ) of two kinds,
One is th e N on discriminative [Wisdom]
And th e other is th e knowledge, obtained afterwards 1 4 ) . // 7 //
(III) PHALA
i

I t is said t h a t th e own n ature * of the Perfect M anifestation of th e


Basis is th e * perfect purity ' . This purity is here, in short, of two kinds.
N amely, 1) th e ' in n ate purity ' (prakrtiviuddhi); and 2) 4 th e purity,
as th e result of purification ' (vaimalyaviuddhi) 15).
Of them , 1) ' th e

7)

C. takes ' dvaya ' as ' advaya ' (^^


.), and reads ' "Q (jna) and Pjjfc ;fc
(prahna) are non dual'. T. as prahna dvaya, i.e. two kinds of prahna.
8

> akrtaka, T. byas min, C. $fc ffc V .

9)

avinirbhgavrtti (Bahuvr hi comp.), T. dbye med par hjug can, C. ^\ * $$ /(JJ[


om

~C H H ( vrtti).
10)

lx

svabhvparinispatti,

T . ra-bshin-gyis

ni ma-grub,

^ vrti, T . sgribpa, C. |*Jji.


vilesa, T . -da bral-ba, C. j S . F3rt ( =

12)

13)

C. ^ ^ 5 S T H S

visamyoga).

F o r ' isyate ', C. fS] (to intend, to b e intended).

14)

F o r ' tatprsthalabdha ', C. | 1 \ /(J>C / / i*f There is no correspondence between


each of t h e t w o obstructions a n d t h e two kinds of wisdom.
15

C 0

' T . ra-bshin-gyis
[S. V ^

rnam-par

dag-pa,

& dri-ma

& raff V R ^ respectively.

med-pahi

rnam-par

dag-pa:

The former is characterized as

' vimuktir na ca visamyogah ', and the latter, ' vimuktir visamyoga ca ' (C. '|E jfpp /J3
& "fvf Ppp /JTJJ)'

I n this sense, visamyoga is regarded as ' phala'.

svabhva uddham mala uddhitam ca (^

Cf. MSA XII, 15:

f^ ]& ^ tyfi , C. Taisho, XXXI , p . 620 b,

and in the commentary, C. distinguishes both purities by the terms ' Vp ' & ' Q ') Also

Sif f l * fit P;t #Jffi


[ 315 ]

J. TAKASAKI

innate purity ' represents th at which is essentially free [from all stains]
but actually associated with them, [i.e. Reality mingled with pollutions].
Indeed, the Innate Mind, though being radiant, is not [always] separated
4
from the accidental pollutions. 2) The purity, as the result of purifi
cation ' represents [that which is] essentially free and actually, too,
liberated from [all pollutions] 16\
Because, just as water and the like
become purified from dirt, impurities, etc., the radiant Innate Mind is
completely liberated from the accidental pollutions.
Now we have two lokas about c the P urity, as the result of purifica
tion ' with reference to the subject of 4 resu lt ' 17>.
(Kriks 2 3)
Like a pond, filled with pure water,
Becomes abundant with flowering lotus gradually18),
Like the full moon delivered from the jaws of R h u 1 9 ) ,
Like the sun, whose rays have been released
20
F rom the covering of clouds and others \
This [Buddhahood], being endowed with pure properties,
Manifests itself as being liberated 2 l) . // 8 //
16)

F o r visamyoga,

C . r e a d s i n n e ga t i ve ( / p ftjfl;

" XJj {j* > sarvadharmvisa-

myogah).
17)
18)

H e r e again C. reads in negative (-^I^ pafc).


A simile for t h e i m m a c u l a t e n a t u r e liberated from ' rga ', see v. 12. B u t t h e

point of similarity is not clear. Cf. DA t\ l


I S $D ' j t t C I K i
grow in dirty water.

0 T 1& f S

WC (

1$L ^
893

fe

(v

17

)> # 0 ftfc ?K

Rather, lotus is usually said to

For the second half of this line, C. fll fll f t $ 5 H f M * S ^


W Sl
it suggests the word ' druma ' as in Ms. B. The last 5 letters are for ' dhya', for which
T. rgyas.
19>
A simile for the immaculate compassion liberated from ' dvesa ', see v. 13. ' rhu *
(T. sgrag can, C. ^ g OiB^) ^ s a personification of the phenomenon of eclipse and is counted
one of ' nava grahh \ see Mvyut. 164.

Cf. DA v. 16: $f

JZU ft ?$ ?ffi

ft

8k ffi tfef and in ?S M I S t * $c t t H Bf^ B ^L M St (^93 b,


comm. on v. 16); v. 18 (893 c) # 0 J 2 tfl"
20)

^ .

A simile for th e immaculate Wisdom, liberated from ' moha ', see v. 14. Ct.

DA 893c: M B * ft, ft W S M* M + ift & # *U H H^ ^


kt m i t fW (v. 9i).
21

' bhti muktam tad eva, T. sna-ldan (bhti yuktam) de-id-do,

"iSL l (probably as S.).

[ 316 ]

C. MM >*u J*|-

The
This
Like
Like
Like
Like
And

R at n ago t ravibh ga
22)

Buddhahood is [also] like th e


honey, like th e kernel [of corns],
a precious store of jewels, like a
an immaculate precious image of
th e H ighest Lord of the world,
24
like a golden statue >. // 9 //.

23

H ighest of Sages ),
like gold,
great fruit tree,
the Buddha,

The meaning of these two lokas, in short, is to be known by the


following 8 verses:
The result of th e N on discriminative Wisdom
In short, is said to be akin to a pond and others,
Being pure [as th e result of th e removal] of
Desire and other accidental defilements. // 10 //
[On the other hand], the result of Wisdom,
Attained on th e basis of the former, is explained
As th e actual sight of the Buddha's state
Possessed of all kinds of excellency25) . // 11 //
I t is like a pond filled with shining water
26
Because of its rejecting the dirtiness > of the dust of D esire,
27
And because of its sprinkling > the water of meditation
On th e disciples who are like lotus flowers. // 12 //
I t has a resemblance to the immaculate full moon 28\
Since it has been released from th e Rhu of H atred
And since it pervades all the world
29
With the rays > of G reat Love and Compassion. // 13 //
a2

> jinatva, T. rgyal-ba-id,

23)

munivrsa

TO l7P (

or

(=

C. #fl 2J

-if-.

munirsabha). C. ' 9iff J Q ' is probably a mistake, it should be

^A .)

24)

As a ll of t h e se 9 e xa m p le s a r e t h e sa m e a s t h o se sp o ke n i n C h a p . 1, t h is k r i k
c a n n o t b e u n d e r st o o d b y it self u n less t h e r e is a ssu m e d t h e kn o wle d ge of t h e 9 e xa m p le s
o n tathgatagarbha.
S u c h is n o t a c h a r a c t e r ist i c of t h e ge n u in e k r i k s i n t h is t e xt ,
and hence the originality of this verse is quite doubtful. See my Introduction.
25
' The significance expressed in these two verses is as follows: The visamyoga of
dhtu is immediately followed by the manifestation of buddhatva accompanied by buddha
gunas, just as avikalpajna is immediately followed by tatprsthalabdha-jna.
26

> klusya, C. ^

/ ]< ., T. om.

27

> abhisyandana, T. hbab, C.

28

) prnavimalendu C. ~~\ T l. U

JH.
f \.

28

> F or amu, C. ?JC (ambu), bu t T. hod zer.

[ 317 ]

J. TAKASAKI

And this Buddhahood is similar to the immaculate sun,


Because of its being free from the clouds of Ignorance,
And because of its removing the darkness of the world
With the rays of its divine Wisdom. // 14 //
Being possessed of the unequalled30) properties,
Bringing forth the essence of the Highest Doctrine31),
And being free from the outer covering32) [of Defilements],
It is like the Buddha33), like honey and the kernel [of grains],//15//
Being pure34), being freed from the poverty
By the richness 35) of its properties,
And being the giver36) of the fruit of Liberation,
It is like gold, like a treasure, and a tree, [respectively] 37). // 16 //
By its body's being made of the jewel of the Doctrine 38 ',
Its being the Highest Lord of the human beings39),
And its having the appearance of the most precious form 40),
It is like a precious [image], a king and a golden statue. // 17 //
(IV) KARMAN 41)
It has been said that the two kinds of Wisdom, \iz. the supermundane
Non-discriminative Wisdom and the mundane knowledge, obtained afterwards on the basis of the former i2\ are the cause of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis, which is called ' the result of the liberation', and the
30)

for

atulyatulya, T . mi-mam mam,


adhigamadharma.
31)
It stands for desandharma.

C. viw ^vf ^ x (~ osamasama).

This line stands

32

> phalgu, T . un pa ( = tvak), C. $ | | |p (P ali, pheggu).


C. reads ' sugata ' as the subject. But it is absolutely a mistake.

33)

34)

pavitra,

T . dag[ pa],

C . y!y ( ? ) . C . a ga in m isr e a d s t h is lin e .

3B

> dravya, T. rjas, C. jf H f (?).


T . 'sm in byed'' fo r dna is t o b e c o r r e c t e d i n t o ' sby i n by ed \
st a n d fo r tathal, prakrtisthagotra
a n d samudnita gotra,
r e sp e c t ive ly.
36)

37)

C o m . nidhi (avaria

lectio i n Taisho e d it io n gives u s t h e r e a d in g: f^L ^ ^ ^fr*

W \ k The correct reading is therefore ' |f ^


38)

I n dicatin g

T h e se t h r e e

HJ" 0 ^ ').

dharmakya.

39)
dvipada agrdhipatya, T. rka-gis bdag-po mchog, C. i f f _ t
I t indicates p r o b a b l y
sambhoga kya.
40)
Indicating nirmria kya.

) Cf. AS 472 c. ... (5) ff ^

( #S M ^

> For these two jnas, AS M


[ 318 ]

i ft

f*W / -i^

The

E a t n a got r a v ib h ga

* function ' of the Wisdom is the fulfilment of one's own aim and of that
f others. Then, what is the 4 fulfilment of one's own aim and of that of
o
others ' ? That which represents the attainment of the undefiled Absolute
Body, as being freed from the obstructions due to Defilements and
4
knowable things along with their potential forces is called the fulfilment
of one's own aim '. And th at which comes after the attainment of the ful
filment of one's own aim, and represents the manifestation, by means of
twofold power 43', viz. 1) appearance in the forms of two bodies44 '; and
2) the teaching by means of them, [both of] which continue as long as
the world exists, without any effort, it is called the 'fulfilment of the
aim of others'.
About this fulfilment of one's own aim and of that of others, with re
ference to the subject ' function ', we have three lokas.
(Kriks 4 6)
45)

Buddhahood , being the foundation 46 ',


Immaculate and all pervading,
Of unperishable nature, and everlasting,
47)
Quiescent, constant and unchangeable ,
48)
Is, like space, the cause
for the I n telligen t 49)
To experience the objects through 6 sense organs 50> . // 18 //
I t gives always the cause [for enjoyment]
In showing the miraculous apparitional forms,
In the pure audition of its perfect preaching,
43)

vibhutva, T. dba-hbyor-ba, C. JEJ ^fc j \ . Two-fold means ' dean & darana
vibhutva '.
44
' F rom the context, ' kyadvaya ' here probably means the twofold rpakya.
(C. Z 2 ^ H $fr ^*, AS ZZ ^ H ^ ) . The same term is used in v. 28. The cor
respondence between each of the twofold jna and of the twofold arthasarnpatti is not
clearly observed here. But AS regards svrthasampatti as caused by avikalpajna, and
parrthasampatti as caused by tatprsthalabdha-jna.
45)

tathgatatva,

46)

pada,

47)

acyuta,

C . | ^ f $fa # 0 ^

J .

T . gnas, C. Jgfc .
T . hpho ba,

med pa,

C. / [* X a *

48)

C. r e a d s ' 5 * p ' for krana ( wit h a n e ga t ive, in t h e sen se B u d d h a h o o d itself


animitta).
49)
sat, C. fffi ^g ^ " (dhlmat). T . ' dag pa(uddha)'
is p r o ba bly a c o r r u p t io n . T h is
"Isatm' ( gen . p i. ) is c o m m e n t e d o n as ' dh rnm^ ( v. 28).
Bo)
sadindriya visaya, i.e. sadyatanni, namely: rpa, abda, gandha, rasa, spar
itavya and dharma, whose account is given in the next verse.

is

[ 319 ]

J. TAKASAKI

In the pure scent of the Buddhas' morality,


51)
In tastin g
of the taste of the great, sublime and highest Doc
trine, // 19 a
In the enjoyment of the pleasurable touch of meditation,
And in the cognition of doctrine 5 2 ) , profound by its nature;
[But], being the H ighest Truth, the thicket 5 3 ) of quite subtle
5
thinking *),
55)
The Tathgata himself, like space, is of no visible mark . // 20 //
The meaning of these three lokas, in brief, is to be known by the fol
lowing 8 verses.
The function of the twofold Wisdom
In short, is to be known as follows:
[One is] the fulfilment of the Body of [innate] liberation,
[The other is] the purification of the Absolute Body 56> .
// 21 //
The Body of innate liberation and the Absolute Body,
[Although] being two [in their functions], are to be known as one,
61)

vindana, T. mya (enjoying), C. *&$ (giving).

> naya, T. tshul, C. ^

53)
64)

5B)

(dharma).

gahvara, C. ^pjj /jyjC, for which T. bdemdsad (amkaram).


' sksmacint paramrtha-gahvaram ' for the whole line.
nimitta-varjitam,

T. rgyu-mtshan rnams da bral. C. J7p pafE }mt. ^ ^ /^H

is a misreading (reading ' tathgato viyomanimittavarjitah).

mm .
58

C. om. paramrtha.

I t should be ' \ j\ $ /flu. zxL

) muktikya, T. grol bahi sku (hgro ba in D . is probably a mistake), C.

and dharmakya, C. f^. f^ *", respectively.


These two kyas show the two aspects of the dharmakya, th e Absolute itself, in
regard to its function. N amely, the dharmakya in its result aspect ( I I I . phalrtha) is
characterized as ' vimuktir visamyoga ca'. H ere the muktikya seems to represent vimukti
(as the characteristic common to samal tathat and nirmal athat), and th e dharmakya,
visamyoga (as the characteristic unique to bodhi). Consequently, these two also correspond
to the prakrtistha gotra and th e samudnlta gotra, respectively. F rom the aspect of ' vi
mukti ', the function of the dharmakya is characterized as th e perfection of Enlighten
m ent, while from the aspect of ' visamyoga ', its function is characterized as the purifi
cation of itself. As far as this characterization is concerned, these two functions represent

svrthasampatti. So does the AS say (472 c fpj ^

^ J , U $% $r? JS =% *NSf

wm =%, ms tit m- - % i*. ^ s M). BU. we aPPiy


the character of the samudnltagotra to the second function, it m ay be termed parrthasampatti because the dharmakya as samudnitagotra is the cause of the rpakya which
works for parrtha. See my Introduction.

[ 320 ]

The

R atn agotravibh ga

Because t h ey are free from passions an d all pervading,


57)
An d are t h e im m aculate su bst rat u m . // 22 //
4
I t is free from passions '
Since t h e D efilements are resisted along with im pressions;
Wisdom is considered as ' pervadin g '
Since it has n eith er at t ach m en t n or h in dran ce. // 23 //
The ' absolute im m u t ability ' is caused
58)
By its n at u re of im perishability ,
4
[H ere] im perish abilit y' is a general st at em en t 5 9 ) ,
Which is explained by t h e words, ' everlasting ', etc. // 24 //
4
60)
The Evanescence '
is t o be kn own as of four kin ds,
Being t h e coun terparts of ' everlasting ' an d t h e rest,
[They are n am ely]: ' p u t r i d i t y' , ' d ise a se ' ,
61)
' An n ihilation ' an d ' death in an inconceivable way '
. // 25 //
Because of th eir absence, it i& kn own to be
4
E verlastin g ', ' qu iesc en t ', ' c o n st a n t ' an d 4 un chan geable ',
And th is im m aculate Wisdom is t h e ' su bst rat um ',
Since it is t h e su p p o r t 6 2 ) of [all] t h e pure elem en ts. // 26 //
J u st as space, being itself of no cause,
I s t h e cause of perceiving, hearin g an d so on
Of form, of soun ds, of tastes, of smells,
Of th in gs touchable an d of substan ces respectively, // 27 //
I n t h e same way, t h e twofold [apparition al] Bo d y 6 3 ) ,
On account of its connection with 6 4 ) t h e undefiled ch aracter,
67

' ansravatva (C. 7KV /ilj) vypitva (C. jffll 3^.) and asamskrtapadatva (C. '^L JTL

$& @) .

Cf. AS, ^1] ^ F $= | ^ ( | H

3 gunas; namely): " ^ " ^ S

Zl ^

V} Wi ft" (svrtha is avinirbhga from

*fi $S JIl <" 3R 3 .

68

' avinitva, T . hjig pa med pa, C. ^Y* 5^C


69)
uddea, C. ^P< / $L (fun dam en tal st at em en t ) .
60
> na, C. ^ .
61)

pti, T . myags, C. y\ j,; vikrti, T . rnam hgyur,

C. 7 ft ; ucchitti, T. chad-pa,

C. jmjf; and acintyanamanacyuta, T. bsam mikhyabpar hphoba, C. ' i ^ f*J iilf* jf)|
2 | * , respectively.
62
> spada, T . rten, C. H H .
63 )
F or kyadvaya, C. f^ Stf . Does it mean muktikya and dharmakya ? But see
N ote 44. I t may be more natural to regard it as the twofold rpakya. C. interpretation
is, however, not untenable, since the Krik refers only to Buddhatva and th e rpakya
is nothing bu t a term for buddhatva or dharmakya when it works for parrtha.
64
* yogatah, T sbyor-bas (by means of). C. has no equivalent word. C. shortens
this verse omitting many words.

[ 321 ]

J . TAKASAKI

Is the cause for wise men 6 5 ) to give rise to


Immaculate virtues in the objects of sense organs. // 28 //

(V)

YOG A 66)

I t is said th at the Buddha has the character of space 6 7 ) . This refers


specially68) to the absolute and exclusive character of the Buddha. So it
is said 6 9 ) :
" If the Tathgata could be recognized merely by the 32 marks
of a superman, the universal monarch, too, would turn to be a
Buddha ".
Now, there is one loka about the highest character 7 0 ) in reference to
i
the subject of union '.
(Krik 7)
Being inconceivable, eternal and ever lasting,
Being quiescent, constant, and perfectly pacified,
Being all pervading and apart from discrimination,
The pure and immaculate Buddhahood is like space,
I t has neither attachment nor hindrance anywhere,
And, being devoid of rough 7 1 ) sensation,
It can be neither perceived nor cognized. // 29 //
Now, the meaning of this loka is, in short, to be known by the fol
lowing 8 verses.
The [fulfilment of] one's own aim and of that of others
Are represented by the Bodies of Liberation and of the Absolute

65)

72)

dhlra ( dh mat,) T. bstan pa (str).

66

> Cf. AS 472 c . . . (6) ^ g $ H .


See a b o ve ( v. 20) : tathgata vyoma.
the 18 E xc lu si ve P r o p e r t ie s) .
67)

e.g. JA 243 c.

Also see Chap. I l l ( on

68)

abhisamdhya,

69)

The Vajracchedikstra,

70)

paramrthalaksana, T. don dam pahi mtshan-id, C. jffi

71

T . dgos-pas,

> parusa, T. rtsub, C.


72
> See note XIII-55.

C. f i \ (?).

S kt . p . 42 43; C. Taisho,

(J|)

[ 322 ]

XI I , p . 752 a.
* =;

/ff\.

ie

Katnagotravinaga

On this foundation 73) of one's own aim and of that of others


There is the ' u n i o n ' of properties, 'inconceivable' and others.
// 30 //
Buddhahood is accessible only to the Wisdom of the Omniscient,
And is not the object of the 3 [kinds of ordinary] knowledge 7 4 ) ,
Therefore, it is to be known as ' inconceivable '
[Even] for those people of intellect 7 5 ) . // 31 //
Being of subtle character, it is not the object of study,
Being the Highest Truth, it is not the object of thought,
And, being the impenetrable Absolute Essence7 6 ) ,
It is not accessible to the mundane meditation and the like, // 32 //
Because it has never been seen before by ordinary persons,
Like the visible forms77) for those who are born blind, nor even by
the Saints 78>,
Like the disk of the sun for infants lying in their mother's bed 7 9 ) .
//33//
It is ' eternal', as it is devoid of birth ;
It is 4 everlasting ' , since it does not disappear;
It is ' quiescent', because it is free from dualism,
And is 'constant' because of endurance of Reality 80 '. / / 3 4 / /
It is ' perfectly pacified ' as being the Truth of Extinction,
It is ' all-pervading ' since it cognizes everything ;
It is ' non-discriminative ' as it has no insistence8 1 ) ;
And ' has no attachment' since it rejects defilements. // 35 //
Being purified from all the obstructions of Ignorance,
It ' has no hindrance ' in regard to everything [knowable];

73)

raya, C. \ i\ . (depending upon svaparrtha).


trijna, i.e. ruti cint bhvanmaya jna.
75
' jnadehin, ( = dhlmai), T. yeesluscan, C. om.
74)

76 J

dharmat gahvaratvatah, T. chos-id zab phyir, C. \ \ p j "jtr* pfv jf\ (lokottara

gahvaratah).

F or gahvara, T. zab, C. fc ^4

77)

So T . gzugs, a n d C . ^ . P r o b a b l y t h e r e a d i n g is ' r p a ' i n st e a d of ' fe ya '


( o r kya i n t h e sen se of rpakya;
c o llec t ive of fo r m s) .
78)
C. regards this ' rya ' as those Saints who belong to Srvaka & P ratyekabud
dha yno.
79)

stik sadma sthita, ace. to T. btsas pahi khyim (g)nas.

The reading is there

fore to be ' sadma ' instead of ' madhya ' . C. om. all these words. Cf. SMS 222 a: $ 0

a n a*M Bit.
80

> As for these 4 epithets, see VI I I ( I X C). (vv. I , 80 82).

81

) apratisthna, T. gnas pa med[ pa], C. ' / 1 > * {EE .

[ 323 ]
22

\l

Being of soft an d light moving n at u re

82)

I t is devoid of rough sensation '. // 36 //


Being im m aterial, it can n ot be perceived,
And being of no [visible] m a r k 8 3 > , it is 'in c o gn iza ble';
I t is ' pure ' since it is pure by n a t u r e,
84)
An d is ' im m aculate ' because of it s rem oval of pollutions . // 37 Jj
(VI) VRTTI85)
N ow again it should be kn own t h a t this Buddh ah ood, due t o it s posses
sion of properties un com m on t o oth ers, manifests itself, th ough by m eans of
a m an ifestation which is in separable from it s im m at able qualities like space,
still in t h e forms of th ree 8 6 ) im m aculate bodies, viz. ' th e Body of Abso
lute Essence (svbhvika)', 4 t h e Body of E n joym en t (smbhogya)', an d
87)
* t h e Apparition al Body [nairmnika)
, with various inconceivable appli
88)
ances
like t h e G reat skilful m ean s, G reat Compassion, an d Wisdom, in
order t o be t h e support 8 9 ) of t h e welfare an d happin ess of all living beings,
as long as t h e world exists, with out cessation, with out in t erru pt ion , an d
with n o effort.
So, with reference t o th is subject of ' m an ifest at io n ', th ere are 4 lokas
about t h e distinction of [three kin ds of] Buddh a's Body.
82)
mrdu karmanya bhvatah, C. 2c wC ( a s S.). But for this line, T. gis-med lassu ru-bahi phyir (advaya-karmani bhvatah).
83

' animitta, T. mtshanma med, C. pijft; / ppj

84

' AS makes 19 dharmas possessed by bodhi out of this passage. Namely: 1) - / i'*

" I & jlf (acintya); 2) ft $ 9 (sksma); 3) j flf (paramrtha); 4) j j | J | ^


(gambh rya naya, = dharmat gahvara?); 5) / p
prativedha);

7) ^

(nitya); 8) ^

(dhruva?); 9) S

11) t r t Z S (*""*); I 2 ) M f f i (ypO;


or asa/bta); 15) ^

BJ J ^ (adrya); 6) ffj iFfj jig (dus

13

(pranta);

10) tt3

(vata);

) ^ ^ " J ^ ' J (avikalpa); 14) ft| " ^ (asa/iga

(apratigha); 16) [ ^ |l(M (arausra?); JL7) ^f* S J ^

( a gr % a ) ;

18) yV^ ^ * (ufefia); 19) g^ Ypf (amao). Of them, 6) and 16) have no equivalent in
the Ratna.
85)
Cf. AS 4 7 3 a, B G 809 a 8 1 1 a ( u n d e r Avi k r a ) .
86)
' . . . amalai stribhih' should be corrected into ' . . . amalais tribhih\
ngr script, they should be written without separation).

(In Deva

' For these three, C. ff f , ^ f ^ #& & ffc # f^ .


88)

parikarman, T. yors-su sbyo-ba,


between thabs chen-po and es rab.
89

C. ^ ^ .

Against J ' s note, T. (D) has

) dna nimitta, T. sgrub pahi rgyu, C. ^ ^ . . . / fr\ \ .

[ 324 ]

si-rje

The

R atn agotravibh ga
(Kriks 8 11)

T h at which h as n eith er beginning, m iddle n or en d,


I s indivisible 9 0 ) , n on dual, liberated in th ree ways 9 1 ) ,
I m m aculate an d non discriminative, . . .
T h at represen ts t h e n at u re of t h e Absolute Essence 9 2 ) ,
And is perceived by t h e Saints 9 3 ) ,
Who are con cen tratin g th eir m in d, strivin g after it 9 4 ) ; // 38 //
95)
This [Absolute Essence] is n othin g bu t t h e pure E ssen c e
of the
T ath gatas,
Which is endowed with properties, inconceivable, unequalled,
I n n um erable, an d surpassing t h e sands of t h e Gag in n um ber
And h a s rooted out 9 6 ) all t h e defects along with impressions. // 39 //
One who exerts in con cen tratin g for 9 7 ) t h e liberation of t h e world,
With t h e body 9 8 ) in t h e form of different coloured rays of t h e H ighest
D octrine,
H as a resemblance, in his acts, t o t h e kin g of wish fulfilling gems,
Appearing in various forms, which, however, have n ot th eir own sub
st a n c e") . / / 40/ /
T h at which is t h e c a u se l 0 0 ) , in various worlds,
> For abhinna, C. ^ P S i j j | .
91

> tridh vimuktam.

