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APOLLOENGINEERINGCOLLEGE

DepartmentofAeronauticalEngineering
AE- 2251 AERODYNAMICS I
Two Marks Questions.

1. Differentiate control volume and control surface.


Controlvolumehasafixedboundary,Mass,Momentum&energyareallowedto
crosstheboundary.Theboundaryofthecontrolvolumeisreferredtouscontrol
surface.

2. What is aerodynamics?
Aerodynamicsisthestudyofflowofgasesaroundthesolidbodies.

3. Differentiate steady & unsteady flow.


Inasteadyflowfluidcharacteristicsisvelocity,pressure,Densityetcatapointdo
notchangewithtimebutforunsteadyflowthesecharacteristicswillchangewith
repeattotime.

4. Differentiate compressible and Incompressible flow.


Inacompressibleflow,Densityofaflowdensitywillnotbechangefrompointto
pointinafluidflow,forincompressibleflowdensitywillnotbechangefrompointto
pointinafluidflow.

5. Define a system.
Thewordsystemreferstoafixedmasswithaboundary,Howeverwithtime,the
boundaryofthesystemmaychange,butthemassremainsthesame.

6. Tell something about differential and Integral approach.


Differentialapproachaimstocalculateflowateverypointinagivenflowfieldinthe
formp(x,y,z,t).OnemayestablishabigcontrolvolumetoencompasstheregionR
andcalculatetheoverallfeatureslikedrag&liftbystudyingwhathappensatthe
controlsurface.Thisprocedureiscalledintegralapproach.
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7. What is the principle of conservation of mass?


Masscanbeneithercreatednordestroyed.Thisisthebasicprincipleforcontinuity
equation.

8. Give the continuity equation for a steady flow.


Forasteadyflowmassaccumulationwillnotoccursinsidethecontrolvolume.
So,csVdA=0
WhereVisvelocityoffluid

9. Give the continuity equation for a incompressible flow.


Foranincompressibleflow LVconstant.
So,/t[cvU+csVdA]=0
WhereUisvolumeandVisvelocityoffluid

10. Give the continuity equation for a steady - incompressible flow.


Iftheflowissteady&incompressible,thencontinuityequationis
9G$

cs

WhereVisthevelocityoffluid.

11. Consider a convergent duct with an inlet area A1=5m2, Air enters this duct
with
a velocity v1=10m/s and leaves the duct with a velocity v2= 30m/s. what is the
area of the duct exit.?
Solution:A1V1=A2V2(forincompressibleflow=constant)
A2=A1V1=5x10=1.67m
V230
12. What are the forces can be experienced by the flowing of fluid on a system
1.Bodyforceslikegravity,electromagneticforces(or)anyotherforceswhichactata
distanceonafluidinsidevolume.
2.SurfaceforceslikepressureandshearstressactingonthecontrolsurfaceS.

13.what is impulse momentum equation?


TheimpulseofaforceFactingonafluidmassminashortintervaloftimedtis
equaltothechangeofmomentumd(mv)inthedirectionofforce.

14. what is mean by stream lining a body?


Steamlininginafluidflowtominimizethedragduetoskinfictionbyprovidingthe
bodysuchaboundarywhichpermitsagradualdivergenceofflowwithnoseparation
ofboundarylayer.

15. What is ideal fluid?


Perfectoridealfluidisonewhichisfrictionlessandeffectofviscosityisnegligible.
AperfectgarisonewhichobeysBoylesandcharlaslaw.

16. What is a rotational flow?


Afluidflowinwhicheveryfluidelementrotatesaboutitsowncentre.

17. What is vortex line and vortex tube?


Vortexlineisthevectorlineofthevorticityfield.
Vortextubeisavectortubefilledwithfluidandfamedbyvortexlines.

18. Relate the terms irrotationality and vorticity in fluid flow


Themotionofafluidissaidtobeirrotationalwhenvorticityisequaltozerro.ie,
twicerotationiszeroorvorticityistwicerotation.

19. How stream functions may be used to determine the discharge of fluid flow?
Thestreamfunctionmaybedefinedasthefluxofstreamlow.Hencedifference
betweenadjustmentstreamfunctionsgivestherateofflowbetweenstreamlines.

20. If stream function or potential function of a flow satisfies laplace equation,


what
does it mean?
IfstreamfunctionsatisfiesLaplaceequation,thentheflowisirritotional.Ifpotential
functionsatisfieslaplaceequation,thentheflowiscontinuous.
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21. How stream function and potential function are related to irrotational flow?
Streamfunctionexiststobothrationalandirrotationalflow.Potentialfunctionexists
onlyforirrotationalflow.

22. What is a free vortex flow?


Aflowfieldcircularstreamlineswithabsolutevalueofvelocityvaryinginversely
withthedistancefromcentre.Theflowisirrotationalateverypointexceptofthe
centre.
23. What does a free vortex flow mean?
Aflowwhichisfreeofvorticityexceptatthecentre.

24. What is meant by bound vortex of a wing?


Thevortexthatrepresentscirculatoryflowaroundthewingiscalledthebound
vortex.Thisvortexremainsstationarywithrespecttothegeneralflow.

25. What is a forced vortex flow?


Aflowiswhicheachfluidparticleeversinacirwlarpathwithspeedvaryingdirectly
asthedistancefromtheaxisofrotation.

26. Define velocity vector with respect to a potential line?


Thereisnovelocityvectortangentialtoapotentiallines,thevelocityisperpendicular
tothepotentialline.

27. Why tornados is highly destructive at or near the centre?


Tornadoisafreevortexflowsuchthatvelocitymultipliedbydistancefromcentreis
constant.

Thereforethevelocityismaximumatthecentrehenceitishighly

destructive.

28. specify the stream & potential lines for a doublet


streamlinesarecirclestangenttoXaxis(=r/sin)
PotentiallinesarecirclestangenttoYaxisis( U FRV
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29. Specify the stream & potential lines for a source & sink.
Streamlinesareradiallinerfromcentre
Potentiallinesarecircles

30. Compare the stream lines & potential lines of source/ sink with that of a vortex
flow
Thestreamlinesofsource/sinkandpotentiallinesofvortexaresimilar.The
potentiallinesofsource/sinkandstreamlinesofvortexaresimilar.

31. State the properties of a stagnation point in a fluid flow


Thesuddenchangeofmomentumoffluidfromafinitevaluetostagnantvalue
impressespressureforceatthepointofstagnation,thuswhoseofthevelocitygets
convertedtopressure.

32. What is Rankine half body?


Thedividingstreamliney=m/2ofsource,uniformflowcombinationformsthe
shapeofrankinehalfbody.

33. What is Rankline oval?


Thedividingstreamline =0)ofdoublet,uniformflowscombinationformsthe
shapeofRanklineoval.

34. How transverse force can be introduced to a flow around a cylinder?


Addacirculatoryflowalongwiththeuniformflowtogetatransverseforce.Spinthe
cylinderaboutitsownaxistogetcirculatoryflow.

35. How will be the stream and potential lines in source vortex combination?
Streamandpotentiallinesinasourcevortexcombinationarebothequiangular,
spirals.Thechangeofdirectionofradialmovementoffluidparticleswillbeequalin
magnitudewhileoppositiondirectiontothechangeintangentialmovementsothat
curvesisequiangularspirals.
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36. Compare vortex with source/ sink flow pattern


Thestreamlinesofsource/sinkandpotentiallinesofvortexaresimilar.The
potentiallinesofsource/sinkandstreamlinesofvortexaresimilar.