T. as S.

And this reading is supported by th e commentary

verse (v. 45: klea jeya-sampatti trayvarana nihsritam).

But C. 3tSL PJH / J^ \ v T

(tridhtu muktam), and I guess this was the original reading.


92)

F or ' yarn dharmadhtu svabhvam ', C. Jfck ^ pfC < ^ y r

^Tv / / T 7[j (unknown to rvaka

and

and adds ^p .

Pratyekabuddha ynikas).

93

> yogin, T. rnal hbyor pa, C. J t r S S ^ i f e S S i n J e A

samhita).
94
' F o r ' tat prayatnh
* yarn dharmadhtusvabhvam

(connectin

wi t h

95)

# j? ^

dhtu,

Jf

T . dbyis,

iff ^

', T . de rtogs pa (tad adhigacchanti)


( c o n n e c t i n g tad wi t h
' ) . B u t S. se e m s b e t t e r . C . h a s n o e q u i va l e n t wo r d .
C. H H .

F o r ' tathgatnm

M tyfi f (insertion of ' # j? ^

C. r e ga r d s t h is ver se as r efer r in g t o

amalah.

.. dhtuh ', C . %W 3fv

J< ' (rpakya) suggests that

sambhogakya).

96)

unmlita,

97)

For samhrta udyamah,T. grub la brtson pa (siddhyudyamah), C. |~f 5 y\f>- ^ ^

T . rnam-spas-pa,

C. j S - $

98

' vigraha, T. sku, C. HW .


99
) All bhvas a r e of nihsvabhva,
ne x t ve r se .
100)
nidna, T . rgyu, C . o m .

b u t a r e in se p a r a b le fro m t h e Abso lu t e .

[ 325 ]

See t h e

J . TAKASAKI
101)

F or advan cin g in to t h e Quiescent P a t h


,
F or brin gin g t o full developm en t an d for giving prophecy,
T h a t is t h e Apparition al F orm [of t h e Buddh a] 1 0 2 ) ,
103)
104)
Which also abides
always in t h e Absolute E ssen c e ,
As t h e visible forms in t h e elem ent of space. // 41 //
The sum m arized m ean in g of th ese 4 lokas are to be kn own by t h e foll
owing 20 verses:
T h a t which is called Buddh ah ood
Is t h e Omniscience of t h e Self born,
The h igh est N ir va n a 1 0 5 > , an d t h e inconceivable Ar h a t sh ip 1 0 6 ) ,
Wh ich is realized t h ro u gh self introspection. // 42 //
This [Buddhahood] manifests itself in t h e variety
Of th ree Bodies, t h e Body of th e Absolute Essence, etc.,
R epresen ted by t h e quality of P rofun dity,
Of Magnificence, an d of M agn an im ity, [respectively]. // 43 //
(svbhvika kya) 107).

a) Th e Body of th e Absolute Essence

H ere, t h e Body of t h e Absolute Essence


Of t h e Buddh a, in short, is to be kn own
As of five characteristics,
An d being possessed of five kin ds of properties. // 44 / /
I t is * im m utable ' an d 4 indivisible ',
Is 4 devoid of t h e two ext rem it ies',
An d is 4 delivered from t h e 3 Obstruction s '
Of defilement, ignorance an d d ist r a c t io n 1 0 8 ) . / / 45/ /

101

' ntipatha

(C. /J5 ffjfr Ifefc) m ean s

nirvana.

102

> bimba, T. gzugz, C. i l l ^ $ j | f 0 Jf ( = nirmnakya).


avaruddha (en closed in ) , T . gnas (avasthita, a bid in g in ) . B u t C. ^\ * j*jfi:

103)

104)

atra, i n t h e sen se ' i n dharmadhtu svabhva


' ( v. 38) . C . [ A'* qjf:] /$ U s
nirvrtih param, T. mchog tu mya Aan hdas. C. takes param separately and
Tegards it as indicating ' paramrtha '.
loe) jr o r acintyaprpti, both T. & C. read as acintyrhattva (T. bsam-med dgra105)

bcom, C. sV* j> jj^l V2* J> 1?c) which is to be accepted here. Consequently,
' pratytmavedit ' is to be corrected into ' pratytmaveditam'.
107
* Commentary on vv. 39, 40.
los) "phis is the first appearance of th e ' trayvarana' theory in the text. The third
varana, i.e. sampatty varana means the obstructions on account of samdhi, which
is peculiar to th e Bodhisattva.
[ 326 ]

The

R at n a got r av ib h ga

Being free from all stains and thought construction,


And being accessible to the Saints,
I t is ' radiant and pure '
Owing to the nature of the Absolute E ssen ce 10 9 ) . // 46 //
Immeasurable', ' innumerable ' , ' inconceivable ' , ' incomparable '
And representing ' t h e highest point of p u rit y';
The Body of the Absolute Essence is endowed
110
111
Wit h ' these [5] kinds of virtuous qualities '. // 47 //
112)
Being magnificent
and numberless,
109) These are th e 5 laksanas, namely: 1) asamskrta; 2) asambhinna; 3) antadvaya
vivarjita; 4) trayvarana-nihsrta; & 5) prabhsvaram viuddham ca. F or them, AS:

1 ) ; 2 ) ^ f f l |; 3 ) ffi Z l *; 4) JJ& W Bl 5) g ft i f ?*
(473 a); and BG: 1) ${ Jg Jg; 2) ftSM ffl (IS # ] S ) ; 3) M H & ffl;
4) 8 8 P S ffi 5 ) tpf ^ $=J (809 a-810 b, with a detailed explanation).
The last one is not clear. T. regards ' prabhsvaram ' as th e fifth laksana and
reads ' viuddha ' in the ablative, and thus makes 5 reasons for these 5 laksanas, bu t th e
concordance between each laksana and its reason is uncertain. C. reads as S., except for
the omission of ' avikalpatvd ' (the second pada, [53i ^qp. y\ , J j ^ yp', should be ' 3 ^ J\ ,
^M j \ WC ')

BG S clearly mentions th e 5 reasons in accordance with th e 5 laksanas:

1) asamskrtam, dharmadhtusvabhvatah ( Q '[^ J3C); 2) abhinnam, avikalpatvt (TJjft 73


t ill

fta "5B -I*11 B 3 -fA*

fvf*

/J'J R5C)' 3) antadvayavivarjitam, yog nm gocaratvatah ( . ^ . ^ 3 J ^ , T r H \ ) ; 4) vara


nanihsitam, prabhsvaratay ( y j^E ^PJ ^ r " WO ^) visuddham, vaimalyd
(The last two reasons should be interchanged).
There seems to be confusion of the word arrangement in v. 46, bu t as it is difficult
to establish which is th e original reading, th e present translation is done according to
the Skt. text. F or th e reference, however, I will suggest below t h e most reasonable
rendering of this verse:
And (5) it is ' pure ' (viuddha);
Because it is th e n ature of th e Absolute Essence (1),
Because it is nondiscriminative (2),
Because it is th e acting sphere of th e Saints (3),
Because it is free from stains (vimala), (4),
And because it is radian t by nature (prabhsvara), (5) respectively.
110)

al1

T. adds ' ya-dag-par ' (samyak) before ' yukta '.


' 1) aprameya; 2) asamkhya; 3) acintya; 4) asama; & 5) viuddhipramiprtpi,

respectively.

For these 5 gunas, AS, 4* o f j j , ^

(810 b-c).

112

> udra,

T . rgya che, C.

327 ]

~f gj( , fig ^ , >f> 3t, &

J. TAKASAKI

Being inaccessible to investigation,


Being unique113) and devoid of the defiling forces,
It is 'immeasurable' and so on, respectively114'. / / 4 8 / /
6) The Body of Enjoyment (smbhogika-kya) 115).
It manifests itself the Doctrine, owing to its n ature 1 1 6 )
Of enjoying the Doctrine in various forms;
Being the natural outflow117) of pure Compassion,
I t works uninterruptedly for the sake of living beings; // 49 //
I t fulfils the aim according to the wish
Without thought construction and with no effort;
[By these points] the Body of Enjoyment is characterized 118'
Due to its power like that of the wish fulfilling gems. // 50 //
In teaching, in the visible form, in acting ceaselessly,
And acting with no artificial effort119*,
And in its appearance of illusion 120',
The variety121) of [its manifestation] is said to be 5 fold. // 51 //
Just as a gem, being dyed with various colours,
Does not make manifest its real essence 122';

me

113

' C. om. kaivalya for which T, has hbah shig. It means ' being apart from all \

1W

' C . a d d s ' / p fijjj; =p|X ' aft er kramt

(^7V .fy), whose meaning is n o t clear to

(' T R ' = sambhoga ?).


115)
Commentary on v. 40.
116)

rpa, T . ra-bshin

?) . C. for t h is lin e, >^C * M T i l

(in t h e sense of ' svarpa''

<2C W^ / J> 5nL WfJ J(!y cL (vicitradharmarasasambhoga rpvabhsatah).


117

' F or nisyanda, C. W

^ .

118

' vyavasthiti, T. mam par gnas, C. [ ^ t ^ K I7M1 3U /^, (thus is smbhogya kya).
AS makes 5 gunas, possessed by smbhoga kya, out of these two verses, namely:
! > $ ! # $\ ; 2) M
tvrthakriy); 4) J&| f
^N

# ^
^

(anbhoga); 3) %

ff

(sat

^V* ^ pfffc (dharmakyvinirbhga); and 5) *||0 a lt * ^ F

"fjjf ^j< ^ p (nitya vypi & sattvnupeks)


119)

anabhisamskrti, T. mon-par hdu-byed med-pa, C. j/fC rfg^ ft^ OC (for which


the equivalent in S. in uncertain), deana (teaching) in neuter stem is notable.
120

' atatsvabhvkhyna, T. de yi o-bo mi-sto(-pa), C. /}*> 5Fjj ^ ^ ~^^ *^g.


these 5 appearances, BGS & AS offer no reference.
m )

citrat T. sna tshogs. C.

For

/ [vibhutva ?].

122

> atatb/ mra, C. [ ^ . ^fC ^ f^f ^ g ] ^


in order to make the meaning clear.

[ 328 ]

/f* ^

. T. adds bhsa(sna)

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a
123)

Similarly, the Lo rd
never shows its real n atuie,
Though it appears in various forms, according to the conditions of
the living beings.
c)

The Apparitional Body


[The

// 52 //

(nairmnika kya124)).
125

Buddh a], being th e knower of th e world

',

P erceiving fully th e world, with G reat Compassion,


126

M anifests h im self

' in various

apparition al

With out being separated from


The

127)

[various] previous births

The en tran ce in to th e wo m b
The

skilfulness

P leasurable

in

various

/ / 53 / /

The birt h in t h e T usita h eaven


1301

forms,

his Absolute Body.


12 8 )

, an d descent from

it

129)

, an d th e birth [in this wo rld ] 1 3 1 ',

arts

an d

wo rks

132)

// 54 //

en tertain m en ts among ladies in th e h arem

133>

123

> vibhu, T. khyab bdag, C. # t 3J.


Commentary on v. 4 1 .
125
' lokavid ( a n e p i t h e t of t h e B u d d h a ) , T . hjig-rten-mkhyen.
T h e whole verse is
missing i n C. O regards this verse as explaining
sambhogakya.
126) >phe w o r ( J * darayati ' is su p lied fr o m v. 56. T h e followin g ( vv. 54 56) a r e t h e
list of B u d d h a ' s ' mahvastu ' i n t h e wo rld , wh o se n u m b e r is c o u n t e d 14 a c c o r d in g t o
124)

B G S ( I n J^y ip ). H e r e a ft e r , t h e se 14 will b e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e N o t e o n e b y o n e alo n g


wit h t h e i r e q u i va le n t i n B G (810 c) a n d A S (473 a ) .
127)
jtakni (1), BG / $L ^ ; AS ^ C ^ < 2, i p ; T. skye ba, bu t connecting
with n ext one and reading ' jtakbhyupapattim (skyeba monpar skyeba dan).
' jtakny upapattim ca ' is missing in C.

128

> upapattim ca tusitesu (2), BG ^ jfe Jftl $ ^ A A S H *9B ^ P ^

T. connects ' tusita ' with next one.


129)

cyutim tatah ( = tusitt) (3), BG |g | JjQ ^

Tusita and this world), AS | ^ , ^

ji g (abiding midway between

5 ^ ~ F ; T. dgah ldan nas ni hpho ba, C. *f$

130) garbhvakramana (4), T. Ihums su hjug, C. ^ \ . 0ff y\ . Jjp ; BG / \ . / JP ,

AS W W f^
131)

132

janman

BP .
( 5) , T . bstams pa,

' ilpasthnni

BG ^

kaualam

^> t ftb , AS ^

before (6): fJL ^

C.^ ;

B G p 4 B P , AS ^ T J ^

( 6) , T . gzo yi gnas la
* ^ ~\ " / K ^ ^

p 4B P

mkhas pa,

C . j E p q ^ ]>C H ^

(18 vidys).

AS inserts one more

M t 4 (kumrasthna). C. ( H ) and BG ( ^ ^ ) seem to

support this reading. F or ilpasthna t h e P ali equivalent is sippatthna (P TS D ie.


s. v.), of which t h e number is often mentioned as 8, 12, or 18.
133)

antahpuraratikr d

(7), T. btsun mohi hkhor gyis dkyes rol, C. Qg 7 u x v

[ 329 ]

J. TAKASAKI

The renouncement of the world134', practice of asceticism135*,


Passage to the Excellent Seat of Enlightenment136),
The conquest over the army of Evil Demons137), // 55 //
The [acquisition of] Enlightenment138),
Setting into motion the wheel of the Doctrine139),
And the departure into Nirvana 140) ; . . . all of them
He shows in the impure worlds141', as long as they exist. // 56//
[The Buddha], the knower of means 142), creates an aversion
To the Three Worlds among the living beings
By the words, 4 evanescent', 4 suffering ', 4 non-substantial';
And by the word 4 quiescent', he leads143) them into Nirvana.
// 57 //
Those who have entered the way to Quiescence144),
And who imagine that they have attained Nirvana 145),

"> naiskramya (8), T. es-hbyu, C. J|fft ^

$f

^@ $ 4 'M- \ BG & AS,

| t | ^ < . . C. /ff/t {fcjjf; |f|J / ^\ ^ Q (devoid of desires) for naiskramya shows t h at this
term came out of Pali nekkhamma, which is, in its turn , combined in meaning with nikkma
(S. niskma). I n Pali, ' renunciation or to become a monk ' is often explained as ' to
reject the worldly desire, lust, etc. '.
13

> duhkhacrik (9), T. dkah ba spyod pa, C. f f

136)

bodhimandopasamkrnti

( 10) , T . bya-chub-si-por

( askin g for t h e wa y t o va r io u s t rthikas)


si-po,

^ f fif = BG & AS, ^

before t h is.

gegs pa,

F o r bodhimanda,

C. x c
T.

^T
nJJ JjQ

bya-chub-

C. 3tiL 3j%?j - This does n o t m e a n t h e actual obtaining of E n l i g h t e n m e n t .

137)

mrasainyapramadana

lSBS
138)

( 11) , T . bdud sde hjoms,

C. | % f ^

$ 11 ^pC ; B G

AS om.

sambodhi ( 12) , T . rdsogs par ni bya-chub

the next one), C. j S ^C %$? S

(T. seems t o have combined this with

; BG Jj% \ % , AS j ^ ft H .

139

> dharmacakra (13), T. chos kyi hkhor lo, C. $ f

_ h V Iffl ; BG

|f

V Iffl , AS & I S ^
$J ^
f $ffl (setting d/iarmacafera forth at Varanasi).
140>
nirvndhigamakriy (14), T. mya-an-hdas-par gegs mdsad, C. y\ . ^H j | ^
lavana, indicates Kusinagara).
141

' ksetra, T. s/ uri, C. [|9l . F or ksetra apariuddha, AS ^/|| ]yp J ^ .

142>

upyavid, (used as an epithet of the Buddha), C. / ]

143)

pratrayati, T. rab hjug, C.

i i 'p j

^^

y\ ..

144)

ntimrga. T. shi bahi lam, C. /$5


145) 'prpta nirvna samjinah' would be better, since T. & C. agree with it. (T. mya[

330

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga
146)

Them he diverts
from their former prejudice,
147)
Through the teaching of the True D octrines
In the Saddharmapundar ka and other Sutras,
And, embracing Wisdom and Skilful Means,
Makes them mature in the U ltimate Vehicle 148) ,
And gives prophecy for them to attain the H ighest Enlighten
ment. // 58 59 //
Being subtle, accomplishing the power 14 9)
And toiling excessively150) for the com pan y151) of ordinary beings,
In these points [the Buddha] should be known, respectively,
As the Profound, the Magnificent and the Magnanimous. // 60 //
H ere, the first Body is the Absolute Body,
152)
And the latter two are the Bodies in visible forms
,
153
These lat t er ' appear on the basis of the former,
As the visible forms appear in space. // 61 //

(VII)

NITYA154)

Now this threefold Body made manifest in order to be the support


for the weal and happiness of the world, has an ' et ern al' character
[in its manifestation]. With reference to this subject, we have one
loka.

an-hdas-thob hdu es can, C f= f $C ^flf ffi ^ j|) . C. adds ' "^f U p (Sfi A . ^
J 3 pfe t r J . r j,
146

> nivartya,

T . bzlog ste, C. $ M .

For grha C. M E ^

*fo.

147

) dharmatattva, T. chos kyi de-id, C. fZ\\ ~^ ^ 5


> Denoting the M ahyna. uttamayna, T. theg pa mchog, C. _ . ~ / ^.

148

149)

prabhva, T. mthu, C.~J\ , ^ ^ ~)\ . T. sna tshogs for sampatti is probably a


misreading for phun tshogs.
15
) ativhana, T. rab hdren, C. 3tE3 T K I^IE iM , (surpassing the treacherous path).
151)

srtha, T. don mthun, C. ^ * (sattvo). srtha means a caravan or traders.


Therefore, analogically C. interpretation of ativhana seems better.
152

> rpakya, T. gzugs kyi sku, C. ^ ^ J } . C. reads ' J f | Z l ' (the second)
for pacimau.
153J
antya. lit. th e last. (C. & T. as S.). F rom th e context, it should be 't h e latter
two '.

"4> Cf. AS 473 a {% .fc. # ffi ^

ft

[ 331 ]

? ), BG 811 a 6.

J . TAKASAKI

(Krik 12)
H aving infinite causes [for th e attainm ent of his st a t e] 1 5 5 ) ,
H aving an endless number of living beings to convert,
156)
Being endowed with Compassion, Miraculous Powers
, Wisdom
and Bliss15?) ?
G overning all the elements, vanquishing the demon of D eath,
And representing non substantiality158) ,
159)
The lord of th e World
is eternal. // 62 //
The summarized meaning of this [loka] is to be known by the follow
ing 6 verses.
Casting off his body, life and property,
H e has preserved 160) th e H ighest doctrine;
F or the benefits of all living beings,
161
162)
He fulfills ' his first vow
. // 63 //
I n his Buddhahood, there is made manifest
Compassion, pure and im m aculate 163) ,
16 4 )
H e shows his [four] bases of Miraculous P owers ,
By which power he abides in the world 16 5 ) ; // 64 //

166

> hetv nantyt, C. j ^ l {! $g j [ t B

> rddhi, T. hphrul, C. %\ \ ^t


157)

Ace. t o t h e co in m ., sampatti st a n d s for

168)

?), wh ich is exp lain ed in t h e

sampatti, T . phun tshogs,


C. JpC JjyC
' sukha sampatti
t h r o u gh m e d it a t io n ' .

naihsvbhvya, C. ] f <J$ pj^p" (svabhva pranta


c o m m . as bein g asamskrta a n d dipranta.
159 )

lokantha,

T . hjigrten mgonpo, C. T H "

ip .

160)

samgraha, T . hdsin, C. ^ipf }\ % . T h is saddharma samgraha


is t h e 1st cause
standing for hetv nantyt in the Krik.
(Az
^ vrW;
161)
uttarana, T. mthar hbyin, C. zhu JL W\
,
162)
dipratij, T. da-pohi dam-bcas, C. styi ||!f| (prvapranidhi).
Cf. BG S:

T h i s s t a n d s fo r ( 2 )
sattvadhtvaksayatvt.
F o r ( 3)
krnya( yogt).

163)

164)

rddhi pda, T . rdsu hphrul rka-ba, C. jZ!j ^ Q ^ . T h e r e are said t o b e 4 ,


n a m e l y : 1) chanda; 2) citta; 3) virya; & 4) m mms.
Cf. M vyu t . 40.
165)

So C. (J^X ' t K y7 ' K i t )

pahi phyir.

S. tair avasthitaaktitah, T. rfe yis gnas par spyod

F or akti, T. reads as if cary. This is (4) rddhi (yogt).

[ 332 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

Owing to his Wisdom, he is liberated from


The dualistic conception of Samsra and N irvan a 1 6 6 ) ;
167)
By his constant practice of the inconceivable
meditation,
168)
H e partakes of the complement of bliss , // 65 //
While he is acting in the world,
169)
H e is unaffected by the worldly elem en ts ;
H aving attained the state of quiescence and immortality,
H e leaves no room for [the activity of] the demon of D ea t h 1 7 0 ) ;
// 66 //
Being of an immutable n ature,
The Lord is perfectly pacified from the ou t set 1 7 1 ) ;
And he gives a refuge for those who have no shelter 172) ,
Because of these [10] points, he is 4 et ern al'. // 67 //
The first 7 of these motives show
The eternity of the P receptor 17 3 ' in his Apparitional Body,
The latter 3 demonstrate th e eternity
F rom the viewpoint of th e Absolute Body. // 68 //

166) p
167)

o r

( 5)

jna( yogt).

F o r acintya,

C. r e a d s ' citta ',

bu t T.

168) T h is is for ( 6) sampatti yogt.

169)

lokadharma,

bsam yas.

Ab o u t sukhasampatti, B G :

C. "t i t ffc . See N o t e V 4 7 . T h is is for ( 7)

dharmaivaryt.

170) p o r ( 3)
mrtyumrvabhagt.
171
) F o r ( 9)
naihsvabhvt.
172) T h is is c o u n t e d as t h e 10 t h c a u se, b u t h a s n o c o r r e sp o n d e n t t e r m in t h e K r i k .
I t seem s t h e c o m m e n t a t o r m a d e t h is m e a n i n g of arana, as t h e 10 t h c au se, o u t of
lokantha.
B u t B G S , t h o u gh likewise c o u n t in g 10 cau ses, o m it s t h is la st o n e a n d
c o u n t s ' samdhi' i n d e p e n d e n t ly o u t of sukhasampatti.
T h e 10 cau ses a c e . t o B G S a r e
as follows:
1)

W k ff i ft

(hetvnantya); 2)

M i t (karunnantya); 4) # 0 ft |

3)
[^ 7v' ^

&$ j l l (sattvadhtvaksaya);

ft (rddhynantya), 5) $ $ 'jf

$\

(avikalpajnnantya); 6) ' ( ^ ^pfc 7$$> /], jv? 1?A (sad samdhnnumeya);

7) g %. ^|| f (sukha & iva); 8) ff M # iffi


f A^ Ife A ffi Qoke vicarato
astadharmair anupalepah);

9) Jj U g. ^54 fr ) M

mrtyumrvabhaga); & 10) ,/$ ^


it is anutpdnirodha).
178

> For sstr, C. 4F ^

^ T ' U ZM (amrta ama prpti &

| ^ ^ | f ^

(sugata).

[ 333 ]

^ ^ (being as it is by n ature,

J. TAKASAKI

(VI I I )

ACIN TYA174)

N ow, this method of the attainm en t [of Buddhahood] by th e Buddhas


which represents th e 4 Perfect Manifestation of the Basis' is to be under
stood as of inconceivable character. With reference to this 4 inconceivabi
lity ', we have one loka.
(Krik 13)
Being unutterable, containing the H ighest Truth,
Inaccessible to investigation and incomparable,
Being the supreme, and relating neither
To the Phenomenal World nor to N irvan a 1 7 5 ) ,
The sphere of Buddha is inconceivable even for the Saints. // 69 //
The summarized meaning of this [loka] is to be understood by the
following 4 verses.
4

I t is inconceivable ' since it is unutterable;


4
I t is unutterable ' since it is the H ighest Truth;
4
I t is the H ighest Truth ', since it cannot be constructed by thought,
I t is 4 beyond investigation ' as it is in com parable 176) ; // 70 //
I t is 4 incomparable ' since it is the supreme;
I t is 4 the supreme ' since it is not included
[Either in the Phenomenal World or in N irvana];
4
N ot included ' means the Buddha abides in neither of the two
And never regards [in a one sided manner]
That N irvana is of merit and the other is of defect. // 71 //
Being subtle by the [first] 5 motives 1 7 7 )
H e is inconceivable in his Absolute Body,
And by the 6th, on account of his Apparitional Body,
178)
He is inconceivable because of no identification
174

> Cf. B G 810 cf., AS 473 ft.

175)

ma bsdus, C. *A* JfX

^j V~fc > j This

idea of ' n o t relating t o b o t h ' is t h e expression of ' apratisthita nirvna

'. BG S 3k, pjff:

bhava nty anudgraha,

r*; yXs < r c ^ fe

=0v

T . srid shis

AAS m e n t io n s t h e se 6 as t h e cau ses of in c o n c eiva bilit y.