37. State the stream function for uniform flow of velocity U parallel to positive Xdirection
Streamfunction=Uy

38. State the stream function for uniform flow of velocity V parallel to positive Y
direction
Streamfunction=Vx

39. What is the diameter of a circular cylinder which is obtained by combination of


doublet of strength y at origin and uniform flow U parallel to X axis
Diameter(a)=

40. How a line source differs from a point source?


Atwodimensionalsourceisapointsourcefromwhichthefluidisassumedtoflow
outradiallyinalldirection.Asthisflowisrestrictedtooneplaneandtoallowforthe
applicationoftheresultstothreedimensionalflows,thetermlinesourceisa
sometimesused.

41. Define potential flow of a fluid


Theirrotationalmotionofanincompressiblefluidiscalledpotentialflows

42. Relate vorticity and circulation


Vorticityisthecirculationaroundanelementdividedbyitsarea.

43. Relate vorticity and angular velocity


Vorticityisequaltotwiceangularvelocirty.Therefore,circulation=2xrotationx
area.
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44. What is meant by Karmen vortex sheet?


Abodymovinginrealfluidleavesdoublerowofvorticesfromthesidesofbody.
Thesevorticescurerotatinginoppositedirectionsandgraduallydissipatedby
viscosityastheymovedownstream.Ifthevorticesarestable,foradistancebetween
vorticeshandforpithlofthevorticesh/l=0.2806forKarmanvortexsheet.

45. How are the stream lines in a source sink pair?


Thestreamlinesarecircleswithcentreonyaxisforasourcesinkpair.Streamlines
arecircleswithcommonchord.

46. What is vortex pair?


Twovorticesofequalstrengthbutofoppositesignorwithoppositedirectionsof
rotationconstituteavortexpair.

47. What is meant by complex potential?


Ifstreamfunctionandpotentialfunction DUHcombinedinasinglefunction
wsuchthatw(z)=+ithenw(z)iscalledcomplexpotential.

48. What is transformation?


Atransformationisamathematicalprocessbywhichafiguremaybedistortedor
alteredinsizeandshape.Thisisdonebymeansofalgebricrelationshipbetweenthe
originalcoordinatesandcoordinatesofnewposition,thepairofcoordinatesbeing
representedbycomplexvariables.

49. When a transformation is said to be conformal?


Thetransformationissaidtobeconfirmedifsmallelementsofareaareunaltered
shapes(thoughtheyareingeneral,alteredinsize,positionandorientation).

50. What is Joukowski transformation?


Joukwskiassumesthatrelationw(z)=z+a2/zsothatsecondtermissmallwhenzis
large.Thusatgreatdistancesfromtheorigintheflowisundisturbedbythe
transformation.
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51. What is thickness ration ( fineness ratio) of a Rankine oval?


ItistheratioofmaximumthicknesstochordofRankineoval.

52. Define lift and drag


Sincethefluidisinmotion,wecandefineaflowdirectionalongthemotion.The
componentofthenetforceperpendicular(ornormal)totheflowdirectionincalled
thelift,thecomponentofthenetforcealongtheflowdirectioniscalledthedrag.

53. Define centre of pressure:


Thedynamicforcesactsinabodythroughtheaveragelocationofthepressure
variationwhichiscalledthecentreofpressure.

54. How velocity varies with radius in a vortex core?


Forviscousflowaroundavortexcorevelocityinverselypropositionaltotheradius

55. How the down wash of a wing is related down wash of tail plane?
Thedownwashonthetailresultingfromthewingwakeisalmosttwiceasgreatas
thedownwashonthewingresultingfromwingwake.

56. What is strength of a vortex and how it is measurement?


Itisthemagnitudeofcirculationarounditandisequaltotheproductofvorticityand
area.

57. Brief out how wing tip vortices are formed?


Onaccountoflargerpressurebelowthewingsurfacethanonthetop,someflowis
therefrombottomtotoproundthewingtipsincaseofafiniteusing.Thisproduces
velocitysidewaysovermostofthewingsurface.Thiscausesasurfacediscontinuity
intheairleavingthewingwhichrollsuptodistinctvortices.

58. Suggest methods to resolve induced drag of a wing:


(i)Makelifedistributiononwingelliptical
(ii)increasetheaspectratio.

59. State the assumptions made in simplified horseshoe vortex system of a wing:
Thewingisreplacedbyasingleboundspanwisevortexofconstantstrengthwhich
turnsatrightangleateachendtotrailingvorticeswhichextendtoinfinitybehindthe
wing.Thesetwotrailingvortices.
i)

eachofwhichmustprovidethesametotallift.

ii)

Eachmusthavesamemagnitudeofcirculatinandsamecirculation
atmidspan

60. What is meant by Kutta- Joukowski flow?


Kuttaprescribedtangentialflowconditionalattrailingedgeofairfoil,while
Joukowskisolutionpermittedaroundedleadingedgetohaveasmoothflowaround
theleadingedgewithoutseparation.

61. Point out the effect of bounding layer in case of a kutta- Joukowski flow past an
aerofoil:
separationofboundarylayeratleadingedgecanbeavoidedinasmallrangeof
anglesofattackduetothinboundarylayerformation.Theformationofboundary
layercausedtheflowtoleavetrailingedgetorngenetically.

62. Limitations of lifting line theory. State


(i)Straightnarrowwingswithsmoothpressuredistribution,theoryagreeswell.
(ii)Theorygivescorrectvalueofsownwashalongthecentreofpressureofany
distributionofleftthatissymmetricalaheadandbehindastraightlineatrightangles
tothedirection.
(iii)forcurvedoryawedliftinglinesoflawaspectratio,theoryisnotadequate.
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63. Why a thin aerofoil is considered in subsonic flows?


Thenecessityofminimizingtheinduceddragleadstothechoiceofhighaspectratio
forthewingdesignatsubsoniccondition.Hencethinaerofoilispreferred.
Withsuchnarrowwingstheflowcanbeapproximatedtotwodimensionofflow
aroundainfinitelylongcylindricalwingofsamesectionprofile

64. Define slender body of revolution:


Theradiusofbodyisverysmallthanlengthisknownasslenderbodyofrevolution.

65. Briefly state the limitation of prandtl glaverts compressibility correction factor
(i)TheMMustbelessthanunity
(ii)AtsomeMachnumberbelowunity,thevalueofMdependsonthicknessof
aerofoilandangleofattack.

Aerofoilwithfinitethicknesstheperturbation

componentsofvelocitycannotbeconsideredsmallrelativetostreamvelocity(u/U
&v/Vnotsmall)

66. Why fourier sine series in the form1 An sin n was assumed for distribution of
circulation on airplane wings.
Sinceserieswaschosentosatisfytheendconditionsofcurvereducingtozeroattips
wherey=+s.(=0to =)

67. How the sine series was modified for circulation distribution on a symmetrically
loaded wing.
Forsymmetricalloadingmaximumorminimumshouldbeatmidsection.This
possibleonlywhensineseriesofoddvaluesof(

Oddharmonicsofsineseries

aresymmetrical.
Foranyasymmetryduetorollingorsideslippingwhatformofdistributionis
acceptable.
Foranysymmetricloadingoneormoreevenharmonicsofsineseriesaretobe
incorporatedinthedistribution
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68. State Kelvins circulation theorem


Circulationandhencecortexstrength,doesnotvarywithtimeif(i)thefluidisnon0
viscous(ii)thedensityiseitherconstantorafunctionofpressureonly(iii)body
forcessuchasgravityormagneticforcearesinglevaluedpotential.

69. Compare thin aerofoil theory with vortex panel method


Limitationsofthinaerofoiltheory(i)itappliesonlytoaerofoilatsmallofattack(ii)
thethicknessmustbelessthan12%ofchord.

Whenhigheranglesofattack

aerodynamicliftofotherbodyshapearetobeconsideredvortexpanelmethodfinds
itsownapplication.Vortexpanelmethodprovidestheaerodynamiccharacteristicof
bodiesofarbitraryshapes,thicknessandorientation.Thisisanumericalmethod.