176)

vyupameya ( ac e. t o C. ^JSj 4= f Pjpt > [ !) T h o u gh T . & S. agree i n t h e ir r e a d in g


' vyanumeya ', t h e wo r d ' vyupameya ' is m o r e su it a ble h er e, sin ce i t is su p p o r t e d b y t h e
r e a d in g i n t h e K r i k :
upam nivrttitah.
177)
F r o m ' u n u t t e r a b le ' t o ' t h e su p r e m a c y ', a n d t h e 6 t h is ' anudgraha '.
178)
atattvabhvitva, T. de yi dos-min [phyir] ( tadbhvbhvt). Cf. v. 40: vici

[ 334 ]

The

R a t n a got r a v i b h ga

With either N irvana or Phenomenal World. // 72 //


Being endowed with the H ighest Wisdom,
With the G reat Compassion and other virtues,
The Buddha, who has attained the ultimate point of virtue,
Is inaccessible to human tho 1 ";
Therefore, this final stage of tu Buddha
Is unknown even to the Great Sages 179)
Who have attained the stage of Initiation 180) . / / 7 3 / /
Finished is the second chapter entitled 4 the Enlightenment' in the
ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS, a Treatise on the
Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle.

trabhvo na ca tatsvabhvn. But C. reads ' J^X Tvf p3 ffit y3' (because of his obtaining
aivarya).
179
9
* maharsi. H ere 'maharsi , contrary to th e common usage of this term for the
Buddha, denotes the Bodhisattva of the highest ran k.
180)
abhiseka, T. dba. This abhisekat or abhisekaprpta was regarded in the old
fc/ imi theory as the 10th and the highest stage of Bodhisattva, n ext to t h at of the Buddha,
as in the case of the M ahvastu, &c. On this point, this verse (v. 73) seems to be an old
verse and is probably a quotation. The different usage of the term ' rsi ' in this verse is
also suggestive. C. om. this verse.

[ 335 3

C H AP T E R

III.

TH E PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA


3. BUDDHA GUNA l)

XIV.

G EN ERAL CH ARACTERISTICS OF TH E BU D D H A'S


P R OP E R TI E S
l

We have finished the explanation of the Reality free from Pollu


tions '. H ereafter, we shall speak of the ' Properties ' which are based
upon the Reality and are perfectly pure, being indivisible from Reality
2)
by n a t u r e as the brightness, colour and shape of the jewel are inse
3
parable from the latter. Therefore ', immediately after [the exposition
of the Reality], we have one loka referring to the distinct characteri
4)
stics of the Buddha's Properties.
(Krik 1)
The aim of one's own and th at of others,
[Consists in] the Body of the H ighest Truth 5 )
And the Worldly Emanations 6) based upon it;
1}

Cf. AS C h a p . I V (Tathgataguna parivarta),


p p . 473
m e n t i o n e d 180 venikadharmas i n c lu d i n g 32 mahpurusalaksanas,
dharmas.
A m o n g t h i s l a s t g r o u p , 10 balas, 4 vairadyas,
and
c o u n t e d be sid e s 36 o t h e r dharmas.
2)
abhinna prakrtayah
( B a h u . c o m p . m . p i. N ) . F o r t h is,
m e n t a l case, dbyer med pahi
ra-bshin-id-kyis.

c 475 c, i n wh i c h a r e
80 anuvyajanas,
& 68
18 venikadharmas
are
T . r e a d s as a n in st r u

3)
T. a d d s ' atas tad ', before ' anantaram '. C. also a d d s ' atah ' ()X ; < = | gj( ) .
B u t , as we h a ve t h e sa m e c o n st r u c t io n i n t h e b e gin n in g of C h a p . I V, i t is n o t n e c e ssa r y
t o ch an ge t h e Skt . t e xt .
4)
guna vibhga.
T h e t e r m 'vibhga'' correspon ds t o iprabheda'< in K 1.
5)
F r o m t h e p o in t of m ea n in g, t h e read in g 'paramarthak yat'' of M s. B. is preferable,
t h o u gh on e syllable is in excess b y ad d in g ' ~t '. I t is so m et im es allowable in such a n
old style K r ik t o keep an irregu lar m e t r e . B u t T . st a n d s for t h e p r e se n t S kt . t e xt .
6)

samvrtikyat, T. kun-rdsob-sku-id,

C. \\fr ffc jf?|J "HI.

[ 336 ]

T h e R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a
Representing the state of Libiration and M aturation 7 ) ,
The result is endowed with Properties,
Which appear in 64 varieties. // 1 //
What is told by this loka ?
The Body which represents the H ighest Truth
Is the support for the completion of one's own [aim]
8)
And the support for the fulfilment of others' [aim]
Is the Emanational Bo dy 9 ' of the Buddha 10>. / / 2/ /
The first Body is endowed with properties,
[10] Powers an d so forth, as [the result of] Liberation,
And the second one, with [32] marks of superman,
As the properties [obtained by] the M aturation [which follows after
Liberation] U ) . // 3 //
7)

visamyoga, T . bral[ ba], C . i M . p a t t ; a n d vipka, T . mam par


smin pa, C . f = p ;fvV
respectively.
H ere ' visamyoga phala ' means the dharmakya characterized as varanadvaya
visamyoga in Chap. I I , while ' vipka phala ' means the rpakya characterized as the
result obtained by causes (e.g. practices performed in the previous lives as in the case of
sambhoga kya).
8)
T. translates ' para ' by ' pha rol\ but it should be ' gshan gyi '.
) smketikam vapuh, T. brdayi sku, C. ~|U. \ fe *||jf ( = samvrtikya).
10

> rsi, T. dra-sro, C. #Q 3 ^ ^

^ 1 . Both T. & C. regard * rsi ' as a plural.

u)

vaipkika, T. rnam smin, C. ^ ^ 5 ^fc R m l (f r vaipkika guna) (th at


which represents the enjoyment of bliss as the reward of previous practices). As for the
attribution of qualities to each of the two kyas, i.e. paramrthakya and samvrtikya, C.
says t h at to the first body, infinite qualities of the Buddha are attributed, while to the
second body, the 10 Powers, etc., are attributed. Attribution of the infinite qualities
to the paramrthakya accords with the dharmakya's ' u n io n ' with paramrthalak
sanas which are indivisible, unthinkable, etc. as told in Chap. I I , but as far as the 64 Pro
erties are concerned, C. attribution does not match the commentary below.

[ 337 ]

XV.

64 P R OP E R TI E S OF TH E BU D D H A

H ereafter, the text refers to which are the [10] Powers and other
properties and how they are to be understood 1*.
Sum m ary2 '.
(Krik 2)
The Powers [of the Buddha] are like a thunderbolt,
I n [breaking] the hindrance caused by ignorance,
H is I n trepidity 3 ) in the assemblage is like th at of a lion,
The Buddha's exclusive properties are like space,
And the two kinds of corporeal forms 4) of the Lord are
Like the moon and its reflection in the water. // 4 //
(I) THE 10 POWERS
I t is said th at the Buddha is possessed of [10] Powers (balnvita)5).
(Kriks 3 4)
The knowledge of the proper and improper place 6 ) ,
Of the result of former actions 7) , and of the faculties 8) ,
l j

T h e r e a d i n g sh o u ld b e ' tath tad adhikrtya


T . deltar dehi dhadu byaspaho.
2)

' i n st e a d of * tathatm

T. & C. add t h e word ' uddna ' befo r e t h e n e xt K r i k . ( T . sdom ni,

~ '

adhikrtya
C. =f=r

'.
wL

mm

3)

viradatva,
T . mi hjigs pa,
C. 7k( fy\ "PC
4)
dvidh darana,
T . bstan pa rnam gis, C.
. >y][ Jj^J,.
5)
Prior to this sentence, C. inserts one sentence showing the following meaning:
" Hereafter, the remaining verses in Chap. I l l expose the 64 properties of the Buddha,
10 Powers and the rest, according to the order mentioned in the previous K r ik . I t s
d et ailed exp la n a t io n is t o be kn o wn accordin g t o t h e Dharan vararjastra
".
D R S h as, h owever, n o exp la n a t io n a b o u t t h e 32 mahpurusalaksanas.
Also C.
ch an ges t h e o rd er of verses in t h e c o m m e n t a r y ( t h e K r i k t e xt is arran ged in t h e sam e
o rd er as t h e Skt . t e xt ) , n a m ely, t h e verses sh owin g t h e sim iles, vajra, simha, ka &
dakacandra, are placed am o n g c o m m e n t a r y verses.
6
* (1) sthnsthna, T . gnas dan gnasmin, C. )fg& y\ "~ Ifet About the 10 balas,
see M v y u t . & D R S 14 c-18 a, AS 475 b, R D S 34 a b.
7)
vipke ca karmanm = (2) karma vipka
[-jna bala],
T . las rnams kyi
rnam
smin,

C . 7fc ? R 3^FC ( r e a d s vipka


8)

indriya

a n d karmanm

= ( 3 ) indriya parpara[ jna bala],

[ 338 ]

se p a r a t e ly) .

T . dba-po,

C. ffg ^PC

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a
9)

10)

Of th e component elements
and of th e fa it h ,
Of th e path which leads to everywh ere 11}, // 5 / /
Of th e im purity an d purity in contemplation, e t c .
13)
Of th e memory of th e previous abodes ,
Of th e D ivine Eyes

14)

, and of Quiescence

15)

12)

Such are th e ten kinds of Power [of th e Buddh a].


I t is said, [these Powers are] like a t h u n d erbo lt

16)

// 6 //

(Krik 5)
[Being th e power of knowing] about th e proper and th e improper,
About results, about elements and various faiths of th e people,
About

th e p a t h 1 7 ) , purity and im purity,

About th e complex of faculties, th e memory of former abodes,


About th e divine eyes, and how to destroy th e Evil Influences;
The

Powers pierce, break and cut down

The arm our, th e m ountain fortress18 ', and th e tree of ignorance,


Therefore,

th ey have

(II)

resemblance to

a t h u n d erbo lt

19)

// 7 //

THE 4 FORMS OF INTREPIDITY 20)

I t is said t h a t [the Buddha] has attain ed th e 4 kinds of in trepidity


(caturvairadyaprpta).
(Kriks 6 7)
[The Buddha's] I n trepidity is of four kinds, namely:
In his perfect Enlightenment of all the elements,
9)

dhtu

= ( 4) nn dhtu j

.-b.,

T . khams

mams,

C. ^lE

10)
n

adhimukti = (5) nndhimukti-j.-b.,


T . , mos-pa, C. |]=5 .
' mrga sarvatragmini
= ( 6) sarvatragminipratipajj.b.,
T . kunhgrohi lam,

12

' dhyndikleavaimalya,

v P tH W$* /$L
j.-b. (7).

sarvadhyna

T . bsamgtan sogs onmos drima medpa, C. pjffc


vimoksa

samdhi

sampatti
^

samklea

vyavadna

13)
nivsnusmrti, T. gnas-ni rjes-su dran-pa, C. | ^ , ^g^ J "ZC THT = (8) i>"r"
vanivsnusmrti-j.-b.
14)
15)
16)
17)

* na

divy caksus, T. lha yi mig, C. yC X = (9) cyuty-upapatti-j.-b.


nti, T . shi ba, C. ^ fjp = (10)
sravaksaya j.-b.
C. p u t s t h i s verse before v . 2 9 .
nay a. I t stands for mrga.

18)

acala prkra,
T . go cha rtsig brtan, C. l_L| ?||j f.
Abo u t t h e simile of ' vajra ', see v. I , 4.
20
> catur vairadya.
Cf. M vyu t . 8, D R S 18 a 19 a, AS 475, RD S 34 6.
19)

[ 339 ]

J.

TAJ4.AS AKI

In rejecting all obstacles,


In preaching the P ath, and in acquiring the E xtin ction 2 1 ) . // 8 //
He himself kn ows22) and causes others to know
All the things cognizable in all their forms;
He destroy everything to be rejected and causes others to reject
them 23> ;
24)
Serves [himself and lets others serve] in the m eth od to be practised;
And himself attain s and causes others to attain
The H ighest and Perfectly Pure State which is to be attained;
25)
Thus, teaching the Truth
on account of himself and of others,
26)
27
The Buddha , wherever he might be, is not paralyzed by fear >.

II 9 II
I t is said th at [the intrepidity of the Buddha] is like [that of] a lion 28 '.
(Krik 8)
Just as the king of beasts in the forest
Has always no fear and acts without fear 2 9 ) among beasts,
21

' The 4 vairadyas are as follows:


1) vairadya in sarvadharmbhisambodhi, T. chos-kun rdsogs-par bya-chub,
2) vai. in vibandha pratisedha, T. gegs ni hgog par byed pa, C. jlHi l j m4 J S . r ? ' >
3) vai. in mrgkhyna, T. lam ston pa, C. f/Q i jj. ;
4) vai. in nirodhpti, T. hgog-thob (D's ston is probably a misreading), C. \*f

v8v vB3 (flnsravpti).


This order agrees with that in RDS, but Mvyut. and others put the 4th one before
vibandha-pratisedha, under the name of sravaksaya (-jna).
22)
' svayam ' sh o u ld b e c o n n e c t ed wit h ' jnd ', a n d h e n c e i t is t o b e wr i t t e n wit h
se p a r a t io n fr o m
jpand.
23)
hni krana krti,
i n t h e sen se hni & hnikrana krti,
T. spans dan spo-mdsad.
C. reading in this and the next phrase is not understandable.
24
' vidhi. T. om. it. C. om. the whole phrase of ' sevye vidhau sevant'. About
the idea t h at ' mrga ' is ' sevya', see Chap. IV, v. 52. Also these 4, i.e. jeya, heya,
prpya and sevya correspond to each of th e 4 satyas, respectively.
25)
satya, wh ic h d e n o t e s t h e 4 fold
ryasatya.
26)
rya ( in p lu r a l) , T . dra-sroh ( = rsi), C. o m .
Z7)
astambhita [-tva], T. thogs-pa med ( = apratigha), C. ^ ^ "p^ ( = abhaya). (Cf. astambhin, adj. not paralyzed by fear, BHS Die). For this, BHS & Pali form is ' acchambhita % which is parallel to ' abhlta', ' asamtrasta ' or ' asamvigna ' (BHS Die. s. v.) and
more or less synonymous with ' virada '. (chambh Skt. stambh, ' to fix').
a8)
C. (in the commentary) puts the following verse before v. 32.
I9)
anuttarasta gati, T. skrag pa med par rgyu ba, C. 3 / p ^ (for gati, T. rgyu ba
= carati).

[ 340 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga

Similarly, the lion who is the Lord of Sages


Abides among th e assembly of attendance,
30)
31
32)
Independently , indifferently ', with firmness and victory . / / 10/ /

(I I I )

T H E 18 EXC LU SIVE P R O P E R T I E S 33)

I t is said th at th e Buddha is endowed with the 18 Exclusive P ro


perties peculiar only to him (astdavenikabuddhadharmasamanvgata).
(Kriks 9 13)
With the Preceptor,
34)
35)
There is neither error
nor rough speech ,
36)
N either loss of m em ory nor distraction of m in d 3 7 ) ,
Also, there is no pluralistic conception 3 8 ) ; // 11 //
H e is n ot indifferent, nor without consideration 39) ,
H e knows no deprivation of his zeal 4 0 ) , and of his en ergy4 1 ) ,
42)
43)
Of his m em ory , of Transcendental I n tellect , and of Libe
ration 4 4 ) ,
30)

svastha, T. legs gnas ( = susthita), C. n * H


(su sthita).
7T~ EH
nirstha, T. Itos med, C. A* "PC (without fear).

ll)

32)

sthira vikramastha.

T . r e ga r d s i t a s o n e a d je c t i ve (brtan pahi

rtsal

. . . ) , but

ace. to comm. verse (v. 34) and C , it is to be read ' sthirastha & vikramastha ' , C. !^ | p |
& si

^"TV , respectively. F or these 4 adjectives, see vv. 33 34.


F o r t h e 18 venikadharmas,
see M vy u t . 9, D R S 19 o 21fe, AS 4 7 5 6, R D S 34 6 f.

33)

34)

skhalita,

36)

ravita,

36)

musit smrti, T . dran pa

T . hkhrul,
T . ca co,

' ' asamhita

38)
39)

C . 3 * nsti skhalitam

nams,

citta, T . mam-par

nntva samjit,
upekspratisamkhy

( 1) .

C . p j " > n. ravitam ( 2) .


C . 3 c j3i> " ^ r ^ ^ "*" ( ^ ) #
ma bshag thugs,

C. -^i^ /.

of Skt.), T. ma brtags bta-soms, C. 3S f^

ft

jH[

^ - (6)-

40)

chanda,

41)

v ryo, T. brtson hgrus, C. )fpj j . . . n. vryatah h. (8).

42

T . hdun-pa,

> s m r t i , T . dran-pa,

43)

praj,

44)

vimukti,

T . es rab,

HPC ^LJ^ "*" (^)*

T . hdu es sna tshogs, C. ^ | ^ g? ^ i j > ( 5) .


(apratisamkhyya
is a B H S fo r m fo r yym
(fern, lo c . )
C. ij/V . . . n st i chandasya

C. ^ t . . . n . smrteh
C . 3 f . . . n . prajay

T . rnam grol,

h. ( 9 ) .
h. ( 10) .

C . J y p jjjjT . . . re. vimukter

[ 341 ]

(or tah)

h. ( 11) .

hnih ( 7 ) .

J . TAKASAKI

And of the intuition of this liberation 45) ; // 12 //


Has [three kinds of] acts 46) are preceded by Wisdom 47) ,
And his Intuition acts unimpededly in three states of time 48>These 18 and others 49) are the Properties
Of the Preceptor, which are not common to others. // 13 //
The Sage has neither error 50) nor rough speech,
Neither loses [his memory] nor distracts his mind 51),
Has neither pluralistic views52) nor indifference53) to one's own
taste,
He is never deprived of his zeal, effort and memory,
Of pure, immaculate Intellect and Liberation,
Of the intuition of freedom 54) and of showing all things knowable;
//14//
He makes manifest on the objects the 3 kinds of acts 55 ',
Which are preceded by 56) all kinds of knowledge,
And brings out the Wisdom, well extensive, without hindrance 57) ,
Constantly, throughout the 3 states of time;
Thus is Buddhahood 58) , endowed with Great Compassion,

*5) vimuktijnadarana, T. rnam grol gyi ye es gzigs pa, C. [ppp nju] 7H J^l
...( 12) .

M vyut. & D RS instead have insti samdher hnih (C. / . / 1 ' * XS).

46

' karman, T. las, C. p p | . There are 3 kinds of ' karman ', i.e. k. by kya, by
vfc & by manas, and they stand for (13)(15).
47

' jnaprvamgama,

T . yees sonhgro, C. J^J i i A , 2 ^ . .

48)

try-adhvan, T . o m . tri a n d s i m p l y , d u s . C. *, "(tr . ijna<> a c t in g i n e a c h st a t e


of t i m e , i.e. at ta, angata & pratyutpanna,
is c o u n t e d se p a r a t e ly a n d co n sist s (16)(18)
of t h e
venikadharma.
49)

anye ca, T . . . . da gshan, C. /&. S*R ' ' i ^ vL ^ I t is u n c e r t a i n wh ic h a r e


c o u n t e d b y t h is wo r d ' anye '
60)
praskhalita
= skhalita.
61)
The reading should be ' musitatcitte ' (as a Dvandva-comp., dual, nom., i.e.
musitat & acitta) instead of ' musitat dtte ' in the text. ' acitta* here stands for asa
mhita citta. (T. bsel da thugs-g'yo).
62
) n o sambhedatah samj. {sambhedatah
= nntva )T.
tha dad kyi
ni
hdus es.
63)
abhyupeksana = upeks.
64
' T. om. nidarana of muktijna nidarana (reading apparently ' vimuktij
nadarant).
SB)
I n p la c e of ' arthesu ', T . h a s ' yasya ' .
66)

purojava,

67)

aparhata, T . thogs med, C. TJJJ |*!p. PK] .

68)

ym ot, T . rgyal-pa-id,

T . son-hgro

( purvamgama),

C. . . . ^fo?{/ -2f.

C. # 0 ^ l ^ .
r 312 i

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga

And perfectly realized 5 9 ) by the Buddha;


And on account of this realization, he sets in motion in th e world
The great wheel of the fearless 6 0 ) Supreme D octrine. // 15 //
I t is said th at [these properties are] like space

61)

(Krik 14)
62)

The nature found in th e earth and th e rest


Is n ot the nature of space,
And th e properties of space represented by
N on obstruction, etc., are absent in material things 6 3 ) ;
The earth, water, fire, wind and the sky 6 4 ) , likewise,
Are common to all th e [material] worlds,
But the Exclusive Properties of the Buddha
65)
Are n ot in the least
common to those worlds. // 16 //

(IV)

T H E 32 MARKS OF T H E SU PERMAN 66)

I t is said t h at th e Buddha is possessed of the corporeal form endowed


with th e 32 marks of th e Superman (dvtrimanmahpurusalaksanaTpa
dhrin).
B9)

60)

F o r ' avabuddh ', T . bres (avalabdha), b u t C. as in t h e t e x t .


The reading ' abhayadam'
is to be corrected into ' abhayam'
(one syllable is in

excess). So T. hjigs-med, and C. ^ ^ "pC [fibu ?& Vz*] (Lit. i t is an adjective to cakra).
Cf. v . I. 4. (abhayam mrgam
didea).
61)
C. (in the commentary) puts the following verse before v. 35.
62)

dharmat, T. chos-id, C. ffc .

88

) rpin, T. gzugs, C. P |/ (th at which has form).


C. om. the word for sky from this line of elements, sothat the sky is to be
distinguished from the other elements. Did the author of this Krik regard the sky
as something material unlike ' space ' which, in its turn , is compared to the Buddha's
venikadharma in the first two lines ?
S4)

65)

v api. T. dul phran tsam, C. Jj

P ^!w * ^ ^ (even not a single dharma).

T. om. ' buddha ' of ' buddhvenikat, for which C. " ^ f$j # fl ^R 0 T ^ft If -SJ W>
66

> Of the 32 mahpurusalaksanas, see M vyut. 17, AS 474 a b, RD S 37 b c. Also

cf. AA, AA Chap. VI I I , The Prajpramitstra /^, ^


J fpg) attributed to N
grjuna. Of those ir the Ratna., see V. S. Agrawala, The Thirty two Marks of the Buddha
Body, Journal of the Oriental Institute, M. S. U niversity of Baroda, vol. I, N o. 1. Sept.
1951, Baroda, pp. 20 22.

[ 343 ]

J. TAKASAKI

(Kriks 15 23)
The feet are firmly placed, marked by circles on th e soles,
And with broad insteps and leveled heels which hide the ankles67>
The fingers are long 6 8 ) , and those of hands an d toes alike
69)
Are connected with each other by a web . // 17/ /
70)
His skin is soft an d fine like th at of youths ,
71)
H is body is round with 7 elevated parts ,
H is shanks are like those of th e deer 7 2 ) , and
The private parts are concealed as with an eleph an t 7 3 ) . // 18 //
74)
The upper part of th e body is like th at of a lion ,
75)
The parts between the shoulders are closely set and elevated ,
67)

supratisthita-cakrka-vyyatotsaga-pdat (1), which contains actually 4 marks

on feet, namely: 1) supratisthita pdat), T. legs gnas (lo), C. / ,

f* ^ J ^y* $ (flat

the feet); 2) cakrka-p., T. hkhor los mtshan-pa, C. -_& J ^ " Jp^g !pj|j; 3) vyyata p.,
T. yas- (cf. AA, yata prsnit); & 4) utsaga-p., T. mi-mon (' not evident', ' hidden '),

C. for 3) & 4)g 9)t K I t (but^^ftfft


4) AE 1E?C t^ | f l ) .
For ' utsaga ', AA & M vyut., ucchaka (or ucchakha), which
is an equivalent form of Pali * ussakha' and which retains the original meaning
of this peculiar mark.
T. translation ' mi-mon' matches better ' ucchaka ' than
' utsanga ' . The form ' utsaga ' is, therefore, probably a wrong Sanskritization of Pali
' ussakha*. C. traditional interpretation of this mark also supports this sense of'hidden
ankles'.
,i_y I Ki k l i ^yfcfc fc
68)
d rghgulikat ( 2) , T . sor mo ri, C. g^g" ^ Q ^gj $JPS j ^ .
69)
jlapnipdvanaddhat (3), T. phyag shabs ri dra-ba-yis ni hbrel-pa, C. ^jfjg

/T||
70)

TX

iB

tvamrdurltarunat

( 4) , T . pags hjam

gshon a can

legs-id,

C. -f* / , J ^

TTC W V (instead of ' tvak', C. h a s ' hasta pda '. I t agrees wi t h AA & M vyu t . ) . T .
gshon a can
(for taruna) h a s t h e m e a n in g, ' o n e wh o h a s flesh of yo u t h '.
71)

7 utsadas

saptotsada ar rat
( 5 ) , T . sku ni bdun dag mtho ba,
C . |flf /f\ L | | m /ppj ,
a r e n a m e l y : 2 hastas, 2 padas, 2 skandhas
& 1 gr u a .

72)

eneya-jaghat (6), T. byin pa enaya hdra, C. f^*

73)

ngakoavad vastiguhyat

74)

simhaprvrdha-kyatva

75)

nirantara citmat (9), T. thal-go bar-med rgyas-pa, C. ^ x /Ti h^r Ls| i n

( 7) , T . gsara gla-po

bshin-du

( 8) , T . ro stod se-ge hdra-ba,

/ ^ ^

^ . ^ | ^ [ j^ ] .

sbubs-su

nub, C. ^ ^ | . i t

C. _ C . p ^ ( 0 p jl ~ j

Cf. AA citntarmat. T. thal-go (for ama) means th e part between shoulder and
PFt BTC ~TT viffi
collar (go-pa, collar). C. often interprets it as indicating ' a r m - p i t ' (|WJ /J$ p (pft ,
AS).