70. Point out the application of horseshoe vortex analysis on aerodynamics


1.Prandtlsliftinglineandliftingsurfacetheoryofwings.
2.Interferenceproblemsofaircraftflyingtogether.
3.Ongroundeffectofaircraftsflyingveryclosetoground.
4.Influenceofwingdownwashfieldonflowoverothercomponentsofaircrafts,
especiallythetotalplane.
5.Interferenceinwindtunnel.

71. Why large spacing is to be provided to aircrafts landing or take off together.
Wingtip,vorticesareessentiallyliketornadoesthattraildownstreamofthewing.
Thesevorticescansometimescauseflowdisturbancetoaeroplanefollowingclosely
toit.Henceaavoidanysuchaccidentslargespacingispreferredbetweenaircraft
performinglandingandtikeoff.

72. What is the effect of downwash velocity on local free- stream velocity
Downwashcausesthelocalfreestreamtoproducerelativewindataslightlyhigher
angleofincidence.
=

eff

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73. Why geometrical angle of attack of a wing and effective angle of attack of local
aerofoil section differs.
Theangleofattackactuallyseenbylocalairfoilsectionistheanglebetweenaerofoil
sectionchordandlocalrelativewind.Thisis.Althoughthewingisata
geometricangleofattacka;localaerofoilsectionseeingasmallervalueofangleof
attackthangeometrical.

74. Show that D alemberts paradox is not true to a finite wing.


DAlemertsparadoxstatesthatthereisnodragonbodiessubmergedinaflowof
perfectfluid.
Thepresenceofdownwashoverafinitewingcreatesacomponentofdraginduced
dragevenwithinvicidincompressibleflowoffluidwhenthereisnoskinfrictionor
lowseparation.Henceparadoxisnottrueinthecaseofflowoverafinitewing.

75. Can induced drag on a wing be considered as a drag caused by pressure


difference.
Thethreedimensionalflowinducedbywingtipvorticessimplyaltersthepressure
distributiononthefinitewing,insuchawaythatthereisanonbalanceofpressure
inthestreamdirection.Thisisinduceddrag,whichmaybeconsideredasatypeof
pressuredrag.

76. How induced drag differs from viscous- dominated drag contributions.
Viscousdominateddragsareduetoskinfriction,pressuredragandboundarylayer
separationdrag.Includeddragispurelyduetodownwashinducedbyvorticesand
hasnothingtodowithviscosityoffluidorboundarylayerformation.

77. The profile drag coefficient for a finite wing may be taken equal to that of its
aerofoil section. Why?
Profiledragisthesumofskinfrictionandpressuredrag,whichismainlyviscous
dominatedpartofdrag.Thesedependonthefluidflowingandontheconfiguration
ofaerofoilsectionandnotontheextendofthewing.

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78. State analogical electromagnetic theory to Biot- Savart law


ThevortexfilamentisvisualizedasawirecarryingcurrentIthenthemagneticfield
strengthdBinducedatapointPbyasegmentofwiredlwithcurrentinthe
directionofwireis
dB

Idlxr
4r

Whereisthepermeabilityofthemediumsurroundingthewire.

79. What is meant by geometric twist of a wing . How it differs from aerodynamic
twist.
Asmalltwistisgiventothewingsothataatdifferentspanwisestationsare
different.Thisiscalledgeometrictwist.Thewingsofmodernaircrafthavedifferent
aerofoilsectionsalongthespanwithvaluesofzeroliftangle..

thisiscalled

aerodynamictwistofwing.

80. Why the lift over the span is not uniform


Geometrictwistcausesangleofincidencevariationfromroottotipofwing.The
wingsofairplaneshavedifferentaerofoilsectionsalongspanwithdifferentzerolift
incidence(aerodynamictwist).Asaresultofthis,liftperunitspanisalsodifferent
atvariouslocationsfromcentre.Thereisadistributionofliftperunitspanlengthan
longspan.

81. What is geometric twist? Differentiate wash out and wash in


Thewingsofaircraftareslightlytwistedfromfuselagetowardstipsothattheangles
ofincidenceoftheindividualaerofoilsectionsaredifferentatdifferentspanwise
stations.Ifthetipofthewingatlowerangleofincidencethanrootthewingissaidto
havewashoutandifthetipisathigherangleofincidencethanrootthewingissaid
tohavewashin.

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82. Why induced drag is named drag due to lift?


Induceddragistheconsequenceofthewingtipvortices,whichareproducedbythe
differenceinpressurebetweenloweranduppersurfaceofthewing.Theliftisalso
producedduetothesamepressuredifference.Hencethecauseofinduceddragis
closelyassociatedwiththeproductionofliftinthefinitewing.
83. When lift is high induced drag is also high and becomes a substantial part of
total drag. Why?
Asinduceddragcoefficientvariesasthesquareofliftcoefficientforellipticalload
distributionoverawingforhigherliftinduceddragisalsohighandbecomesamajor
partofthetotaldragoftheaircraft.
84. Aspect ratio of a conventional aircraft should have a compromise between
aerodynamic and structural requirements - discuss.
Lagertheaspectratio,smallerwillbeinduceddragcoefficientandviceversa.Hence
istheinduceddragalso.Inadesignofhighaspectratio,wingbecomesslenderand
gaspoorstructuralstrength.Acompromisebetweenthesetwoaspectsshouldthe
attainedinndesigningtheaspectratioofwing.
85. How lift distribution, plan form and down wash velocity are related in airplane
wings
Forellipticliftdistributiononthespanofwing,chordvariationfromroottotip
aerofoilsectionsmaybeassumedellipticalorellipticalplanformmaybeassumed.
Insuchcasesthedownwashvelocitymaybeconstantthroughoutspan.
86. Brief out the advantage of a tapered wing:
Ellipticplanformsareexpensivetomanufacturethanrectangularplanforms.
Rectangularplanformsgenerateliftdistributionfarfromoptimum.Acompromise
issomethinginbetweenthesetwoplanforms.Viz,taperedplanform,sothatlift
distributioncloselyapproximateellipticalcase.Alsoataperedwingcanbedesigned
withaninduceddragreasonablyclosetominimumvalue.Itiseasiertomakestraight
leadingandtrailingedgestotaperedplanforms.Thatiswhymostconventional
aircraftsemploytaperedratherthanellipticalwingplanforms.

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87. Give range of variation of aspect ratio for subsonic airplanes.


Aspectratioisbetween6to22foractualwings.Forwindtunneltestmodelsitisup
tpsix.

88. Specify the design aspect for minimizing induced drag.


Designfactorisnotclosenesstoellipticalplanform,buttomaketheaspectratioas
largeraspossible.

89. What is the relation between aspect ratio and lift curve slope?
Forreductionofaspectratio,liftcurveslopereducesforfinitewing.Aninfinite
winglargeaspectratioandsolargertheliftcurveslope(AspectRatioa)

90.

To which plan forms the lifting line theory and lifting surface theory are

applicable.
Liftinglinetheorygivesareasonableresultforstraightwingsatmoderateandhigh
aspectratio.Atlowaspectratiostraightwings,sweptsings,anddeltawingshavea
moresophisticatedmodelofliftinglinetheory,satliftingsurfacetheoryisapplied.

91. What is meant by flow tangency condition on every point on wing surface?
Thewingplanformisassumedasthestreamsurfaceofflowinliftingsurface
theory.Thereisnoflowvelocitycomponentnormaltothisstreamsurface.Hence
inducedvelocityandnormalcomponentoffreestreamvelocitytobezeroatall
pointsonthewing.Thisiscalledflowtangencycondition.