[ 344 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga
76)

And his shoulders are well heaped arid ro u n d ;


H is arms are fleshy, tender and of no unevenness 7 7 ) , // 19 //
And are hanging low [down to the knees] 7 8 ) .
79)
The body has a radiant, pure halo around i t ,
H is neck is immaculate like a white conch 8 0 ) ,
81)
And his jaws have a resemblance with those of a lion . // 20 //
82)
H e has forty teeth all of which are equal ,
And are clear and closely set 8 3 ) , pure and straight 8 4 ) ,
And his eye teeth are white and of excellent form 8 5 ) . // 21 //
H is tongue is broad and long 8 6 ) , [by which he tastes]
The highest taste, infinite and unthinkable 8 7 ) ;
The voice of th e Self Born is like th at of th e Kalavika 88),
And has the most excellent sound 89) . // 22 //
76)
77

samvrtta skandhat (10), T . dpu-pa legs-zlum, C. (Wj ^


JJJJ
' vrttalaksnnunnmabhut (11), T . phyaghjam ri zlumshi mthon dmanmed

pa, C. f^ fyj _ l l |* /4'ifT This is n o t m e n t i o n e d i n AA. M vy u t . c o u n t s t h i s m a r k


a lo n g wi t h t h e n e xt o n e sa yin g *
sthitnavanata-pralamba-bhut.
78)

79)

pralamba bhut
( 12) , T . phyag ri C. j f|fc ^
^
Jj^r .
uddhaprabhmandala gtrat
(13), T . yos-su dag-pahi hod-kyi

dkyil-hkhor

dag

da Idan (om. gtra), C. Jtj Jf? ^t B |M .


80

'g^

'

kambu grivatvam

amalam (14), T . mgrinpa drimed duhdra, C. J j | 3I-I "XL

~H . This is lacking in AA, M vyut., as well as in R D S.


81

' mrgendrahanut

( 15) , T . hgrampa ridags rgyalpo hdra, C . |ipl ^ J ^ ^ p i p ~ j .

82)

so m catvrimad daanat

83)

svacchvirala-dantat

84

* viuddhasamadantatva

( 16) , T . tshems ni bshi bcu

( 17 ) , T . rab-das

tshems

mam-pa,

thags bza~ba,

( 18 ) , T . rnamdag tshems

mamid,

C. |_l ^ i f i y

C. p f c ^ i | * P 5

C.

JL. P | ^ )

^.
85)

]tgij P ^ .

ukla pravara damstrat

( 19) , T . mche ba rab mchog dkar-ba-id,

C.

. ^ J [Zj

This is lacking in AA & M vyut.

86)

prabhta jihvat (20), T . Ijags ri, C. ^ffl 'p[ J ^ ; ^ "Q" .


87)
anantcintya-rasarasgrat
( 21) , T . mthah med bsam med pa ro bro ba yi
mchog
id (T. seems to regard 'anantcintya' as adjectives for the previous one), C. jy\ J^.

M"t, & * * Ifc.


88

> kalavika-ruta (22), T. kalabika-yi sgra, C 3ij ^ ^


"JJO S A A A '
RD S om. it .
89)
brahma svarat (23), T. tshas-pahi dbyas-id, C. ^ y Q pfC J5L 5

[ 345 ]

J. TAKASAKI

H e, th e highest of living beings 9 0 ) , is of beautiful eyes, like a blue


lotus, with eyelashes like those of a bull9 1 ) ,
Of handsome face, endowed with th e immaculate U rna hair9 2 ) ,
Of a head adorned with th e Usn sa 9 3 ) , and of skin,
Purified, subtle an d of golden colour 9 4 ) ; // 23 //
H airs on th e body grow separately from each other,
Soft an d subtle, turning upward an d to th e right9 5 ) ,
H airs on his head are of pure blue colour like sapphires 9 6 ) ,
And his figure is fully circular like a N yagrodha tree 9 7 ) . // 24 //
H e, th e G reat Sage, whose body is firm and possessed of
The power of N ryana 98> , looks sublime an d incomparable9 9 ) ;

90)

agrasattva,

wh ic h is a syn o n ym of t h e B u d d h a a n d n o t o n e of t h e *m a r k s '

at all.
91)

n lotpalar vrsapaksma netra (24). This actually consists of two marks, na

mely:
1) nilotpalalar netra, T. spyan-bzas utpala, C.

. (3 $fk ft\\ ^ 3 , . . . Sj] "f^

2) vrsapaksmanetra, T. khyumchog rdsihdra[spyan\, C. o$rp Bp^ Zf^ ~~p* _*T*. .


92

' sltmalornoditacruvaktra

(25), T . shalmdses

drimed

mdsod

spu dkarbar

93

> usn sa rsa (26), T. gtsug tor dbu ldan, C. J j | _ C ^* twjM H .


vyavadtasksma suvarnavarna cchavih (27), T. dag-ci srab-pa da pags-pa

94)

gser-gyi mdog-hdra, C. # fe ffi ^ % . S tfc & fe &. & fc ^ ^ f


AA counts this one as two.
95
* ekaikavilistamrdurdhvadehapradaksinvartasksmaroma (28). T . basphu
legs phra, hjam shin, re re nas, sku yi gyen du g'yas phyogs hkhil ba, C.

^& . ^ ^ t f c t J U . K ^ f f l ^ f i l
C

tran slation ,
96

This is

jlj *

originally of 3 marks as

i.e. 1) ekaikavilista; 2) rdhvadehvarta; & 3) pradaksinvarta.

* mahendran lmalaratnakea (29), T . dbuskra drimed rinchen mthor mthi

bshin, C. H ^
97

^ flf ^ , P|? #P H P t M This is lacking in AA.

* nyagrodhaprnadrumamandalbha.

(30), T. yagro rsogspahi Ijon in dkyil

hkhor hdra, C. # J|Jjf ^g ^ ?# , JP ^ tSj ffi 3E .


98

' nryanasthmadrdhtmabhva

means Visnu), C. ^

f^ ^

(31), T . sredmedbuyi stobs mah (sredmedb.*

[I , | jftj SP M J AA & Mvyut. have not

got this mark.


" ' samantabhadrpratima

(tmabhva) (32), T . kuntu bzapo dpemed, C. ~ j ^ * - ^ *

' ^ "J 5 ^ (which reads apratigha for apratima). It is doubtful whether this stands
for one of the 32 marks or not. C. does not count it among the marks. T. is not
clear. And no other text includes it among the 32 marks.

[ 346 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga

These 32 features of infinite splendour are taught


By th e Preceptor as th e m arks 1 0 0 ) of th e Lord of Men. // 25 //
I t is said th at [the Buddha, with 32 marks] has a resemblance [to
the moon and its reflection in the water 1 0 1 ) .
(Krik 24)
Just as, in autum n, th e form 1 0 2 ) of th e moon is perceived
I n th e cloudless sky, as well as in a big pond,
Reflecting this blue sky on its water surface;
Similarly, th e disciples of th e Buddha
Can perceive th e manifestations of th e Omnipresent
On th e surface of th e pond like sphere of the Buddha. // 26 //
Thus these 10 Powers of th e Buddha, 4 kinds of Intrepidity, 18 Ex
clusive Properties of th e Buddha, as well as the 32 Marks of th e Super
man, being united under one head, make up th e number sixty four.
These 64 properties are to be understood,
Along with their causes for attain m en t,
One after th e other, according to [the same] order,
103)
Through th e investigation of th e Ratna stra .
/ / 27/ /
N ow, of these 64 properties of the Buddha, which have been explained
above, th e detailed exposition is to be known , according to th e same or
der as before, through th e investigation of th e Ratnadrikstra.
Also, there have been made illustrations of four kinds about these
[4] points, respectively, viz. examples of a thunderbolt, a lion, th e
space, and th e moon reflected in th e water. Of these examples, th e
summarized meaning will be given in th e following 12 verses.

100)

cihna, T. mtshan, C. 7ft\ ( = laksana).

" 0 dakacandra, C. 7jC *P M , T. chu zla.


102)

vibhti,

T . gzugs

( = bimba, rpa),

C. ^

~j\ . C . p u t s t h i s K r i k be fo r e v. 3 7 .

103) _ Ratnadrikstra, T. bu mo rin po chehi mdo, C. jpf > C flEE


two translations of this stra in C. :

I ^ i S t f i S S H

There are

(Chap. Ill of the M ah

samniptastra), Taisho, XI I I , pp. 28 6 40 b. This one is used here for reference with
the abbreviation of R D S ;
2

) 9, ~iC f$\ fB I S (Ratnadrik pariprcch), Taisho, N o. 399, vol. XIII,

pp. 452 472.

[ 347 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Being [respectively] impenetrable104', with no misery105',


Perfectly unique 106) and indifferent107),
[The Buddha's Properties] are illustrated
By the examples of the thunderbolt, the lion, the space
And of the clear moon with her reflection in the water. // 28 //
Of the [10] Powers, six, three, and one,
Taken respectively, remove all [the obscurations]
On account of the knowable, the concentrations,
And of defilements with their potential forces. // 29 //
As if they were piercing an armour,
Breaking a wall, and cutting down a tree,
The Powers of the Sage are like a thunderbolt,
Being heavy, solid, firm and unbreakable 108). // 30 //
Why are they i heavy ' ? Because they are ' solid ';
Why are they ' solid ' ? Because they are 4 firm ';
Why are they i firm ' ? Because they are ' unbreakable '.
And being 4 unbreakable % they are like a thunderbolt 109).
// 31 //
Being fearless, being indifferent,
Being firm and accomplishing victory,
The lion of Sages is like a [real] lion,
Has no fear amidst the assembly of audiences110). // 32//

104)

nirvedhikatva,
T . mi-phyed-pa,
thunderbolt can break everything).
105)
nirdainya,
translation).
106)
107)

avikalpa

niskaivalya,

T. mi-shan,
T. mtshus-pa

C. iMj J{RJ (breakable, in t h e sense t h a t t h e

C. 3tt i ^L* (withou t m e r c y , which is n o t a proper


med, C. sy* 5 |t!i (nib,' i n t h e sense of '

nirlha, T . g'yo-med ( i m m o v a b l e ) , C. ^S ^u* (indifferent).


a n d nirlhaka (cf. C h a p . I V , v. 19).

108) guru,

T . brli

( D . gli

is a m i s t a k e ) , C. j f ; sra, T . si,

atyanta1).

T h e reflection is
C. gyr ;

T. brtan, C. \S[ ; & abhedya, T. mi-byed, C. ~A* ^T $jS J H , respectively.


109)
C. neglects t h e first 3 padas of v. 3 1 .
110)
parsad-gana
C. adds one m o r e verse before v . 32, indicating t h e
ryasatya,
wh ic h m a k e s t h e a n a lo gy q u it e clear. I t r u n s as fo llo ws:

drdha,

4-fold

tamisfti M f t ^ s m.mm.m nmmM^


(The Buddha, having known the duhkha of sickness and its hetu, and having been
devoid of duhkha hetu, preaches the ryamrga, t h at is an excellent medicine, in order
to cause the people to remove sickness and to realize the nirodha).

[ 348 ]

The

R at n a got r av ib h ga

As
He
He
As

he has got all the supernatural faculties,


abides "in depen den tly' 111 ' from any fear 112) ,
4
is indifferent ' [about his superiority],
he is unequal by nature even to the people of purity1 1 3 '.
/ / 33/ /
He stands * firmly ' since his mind is always
Concentrated on all the elements of existence,
And he is i of the highest victory '
Since he has transcended the Dwelling Place of Ignorance. // 34 //
With the worldlings114) , with the rvakas,
With those th at act in solitude 115 ', with the Wise,
And with the Buddha, the Intellect is subtler with one after the
[other;
Therefore, we have illustrations in five kinds 1 1 6 ) . // 35 //
[The first four are] like the earth, water, fire and wind,
Because they sustain all the world,
[But the Buddha] has a resemblance to space,
Because his characters surpass everything mundane and supermun
dane. // 36 //
These 32 Properties mentioned above
Represent the Body of the Absolute,
Since they are indivisible from it,
As with a gem, the lustre, colour and shape. // 37 //
[On the other hand], the 32 marks are
The properties, visible and causing delight 117) in the body,
And are based on the two Corporeal Bodies
The Apparitional Body and the Body enjoying the Truth. // 38 //
To those who are far from purity and near to it,
The pure manifestation of the Corporeal Body is twofold,

i n )

112

svastha, T . mam par

gnas, C. ^f|p | X .

' akutobhaya, T . galas kya hjigsmed, C.

* \J)J }fin s^

~U<C

113) ' Indifference' in the sense that he does not try to see whether he is superior

or inferior. For this line, C. ^

J ^ f S f\j ffe

H ^

fpf J ^

J^l ^

^C

?R ^ T (tma asama daranatah).


' ^ | E ' is p r o b a b l y fo r ' nirstha '.
114)
C . o m . laukika.
115)
eknta crin, T. mthah gcig su spyod, C. f3? 4T
I t denotes the Pratyeka
buddha.
116

' C. takes ' -pacadh tu ' as if ' paca-dhtu ( T l, y\ ^ = paca-mahbhta).

117

> ahldaka, T. tshim byed, C. J | f t S


[ 349 ]

J.

TAKASAKI

[One is] in the World, and [the other] in the circle of the Buddha,
Just as the moon shows her form in both the sky and the water 1 1 8 ) .
// 39 //
Finished is the third chapter entitled ' t h e Properties of the Buddha',
in the AN ALYSIS OF TH E G ERM OF TH E JE WE LS, a Treatise on
the U ltimate D octrine of the G reat Vehicle.
118)

C. adds one verse more after v. 39, whose content is almost the same as v. 37,
the difference is only the use of th e word * rpakya ' in place of * dharmakya \

[ 350 ]

CH APTER

IV.

THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHAI)


4. JINAKRIY
XVI.

G EN ERAL CH ARACTERISTICS OF THE ACTS


OF TH E BU D D H A

We have finished th e explanation of the 4 Immaculate Properties of


the Buddha '. Now we shall speak of the functions [associated with those
Properties], i. e. 4 the Acts of the Buddha '. They are said to be mani
fested in two modes, i. e. 4 without effort' (anbhogatah), and 4 uninter
21
ruptedly ' (aprarabdhitah). [Therefore] immediately there follow t wo
lokas referring to the Buddha's Acts which are characterized as ' of no
effort and interruption ' (anbhogprarabdha).
(Kriks 1 2)
3)

The acts of the Lord are always effortless


With regard to the constitution of the con verts 4 ) ,
The means of conversion, and its 5 ) functions
[In accordance with the capacity] of the converts,
Working in [proper] place and in [proper] t im e 6 ) . // 1 //
H aving completely established the Vehicle 7 ) ,
x)

AS has a chapter of the same title (Tathgatakriy parivarta),


ing to associate with RG V in its contents.
2)
T . o m . dvau.
3)

vibhu, T . khyab bdag,

4)

vineyadhtu,

C. Iftf j $ j g

/ fc

but it has noth

J\ ..

T . gdul byahi khams, C. S j T U !^fC 3i

6)

T . read s vineyakriy

4)

taddeakle gamane ca.

for

vinayakriy.
F o r ' gamana ', T . gegs pa

(goin g).

F o r the whole

ph rase, C. "f^ jju ^ p Hvp (in accordan ce wit h proper place a n d t im e) .


7)

Par excellence, it den otes t h e M ah yn a .

I 351 1

So, C. ^ \ . ^P v

F o r nispdya,

J. TAKASAKI

The ocean

8)

of knowledge filled with th e multitudes of th e excel


lent virtues,
And endowed with the rays of th e sun of Merits and Know
ledge 9>,
10)
And having perceived th at Buddhahood , like space,
Pervading extensively and of neither limit nor middle,
Exists everywhere U ) in all living bein gs12) ,
13 )
As the treasure of th e immaculate virtues,
The Buddhas' Compassion, like wind,
Blows away th e n et of the cloud like [Obscurations]
Caused by Defilements and Ignorance. // 2 //
The summarized meaning of these two lokas is to be known by the
following two and eight verses, respectively.
To whom, by what means, how far 1 4 ) , and when,
About these m atters, there is no rise of discrimination;
Therefore, the Buddha's Act of conversion
Is [working] always ' without effort '. // 3 //
On account of the action of conversion 15) ,
4
Who ' means 4 th e constitution 1 6 ) to be converted %
4
17)
By what means '
denotes ' the manifold means [of conversion] ',
4
And where and when ', the ' place and time ' [of conversion] '.
Because, [this act of conversion is] non discriminative
8)
ratna svagarbha, T. chu mtsho (ocean), C. y^ , $ : 7|C _^, The Ocean is usually
said to be the ' treasure of jewels '.
9
* punya and jna are called th e two sambhras (accumulation th at brings about

the Enlightenment, C. p f q/ J C f ii.)*


^ n e compound should be separated after
rami and before pravisrta. C. misreads this passage and connects it with th e next
' buddhatva '.
10)
11
12

1S

F or buddhatva, C. ^

* nirviistam, T. khyad med, C. 3Bl


' sarvasattva (sattva in a collective sense) = sattvadhtu.

) nidhi, T. gter, C. $| It has a sense similar to ' gotra"1 (mine), or 'garbha*.


' yvat, which stands for ' yatra ' in th e next verse.

14

15)
16

vin ti kriy, T. gdul byahi bya, C. f b &

> F or dhtu, C. ^

17)

f^

I ^t ^

^E

(constitution, faculty).

Instead of upya, C. ^ ^
om, bhrin.

|j|; ( ^g in v. 3) (jna)

[ 352 ]

...(yena

jnena), and

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga

With regard to D eliverance 18) and its support 1 9 ) ,


To th e result of [partaking of] this support and the receptacle 2 0 )
which accepts this result,
And to th e obscurations [which cover] this receptacle and th e con
dition by which these obscurations are removed. // 5 //
4
[H ere] D eliverance ' means th e 10 fold Stage [of Bodhisattvas],
4
I ts cause ' means th e 2 fold Accum ulation 21) ,
4
The result of this Accumulation' is the H ighest Enlightenment,
4
[Its] receptacle ' means th e living beings
Who accept th e E n lighten m en t 22) . // 6 //
The phrase 4 The obscurations which cover this receptacle ' means
The innumerable Defilements, Sub defilements and Impressions;
4
The phrase The condition by which the obscurations are removed
And which works for all time ' means Compassion. // 7 //
These six points are to be known,
Like th e ocean and like th e sun,
Like space and like a treasure,
Like clouds and like th e wind, respectively. // 8 //
Being [the treasure] of th e water of knowledge
And of the jewel of virtuous properties,
23)
The highest Vehicle
is like th e ocean;
As keeping alive all living beings,
The twofold Accumulation is like th e sun; // 9 //
Being extensive and of neither end nor middle,
The Enlightenment has a resemblance to space;
24)
Being of th e n ature of th e Perfect Enlightened One ,
18)

niryna, T. es-hbyin, C. |& J F $ (to enter the path, p 4 jJ,)


' yna ' in the Krik.

I* stands for

19

' upastambha (in the sense, th at which causes ' niryna ') , T. rtonpa, C.
H ereafter, the pronoun ' tad ' in each case, denotes th e preceding one.
20)

parigraha, T. yos-hdsin, C. $qf *\\ ($$ in v. 6) ' parigraha' is here used


in the sense of ' nidhi ' (that which contains something).
21
* sambhrtidvaya, viz. punyasambhra & jnas. The former includes those
pramits of ' dna, lla, ksnti, v rya & dhyna ', and the latter, th at of ipraj\
F or sambhrti, C. Jfffif (satya).
22)

bodheh sattvah parigrahah, T. bya-chub-sems-can yos-su hdsin, C. -ppf pj !j/E

H3^ /3 \i* J 8 fr sattva). H ere the living beings are called ' bodhisattva ' in the
sense of those who accept (pari ]/ grah) the ' bodhi '.
23)
24

agrayna.

But T. & C. read ' bhmayah ' (T. sa rnams, C. fffj Jffli).

' samyaksambuddha dharmatvt, T. ya-dag-rdsogs-sas-chos-id-phyir,

[ 353 ]

C. J=J -^3

J. TAKASAKI
25)

26)

The living beings


are akin to a treasure ; // 10 //
27)
Being accidental, pervasive, and u n real ,
Their defilements are like a multitude of clouds;
28)
And, bringing abo u t th e dispelling of these,
Compassion is like a strong wind. // 11 //
Performing D eliverance for th e sake of others,
29)
Considering th e living beings as one's own self ,
And having works of no termination, [The Buddha]
Acts ' uninterruptedly' as long as the world exists. // 12 //

25)
a8)

27)

sattvadhtu.
nidhna,

T . gter, C . J i

(treasure under the ground).

anispatti, T. ma grub, C. jaR 3 C .


an adverb to anispatti (unreal everywhere).
28)

29)

For vypi, C. '

u)} , and regards it

pratyupasthna,
T . er-gnas, C. jr*-j .
Cf. the Avatamsakastra. (note VI 28) C. puts these two phrases after v. 10,

adding the following phrases before th em : ' J %$ $

T 354 ]

XVII.

9 ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BUDDHA'S ACTS

1. Buddha's Magnanimity.
I t was said th at Buddhahood is characterized 1} as having neither
origination nor extinction. Being such, how is it possible th at from such
an immutable Buddhahood, characterized as of no manifestation 2) ,
the Acts of Buddha manifest in this world, without effort, without
discriminination, without interruption, and as long as th e world exists ?
[To answer this question], in order to produce th e faith in th e sphere of
the Buddha on the part of those people who have misconception and doubt
about th e Buddha's nature of m agn an im ity3) , we have one loka with
regard to this magnanimous character of th e Buddha.
Like
Like
Like
Like
Such
1

(Krik 3)
Indra, like th e divine drum,
clouds, like Brahma, and like th e sun,
th e wish fulfilling gem, like an echo,
space and like the earth,
is th e Buddha [in his acts] 4 ) . // 13 //

^ prabhvita,

T . rabtu phyeba.
~~Z~~ liJ^f

2)

apravrtti laksana,

3)

F o r mhtmya,

C . SY* "^

St~~*~ V V s

<fX ^ P l

C . y C ~=P* ( p r o b . fo r mahkriy).

I n t he Krik te x t, C. says

' y\ . ^Tv ^ f !I ' (mahyna kriy).


4)
n a m e s of t h e 9 sim iles i n S. T . & C . a r e as follows:
1) akra, T . rgya byin, C. ^ff 4^P
2) [deva] dundubhi, T. [lhahi] ra, C. [^C

] tyj? ;

3) megha, T. sprin, C. -^jj ;


4) [mah] brahman, T. tshas-pa [chen-po], C. jrjj
5) arka (srya), T . ima, C. |Z|;

y\.;

6) maniratna (cintmani), T. nor bu rin chen, C. p ; / EL;


7) pratiruti (pratirutka abda), T. sgra-bran C. ?*g-;
8) ka, T. nam mkhah C. Jm. iE ;
9) prthiv , T. sa, C.

ftj,.

[ 355 ]

J. TAKASAKI

2. 9 Illustrations taken from the Jnloklakrastra.


N ow, of this loka which represents the topics in the Scripture 5 )
a detailed exposition will be given topic by topic in th e remaining part
of th e text according to the same order.
(I) I t is said th at [the Buddha has] a resemblance to th e form of Indra 6 ) .
(Kriks 4 20) 7)
Suppose here were a surface
Made of an immaculate Vaidrya stone,
And, owing to its clarity, there were seen on it
8)
The chief of the gods, with th e multitude of Apsaras ,
As well as his great place 9 ) called Vaijayanta,
Other gods10) and their various dwellings
Along with their divine glories U ) . // 15 //
Suppose then, th e multitudes of men and women
Abiding on this surface of th e earth,
Would perceive this vision
And make th e following prayer : // 16 //
44
May we too, at an early date12 ) ,
Become like th at chieftain of th e gods !" 1 3 )
And, in order to obtain 1 4 ) th at state,
5

* strasthn ya

// 14 //

[lokd], T . mdohi gnas Itabuhi [tshigs subcadp], C. J E ^ ^& rfflL

$ 13 *vv |= (Ivy)
(strrthasamgraha loka).
6
> Cf. J A 240 b c.
Text reading i pratibhsatvd iti ' is to be corrected into ' pratibhsavad iti '.
7)

H ereafter, the arrangement of Kriks varies much between C. & S. (T. agrees
with S.). Some Kriks in each simile are missing in C. while C. has more th an three
verses which are not available in S. (see my Introduction, II2) Mention will be done
in each case about omission and addition in C , and the verse number in C. Krik text.
(Prior to this passage, in Chap. IV, we have three verses in C. Krik text which are
equivalent to vv. 1, 2, & 13 in S. Consequently, in the following passages, C. Krik
number starts with N o. 4). C. om. vv. 14 26.
8
' F or apsaras, T. lhahi bumo.

*' prsda, T. khabzas. For Vaijayanta, T. rnamparrgyal-ba.


10)

divaukas, T. lha-gnas. (One whose residence is in heaven).


* vibhti, T .
mamman.
12)
T h e r e a d i n g sh o u ld b e ' vayam apy acird ' i n st e a d of ' adyaiva na cird ' i n S.
T. ed kya ri-por mi-thogs-par (ri-por mi-thogs-par after a little while, in a
short time. Jschke's Dictionary, p . 528 s. v.).
13)
tridavara,
T . lha-dba
(devSndra).
14)
samdya, T. ya-dag-blas te.
1X

[ 356 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a

They would abide adopting the virtues. // 17 //


Though having no notice th at this is merely a vision,
They, owing to their virtuous conduct,
Would pass away from the earth 1 5 ) and be borne to heaven. // 18 //
After all, it is an illusion,
16)
Of no thought construction and no activity ;
N evertheless, it would appear on th e earth,
Being associated with a great benefit. // 19 //
In th e same way, the living beings,
If they were pure in their faith and so forth,
17)
And were endowed wit h
virtues, faith and th e like,
Would perceive in their own minds th e vision of the Buddha, // 20 //
Who is endowed with th e visible features an d m arks 1 8 ) ,
Who acts in manifold actual behavior like
Walking, standing, sitting and sleeping19) , / / 21/ /
Preaching the D octrine of Quiescence, being silent,
Abiding in concentration of mind and showing
The various miracles 2 0 ) , and who has th e great glory. // 22 //
H aving seen him, the people who are filled with desire,
U ndertake th e attainment of th e Buddhahood,
And, having brought th e factors to development
They do attain th e desired state 21K // 23 //
After all, it is an illusion,
Of no thought construction and no activity;
N evertheless, it appears in th e world,
Being associated with a great benefit. // 24 //
Ordinary people do n ot notice
That this is merely a reflection of their own mind2 2 ) ;
Still this manifestation of th e Buddha's features
16)

bh, T. sa-ste (for abl. in S., T. reads as loc).