92. If two wings have same lift coefficient how their aspect ratios and angles of
attack are related.
Awingoflowaspectratiowillrequireahigherangleofattackthanawingofgreater
aspectratioinordertoproducethesameliftcoefficient.
i.e.,CLAR.(approximate)

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93. Justify the statement the bound vortex strength is reduced to zero at the
wing
tips
Thepressuredistributiongoestozeroatthetipsofwingsbecauseofpressure
equalizationfromthebottomtothetopofwingtips.Thiscausesnodiscontinuityof
velocitybetweenupperandtowersurfacesofawingatthetips.Atwingtipssingle
boundvortexofconstantstrengthtwinsthrotightangleateachwingtiptoform
trailingvortices.Thisisequivalenttovortexfilamentofequivalentstrengthjointat
tips.Thiscausesachangeinstrengthattozerovalue.

94. How the span of a simplified vortex system is arrived at from the bound vortex
of wing?
Simplifiedsystemmayreplacethecomplexvortexsystemofawingwhen
consideringtheinfluenceoftheliftingsystemondistantpointsintheflow.Wingis
replacedbyasingleboundspanwisevortexofconstantstrengthwhichisturnedat
rightanglesateachtipwingformingtrailingvorticeswhichextendtoinfinitelength.
Whengeneralvortexissimplifiedfollowingpointstobenoted(i)boundedvortex
andsimplifiedvortexmustprovidesametotallift(ii)musthavesamemagnitudeof
circulationabouttrailingedgevorticesandhencesamecirculationatmidspan.

95. What is the length of semi- span of equivalent horseshoe vortex for elliptical
distribution of circulation on a wing of span 2s
Equivalentsemispans=

s
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96. Total downwash for down- stream of the wing is twice that in the vicinity of the
wing itself. Why?
Thedownwashneartheboundvortexisduetotwosemiinfinitevorticestrailing
vortices.w=r

(cos +cos)
4y

ie,w=r

[1+1]=
4y

r
2y

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97. State Helmholtzs vortex theorem.


I.Strengthofvortexcannotincreaseordecreasealongitsaxisorlength,thestrength
beingthecirculationarounditandequaltovorticity.
diminishesvorticityincreasesandviceversa).

Area.(ifsectionarea
Sinceinfinitevorticityisnot

possible,crosssectionalareacannotreducetozero.
II.Vortexcannotendinafluid.Vortexformsaclosedloop,vortexcanendonlyona
solid.
III.Vortextubecannotchangeinstrengthbetweentwosectionsunlessfilamentsof
equalstrengthorleavethevortextube.
IV.Thereisnofluidinterchangebetweentubeandsurroundingfluidandremains
constantvortexmovesthroughafluid.

98. Where a vortex can end?


Vortexcannotendinafluid.Itformsaclosedloopinafluid.Vortexcanhavea
discontinuitywhenthereasolidbodyagainstitorwherethereisasurfaceof
separation.

99. Can a vortex tube change in its strength between two sections
Avortextubecannotchangeisstrengthbetweentwosections,unlessvortexfilaments
ofequivalentstrengthjoinorleavevortextube.

100. State Blasius theorem for 2D incompressible, irrotational flow


Thisprovidesageneralmethodofdeterminingtheresultantforceandmoment
exertedbyafluidinsteady,2dimensionalflowpastacylinderofanycrosssection,
provided,thatthecomplexpotentialw=f(z)fortheflowpatternisknown.
IfxandycomponentsoftheresultantforcebeingPxandPyandmomentsofthe
resultantforceaboutoriginMz.
PxiPy=I

Mx+iMy=z

dw
dz

dzand
dw
dz

dz

Wheretheintegralsaretakenaroundthecontourofcylinder.

Induced drag is a result of pressure differences between the top and bottom surfaces of the wing. This results in trailing edge
vortices that form into wing tip vortices.

Diagram showing the flow of air over a wing as viewed from above. The high pressure air expands and the low
pressure air contracts.

Induced drag is the drag generated as a result of lift. if a section of wing generates
zero lift it will generate zero induced drag.
The basic formula for induced drag is:-

But this formula only applies to wings of an elliptical shape so a constant is


introduced and the formula becomes:-

Where K depends on the shape of the wing. A value of 1.17 is used for rectangular
wings, a value of 1.0 is used for a taper ratio of 0.4.
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