' nirhaka, T . g'yobamed.
17)
F o r bhvita, T . sgam pa
(bhvan).
18)
vyajana, T . dpe-byad.
' laksana-vyajana
' signifies 32
mahpurusalakranas
a n d t h e 80
anuvyajanas.
19)
cakramyamna,
tisthat, nisanna
& ayanasthita,
T . hchag pa,
bshes-pa,
l6

bshugs-pa

& gzims-pa

(Cf. C. %~J / Q i ^

HjK). These are called ' Irypatho ' ( T . spyod

lam, C. I ? fjt)
20)

prtihrya,
T . cho hphrul.
T h e r e a r e sa id t o b e 3 prtihryas.
Se e b e lo w.
psitam padam, T . hdod pahi go-hpha,
n a m e l y ' bodhi '.
22)
T h i s is a n expression of t h e ' cittamtra ' t h e o r y. W e h a ve a sim ila r e xp r e ssio n
in Lank,
(svacittadryamtra...).
21)

[ 357 ]

J . TAKASAKI

Is useful for 23) fulfilling their aim. // 25 //


Indeed, those who, having seen this vision,
H ave gradually established themselves in this m eth od 2 4 ) ,
Perceive, with th e eyes of transcendental wisdom,
The Body of th e H ighest Truth 2 5 ) within themselves 26>. / / 26/ /
Suppose, the earth, having become completely free from uneven
ness 2 7 )
28)
And having become pure from within , would be as clear and white
As th e Vaidrya stone, [because of its] being possessed of
The immaculate qualities of jewel and of pure even surface;
And, owing to its purity, there would appear on its [surface]
29)
30)
The palace of Indra
occupied by gods around him
as a vision,
But, as this earth would gradually lose its qualities,
31
The vision [thereof] would subsequently disappear '. / / 27/ /
F or obtaining th at state, th e multitudes of men and women,
Whose mind intends to perform charity and the rest,
Through observing rules regarding fast and con duct 3 2 ) ,
Would scatter flowers with minds full of sublime desire 33) .
Similarly, for obtaining th e shadow of th e Lord of Sages3 4 )
On their mind which is radiant like th e Vaidrya stone,
The sons of th e Buddha, with minds full of delight,

23

' avandhya

( n o t b a r r e n ) , T . don yod

24)

F o r naya, T . theg pa (yna).


d e n o t e s ' mahyna '.
25)
saddharmakya.
26)
madhyastha, T . na-gi.
27)

samanta vyapagatavisamasthna,

[hgyur]

(srtha).

T h e r e is n o t so m u c h differen ce i n i t s sen se.

T . kun dman pahi

It

gnas gshan dan bral ( in clu d

ing antar by reading antara as other ') , C. %ift. {fcjf|c j pfj |* . C. puts this verse after
v. 30.
28)
antar amal. One Avagraha should* be inserted between sthn and antar .
(sthn'ntaramal).
r *

>

29)

surapati, C. y\ [ f* , T. not clear (lha dag is a mistake for lha bdag?


30
' mhendramarut. F or this passage, T. lha dag gnas tshogs lha-dba lha-hi
gzugs ar te (which reads bhavana in pi. and seems to om. marut), C. y C
31

F*. jl^g, ||f "JTIJ

) C , K 6.
' upavsa vrata niyamatay, T. bsen-gnas (upavsa), brtul shugs (vrata), -es-par,

32

33)
34)

pranihita-manas, T. smon-pahi sems, C.


muni-pati (= buddha), T. thub-dba.

[ 358 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a

Produce various pictures3 5 ) [showing the Buddha's life, etc.] 3 6 )


// 28 //
Just as, on the pure surface of th e Vaidrya stone,
There appears th e reflection of the body of th e highest god;
Similarly, on th e pure surface of the mind in th e world,
There appears th e reflection of the body of the H ighest Sage 3 7 ) . //29//
The appearance and disappearance of this reflection
Occur due to th e condition of one's own mind,
Whether it be pure or im pure 3 8 ) , [respectively],
And, as the feature [of Indra or of th e Buddha]
Is seen only as a vision in this world,
So one should not see it as either real or unreal. // 30 / / 39)
(II)

I t is said th at [the word of th e Buddha] has a resemblance with


the celestial drum 4 0 ) .
(Kriks 21 25)
Just as, in th e heaven of the gods,
Owing to th e previous, virtuous experiences,
41)
The divine
drum, being apart from efforts,
F rom a particular place, from forms of mind 4 2 ) ,
Ajid from thought constructions 4 3 ) , // 31 //
Alarms all th e inattentive gods again and again,
By producing the sounds of i evanescence ', of 4 suffering \
Of ' impersonality ' and of ' quiescence '; // 32 //
Similarly, in this world, the Buddha who is all pervading
And free from effort and the rest,
Teaches the D octrine by his voice

s6)

dtra, T. reads cittni for citrni. C. tffj jgj / i~T


> C . K 7.
37
> C . K 4.
3

anvilata & vilata, T . rog-med & rog-pa, C. / 1"* 4J&1, ;|0 .


C. K 5. C. adds 4 verses here with t h e heading: ' anutpdnirodhas
tathgata
i t i ' , of wh ic h 3 a r e e q u iva le n t t o vv. 89 91.
40
> Cf. J A 241 a ( I n t h e o ld est versio n of J A, t h is a n d t h e followin g t wo sim i
les, n a m e ly : ( I I ) devadundubhi, ( I I I ) megha & ( I V) brahm a r e la c kin g) .
41
> T . ' dharma ', in st e a d of ' deva '.
42)
mano rpa, T. yid gzugs. This seems to correspond to ' arlra ' in v. 34, and
probably means ' manomayakya '.
43)
C. om. this and the following 2 verses (vv. 31 33).
38)

39)

[ 359 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Towards th e wo r t h y 4 4 ) without exception. // 33 //


Ju st as, in th e heaven of the gods, the sound
Of th e divine drum arises due to their own deeds,
Similarly, in this world, the D octrine,
Though it is preached by the Buddha, arises [in fact]
Owing to th e [previous] own deeds of the people 4 5 ) ;
And just as the [celestial] sound, being devoid of
46)
Effort, place, form and thought construction ,
Brings forth quiescence;
Similarly, this D octrine, devoid of those four 4 7 ) ,
Brings forth N irvan a 4 8 '. // 34/ / 49>
At th e time of the trouble 5 0 ) of battle, in the city of gods,
There is destruction 5 1 ) of the victorious play of the Asuras' army52),
Which is caused by the sound of drum
And gives fearlessness [among the gods];
Similarly, in this world, in preaching th e H ighest P ath ,
[Buddha's] speech destroys

53)

the defilements

And pacifies th e sufferings in th e living beings,


Which is due to various practices like contemplations,
Concentrations in th e Im m aterial Sphere 54) and th e rest.

// 35 //

55)

(On the superiority of the drum over the other musical instruments) 5 6 ) .
N ow,

why has the sound of th e drum of D octrine alone been re

ferred to and n ot th e cymbals

57)

and th e other kinds of celestial instru

44)

bhavya, T. skal ldan.

46)

svakarma udbhava, C. 3rC _ fcE|3?p H i


citta, which corresponds to ' vikalpa ' in v. 31.

46)
47

* N a m e l y: yatnasthnaariracitta.

48

> Snti, C. jS [ M * E

49

> C , K 12.
50)
Mesa. C. o m .

61

> pranudana,

52)

T . se-ba, C. $ 5 .

T. uses g'yul for samgrma, as well as for bala.

83)

pramathana, T . rab hjoms, C. $ 5^ . klea duhkha pramathana amana = klea


pramathana & duhkhaamana.
54)

rpya[ sampatti], T. gzugs med, C. simply / ^ (for ^S T / 7S)C. K 13.


56)
C. om. the following prose section along with vv. 36-40, and starts again with
v. 41. From the structural viewpoint, this passage (S. p. 102.20-104.12) is no doubt
an interpolation of later days.
67)
trya. T. sil-son.
56)

[ 360 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga
58)

ment ? These are likewise produced


owing to the previous virtuous
deeds made by the gods and make sound agreeable to the ear of deities.
[To this, we will answer: They are not referred to] because they have
four points of dissimilarity to the Buddha's voice. Then, which are
these [four] ? They are, namely, 1) partiality (prdeikatva); 2) lack of
benefit (ahitatva); 3) unpleasantness (asukhatva) 5 9 ) ; and 4) unconduci
veness to D eliverance (anairynikatva). [On the other hand] the drum of
D octrine summons the multitudes of inattentive 6 0 ) gods without exception
61)
and sounds at the right tim e . F or this reason it is explained as being
4
not p art ial'. Owing to its protecting [gods] from the fear of calamity
62)
caused by the invasion
of Asuras and others, and owing to its enjoin
ing [them] to take heed, its 'beneficiality' is mentioned. Owing to its
distinguishing bliss from the pleasure caused by evil enjoyment 63) and
to its bringing forth pleasant bliss in taking delight in the D octrine,
it is said to be ' blissful'. [And lastly], owing to its delivering the sounds
of ' evanescence ', i suffering ', 4 non substantiality ' and ' impersonality ',
64)
and to its pacifying all misfortune and perturbation , the drum is
4
explained as being conducive to deliverance '. I n short, the circle of
the Buddha's voice is qualified as being similar to the drum of D octrine
65)
through these four points . In regard to distinguishing the circle of the
Buddha's voice, we have one verse.
88

' The reading aghattit should be corrected into ghattit. F or ' . . . vad ghattit
eva \ T. . . . dba-gis mod kho-nar (because of their being from the power) '. ghattit '
in BH S has the same meaning as Skt. ghatita, i.e. ' produced' ' effected by ' or ' made '.
(BH S D ie. s.v.)
69
* F or these 4, T. itshe-baid, phanpa mayinpaid, bdeba mayin-paid
& es-par hbyin-pa ma-yin-pa-id, respectively.
60
* T. adds sthna after apramatta.
61)
kla anatikramanat
( lit . n o t crossin g t im e ) , T . dus la
mi hdah bas.
62)
paracakra, T . pha rol gyi
tshogs
(paragana).
83
' asatkma, T . dam pa ma yin pahi
hdod.
64)
upadrava & upysa, b u t T . e-bar htshe-bahi
phos-pa.
SB)
Throughout the passage, there is some confusion between illustration and illustrated subject. First of all, an analogy was given between devadundubhi and dharmadundubhi, of which the latter is identical with Buddha's voice. Here, the comparison is
made between dundubhi and trya showing the former's superiority to the latter. That
is to say, Buddha's voice is said to be compared with dundubhi alone, but not with trya.
But reference is actually made only to dharmadundubhi and not over devadundubhi,
though, if logically speaking, we should expect the comparison between devadundubhi and
divy trya. F urthermore, in the following passage, v. 37 refers to devadundubhi as
being inferior to Buddha's voice (the reading trya is quite a comtradiction and is to be
corrected. See below). F rom this point, criticism can be made on this passage to decide
that it is a later insertion and not perfectly consistent with the original part. Even

[ 361 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Being universal, bringing benefit and bliss,


And being endowed with the threefold miraculous power
The voice of the Buddha is superior
To [the sound of] the celestial cymbals. // 36 //

66)

N ow, of these four points, a brief explanation will be given in the


following four verses.
The sounds of drums in heaven, though be great,
Cannot reach the ears of those abiding on the earth;
In this world, however, the sound of the drum 6 7 ) of Buddha
Reaches even those in the lowest sphere of Samsra. // 37 //
In heaven, the divine cymbals of a million kinds
Sound only in order to kindle the flame of desire,
But one voice of those full of Compassion
Sounds in order to extinguish the cause 6 8 ) of the fire of suffering.
// 38 //
The sounds of cymbals in heaven, though they be pure and
pleasant,
Are the causes for increasing the elation of mind,
69)
The voice of the great
Buddhas, however,
70)
Speaks of the concentration
of mind in meditation. // 39 //

verses 31 33, wh ic h a r e la c kin g i n C . a r e d o u bt fu l of i t s o r igin a lit y, be c a u se, i n v. 32,


t h e ro le of devadundubhi is said t o b e t h a t of m a k i n g t h e so u n d of 4 mudrs,
anitya,
et c ., wh ic h is t o b e a t t r i b u t e d t o dharmadundubhi.
O n t h e c o n t r a r y, v. 35 c learly
sh o ws u s t h e ro le of devadundubhi as be in g t h a t of e n c o u r a gin g go d s t o t a k e p a r t o n t h e
battle field a ga in st asura, a n d t h is illu st r a t io n is also given i n t h e ba sic t e xt , i.e. i n J A.
As far as t h is illu st r a t io n of ( I I ) devadundubhi is c o n c er n ed , I a m in c lin e d t o t r u st
C. a r r a n ge m e n t as t h e o r igin a l.
66)

prtihrya traya,
T . cho hphrul gsum (Cf. C. J Z ^ ]$$ H o r J Z l 7 J ^ * H ) .
E xp l a n a t i o n is given in d e t a il a ft er v. 40.
67)
T h e r e a d in g ' sambuddhatryasya
tu ' given b y J . is n o t likely t o be a c c e p t e d .
Ms. B. reads ' sambuddhabhmer upaytV and T. gives a word for dundubhi (ra). From
the context, there is no reason for using trya to illustrate the Buddha's voice, and ra
ther it is quite a contradiction. There should be a term synonymous with dundubhi.
F rom this point, and in the absence of Ms. A, we may accept Ms. B reading by making
a slight change from bhmer to bherer (bheri = dundubhi). H ere, ' tu ' is not essential
for giving contrast between Buddha's voice and t h at of devadun dubhi.
68)
T . o m . hetu. T h e c a u se of sufferin g m e a n s ' klea '.
69)
I n st e a d of mahtman, T . r e a d s krptman.
70)
arpanabhva ( t h e st a t e of fixing u p o n . . . ) , T . gto-bsam-pa
(the t h o u g h t of
sending...).

[ 362 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a

In short, th at which is the cause of bliss,


I n heaven, on earth, as well as
In all the other numberless worlds 7 1 ) ,
72)
Is the voice
[of the Buddha] which manifests
Pervadingly in the world leaving no residue;
73)
And in respect to those
points, thus it is illustrated.

// 40 //

N ow, it is indicated t h at the all pervadingness [of the Buddha] thro


ugh the manifestation 7 4 ) of body in all the worlds of the ten directions
shows [his] 4 manifestation of miracles by the supernatural power ' (rddhi
prtihrya) 75) '. The illumination of the th icket 7 6 ) of mental conduct
77)
of living beings, as involved in the mind , by knowing the variety
of spiritual elem en ts7 8 ) , this is called the ' manifestation of miracle
through mind reading ' (den prtihrya) 7 9 ) . And, with reference to
80)
81)
the P ath leading to D eliverance, [the Buddha] preaches and instructs
th at P ath [to the others] by the example of the utterance of his voice.
4
This is called the manifestation of miracle through instruction ' {anus
tiprtihrya)

82)

Thus the circle of Buddha's voice is, like space, unimpeded and acts
without interruption, but still this voice cannot be caught everywhere
or in its full extent. This is, however, not at all the fault 8 3 ) of the
circle of th e Buddha's voice. I n order to explain this point, with
reference to the self fault of those who are not atten tive, there is
84)
one loka .
71)
anantsu lokadhtusu (f. pi.). T. reads divi and ksitau as a genitive and makes
them relate to sukhakrana.
72)
praghosa, but T. dbyas-id.
73)
For gamya, T. rab tu brten par (pratya).
74
* vikurvita, T. chohphrul ( = prtihrya).
75

> T . rdsu hphrul gyi


cho hphrul, ( C . Jj^ | T J N > J J , M v y u t . ) .
gahana, T . zab-mo
(gambh ra).
77)
tat parypanna
(tad d e n o t e s cetas).
F o r parypanna,
T . rtogs pa.
78
* cetahparyya, T . semskyi
rnamgras.
76)

79)

T. kun-brjod-pahi cho-hphrul, (C. f

80)

pratipad,

T . lam.

B1)

avavda

& anusana,

82)

T . rjes su

bstan pahi

T . hdoms pa
cho hphrul,

C* 7J> ^

& rjes su
(C.^

Mvyut.).

bstan pa.

||jj( 7 J N *| L , M vyu t . ) .

83

apardha, T. es-pa, C, j | ^ .
' C. starts again with this heading (atatprahitnm tmpardhe). F or a[tat]pra

84

hita, T. ma gtogs pa ( = na prajyate), C. ^ ^ jffJ.

[ 363 ]

J.

TAKASAKI

(Krik 26)
Just as a deaf person cannot hear a subtle voice,
Or even to a man of divine ears,
N ot all sounds become audible 8 5 ) ,
Similarly, being th e object of th e most 8 6 ) subtle Wisdom,
The D octrine, of subtle character, becomes audible
87)
Only to one whose mind is free from defilements. // 41 / /
(I I I ) I t is said th at [the mind of the Buddha in its activity] is like a
88)
cloud .
(Kriks 27 30)
Just as, in the rainy season,
The clouds discharge, without an y effort,
The multitudes of water on the earth,
Causing abundance of harvest 8 9 ) ; // 42 //
In a similar manner, the Buddha
D ischarges the rain of th e H ighest D octrine
F rom the clouds of Compassion, with no searching thought,
90)
F or
[bringing] th e crops of virtue among th e living beings. / / 43/ /
Just as th e clouds discharge th e rain,
Agitated by the wind, upon th e earth where
91)
The people behave in th e path of virtuous actions ;
Similarly, th e cloud th at is th e Buddha
Pours the rain of the H ighest D octrine
As the virtues are increased in the world
92)
Owing to th e wind of Compassion. // 44 / /
93)
Bearing
Wisdom and Compassion,
85)

T h e r e a d i n g sh o u ld b e ' . . . yti nikhilam ', i n st e a d of ' yntj. . . ' i n t h e t e xt .


T . r e a d s parama a s a n in d e c lin a b le (mchog tu).
87
> C . K 14.
88)
Cf. J A 241 b c.
89)
sasya, T . lo tog. C . o m . t h is a n d t h e n e xt ve r se ( vv. 4 2 , 43) .
90)
. . .sasyesu (loc.) i n t h e sen se of ' i n o r d e r t o b r in g h a r ve st ' . T . r e a d s " sasya
hetu ' a n d r e ga r d s i t a s a n a d je c t ive t o
saddharmasalila.
91)
kuala karma patha T. om. karma .
92)
C. K 16. (interchanging the order with the next one).
86)

93)

avabhrtka. C. reads something like ' pravrtka' (jrtl). T. has no equiva


lent word and, has instead ' chen ' (mah). Is it a mistake for ' can' (having) ? C. con

[ 364 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

Abiding in th e celestial sphere


Without affecting anything, neither perishable nor imperishable 9 4 ) ,
And being th e womb of th e pure water
95)
Of meditation and mystical formulas ,
The cloud like chieftain of sages
96)
Causes the pure crops in various worlds. // 45 //
With reference to th e unequality of receptacles in measure9 7 ) ,
(Krik 31)
Cool, sweet, clear, soft, and light 9 8 )
Is th e rain descending from th e cloud,
But having touched on earth the places filled with salt, etc.,
Becomes of tastes of much variety;
99)
Similar is th e rain of th e 8 fold H oly P ath ,
D escending from th e cloud, th e womb abundant with Compassion,
But, owing to th e variety of conditions of individuals1 0 0 ) ,
I t assumes many kinds of taste in th e living beings. // 46 / / 101)
10 2 )

On the impartial attitude

,
(Kriks 32 34)
103)

Those who have faith


in th e H ighest Vehicle,
Those of intermediate n ature, and those who resist th e D octrine,
nects ' bhavesu ' (in various worlds) with ' samvit'
line as follows:
7H ^rl r

(wisdom, T. mkhan) and reads this

IUJ> ' u * (H aving known the ' existence ', produces the Compassion).

94

' C. o m . ksarksarsaga.
-fcfe.
95)
dhran , T . gzus, C. *frf.
6> C. K 1 5 .
97
* vimtrat, T . snatshogsid (vicitrat), C. ' d ep en d in g o n bhjanaloka, t h e t a st e
of rain changes '.
98)
Of these 5, for prasanna, T. dan = dva-ba; C. says ' / V Sjj f^ 7JC' (water
endowed with 8 qualities), which seems to be merely an ' alankra ' in comparison with
the 8 fold H oly P ath .

"> rystga. But C. A . I I S


100
101

> santna, T . rgyud, C. [ ^


> C . K 17 .

^ ]

*[j* j | | .

102)

nirapeksa pravrtti, T. Itos pa med par hjug pa C. ^ yjg J'J 'u*.

103)

abhiprasanna,

T . da-ba

( b e i n g p u r e ) , C. jj=j .

[ 365 ]

J. TAKASAKI

These are the three kinds of living beings,


And have similarity with men, peacocks 1 0 4 ) and ghosts 1 0 5 ) , respec
tively. // 47 / / 106>
Towards the end of the summer, being of no cloud,
Men and those birds who cannot fly in the sky 1 0 7 )
Experience sufferings [from lack of rain];
In the rainy season, however, because of much rainfall,
The ghosts in the ground experience sufferings;
In the case of the living beings in the world,
Those desirous of the D octrin e 1 0 8 ) and those hostile to it,
The non arising and the arising of the water of D octrine
F rom the clouds of Compassion [cause suffering in each turn ];
109)
This is the point of similarity. // 48 / /
D ischarging the gross drop of rain, hail and lightning 1 1 0 ) ,
The cloud does not care about the subtle living beings,
N or about those who are on a trip in the mountains U 1 ) ;
Similarly, the one who holds the waters of Wisdom and Compassion,
[D ischarging them] with various means, methods and rules, subtle
or gross,
Does not mind anywhere those who are of Defilements,
Whether [in the burst of] egoistic view or in a dormant state 1 1 2 ) .
113
// 49 / / >

104
' ctaka, T . rmabya, C. jt^jivj ^** >"t/ (The peacock is said to be delighted when
he sees clouds).
105

> preta, T . yi dags, C. %& <j$& j | ) .


C , K 18. C. adds one verse before v. 48, explaining the 3 groups of sattvas

108>

< IE at * W ^ ; * # J ?R lit ?B J l ft 5E>.


107) vyomnyaprcrh, khag (= ctaka).
shows the opposit sense.
t *

T. mkhah mirgubahi bya. C. i^xsx *fifj '

y_i_ pe l

108) j r o r dharma kksin,


C. J g fj^ :gg . C. gives a free rendering for this passage.
109
C , K 20.
*
110)
aani & vajrgni, T. rdo than & rdo rjehi me, C. S f ^ I f ^ 3 &
U 1)

aila dea gamika, T. ri yul so-ba^ C. \X J\. (gamika).


112) fne reading should be ' kleagattmadrsty anuayn ' instead of ' kleagatn
drsty anuayn ' (one syllable short). Both T. & C. agree with this reading of ' tmadrstV',
T. bdag lta, C. ^> * P J ^ l But th e genitive case for tmadrsti in T. is not correct.
C. reads ' kleagata anuaya ( Q
113

> C. K

^p^) and tmadrsti.

21.

[ 366 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ga

On [the function of] calming the fire of Suffering,


(Kriks 35 37)
The [succession] of birth and death in beginningless time
114)
Is th e Samsra, in whose course
there are five P aths,
And in these five P aths, there is no happiness,
Just as excretion has no good smell at all;
Its suffering is constant and as if produced from
The contact with fire, swords, ice, salt and so forth;
But, to pacify it, th e cloud of Compassion
115)
116
Lets fall
the great rain of the H ighest D octrine. // 50 / / >
H aving known th at the transmigration [from h eaven ] 1 1 7 )
Is th e suffering among gods, and, for the human beings,
The searching for th e objects of desire 118) is the suffering,
The Wise men never seek for the best glo ry u 9 ) among gods and
men;
I t is because of their Transcendental Intellect,
Because of their following th e faith in th e Buddha's words,
And [consequently], because of their realizing analytically,
" This is suffering, this is its cause, and this is its extinction ".
/ / 51/ / ")
Illness is to be cognized, its cause removed,
H ealth should be attain ed 1 2 1 ', and a remedy used 122) ;
Like th at, Suffering, its Cause, Extinction and th e P ath ,
Are to be cognized, removed, touched 123) and observed. // 52 / / 124) .

114)
samsrti ( c o u r se o f t r a n sm i gr a t i o n ) , T . hgro ba, C . }fj|^ Jpq y.
see Note VIII-242.

O n ' anavargra

tfAe

115)

srjan (V srj), T. rab-tu hbebs (pravarsate), C. |*f .


> C. K 23 (placing after v. 52).

116

117)

cyuti-duhkha,

T. hchi-hpho (om. duhkha), C. ^Es

nf.

118

> paryesti-duhkha, T. yos-tshol-sdug-bsal, C. * j | ^ < 1 ( fc


One of th e 8 duhkhas. Cf. M vyut. 112.

fl|

^ ) .

119)

120

aivaryam uttaram, T. dba-phyug mchog, C. |EJ ffi*. 5+c.


C. K 2 2 .

121

> F o r prpya,

122) F

o r

sevya

C.1 R .
(nisevya

a like ) , C . jg ( t o b e p r a c t i se d ) .

123)

sparitavya, T. reg par bya (D 's rig par bya is to be corrected), C. / lil
term is here used in th e sense of ' to be experienced '.
124
> C. K 22.

[ 367 ]

The

(IV)

I t is said th at [the Buddha's apparitional form] is like the great


Brahma 1 2 5 ) .
(Kriks 38 41)
Just as Brahma, without moving from his palace,
Manifests his apparition, without any effort,
In the world of gods everywhere; // 53 / / 126) ,
Similarly, the Buddha, without moving from the Absolute Body,
Comes to the sight of the worth y 1 2 7 ', without any effort,
With his apparitional form, n all the worlds128) . // 54 //
Just as with Brahma, though he never moves from his palace,
H is manifestation, always pervading the World of D esire,
Is seen by gods and causes them to remove the desire of objects 1 2 9 ) ;
Similarly with the Lord, though not moving from the Absolute Body,
H is sight is seen by the worthy people, in all the worlds,
130)
131)
And causes them to remove all the stain s
forever. // 55 / /
Because of his own original vow,
And of the pure experiences 13 2 ) of the multitudes of gods,
Brahma manifests his apparition without any effort;
Similar is the Buddha, by means of his Apparitional Body. // 56// 1 3 3 )

On the invisibility1341

[of the Apparitional form to some people],

(Krik 42)
D escent from [the Tusita], entrance in the womb,
Birth, and the arrival at his father's palace,
135)
136
Merry life [in the h arem ] , wandering in solitude ',
125

> Cf. JA 242 a.


C. om. this and the n ext verse (vv. 53, 54).

126>

127
' bhavya, T. skal ldan, C. ]5j\ (in v. 55).
the M ahaynists.
128
' sarvadhtu. sarvaloka ( v. 55) .
129)

visaya rati hara,

130)

F o r mala-hara, C. / ^ ^
j^f ^ *
^ .
C. K 26 (interchange s v . 56 & v . 55).

m )
132

T . yul la

' anubhava, T . mthu,


C. K 2 5 .

dgah ba spo-byed,

It denotes here, par excellence,

C. ;yC . M . HK ^L

vf"

C JT

133)

134)

anbhsa gamana, T. mi-sna-ba (om. gamana), C. ^ ^ -A^ y^ (bhsnbhse).


' C. inserts ' ilpasthnakauala ' before ratihrlda. On these vastus, see S.
p. 87 88 (vv. I I , 54 56).
135

136)

C. divides ' ranyapravicarana ' into p lj ^< (naiskramya) & / \ ~f


vicarana or duhkhacariy), bu t T. dben par spyod.

[ 368 ]

f \ <f~J* {pT <1'

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a

The victory over th e Evil O n e 1 3 7 ) ,


The attain m en t of th e Supreme Enlightenm ent,
And th e teaching of the P at h leading to th e city of Peace 1 3 8 ) ,
The Buddha, though demonstrating such events,
D oes n ot come to th e eye sight of those who are u n h a p p y 1 3 9 ) .
/ / 57/ / 14<
(Y)

I t is said t h at th e Buddha [in his Wisdom] is like th e su n 1 4 1 ) .


(Krik 43)
When th e sun becomes sh in in g1 4 2 ) , at one and th e same tim e
143)
The lotus flowers awake and the K u m u d a
folds its flowers;
But th e sun has no discrimination in regard to th e water born flowers
Similar is the sun of th e Saint [in his acts] in th e world
144
I n regard to th e awakening of virtues and closing of defects '.

(On th e two kinds of people compared to th e two kinds of waterborn


flowers) 146>.
There are two kinds among th e living beings: one is th e non converts
and th e other is the converts.

Of them , with reference to th e converts,

there are th e simile of th e sun lotus and th e simile of th e receptacle of pure


water.
Just as the sun, without thoughtconstruction,
With his own rays, simultaneously everywhere 1 4 7 ) ,
Lets th e lotus flowers come to blossom,

137

' C. inserts ^Fjj J[jy yv J a. r^ (study under the guidance of tirthas) before
mrapramathana.
138)
C. inserts cakravartin before this. F or praamapura, C. ^ 1* ^ | , T. shi bahi
gro-khyer.
139
> For adhanya, T. skal-med (abhavya), but C. . jf^a ^ | 3 .
14
> C. K 2 7 .
141
> Cf. J A 242 b.
142)
tapat (<r \ Jtap), T. gdu-ba (tapati), C. Jfft .
143)
A kind of lotus or water-lily, which is said to open its flower at night.
144)
>
146
'
seems to

Yor guna & dosa, C. ^ J - ^ & >p] | J p , respectively.


C. K 2 8 .
C. om. hereafter up to the prose commentary before v. 63, and this passage
be an interpolation.
147)
eka muktbhir, T . cig car spros pa yis (ekatra klasamaye = sakrt). ' mukt '
means ' a flash delivered from t h e su n ' .
145

[ 369 ]

J. TAKASAKI

And lets th e other come to ripeness; // 59 //


Similarly, th e sun th at is th e Buddha,
With th e rays of th e H ighest D octrine,
Appears with no thought construction,
Upon th e converts resembling lotus flowers. // 60 //
With th e body of th e Absolute and t h at of Apparition,
Arising in th e sky of th e Seat of E n ligh ten m en t 14 8 ) ,
149)
The su n
of Omniscience pervades the world
With th e rays of th e Transcendental Wisdom; // 61 //
F rom which, everywhere in th e [mind of] converts
Who are like receptacles 1 5 0 ) of pure water,
Appear simultaneously innumerable reflections
Of th at sun which is the Lord. // 62 //
Thus th e Buddhas, though they are non discriminative, manifest them
selves with visible forms and by teaching among th e three categories of
living beings according to order. With reference to this order, there
is a simile of mountains 1 5 1 ) :
(Kriks 44 45)
152)

Although th e sun of th e Buddha pervades


Always and everywhere the sky like U niverse 153 ',
154)
H e casts his rays
upon the converts
Who are like mountains, according to their m erit 1 5 5 ) . // 63 //
156)
Just as, in this world, th e su n ,
Spreading out his thousands of glorious rays,
Rising and illuminating the whole world,
Shines 1 5 7 ) upon th e mountains, high, middle, and low, gradually;
148

> bodhimanda,
T . byachubsipo.
(manda = sra).
dinakrt.
150)
aya, T . snod (= bhjana).
151)
T . sryopamat, i n st e a d of ' ailopamat '. C . st a r t s wi t h t h i s h e a d i n g, sa yi n g:
' krame lokah '.
152) fn e r e a ( J i n g S ' visrte ' & ' buddhasrye ' are to be corrected into ' visrto ' &
buddhasryo ', respectively. Also ' vineydri ' should be changed into ' vineydrau '
(loc.) and be separated from ' tannipto '. So T., C. om. this verse.
153)
dharmadhtu,
T.
chos-dbyis.
154)
tan nipta. (sryasya nipta). F or nipta, T. hbab.
155)
yathirhatah, T. ji ltar hos par.
156)
saptasapti.
149)

157)

pratapati.

F or this, T. hbab (prapatati), but C. }j^ (as in the text).

[ 370 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a vib h g a

Similar is th e sun of th e Buddha which shines


158)
U pon t h e groups of living beings, according to their order. / / 64/ /
On th e superiority of [the Buddha's] light to [th at of t h e su n ],
(Kriks 46 47)
159)

160)

Of th e sun
, th ere does n ot exist th e all pervadin gn ess
I n all kinds of lands an d in t h e whole sky,
N or does he show all thin gs knowable [by removing]
161)
The t h ic ke t
of t h e darkness of ignorance;
But those who are of t h e n at u re of Compassion,
162)
I llum in ate t h e world with spreading ban ds
of rays,
163
P roduced from each h a ir ' and filled with various colours,
And manifest all thin gs knowable 1 6 4 ) . // 65 // 1 6 5 )
When t h e Buddhas en ter t h e city,
Those who are of no eyes perceive th e o bject 1 6 6 ) ,
And, having seen it, cognize how to remove th e n et of h a r m 1 6 7 ) ,
And [likewise] even those blinded by ignorance,
Who have fallen in to th e se a 1 6 8 ) of t h e P henom enal World,
And are obscured by th e darkness of false views,
H ave th eir intellect illumined by th e light of th e sun of th e Buddh a,
And come to perceive t h e T r u t h 1 6 9 ) unseen before. // 66 / / 1 7 0 )
158

> C. K 29.

159

>

bhnu.

160) parispharanat,
T . hphro, C . 3 ill / ff! .
161)
gahana, T . bkab ( < hgebs, t o c o ve r , sp r e a d ) , C. has no equivalent word and
W i ' ( n o t break).
<gf^ gg &PR
162)
visara, T . tshogs, C . ^ ffj $[FJ (abhrajla).
163) >p. & C. om . ' ekaikaroma udbhavair '.

has instead ' A^

164

> F or jeyrtha, C. J l l # P

165)

C. K 31.

~}

C. adds one verse before this, which runs as follows:

(The one w h o is of t h e n a t u r e of compassion,


Manifesting t h e t w o bodies, a p p a r i t i o n al a n d of W i s d o m ,
P e r v a d e s , like space, t h e whole world;
Therefore, t h e B u d d h a is n o t t h e same as t h e s u n ) . (C. K 30)
166)

F o r artha,

167)

anarthajla vigama,
C . $ $ ( ^ g J ^ V ^ . F o r jla, T . tshogs, C . jjffj ( several).
rnava ( B H S ) ( P a li annava ?) , T . mtsho, C . o m .

168)

C. ^

^ l j ( t h e great benefit).

169)
17

pada, T . gnas, C. l^m .


J C . K 3 2 .
[

25

371

J. TAKASAKI

(VI)

I t is said t h at [the Buddha's mind in its act] has a resemblance


to the wish fulfilling gem 1 7 1 ) .
(Kriks 48 50)
Just as the wish fulfilling gem,
Though itself is of no thought construction,
Fulfills all desires of those
Living in the same region 17 3 ) , separately; // 67 // 1 7 3 )
Similarly, those who are of different inclinations,
174)
H aving approached
the wish fulfilling gem of the Buddha,
Come to hear the Truth in its various aspects.
175>
But the Buddha has no discrimination regarding them . // 68 / /
176)
Just as the precious jewel, having no thought con struction ,
Produces the desired treasure, without effort, for others;
Similarly, the Lord always benefits others, without effort,
According to their merit, as long as the world exists. // 69 //
I t is said t h at the Buddhas a r e 1 7 7 ) difficult to obtain.
(Krik 51)

H ere, in this world, it is quite rare


To obtain the pure gem, even though the people so much
178)
Long for it in the depth of the ocean or under the ground
;
Similarly, the sight of Buddha should be known as
N ot easily achieved in this luckless179) world
" By those whose mind is afflicted by various passions. // 70 //

171

> Cf. JA 243 a.

iv2) yugapadgocara sthna, T. cig car tu spyod yul gnas pa, C. " fhj* jpj |j p p .
173
> C. K 33.
174)

sametya, T. brten nas, C. |p j " (living together) and adds ' Jjv

jg

>\j*'

(on the mind of Compassion).


17S
> C. K. 34.
176
' T. om. avikalpam, and for maniratna, cintmaniratna; C. om. the whole verse
as well as the next one along with its heading.
177
* bhva, T . hbyu-ba
( s t a t e of being). T, reads as ' durlabhaprptas
tath
gatabhvah '.
178)
ptla-stha.
T. sa-hog gnas.
179)
durbhaga, T. skal-an.

[ 372 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

I t is said t h a t [the Buddha in his voice] is like an e c h o 1 8 0 ) .

(VII)

(Kriks 52 53)
J u st as th e sound of an echo
Arising from th e voice

181)

of others

Is of no discrimination and of no
And

effort 182) ,

has no foundation, either inside or outside;

/ / 71 / /

183)

I n a similar way, th e voice of th e Buddha


Arising through th e voice of others
Is of no discrimination and of no

effort,
// 72 / / 1 8 4 )

And has no foundation, either inside or outside.


(VI I I )

I t is said t h a t [the Buddha's body is] like sp a c e

185)

(Kriks 54 55)
Being im m at erial 1 8 6 ' an d invisible,
With out su p p o r t

187)

an d without foundation,

Surpassing th e way of eye sight,


F ormless an d incapable of being shown,

/ / 73 / / 1 8 8 )

Though being so, th e sky is seen as low and h igh 1 8 9 ) ,


But, in reality, it is n ot like t h a t ;
Similarly, all kinds of forms are seen in th e Buddha,
But, in reality, th e Buddha is n ot like t h a t .
(IX)

/ / 74/ / 1 9 0 ) .

I t is said t h a t [the Buddha as th e foundation of all

activities]

is like the e a r t h 1 9 1 ) .
(Kriks 56 57)
192)

J u st as all plan ts

180

> Cf. JA 243 b.

181)

vijapti, T. rnam-rig. C. om, (but in the next verse, ' u * ) .


182) jr o r anbhoga, T . bzo med.
183
> C .K 35.
184
) C , K. 36.
185)
Cf. J A 243 c ( aft er t h e sim ile of prthivl.
J A p u t s t h is simile at the end).
186)

187

niskimcana,

' nirlamba,
> C. K 37.

T . cu-zad-med,

C. $ TW

T . dmigspa med, C . -jjtf ftpE-

188

189)

nimnonnata, T. mtho da dmah (high and low), C. J ^ J f* (as T.).


> C. K 38.
) Cf. JA 243 c.

190

192

' mahruha (== mahiruh), T. sa-las skyeba, C. -*p. / | V .

[ 373 ]

J.

TAKASAKI

Taking resort to the earth


Which has no searching thought,
Come to grow, thrive 1 9 3 ) and expand; // 75 / / 194)
Similarly, th e roots of virtues in t h e world,
Taking resort to t h e ground of the Buddha
Who has no searching thought,
Proceed completely towards growth. // 76 / / 195)
3. Summarized Meaning of the Illustrations given by the Commen
tator.
Summarized meaning of these examples is as follows:
The performance of actions without effort
196)
Connot be seen by us . Therefore,
The ninefold examples have been related
In order to clear the doubts of the converts. // 77 //
Its purpose [of teaching] is explained
By the very name of th at Scripture,
Where these nine illustrations
Are demonstrated in detail. // 78 //
l97)
Adorned wit h
this light of the great wisdom
Which is the result of study,
The wise men enter rapidly
In the whole region of the Buddha. // 79 //
F or this reason 1 9 8 ) , there are nine examples
Illustrated by t h e reflection of Indra
On the surface of Vaidrya stone, and the rest.
199)
In this sen se , you should know their summarized meaning;
// 80//
193)

vairdhi, T. brtan pa (become firm), C. om., and for vaipulya, j$C wu (^n *^e
trt

F&

it* *

* Ji.

next verse however, C. 3 g, J[jl , / P C , Jy[ for vrddhim upaynti).


*
194
> C. K 39.
195
> C. K 40.
196)
T. connects ikacid^ with ikriym\
C. reads as ' kriym rte"1 and om .
prayatnam.
19 7) >phe r e a ( J j n g ' lokdy-alakrth ' had better be changed into ' lokd alakrth ', according to T . which reads ' . . . hdis brgyan pa ' (etena alakrth). ' di ' gives
n o sen se. T h is verse st a n d s for t h e t it le of t h e s t r a , n a m e ly t h e
Sarvabuddhavisayvatra jnloklakrastra.
198)
ity artham, T . de don (tad artham), C. o m .
199)
tasmin, T . dehi (tasya), C. o m .

[ 374 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga
200

[N amely]: appearance, teaching *, pervasion,


Transformation 201 ', and emanation of Wisdom,
Secrecy in acts by mind, speech an d body,
Ajnd acquisition of those whose nature is of Compassion 2 0 2 ) . // 81 //
203)
[The Buddha's] mind , being of no thought construction,
Is such in which all th e movements of effort are pacified,
As given in th e examples, beginning with the arising
Of th e reflection of Indra on the pure Vaidrya stone. // 82 //
The ' proposition ' is here the pacification of effort,
The ' logical reason ' is the non discriminativeness of mind,
204
And, in order to establish th e 'subject in discussion' ',
i
There are given examples ', th e form of Indra, etc. // 83 //
4
And here th e subject in discussion' is th at
These nine, ' appearance ' and th e rest,
Are manifested without an y effort
And without birth or deat h 2 0 5 ) of th e Preceptor. // 84 //
4. Summary of examples given in Kriks2 0 6 ) .
With reference to this meaning (or subject), we have other four
lokas, being the summary of all the examples.
(Kriks 58 61)
The one who acts for th e sake of others,
Without effort, as long as th e world exists,
20
) darandean. A doubtful reading as J suggested. Shall we accept ' darsan*
as an irregular form for darana? If so both terms are to be written separately.
201)

vikrti,

202)

karun tmnm prptih, T. thugs rjehi bdag-id thob-pa-id, C. y \ .ft&ftjj

T . sprul.

C . J ji^ pjP; | f | j ^>p| gives n o s u i t a b l e sense.

^y^ SPA

Q faf. I incline to interpret that this ' karuntmnm ', which as a genitive case is
connected to all these 9. Karun tm, means the Buddha or the Bodhisattva. These 9
meanings are given to each of the 9 illustrations, respectively. N amely: 1) ' darana '
(darsan ?) for akrapratibhsa; 2) ' dean' for devadundubhi; 3) ivypi'> for megha;
4) 'vikrti' for Brahma; 5) ' j na nihsrti' for srya; 6) ' mano guhyaka ' for cintmani;
7) ' vg guhyaka ' for pratirutika; 8) ' kya guhyaka ' for ka; & 9) ' prpti ' for
bhmi.
203)
dhl (text, in pi.), T. thugs.
204)
prakrtrtha, T. ra-bshin-dow (prakrtyartha), C. as vicitra-artha.
In the
next verse, C. /p(,. . . =|=; (to establish the meaning) (/PC i s used in the verse for
' susiddha ').
205)
antardhi, T. hchi. But C. pg|fc | Pjflf Jjflj iffl (janmntarddhim rte).
06)
C. om. this passage up to v. 87, but mentions v. 88 at the end of the illustration of prthiv . As for the treatm en t of this group of verses, see my Introduction, I I , 2.

[ 375 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Like
Like
Like
That

n dra, like the divine drum, like clouds,


Brahma, like th e sun, like the wish fulfilling gem,
an echo, like th e sky and like th e earth, . . .
is [the Buddha] who knows a means [of precept]2 0 7 ) .
// 85 //
208)
The excellent teach er
has an appearance
Like th e reflection of the chief of gods on th e jewel,
His voice is like th e [sound of] the divine drum,
H aving th e great sphere of th e clouds of Wisdom and Mercy,
H e pervades an unlimited number of living beings,
209)
Up to th e highest limit of existen ce . / / 86/ /
Like Brahma, th e Buddha
Shows himself variously with th e apparitional forms,
Without moving from the immaculate place 2 1 0 ) ;
Like the sun, he shines always, spreading th e light of Wisdom;
And his mind [acts] like th e wish fulfilling gem. // 87 //
Like an echo is the Buddha's voice,
N ot being expressed by letters211) ;
Like space is his body,
Being all pervading, formless and eternal;
And like the earth is th e State of Buddh a 2 1 2 ) in this world,
Being the seat 213) of all virtues, th e rem edy2 14 ' of th e whole world.
// 88 / / 215)

2 0 7) yogavid, (as an epithet of the Buddha), T. rnal hbyor rig.


208

' sudaiika, T. legspar hdomsmdsad. The Buddha is sudaiika.

T. takes de

vadundubhi as relating to this word, and om. ' vibho rutam '.
209)

bhavgratah, T. srid rtsehi bar du.

The translation

is

according to T.

If we take ' agra ' as ' beginning ', the meaning is ' since the very beginning of
the world '.
81
) ansravt padd, which denotes ' ansravadhtu ', i.e. dharmakya.
211

' anaksara ukta, T. yi ge min


proper sense.

(om. ukta),

C. J ^ >fa ^p> ^H j/ wliich gives

212)

buddhabhmi, T. sas-rgyas-sa, C. \ffi IQ1.

213)

spada, T. gshir gyur pa, C. YS\, . . .

214)

ukladharma ausadh , T. dkar pohi chos kyi sman, C. yJ W a 7$

and ^Jr }$ *$ |j| (as the earth is spada of ausadhi, the Buddha's bhmi is
spada of ukladharma, being ausadhi), which shows th e proper interpretation of th e
simile.
l6
> C. K 41.

[ 376 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

N on origination and N on extinction of the Buddhahood 216) .

5.
1

Why, then, in this exposition of examples, is the Buddha, who is


always of neither origination nor extinction, explained to be seen with
appearance and disappearance and as having actions, to work among all
living beings, without effort and without interruption ? [To answer this
question, there are three verses].
Like the Vaidrya stone, the purity in the mind
Is the cause of the Buddha's appearance,
And this purity of mind is intensified
By the irresistible 217> faculty of faith. // 89 / / 218)
Owing to the appearance and disappearance of purity,
The forms of the Buddha appear and disappear;
219)
But, in his Body of the Absolute
th at is like n dra,
220)
The Lord does never appear nor disappear. // 90 / /
Thus, his actions, apparition and the rest,
Are manifested without any effort,
From the Absolute Body, which never arises nor disappears,
221
222)
As long as the world exists '. / / 91/ /
6.

The Point of D issimilarity 223)


This is the summarized meaning of similes
And this very order is told in order to show
That the dissimilarity of the former example

2i6) This passage is again doubtful with regard to its position in the text.
C. inserts the following 3 verses, along with one additional verse and with the heading
' anutpdnirodhas tathgata iti ' at the end of the 1st illustration, ' akrapratibhsavat'
(after v. 28). As for the treatm en t of this passage, see my Introduction, I I , 2. The verse

added in C before v. 89 is as follows: #H t S ^ S c


217)
218

asamhrya, T . mi zlogs pa,

> C, K

$ I

C. A^ Jsj?t.

9.

219)
220

C. o m . dharmakya.
> C , K 10.

221

' bhavasthiteh, C. '^jjj jf|j | rj^.


> C , K 11.
223)
So called ' vyatireklakra ( 0 ) . C. p u t s v. 92 im m ed iat ely after v. 84.

222

[ 377 ]

J . TAKASAKI

[With the Buddha] is removed by the latter on e 2 2 4 '. / / 92/ /


Buddhahood is like the reflection [of n dra],
But the reflection, being of no voice, is not like th at;
[Being endowed with voice, the Buddha] is like
The divine drum, which however does not match him,
Since it is not everywhere making benefits. // 93 //
[Being beneficial everywhere], he is like a big cloud,
Which however, having no seed of virtue 225) , is not like him;
[Being the root of virtue] 2 2 6 ) , he is like great Brahma,
But, being unable to ripen perfectly, Brahma is not like him. / / 94/ /
[As the cause of perfect m aturity], he is like the sun,
But the sun cannot remove darkness fully, so it is not like him,
[As the darkness breaker], he is like the wish fulfilling gem,
Which, however, is not as difficult to get as he is. // 95 //
227)
The Buddha has a resemblance to an echo ,
Which however, being a product of causes, is not like him,
228)
[Being of no cause]
he has a resemblance to space,
Which, not being the basis of virtues, is not like him. // 96 //
The Buddha resembles the region of the earth,
229)
Since he is the ground and foun dation
F or the achievement of all the virtues
230)
Of living beings, mundane and supermundane . // 97 //
224

' ' . . .kramah punah / prvakasyottarenokto vaidharmyaparihratah / ' = punah,


kramo uktah, prvakasya vaidharmyasya uttarena parihratah '. T. rimpa ya sama
phyimas chosmimthun spans-pahi

225)

sgonas brjodpa yin.

C. JTQ JlgiJ frf* f% /fc3t

srthabja, T. don-med-pahi sa-bon spo min (for ' na srtha... '), C. ^H ^"J?

TpQ ||fj ^"Jjl ~ jp .


I t shows the sense t h at ' megha ' cannot remove ' anarthablja ', in
another word, ' megha ' cannot distinguish either ' srtha ' or ' anartha '. After all J's
reading seems correct.
226)
C . ' b e in g acala like Brahma '
%
2 2 7>
H ere we cannot get the proper similarity of echo to the Buddha by means of
the same operation as it is used in former examples. Echo cannot be 'durlabdha'l
F urthermore, ' durlabdhatva ' of cintmani was mentioned previously (v. 70) as a point
of similarity to the Buddha.
228) ' tathgatavyoma nimittavarjitam ' ( I I , v. 20).
~J~~ / \ * fcii
229)
C. reads ^Y* U *]vf, being a dissimilation of ' prthivl ' with the Buddha.
But it is not the case.
230)
I n this series of illustrations, the author seems to have had an opinion th at the
earth is the foundation of everything, and consequently, is the nearest simile for the
Buddha. I t is, however, quite against the other cases in this text, where ' ka ' is

[ 378 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga

By resorting to2 3 1 ) th e Buddha's Enlightenment,


There arises th e supermundane P ath , and hence,
There emerges th e P ath of virtuous actions,
Consisting of meditation, the immeasurable mind
And th e absorption in th e Immaterial Sphere 2 3 2 ) . // 98 //
Finished is the fourth chapter entiled ' th e Acts of th e Buddha',
in th e AN ALYSIS OF TH E G ERM OF TH E JE WE LS, a Treatise
on th e U ltimate D octrine of the G reat Vehicle with th e commentary
[named] ' th e Summary of Meaning of th e lokas'. //
used as the most suitable simile for the Buddha. And as this very ordex was arranged
in the U dharanakriks against the order given in JA (which puts the simile of ' ka'
at the last), we may be allowed to say th at those U dharana kriks in Chap. IV were
not composed by the same author as t h at of the Basic verses in Chapter I.
231)

agamy a, T. brten nas, C. | i v ( = ritya).


dhyna, apramna, rpya, respectively. ' dhyna""stands for the 4 kinds of
dhyna (Cf. M vyut. 67), 'apramna'' stands for those, maitr , karun mudit & upeksa
(Cf. M vyut. 69), and 'rpya', for the sampatti in 4 kinds of rpyadhtu (Cf. M vyut. 162).
232)

C. adds one verse more after v. 98, saying:

JL~~ Jl~w

|3

Ji f

tit*.

| p 3fU j$. / & Pile (Buddhas perform these actions, without effort, abiding always in
[various] worlds, at one and the same time).

[ 379 ]

CH AP TER

V.

THE MERITS OF FAITH


(ANUAMSA)

XVI I I .

T H E M E R I T S OF H AVIN G F AI TH I N T H E

DOCTRINE

OF T H E ESSEN C E OF BU D D H AH OOD

1. The Superiority of F aith over Other Virtues in Regard to Their M erits.


H ereafter, with reference to th e advan tage of faith X ) possessed by
2)
those who are believing in these [4] subjects
which have been duly
described above, we have six lokas.
(Kriks 1 6)
The Essence of Buddhahood, t h e En lighten m ent of th e Buddha,
The Buddha's P roperties, an d th e Buddh a's Acts,
They are inconceivable even to those of th e pure m in d 3 ) ,
Being th e exclusive sphere of th e Leaders 4 ) . / / I //
But th e wise one, whose intellect 5 ) accepts th e faith
I n this exclusive sphere of t h e Buddha,
Becomes a receptacle of t h e whole collection of properties,
6)
And, being possessed of th e desire [to obtain]
The inconceivable properties [of th e Buddh a],
I
* ' adhimuktyanuamsa,
T . mospahi phan yon,
C . | p | *A/ \I&&
2)
N amely: Samal tathat (or tathgatagarbha) in Chap. I , Nirmal tathat in
Chap. I I , Buddhagunh, in Chap. I l l , and Buddhakriy in Chap. I V. T. & C. add ' ca
tursu ' befo r e ' sthnesu '.
3)

uddhasattva, T. dag pahi sems, C. [ p j

4)

nyaka, T . hdren pa,


C . YJW T h e ve r se c o r r e sp o n d s t o v. 23 of C h a p . I .
buddhi.
B u t T . a s if ' buddha ' . C . h a s n o e q u i va l e n t wo r d .
F or guribhilsayogt, T. reads -gunbhilst.

6)
6)

[ 380 ]

~|tr] {=p" A

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga

H e surpasses th e abundance 7 ) of merits of all living beings. // 2 //


Suppose there were one who, being anxious to obtain th e Enligh
tenment,
Would offer golden lands, constructed 8 ) by jewels
As innumerable as th e sands in th e Buddha's lands,
To t h e Lord of D octrine, always, day after day;
Another if he hear but one word of this teaching9 ) ,
After hearing of it , would have faith in this D octrine;
10)
The latter would reap merits far more than th e m erits of an
offering. // 3 //
Suppose a wise man, being desirous of th e H ighest Enlightenment,
Would keep pure moral conduct by his body, speech and mind,
Without effort, in course of innumerable aeons;
Another, if he hear but one word of this teaching,
After hearing of it, would have faith in this D octrine;
The latter would reap merits far more than th e merits of morality.
Suppose one would give himself up to th e mystic absorption,
Which suppresses th e fire of defilements in th e 3 wo rld s n ',
And, having been transferred 12 ' to th e abode of Brahman in
heaven,
Would be irreversible 13 ' from th e means of Enlightenment;
Another, if he hear bu t one word of this teaching,
After hearing of it , would have faith in this D octrine;
The latter would reap merits far more than even th e merits of th e
mystic absorption. // 5 //
14>
Charity brings people only to [worldly] enjoyment ,
15)
Morality leads people to th e blissful world ,
And meditation is conducive to th e removal of Defilements,
But th e Transcendental Intellect can remove

7)
8)
9)
10)

prasava, T . om., C. n ot clear.


samskrta, T . spros pa, C . o m .
itah padam.
' itas ', fr o m t h i s r e ligio n .
punya.

Cf. ito bhyas

X1)

tribhuvana,

12)

For prami gata, C. 3 / C 4 T 'tK ^ P

13)

F o r acyuta,

T . srid pa

gsum,

( S.p . 28. 6) .

C . _ I ^ ^*.

C . r e a d s ' h a ve n o . . . (3>); T . a d d s ' bhvan

14)

F or bhoga, C. 'f f ^

16)

svarga, T. mtho ris, C. ^ A

_ ^ ^5( (

to

^
381

et

richness as merits).

T3.
]

'

(bsgoms).

J . TAKASAKI
All

[the

obscurations

of] defilements

and ignorance.

Therefore, Intellect is th e supreme one [of all virtues]


And its very source is th e study of this D octrine 1 6 ) .

// 6 //

The summarized meaning of these lokas should be known*by th e fol


lowing 9 verses.
The
I ts

basis

[of

Bu d d h ah o o d ] 1 7 ) , its

tran sform ation 18 ),

properties an d th e performance

of

welfare

19)

In these four aspects of th e sphere of Buddha's Wisdom,


Which have been explained above,
The

// 7 //

wise one has become full of faith

With regard to its existence, power and virtue

20)

Therefore, he quickly attain s t h e p o t en t ialit y2 1 )


Of acquiring th e state 2 2 ) of th e Tath gata.

// 8 //

Indeed, as he is full of devotion and faith


Th at there
16)

exists ' this inconceivable sphere,

C. a d d s 3 padas

exp lain in g: "T h e r e fo r e , ruti is t h e su p r e m e . N eedless t o sa y,

a b o u t t h e m e r it of h a vin g fait h

after

h ea r in g of t h e d o c t r in e (;<j. | 5 \ p y f * W f"

W S
H S
E
W itb ^ fa ^ ) " T h i s arrangement of the 4 pramits
( wh ic h a r e c o n st r u e d wi t h t h e 6 pramits b y t h e c o m m e n t a t o r ) seem s t o sh o w t h e p r e
vio u s st a ge of t h e 'pramit'
d o c t r i n e . O f t h e se 4, t h e first 3 a r e c a lled '
punyakriy
vastu ' (Cf. M vyu t . 93) a n d r e p r e se n t ' punya sambhra
'.
17)

raya, T . gnas, C . ; *. I t d e n o t e s ' dhtu' o r


'tathgatagarbha'.
is) "plug j s t h g o n ly c a se wh e r e t h e t e r m ' parvrtti ' is u se d i n st e a d of ' parivrtti
( T . gyur pa, C . [yjC\ J y Tyf- P r o b a b l y t h e original r e a d i n g w a s ' -parivrttau'
suggested. B u t t h e r e is n o proof for this suggestion.
19)

artha sdhana,

20)

astitva, aktatva & gunavattva; T. yod[~id], nus-id, yon-tan-ldan-pa;

C . /XXr Spfc? T . don grub.

T h is is fo r ' buddhakriy

'.

as J .

'.
C. ^pj ,

^+^ JL i r f W?f 4AJ l > resp. BGS makes use of these 3 points in various passages:
794 6, 795 c-796 a (applied to the 3 meanings of tathgatagarbha); 799 c (adding ' acintyatva ' ,
counts 4 points of faith); 811 b (as the first 3 of the 5 meanings of garbha explained through
9 illustrations); 812 c 813 a (as th e 3 fundamental points of discussion of the work).
This theory of ' 3 points of faith ' is often found in t h e works of Vijnavda with
the order of ' astivta gunavattva aktatva ', bu t t h e reference is to ' karma phala', ' rya
satya ' , and ' triratna ' , and not to ' gotra'. (e. g. VMT Bhsya, p . 26, 11. 24 30; H san g
chuang's t r . of MSbh, Taisho 31, p . 350 b, etc.). I t s application to gotra seems t o
belong only to th e Ratna. and BG . (Cf. MSbh (P ), 194 6 200 c, where it is applied
to 'gotra astitva', probably under th e influence of th e Ratna.).
21)

bhavyat, T. skal ldan (om. t) C. ^ ^ _ . J s . (bhavyat in th e sense of ' excel


lence ' and is regarded as an apposition to 'tathgata padpti').
22

> pada, T. go-hpha, C. ffi ft S I


[

382 ]

The

R at n a got r av ib h ga

23)

That it can ' be realized by one like h im ,


And this sphere, ' endowed with such virtues ', has been attained,
// 9 //
24)
So in him the mind intent on E n lighten m en t ,
Being a receptacle of virtues like zeal, energy,
Memory, contemplation, Transcendental Intellect, etc.,
Comes to exist always. // 10 //
As this mind constantly exists25) ,
The son of the Buddha becomes irreversible,
And he reaches the accomplishment and the perfect pu rit y 2 6 ',
27)
With regard to the H ighest of Merits . // 11 //
4
The [H ighest of] Merits ' means the [first] 5 H ighest virtues,
4
I ts accomplishment ' is owing to his being non discriminative
28)
With regard to the three aspects [of activity] ,
4
And th e perfect purity' is caused by his removal of the opponents.
Charity is the merit consisting of granting gift,
Morality is the merit consisting of moral conduct,
And both Patience and Meditation, is th at of practice,
But Exertion is the merit common to all. // 13 //
D iscrimination regarding the 3 aspects of activity,
That i$ the Obscuration of Ignorance;
The oppon en ts2 9 ) [to the 5 H ighest Virtues], jealousy, etc.,
They are the Obscurations of Defilements. // 14 //
But, without the H ighest Intellect,
The other 5 cannot be the cause of their removal;
Therefore, the H ighest Intellect is the supreme one of all,
And, as the source of i t 3 0 ) is the study [of this D octrine],
I t is this study th at is the most important. // 15 //
23

' lit. like me. (mdrsa).

24

> bodhicitta, T. bya-chub-sems, C. 3 S - t i^T "SI ^

25)

in t o '
26)

According to T. & C , t h e r e a d i n g ' taccittapratyupasthnd


' is t o b e c o r r e c t e d
tannityapratyupasthnd'.
pri & pariuddhi.
B o t h a r e t o be t a k e n as c o n n e c t i n g wi t h punyapramit
'.

For 'p r i', T. rdsogs, C. = p ^ , = p J ^ gg JJC %A 27)

punya pramit, which corresponds

to

' punya sambhra '.

T. bsod nams, C. j)
f^.
28)
I t is exp la in e d in v. 14 as ' trimandala pariuddhi,.
an d ' gi ft ' .
29)
80)

For

punya\

3 a r e ' gi ve r ' , ' r e c e i ve r '

F o r vipaksa, T . r e a d s vikalpa.
B u t it is n o t t h e case (see v. 12) C. )y\ J O V S
T h e r e a d in g ' ea sy a ' is t o be c o r r ec t e d in t o 'csy"1 ( bein g a p r o n o u m for praj).

[ 383 ]

J. TAKASAKI

2. Authority, Motive, and Characteristics of This Text Being th e Cor


rect D octrine.
[H ereafter we have lokas mentioning on which basis, for what mo
tive, and how this doctrine has been explained and what characteristics
it has. F irst of all, with reference to th e basis and motive, there is one
loka].

(Krik 7)
Thus, on th e basis of th e authoritative Scripture and of Logic 32) ,
This treatise is expounded by me in order to attain
Perfect purification for myself, exclusively;
33)
At th e same time, however, this is in order to assist
Those intelligent people who are endowed with faith
34)
And accomplishment of virtues . / / 16/ /
[N ext we have one loka stating how this treatise is explained] 35)
(Krik 8)
Just as, with th e aid of a lamp, of lightning,
Of a precious stone, of th e moon and th e su n 3 6 ) ,
Those possessed of vision can perceive objects;
Similarly, I have expounded this treatise
31)
The headings which are given in brackets are missing in S. Except for this and
the last one, i.e. the heading for v. 24, T. retains all th e headings, and C , has all
of them, including those two. This one is according to C. The topic of each loka is,
however, given in the commentary verse.
Emendation: (atah, param yata ca yannimittam ca yath ca yadudhrtam tadrab
hya lokh / ) tatra yamraye yannimittam codhrtam tadrabhya lokah / .
The following passage containing 10 Kriks (vv. 16 25) and 3 commentary verses
(vv. 26 28) along with heading thereon is inserted with exact order aVid wording in
P aram rtha's t r. of MSbh (Taisho 31, p . 270 a b).
32)
ptgama & yukti, T. yid-ches-lu & rigs-pa. But C. seems to divide the first

one into ' pta ' & ' gama ' and says ' |f$ jfti yfc ^ , f^ j3> ff| ^ Q | | j | ' (' pta '
in th e sense of ' ptavacana ') .
88

' anugraha, T. rje-su-gzu, C. ^ g .


kualpasampad.
C . o m . ' kualasampad
'.
35)
katham (or yath) udhrtam tadrabhya lokah / , according to T. C. 'kirn artham

34)

iti..

36)

bhskara.

[ 384 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga
37)

Relying upon th e Lord who is th e su n


38)
M anifesting t h e D octrine of great welfare.

// 17 //

[Then we have one loka stating the characteristics of th e correct


39
doctrine] >.
(Krik 9)
Whatever

th e wo rd

40)

t h at is connected with th e scriptural


texts41>
I t pursues th e [ultimate] aim [of living beings] 4 2 ) ,
Is conducive to removing th e Defilements in th e 3 Worlds,
And can demonstrate th e advantage of Quiescence,
Such a word is t h at of th e G reat Sage 4 3 ) ,
And all others are of perverse character 4 4 ) . // 18 //
[N ext we have one loka stating by what means this treatise is expla
ined] 45>.
(Krik 10)
Whatever is spoken by those whose mind is n ot distracted
And who refer to 4 6 ) th e Lord as th e only Preceptor,

37)
prabhkara.
B u t T . hod mdsad pa
( illu m in a t in g) . C . ~J\ Z tj/ j ( illu m in a t io n ,
ligh t ) is fo r e it h e r ' prabhkara ' o r ' pratibh ' .
38)
pratibh, T . spobs ( O . flash of id e a ) . F o r v. 17 c d, C . r e a d s:

(Similarly, by the light of the Buddha's doctrine, those possessed of vision of intelli
gence come to see. As the doctrine has such a benefit, I have expounded this teaching).
39)

Ace. to C. (f$C $L $ i i^O B u t T 'yadudhrtam tadrabhya lokah ' . C. gives


clearer sense though the original S. was probably as T.
40

> vacas, T. gsu, C. ffi U .

41)

dharmapada,

42)

arthavat,

T . chos ( o m . pada),

T . don ldan,

C. V ^ / f j .

C . ^ J $ , a n d se p a r a t e s i t fr o m dharmapada

43)
rsa, T. dra-sro-gsu, C. "j^j jgj [ ^
gama, used originally for the Vedas.
\^i~jr^ yT*l

( ^ | IpB*

j j ^ ] . This term rsa is, like pt-

^I->ft

44)

viparita, T . bzlog-pa, C. ^
Jji] | J C T i l i s verse is q u o t e d i n t h e Bodhicaryvatra pajik
( Bibl. I n d . ed it io n , p . 432) .
46)
Ac e . t o T . , yendhrtam tadrabhya lokah; C. p u t s h er e t h e h e a d in g wh ic h is t o
b e p u t before v. 19. T h is t o p ic is called ' nisyandaphala ' i n t h e c o m m e n t a r y.
46)
uddiat, T . dba-byas (uddiya o r adhikrtya).
C . r e a d in g of t h is ve r se is r a t h e r

[ 385 ]

J.

TAKASAKI

And is favourable to the P ath of the [2] Accumulations which lead


to Emancipation,
47)
That is also to be accepted with respect
As if it were taught by the G reat Sage. // 19 //
3.

The Means of Preserving Oneself within the D octrine.

[H ere we have two lokas referring to the means of preserving one


48)
self from becoming deprived (of this D octrine) ]
(Kriks 11 12)
Indeed in this world there is no one wiser than the Buddha,
No other who is omniscient and knows completely
The highest Truth according to the right method;
49)
Therefore, the Scripture should not be in terpolated ,
Which is discoursed 5 0 ) by the Sage himself,
Otherwise, it will do h a r m 5 1 ) to the H ighest D octrine
52)
5 3)
Because of destroying
the teaching
of the Buddha. // 20 //
difficult to identify with S. It is as follows:

fa&ftin*

SSSSIfi*

mmM^A

( T h e [wo rd ] of o n e wh o , a lt h o u gh h e p r e a c h e s t h e dharmapadrtha
[in o r d e r t o ] re
m o ve t h e kleas i n t h e tridhtu, st ill h a s visio n wh o se in t elligen c e is c o ver ed b y avidy,
a n d h im self is h in d e r e d b y t h e st a in s, rga, e t c . , o r [ t h e wo r d sp o ke n b y] o n e wh o a c c ep t s
a li t t le p a r t of t h e B u d d h a ' s d o c t r in e , o r t h e ben eficial wo r d s sp o ke n in t h e wo rld ly
bo o ks, e ve n t h o se wo r d s c o u ld be a c c e p t e d [as t h e c o r r e c t t e a c h i n g] . N eed less t o sa y,
t h e d o c t r i n e i n t h e stra wh ic h is sp o ke n b y t h e B u d d h a s wh o h a ve r e m o ve d t h e suffer
in g cau sed b y kleas a n d a r e of t h e i m m a c u l a t e Wisd o m is t o be a c c e p t e d .
F o r v. 19 6 (stram ekam jinam uddiadbhih),
T . rgyal pahi bstan pa
hbah shig
gyis
dba-byas.
47)
mrdhn, ( lit . b y t h e h e a d ) , T . spyi bos.
48)
Ace. t o T . , ' tmaraksanpyam
rabhya dvau lokau / . C. dharma raksana,
in
st e a d of
tmaraksana.
49)
viclya ( < vi / cal).
50)

neya

n ta, wh ic h is, par excellence,

[ artha],
51)

T . gshag ( < hjog pa,

pratibdhana,

T . gnod pa

t h e t e a c h i n g of t h e B u d d h a a n d is o p p o sit e t o
laid d o wn ) , C.

byed pa,

C. g ^ .

52

bheda, T. gshig ( < hjig pa), C. ^ > f ?

63)

nlti, T. tshul, C.

^ .

[ 386 ]

;;.

The

R a t n a go t r a v i b h g a

The fact th at people abuse 5 4 ) the Sages


55)
And blame
th e doctrine taught by th e Sages,
All this is th e Defilement of those whose nature is
57)
And is created by a prejudiced conception ;
Therefore, your mind should n ot be attached
To th e dirt of th e prejudiced conception;
Indeed, only clean cloth can be d yed 5 8 )
But n ot one th at is spoiled by oil and dust. // 21 //

foolish 56)

4. Causes and Results of th e Loss of th e D octrine.


[With reference to th e causes of th e loss of the D octrine, there is
one loka]5 9 ) .
(Krik 13)
Want of intelligence, want of faith in the virtuous D octrine6 0 ) ,
Indulgence in false pride,
Obscured nature through the rejection 6 1 ) of the H ighest D octrine,
Interpretation of the conventional sense 6 2 ) as the [ultimate] Truth,
63)
64)
G reediness , [adherence to] false con ception ,
D evotion to those who hate th e D octrine,
64)

apa \ Jvad, T. skur pa, C. g .

B6)

V garh, T . bras, C. J s | t .

66)

vimdha, T . rmos, C. J{> 7JIJE T . & C , t a k e klea t o ge t h e r wi t h vimdhtm


nm a n d m a k e t h e sen se of ' of o r b y t h o se wh o se n a t u r e is afflicted b y klea a n d vimdha'.
But it is not the case.
67)

abhiniveadarana,

B8)

raga-vikrtim

69)

A c e . t o T , ksatihetum

60

T . , shen lta,

upaiti,

' adhimukta vklaviraha,

C . " | $ f\ f j E .

T . tshon-gyis
rabhya

rnam-bsgyur,

lokah / .

T . dkar mos

C. *3i T J .

C . ' saddharmaksatim

rabhya...

'.

bral, C . */ l'^' JJ= J ju j / ^ .

vyasana, T . phos-pa,
C. f p y . F o r t h i s defect, C. 5 ~ R5> V A l-^- ( O D S C U "
ration caused by the dharmpavda in the past).
61)

62)

neyrtha, T. dran-don, C. S\* J =|=$ (imperfect meaning).


lobha gredhat. Both Zofe/ia & gredha have the same sense. P robably it is
merely a repetition for arranging syllables. But T. red-la brtam (lbha gredha, greed of
63)

attaining something) and C. ^5 / |j ^ ^ j ^ TJJ[3( (adherence to worship and respecting).


*4 ) darana in the sense of drsti, i.e. mithydrsti.

[ 387 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Keeping at distan ce 6 5 ) from those who convey th e D octrine6 6 ) ,


67)
And delighting in th e inferior D octrin e ,
By all this, one becoraes deprived of th e D octrine of the Saint 68>.
// 22 //
[With reference to th e result of this loss, there are two lokas] 69>.
(Kriks 14 15)
The wise one need n ot be so much afraid of fire,
70)
Of violent poison of snake, of murder, or of lightning ,
71)
As he should be afraid of th e loss
of the profound D octrine72>,
Because a fire, a snake, an enemy, and lightning,
At most, m ay deprive one of [this] life
But one will n ot go, by these causes,
To th e most terrible world of Av ci. // 23 //
Even one who, repeatedly serving73) bad friends 7 4 ) ,
Is hostile to th e Buddha 7 5 ) , and commits th e acts 7 6 )
77)
Of killing mother, father, and th e Saints ,

65)

ra ( d i st a n c e , n e a r o r f a r ) T . bsris,

66)

dharmabhrt,

67)

h na,

T . chos-hdsin,

C. j L {iijjj.

C. 4 a %\\ H ^ -

h e r e , st a n d s fo r h nayna.

So C . ' J ' * ^J^t Vz*

> F or arhat, C. fj^f f$ j . C. adds sf* \ = fj[j ^


69)

Ac e. t o T . & C , ' ksatiphalam

f [| as the general cause.

rabhya dvau lokau / '.

> For aani, T. thog, C. [ [ 3 $fe J S ] | $ B C., adds |^f


71)

T. ' mams'1 is a mistake for 'hams' (ksati).

72)

C. adds / X, g f ^U gg)( (blame of those who know the doctrine). It is


probably an intentional addition by the C. translator, and this addition corresponds to
the Introductory verses in C. and one additional verse after v. 24 referring to the necessity of having respect towards ' dharmabhnaka '. See below.
73)

pratisevya.

About this form, see J's note on this word. C. jC ( t 0 approach).

74)

ppa suhrd,

T . sdig grogs,

75)

C . i\ > 7P RBX
J

buddha dustaya, C. ^
lj^ p j )ffi ]ffl_ (to injure the Buddha with bad in
tention.
76
' F or caranakrt, T. byabaminbyed (to do what is n ot to be done), byaba
min = ancarana (vice).
77)
arihat (BH S) = arhat (ari han, one who kills th e enemy. T . 'dgra bcom pa'
for Arhat is according to this etymology).

[ 388 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a vi b h g a
78)

And breaks the unity of th e H ighest C om m un ity ,


Even th at one can quickly become delivered from th at sin
If he meditates upon 7 9 ) the meaning 8 0 ) of the D octrine;
But, how would it be possible for th e Liberation to arise
81)
In one whose mind is hostile to the D octrine ! // 24 //
5.

Conclusion.

[H ere, at th e end we have one loka in order to turn the merit acqui
red by the author through this teaching towards the people] 8 2 ) .
(Krik 16)
I have thus duly expounded the 7 subjects,
The 3 Jewels, the perfectly pure Essence 8 3 ) ,
The Immaculate Enlightenment, the [Buddha's] Properties and
Acts;
By the merit I have acquired through this,
May all living beings come to perceive
78)

T h ese 5 a r e r e ga r d e d as t h e wo r st sin s for t h e B u d d h i st . Cf. M vyu t . 122, panc-

nantaryni,
(C. ."If. TJJ ( H J | f | i ) . T h e first one in this t e x t comes a t t h e end a n d is called
' tathgatasyntike
dustacitta-rudirtpdanam
' as C . r e a d s ( see N o t e 75) .
79)

nidhyna, T . es-par bsams-pa, C. 3 i | \ >2/>


I n s t e a d of dharmrtha, T. has * dharmatva ' a n d C. ' saddharma '.
81)
C. adds one verse more referring to the necessity of having respect towards the
dharmabhnaka. I t runs as follows:
80)

(If one lets the people study this doctrine and teaches how to believe in it, he is
as our parents and is a good leader, a wise man, because he lets the people, after the
Buddha's parinirvna, turn away from the wrong view and enter the right path).
N ote t h at this additional verse is not found in MSbh (P ).
82)

This heading is lacking in T. and is reconstructed according to C. ( it v ^ s . / si

tit * 0rn ?# $ . &. m m ft s t n H %)


Cf. MSbh (P ) 270 a:

3 K ^* n S H I t f

Hi&m.&nmPfc &

83) vyavadnadhtu, T. rnam-par-bya-khams, C. Yp ^P '|~ = tathgatagarbha.


These 7 are called ' vajrapada ' by the commentator in the open verse of this treatise.
Therefore, the genuine character of this verse as a Krik is somewhat doubtful.

[ 389 ]

J. TAKASAKI

The Lord Amityus endowed with infinite light 8 4 ) ,


And, having seen him, m ay they, owing to the arising
Of the immaculate vision of the D octrine in them,
Obtain the Supreme Enlightenment. // 25 //
The summary of topics discussed in these 10 lokas (vv. 16 25) should
be known by the following 3 verses.
Owing to what basis, for what motive,
How and what is expounded [in this treatise],
And what is the natural outflow [of the Buddha's D octrine],
These topics are explained by the [first] 4 lokas85). // 26 //
Two lokas refer to the means of self protection 86) ,
87)
And one, to the cause of the loss [of the D octrine] ,
88)
And then, the [following] two lokas
Explain the result of this loss. // 27 //
And finally, the acceptan ce 8 9 ) [of the D octrine]
By those living in the world of Smsra 9 0 )
And their acquisition of Enlightenment;
In short, these 2 results of teaching of the meaning
91)
Of the D octrine are explained by the last loka. // 28 //
Thus is finished the fifth chapter entitled ' the Merits of F aith ' in the
AN ALYSIS OF TH E G ERM OF TH E JE WE LS, a Treatise on the
U ltimate D octrine of the G reat Vehicle with the commentary [named]
4
the Summary of meaning of the lokas '. // 5 //
8l)

anantadyuti, T. mthah yas hod mnah.

An epithet of the Lord Amityus, for

which C. usual translation is ' f^ jgf ~J\Z {Jflj ' .

But here, C. ^ ^ HI* ^/J f^

^ .

For Amityus, C. 3> jHC "^P 1/P T. tshe dpag-med. This prayer to the Lord Amityus
is also found in the Mahyna raddhotpda tra, which is one of the treatises on
the tathgatagarbha theory. I t seems t h at there is a certain relationship between the
Amityuscult and the tathgatagarbha theory.
85)
Of these 5 topics, the first 2 are taught in v. 16, the third, in v. 17, the 4th
in v. 18, and the 5th in v. 19, respectively.
^
86
' tmasamraksanopya. Instead of samraksana, T. reads samodhana. But C.

[
87)
88)

89)

"% ~)$ ffi] as S. This topic, in vv. 20, 21.


v. 2 2 .
vv. 2 3 , 24.

ksnti, T . bzod pa, C. P fl * K ^

90)

samsra mandala,
T . hkhor gyi
dkyil hkhor,
C . y ^ , >>f ( = sattvh).
dharmrthavda, T. chos brjod pa, C. om. I n accordance with the insertion of
one verse after v. 24, C. adds the following summary:
91)

390 ]

APPENDIXES

APPENDIX I
RATN AG OTRA VIBH G A
(loka gran tha) x)

(arana traya)
Yo Buddhatvam andimadhyanidhanam ntam vibuddhah svayam
Buddhv cbudhabodhanrtham abhayam mrgam didea dhruvam /
Tasmai
jnakrpsivajravaradhrg-duhkhkurakacchide
N ndrggahanopagdha vimatiprkrabhettre namah // 1 // (v. I , 4)
Yo nsan na ca san na cpi sadasan nnyah sato nsato
'akyas tarkayitum niruktyapagatah pratytmavedyah ivah/
Tasmai dharmadivkarya vimalajnvabhsatvise
Sarvrambanargadosatimiravyghtakartre namah // 2 // (I, 9)
Ye samyak pratividhya sarvajagato nairtmyakotim ivm
Taccittaprakrtiprabhsvaratay klesvabhveksant /
Sarvatrnugatm anvrtadhiyah payanti sambuddhatm
Tebhyah sattvaviuddhyanantavisayajneksanebhyo namah // 3 // (1,13) 2)
(G otra)
Buddhajnntargamt sattvares
Tannairmalyasydvayatvt prakrty /
Bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacrd
U kth sarve dehino buddhagarbhh // 4 // (I, 27) 3 )
Sad prakrtyasamklistah uddharatnmbarmbuvat /
Dharmdhimuktyadhiprajsamdhikarunnvayah // 5 // (1,30)
lj

fo r t h i s se le c t io n , se e Introduction,
I I , 3.
) I n the present text, we have a loka (v. 23) between this and the next one, refer
ring to the 4 aspects of gotra.
3
) C. puts verse 29 as a ' Karik * after this.
2

[ 393 ]

J. TAKASAKI
4)

ubhtmasukhanityatvagunapramitphalah
D uhkhanirvicchamaprpticchandapranidhikarmakah // 6 // (I, 35)
Mahodadhir ivmeyagunaratnksaykarah /
Prad pavad anirbhgagunayuktasvabhvatah // 7 // (I, 42)
P rthagjanryasambuddhatathatvyatirekatah /
Sattvesu jinagarbho 'yam deitas tattvadaribhih // 8 // (I, 45)
Auddho 'uddhauddho 't h a suviuddho yathkramam /
Sattvadhtur iti prokto bodhisattvas tathgatah // 9 // (1,47)
Sarvatrnugatam yadvan nirvikalptmakam nabhah /
Cittaprakrtivaim.alyadh.atuh sarvatragas tath // 10 // (I, 49)
Yath sarvagatam sauksmyd kam nopalipyate /
Sarvatrvasthitah sattve 5) tath 'yarn nopalipyate // 11 // (I, 52)
Yath sarvatra loknm ka udayavyayah /
Tathavsamskrte dhtv indriynm vyayodayah // 12 // (I, 53)
Yath ngnibhir kam dagdhaprvam kadcana /
Tath n a pradahanty 6 ) en am mrtyuvydhijargnayah // 13 // (I, 54)
P rthivy ambau jalam vyau vyur vyomni pratisthitah /
Aprathisthitam kam vyvambuksitidhtusu // 14 // (I, 55)
Skandhadhtvindriyam tadvat karmakleapratisthitam /
Karmakleh sad 'yonimanaskrapratisthith // 15 // (I, 56)
Ayoniomanaskra cittauddhipratisthitah /
Sarvadharmesu cittasya prakrtis t v apratisth.it // 16 // (I , 57)
Prthivldhtuvaj jeyh skandhyatanadhtavah /
Abdhtusadr jeyh karmakleh sarlrinm // 17 // (I, 58)
Ayonisomanaskro vijeyo vyudhtuvat /
Tad amlpratisthn prakrtir vyomadhtuvat // 18 // (I, 59)
Cittaprakrtim lln 'yonio manasah krtih /
Ayoniomanaskraprabhave kleakarman // 19 // (I , 60)
Karmaklembusambhth skandhyatanadhtavah /
U tpadyante nirudhyante tatsam vartavivartavat // 20 // (I , 61)
N a hetuh pratyayo npi na smagr n a codayah /
N a vyayo n a sthiti cittaprakrter vyomadhtuvat // 21 // (I , 62)
4
Cittasya y sau prakrtih prabhsvar
*
N a jtu s dyaur iva yti vikriym /
gantukai rgamaldibhis tv asv
U paiti samkleam abhtakalpajaih // 22 // (I , 63)
N irvrttivyuparamarugjarvimuktm 7 )
4)
5)

6)
7)

J's Text & T. pramit phalam.


Ms. B. satvo. T. sarvasattvesvavastithas tathyam nopalipyate.
J's text teads pradahati.
J's text reads vimukt.

[ 394 ]

The

R a t n a go t r a vibh ga

Asyava prakrtim ananyathvagamya /


Janmdivyasanam rte 'pi tannidnam
D hlmanto jagati krpodayd bhajante // 23 / / (I , 66)
Ananyathtm 'ksayadharmayogato
Jagaccharanyo 'naparntakotitah /
Sad ldvayo lsv avikalpakatvato
'vinadharm 'py akrtasvabhvatah // 24 // (I , 71)
Sa dharmakyah sa tathgato yatas
tad ryasatyam paramrthanirvrtih /
Ato na buddhatvam rte 4rkaramivad
Gunvinirbhgatay 4sti nirvrtih // 25 // (I , 84)
(deajiprayoj ana)
nyam sarvam sarvath tatra

tatra

Jeyam meghasvapnamykrtbham /
Ity uktvavam buddhadhtuh punah kim
Sattve sattve 'stti buddhair ihoktam // 26 / / (I, 156)
L nam cittam h nasattvesv avaj
4

bhtagrho bhtadharmpavdah /

tmasneha cdhikah paca dos


Yesm tesm tatprahn rtham uktam // 27 // (I, 157)
iti ratnagotravibhga lokagranthah samptah //

[ 395 ]

APPPENDIX II
CORRECTION & EMENDATION TO THE SANSKRIT TEXT
OF THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA
(This table excludes those errata which were already corrected by the publisher).
Corrigenda
(Page, line)
2.9
3.2
3.4
3.16
4.14
5.1
5.10, 12
9.11
10.2
10.7
10.9
11.2
12.2
12.19
15.4
15.5
15.6
16.9
16.10
18.2
18.5
19.9
19.10
20.6-7
20.8
20.15
22.7
22.15

for

read

svaprajay drasturn v
bhagavan t at h
dharin / avi
parivartnugatn i
anyonyam bodhisattva
upafcaranatm
utkslya
vihapati
abhvasvabhvt
any atamvi ista
abhisambuddhabodeh
sarvramwana
dharm /
sa yadarana
(after) spran ti /
(before) katham
upaklertho
uddhy
avaivartye? bh a
bodhisattvn
prat tya gambhira dh.
bhavati syd
vadhakapuruse tasm t
vyavadnasatyadvaya
virgadharm a
p ramrthikamevtrane
sarvcra

svapraj ay jra ium v drasum


bhagavams t a t h
[v
dharm'vi
parivartc? anugatni
anyonya bodhisattva
up ahar anatm
unm lya ?
vithapeti
abhvasvabhvra (Ace.)
anyatamvaisa
abhisambodhibuddhy ?
sarvramftana
dhavmatayeti
tattvadarana
npi dttam samfe istam. bhavati j
(should be inserted)
upaklm rth o
uddhyaifa (or uddhy hi)
avaivarty bh a
bodhisattvaynifen
gambh ra pratityadhaTtaa
bhavati / syd
vadhakapuruse / tasm t
vyavadnasatyadvayaZafesopa
virgadharma
pramrthikam ekam eutrane
sarvfera
(to be omitted)
(mahcakravlapramnena
mahcakravlah 1)

laksana

(before) m ahprthiv

(Source)*)
(T)

(grammar)
(cf. S. 39.8)
(C)
(context)

(Q
(Ms.)
(cf. S. 49.1 2
(T)

(T,C)
(T)
(misprint)
(cf. S. 44.14)
(T, S. 13.17)
(T,C )
(cf. S. 22.2)
(T)
(T, C)
(context)
(Ms. B, T, C)
(context)

(T, S. 11.14)
(T, C )
(T)
(context)
(T)

** T. Tibetan Version of the Ratnagotravibhga (Sde dge Edition); C. Chinese


Version of the Ratnagotravibhga (Taisho Edition); Ms. A. & B. those Mss. used by John
ston for editing the Sanskrit Text.

[ 396 ]

The

R atn agotravibhga
Corrigenda

(Page, line)

for

23.13
24.4
24.10
24.15
24.17
25.9
26.4 5
27.14

tathesebhyah
rye ria mrgop ade ena
vainayikesu
nimitfcranam
(before) triratn avam a
bodhanpadam
after v. 27
sattvrtham
nirapeksat

28.7
28.16

trividhh
-samatpatti

29.
29.
30.
30.
32.
32.11
34.19
36.2 3
36.5
36.12
36.17

patit ihadhrmik
sattvs tadyath
pramit phalam/
hetava esm
(before nityapram it
sarvatra parama
nirvna s amrop a
mithytvaniyata
(after pranidhim iti /
pposamuccheda
n ipatan ti * * * an gata

37.13
38.17
39.6

ki
sdharmya
avinirbhgadharm /
avinirmuktagunah / yad
upagdhah / sara
pradahati
bal yo
(before sarvadharm
esa /
vimukt
asyaiva
sresthino grhapater eka
daranena sa ca
ekaputrakdhy ya
premrcun to
res^hi grhapatir iti
sravaksaydt/ ii/ / &/wmukhydrdhay'dhyayaprati
patty
pratiiH cyemm
bodhisattvaga no

40.17
42.11
44.13
45.9
46.2
46.6
46.7
47.17
47.18
48.2 3
48.9
50.13
50.17
51.11
52.19

(Source)

read

tath esebhyah
(Q
ryamrgopadeena
(T, C)
vaineyikesu
(vineya)
nirna/ ifcaranam
(T, C)
tryadhvnubaddha (to be inserted) (T, C)
bodhanopadam
(grammar)
(anena kim daritam)
(context)
sattvrt/ ie nirapeksat or
s attvrf/mnirapeksat
(T)
duividhh
(C.AS,BG )
-samatpti(T, context.,
S. p . 29.4)
patit cehadhrmik
(C)
s attvfe caturvidhh / tadyath
(T, C)
'piaiaitphalah / (bahuvr.)
(context)
hetava ukt esm
(Ms. B, T, C)
insert) bodhisattvnm
(T. C)
(T)
sarvatraparama
nrvnsamropa
(C)
aniyata
(C, BG)
insert) tatra cchando 'bhilsah j (T, C)
(T)
ppsamuccheda
nipatanti tn upakurvanty
angata
(T, C)
(misprint)
kim
sdharmyam
(misprint)
avinirbhgadharm'i'i
nirmuktaguno yad
(context)
upagdhah sara
(context)
pradahanti
(grammar)
bal yo (comparative degree)
insert) mlaparicchinn
(Mss., T)
esa/ i/
(grammar)

vimukt
masyaiva (vimuktm asya)
(Q
sresthino v grh apater uo ka
(T, C)
daran en a / sa ca
(context)
ipremlambanatah ?
(T)
(T, C)

resh v grhapatir t;cti


sravaksaybhimukhy-

(C)

drf/iod/iyayapratipatty

(T, C)

pratired/ iyemm
bodhisattvaguno

(T)
(T)

[ 397 ]

J . TAKASAKI
Corrigenda
(Page, line)
55.2
55.7
55.19
56.3
57.2
58.13
61.1
64.21
67.4

tathgatagarbhasya
ki
samadharmatay
tathgato 'nyo
ni sp ats v as am
ekena ca kranena
jagat
ujjitamrgdidviehnoha

67.16
68.6 7
68.13
69.6
70.3
70.3
70.5
71.8
71.9
71.12
71.14
72.5
73.6

aubhdibAouojna
(v. 132
tathgatagarbha iti
vrt
dbidh
vainayika
dharmadhtor avi
vikr
sarve
tatra
advaidh kro ti
mahdharmdhirdjfatvt
iti parikabpam asya va
canyeti
vikalpayitavy'dhimok
tavy
te'tyan tassrava

73.15
74.7
74.19

75.11
76.11
79.15
79.16
79.7
79.12
79.13
84.18
84.19
85.8
86.13
88.7

read

for

abh a
aparyantam
nya
tatphalam dvividham /
visamyoga ca / yathk
ramam
gambh ryaudrya
vinirmuktestathgata
(after) prsthalabdham
j tyandhafcy a vat
stikmad/ iyasthita
amalai stribhih
acintyoprj3ti^
pratytm avedit
prpyanirvna

(Source)

tathgatad/ itor
kim
samadharmatay
tathgato nnyo
nispatty-asamekena ckrena
jagat
ujjTutam
rgdicbimoha

(Ms. B)
(misprint)
(T)
(context)
(S. 58.9)
(T)
(misprint)
(misprint)
(misprint)
(Ms. A)
aubhdib/ utvanjna
(T, C)
into prose)
(C, context)
tathgatagarbh iti
(context)
vram
(T, C, con.)
dvidh.
(misprint)
vaineyika
(< vin eya)
dharm adhtur avi
(T, C)
vikr
(misprint)
sarve
(misprint)
tatra
(misprint)
advaidh kreti
(gram.)
mahdharmd/iir/ yatvt
(T)
iti parikalpitam asya vacanam iti (context)
vikalpayitavy kevalam tv
adhimoktavy
te ' tyanfam ssrava
(change the pargraph from
' yathca sa . . . ' and con
nect 'tad yath'pi n m a. . . '
after 'prasdh itah / 'without
changing paragraph.)
ubha
aviparyastam nya
tatphalam visamayogah /
visamyoga ca yathkramam /

(T, C)
(T)

(context)
(misprint)
(T, C)
(context)
(C, context)

(context)
gmbhlryaudrya
(context)
vinirmukfe fathgata
(T, Ms.B)
(insert) laukikam
j tyandharpavat
(T, C)
stiksadmosthita
(T)
(context)
amalais tribhih
(to be connected in D evangari)
acintyrhattvam
(T, C)
pratytm aveditam
prptonirvna
(T, C)

[ 398 ]

The

R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ga
Corrigenda

(Page, line)
for
90.5
vyanumeyatah

vyupameyatah

read

90.6

vyanumeyo

vyupameyo

91.14
91.15
92.11
93.6
93.10
94.2
98.9

tathatmadhikTtya
(before v. 4)
svayamj pan
apratisamkhypahnir
ace. to J's correction)
musitat citte
abhayadam
arkara mipravisrta

100.3
100.10
101.11
102 21
103.16

tvd iti
adyaiva na cird
sthnntaramal
vad agha^it
sambuddharya tu yti

tatA tad adhikrtya


(add) uddnam /
svayam jpan
apratisamkhyya hnir
(as in the text)
musita citte
abhayam
arkarami pravisrta
(to be separated)
vad iti
vayam apy acird
sthn'ntaramal
vad gha\ tit
sambuddhafe/ ierer upoyti

104.14
106.6
108.15
108.16
108.16
111.6
115.1
116.14
117.4

ynti nikhilam /
kleagatn drsy
visrte
buddhasrye
vineydri-tannipto
lokdy alamkrth
(before sthnesv )
taccittapratyupasthnd
csya mlam

yti nikhilam /
kle agattmadsry
visrto
buddhasryo
vinetdrou fannipto
lokd alamkrtft
(insert) catursu
tanrutyapratyupasthnd
csy mlam

(Source)
(C,

context)
. . . v. 69
(C, context)

. . v. oy
(T)
(T, C)

(context)
(T, context)
(metre)
(context)
(T)
(context)
(T, context)
(T, ms. B,
context)
(context)
(T, C)
(T)
(T)
(T)
(T)
(T, C)
(T, C)
(context)

(The following headings had better be inserted:)


117.5

(before v. 16)

117.9
117.13
117.17
118.3

(before
(before
(before
(before

118.11
118.15
119.5

(before v. 22)
(before v. 23)
(before v. 25)

v.
v.
v.
v.

17)
18)
19)
20)

tatra yadraye yannimittam co


dhrtam tadrabhya lokah /
(C)
yathodhrtam tadrabhya lokah/ (T)
yadudhrtam tadrabhya lokah/
(T)
yenodhrtam tadrabhya lokah/
(T)
tmaraksanopyam rabhya dvau
lokau /
(T)
ksatihetum rabhya lokah /
(T)
ksatiphalam rabhya dvau lokau/ (T, C)
ptapunyaparinamane lokafc /
(C)

[ 399 ]

APPENDIX III
D ESCRIPTION OF TH E U LTIMATE REALITY
by Means of the Six Categories in Mahyna Buddhism *'
To describe the characteristics of the tathgatagarbha (the matrix of
the Tathgata, i.e. the Buddha's nature), The Ratnagotravibhga (RGV)
uses in Chap. I the following ten categories: namely, (1) svabhva, (2) hetu,
(3) phala, (4) karman, (5) yoga, (6) vrtti, (7) avasthprabheda, (8) sarvatraga,

(9) avikra, & (10) asambheda. Similar terms are used in Chap. I I as cate
gories for describing the ultimate reality, i.e. the phala aspect of the ta
thgatagarbha. Of its eight categories in all, the first six categories are the
same as those used in Chap. I, i.e. (1) svabhva to (6) vrtti, while the re
maining two are (7) nitya and (8) acintya.
As for the ten categories in Chap. I, the RGV says in the commentary
t h at there is a (tenfold) category by which all kinds of explanation of the
meaning of the tathgatagarbha exist (i.e. are made) with no variance
1}
anywhere in the scripture . After a brief explanation of the threefold
2)
meaning of the term tathgatagarbha made on the basis of v. I, 27 , the
statement mentioned above probably means t h at these ten categories are
commonly used in the scripture for describing the tathgatagarbha, while
the threefold meaning belongs only to the RG V.
This statement, however, needs to be corrected to some extent by the
following descriptions in the same RG V; namely, after explaining the sixth
category, vrtti, the commentary says:

*' This article originally appeared in The Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies,
vol. I X, N o. 2, 1961 and is reprinted here with the permission of the editor.
1)
yenrthena
sarvatrviesena
pravacane sarvkram
tad ( =
tathgatagarbha) artha
scanam bhavati tad api...
R G V , p . 26, 11. 1 0 1 1 .
2)
RG V, p. 26, 11. 5 10. The 3 meanings are: dharmakyaparispharanrtha, tatha
tvyatirekrtha, & gotrasambhavrtha. About this threefold meaning, see my article: The
Tathgatotpattisambhavanirdea of the Avatamsaka and the Ratngotravibhga (U ttara
tan tra), with special reference to the term tathgatagotrasambhava, Journal of Indian
& Buddhist Studies, Vol. VII, N o. 1, 1958, pp. 348 353. Also see Introduction, I I I , 2.

[ 400 ]

The

R at n ago t ravibh ga

After this passage, with reference to this very category of vrtti,


the other [remaining] four categories are to be known through separate
explanations 3 ) .
And also:
All those teachings on the immaculate U ltimate Reality (ansra
vadhtu) taught by the Lord in detail through various forms of doctrines
are contracted in brief into these six categories, i.e. svabhva, hetu, phala,
4)
karman, yoga and vrtti .
What we come to know from these passages is th at a set of categories
which is commonly used, and hence the basic one, is not the whole of the
ten categories, but the first six categories beginning with svabhva, and
th at the object to which is applied this set of six categories is not the ta
thgatagarbha alone, but is the U ltimate Reality in every aspect inclusive of
the aspect of tathgatagarbha, and thirdly t h at the RGV added four cate
gories to the regular set in order to explain the mode of manifestation
(vrtti) of the tathgatagarbha. This is proved from the use of the same set
of categories in Chap. I I , where the seventh and the eighth categories are
said to be included in the sixth, vrtti 5) , as showing special characteristics
of the vrtti aspect of the U ltimate Reality characterized as bodhi or raya
parivrtti.
Then how is this set of six categories used in the scripture (pravacana)
and what is meant by the term pravacana ?
At first, we shall see how it is applied in the basic verses (loka) of
the RG V.
sad prakrtyasamklistah uddharatnmbarmbuvat /
dharmdhimuktyadhipraj samdhikarunnvayah/ (v. I, 30)
ubhtmasukhanityatva gunaprmit phalah I 6)
d u h k h a n i r v i c c h a m a p r p t i c c h a n d a p r a n i d h i k a r m a k a h /1 ( I , 3 5 )

(1)
. . . (2)
(3)
. . . . (4)

mahodadhir iv 'meyagunaratnksaykarah /

s)
atah param etam eva vrttyartham rabhya tadanye catvro 'rthh prabhedanirded
eva veditavyh. RG V, p. 40, 11. 56.
4)
ye kecid ansravadhtunirdee nndharmaparyyamukhesu bhagavat vistarena nir
disth sarve te ebhir eva samsatah sadbhih svabhvahetu phalakarmayogavrttyarthaih . . .
RGV,
p. 40, 11. 12 14.
B)
tribhir gmbhiryaudryamhtmyaprabhvitair buddhakyair nityam bhavagater
acintyena prakrena vartanam vrttih. RG V, p . 79, 11. 16 18.
' t phalam / in the text. The reason for th e correction will be shown below.

[ 401 ]

J. TAKASAKI

prad pavad anirbhgagunayuktasvabhvatah / / (I, 42)


pfthagjanryasambuddhatathatvyatirekatah/
sattvesu jinagarbho ' yam deitas tattvadaribhili / / (I , 45)

(5)
(6)

(Being always ujidefiled by nature, like the pure [character] of a treasure,


the sky and water:
Following after faith in th e [Mahyna] doctrine, th e excellent intellect,
M editation and Compassion:
H aving th e climax of qualities with respect to purity, unity, happiness
and eternity as its result;
H aving aversion from th e Suffering and desire for and vow to th e attain
ment of th e Quiescence as its functions;
Being, like an ocean, an imperishable receptacle of treasures of innumerable
qualities,
As being by nature united with its properties inseparably, as a lantern [is
inseparable from its light and others];
And as its [various manifestations in th e forms of] ordinary beings, the
Sages and th e Buddhas are n ot differentiated from th e Reality,
[there exists] this M atrix of the Victor ( = Tathgata) among the living
beings;
Thus is it taught by those who perceived th e Truth).
These four verses, though they are interrupted by th e commentary
passages, are no doubt composed in a series, whose subject word is 4 jinagar~
bha1 in th e last verse 7 ) and in which is applied a mode of th e set of six
categories previously known to th e author.
Quite a similar application of th e same mode of description in a
series of verses is found in th e M ahynastrlamkra (MSA).
sarvadharmadvayvaratathatviuddhilaksanah I
vastujna tadlamba vaitksayalaksanahj/ (v. IX, 56)
sarvatas tathatjnabhvan samudgamah/
sarvasatva-dvaydna sarvathksayatphalah/ / 8 ) (I X, 57)
kyavkcittanirmna prayogopya karmakah/
samdhi dhran dvradvaymeya-samanvitah jj (IX, 58fy
svabhva dharmasambhoga nirmnair bhinnavrttikah /
dharmadhtuviuddho yam buddhnm samudhrtab / / (I X, 59)

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

7)
Bein g a p p o sit io n a l t o 'jinagarbho
'yam',
t h e r e a d in g ' pramit phalah'
as
a B a h u vr h i c o m p . sh o u ld b e a c c ep t ed . See n o t e 6.
8)
' . . . t phalam/ ' in the text is corrected for the same reason as above. See also
Tib., which has 'hbras bu can''.

[ 402 ]

The R at n a got r a v ib h ga
(Its characteristic is the purification of the two kinds of obscurations
with regard to the Reality of all phenomena,
And is the inexhaustible controlling power of the knowledge of the nature
and the object of its cognition;
I t is originated from the practices of wisdom with regard to the Reality
in all respects;
I t is the result of the inexhaustible formation of the two [i.e. benefit and
happiness] by all possible means for the sake of all the living;
I ts function is the transformation of body, speech and mind as the means
of appliance;
I t is endowed with the gates of meditation and mystical formulae and
with the immeasurable accumulation of the two [i.e. bliss and wis
dom ];
I t manifests itself variously by the Body of its own essence, by th at of
Enjoyment of the doctrine, and by th at of incarnation:
[Thus] is explained this immaculate U ltimate Reality of the Buddhas.)
These four verses in a series are said to be the lokas on the topic
of tdharmadhtuviuddhi' which is, at the same time, like 'jinagarbha' in
the example of the RG V, the subject word for the whole sentence.
Thus in the application of the same mode of description, the RGV
and the MSA show a close relationship between them, and as the RGV
quotes the MSA in the commentary, it was no doubt the RG V which imita
ted the MSA. I t is especially certain about Chap. I I of the RG V which,
though there is no example of application of the same mode in a series
of verses as above, has many traces of the influences of the MSA on its
doctrine (e.g. the triple kya theory, avikalpajna and tatprstalabdha, etc. 9 ) .
But the MSA cannot claim its originality of the use of the six cate
gories, because according to Prof. N ishio's information 10) , almost the same
9

' The same is possibly said, about the commentary passage of Chap. I, but, as for
the lokas or basic verses in Chap. I, the influences of the MSA are scarcely observed ex
cept for the application of the six categories mentioned above.
10)
Kyoy N ishio, Bucchiky