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A SEMI-ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR STEADY-STATE


'SLUTION IN HVDC ANALYSIS

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by

Nickie Menemenlis,

B.~ng.

(McGill University)

A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate


Studies and Resear~4 in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree l of
Master of Engineering

1:,
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Departro.ent of Electrical Engineering,


i~

McG.l University,
Montreal, Canada.
March, 1980.\

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(1

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A SEMI-ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR S.S.


SLTN IN HVDC ANALYSIS
Nickie Menemenlis

B .Eng.
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A SEMI-ANALYTICAL' MET'HOD

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FOR STEADY - STAT S6)LUTION


t

lN HVDe ANALYSlS

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Nickie Menemenlis

B. Eng. (McGiII University)

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ABSTRACT
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A novel method for finding the steady-state


solution in HVDC analysis is developed. The rnethod is fast,
economical and accurat because i texploi ts fully the properties of periodicity-in-T, transposed periodicity-in-T/6,
.....

-, balanced 3-phase syrnrnetry in the ac

ci~cuit$

and the pro-

perties,of linear circuit theory.


The correctness of this ,"semi-analytical" method
is verified against the results of a

nurne~ical

integration

method.
The method
, contributes towards making the digital
computer a working tool for HVDC analysis.

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McGILL.UNlVERSITY
FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH
)

'Date ..
,

2J. /. .?;.j. p.9. ......... .

l'h~'f.. ~ ~ ....~. ~ .'0:e:.~ ~.~\\? ...C.1YJ.~.l ...... .'.'~ ...... ~ .... ~'.:....... '
DEPARTMENT' EL'.t.1 L,R-J. .................... DEGREE SOUGHT ~.\~.t;'? 'f........... ..
AUTHOR 's' RAME

TITLE OF

~SIS

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. .~ J. ~.A..Q~.':-:~ J:B.l"~ ... ~Q.l...\) .1.\.9N ... .\.N...... \;\:-< l\... ~~.~.\;r?\.~ .. .' ..
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Avthorization ia hereby given to McGil~ University to make this thesis available to


readers in a McGill University Library or other Library, either in its present forro
or in reproductjon. The author reserves other publication rights, and neither the
thesis nor extensive extracts from it may ~e printed'or otherwfae be reproduced
wi~out the author's written permission.

2.

The authorization ~a to have effect on the date given above uniess the Executive
Committee of Council shaH have voted to defer, the date on wh,ich it la to have

effect ... If so; the deferred date 18 : ......... ~ ........... ~ .. _ ........ "' ...../ ...... .

'.

Signture of Author
\

PermB.gen~

Address:,.

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105 ' Ni \b V'), Ap\ '1-0 G


Ma-o\'jea.Q - Gu...
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Signature of Dean required if 'date la
inserted in paragraph 2.
(Franais au, verso)

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RESUME

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d~velopp

ici une nouvelle mth de pour trou.ver

[, '

la solution au rgime permanent

~s

l'analyse de haut tensjon


,

courant contlnu. i; Cette m~hode 'est rapid~. Coromique et

prcise, car elle ~mploie entirement les propri~ts de priodiciten- T. de pri odicit transpos-en- T/6,

~'un

ci rcui t

c~

de'~ a

balanc et l'es propri ~ts

s vmmjtri e tri phas


lat ori e" des ci rcui ts

1inai res.

L'exactidude de cette mthode "mi-analytique ll est


i
verifie"A l'encontre des rs"uJtats d'une mthode: d' intgrati on

,1

numrique .1"

-1

!1

Elle dmontre que l' ~rdinateur numr,ique peut tre

!i

utilis ffectivement pour l'analyse d'haute tension courant


,

continu.

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III

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
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The au~hor is greatIy indebted to Dr. B.T. Ooi


,

for his constant supervision and numerous invaluable advice


during the course of this study. Without his guidance with
a

and friendly attitude this work wQuld not

wi~e

~ave

been

accomplished.
Th~

author wishes also to express his sincere

appreciation to Dr. H.L. Nakra for his supervision and


C

helpful,suggestions
during the absence of Dr. B.T. Ooi.
,
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Last, bt not Ieast, the author is very grateful


\
to Mr. J. Lazar for his useful discuss~~ns and encouragement
-l.

during the preparation of this work and Mr. S.L. Low for

.\, corrcting this manuscript .

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- - --- -- --_ - -_._J:-_

1.

CHAPTER

2.4.2

Non-commutative Subinterval
K=2

14

2.5

Magnetic Flux Continuity


Constraint

15

III

PROPERTIES OF STEADY~STATE
SOLUTONS IN HVDC

17

3.1

!Denition of Stead~Ee
Solutions in HVDC

1.7

Properties of the St~ady-State


Condition in HVDC Analysis

3.2

3.2'.1

/Symmetrical Three-phase Circuits


and S~etrical Triggering

19

19

3.2.2

Linear Circuit Theory

25

3.2.3

Magnetic Flux Continui ty.

27

3.2.4

Periodicity in T

28

i'

CHAPTER

3.2.5

The Commutation Time

IV

DERIVATION OF THE SEMI-ANALYTICAL 30


/

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29

MET~OD

Introduction

30

4.2

State-Space Solutions in the


Subintervals\ k= l, 2

31

4.2.1

Subinterval

k=l

32

4.2.2

Sl:lbinterval

k:2

33

Matching of Initial and Final '


Conditions

34

Matching the Terminal


Conditions at t: fi.

34

4.1
1

4.3.1

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Page

4.3.2

Matching the Terminal

~,

Candi tians a t

1
1

4.4

35

,,

38
5~

4.4.1

Algebr~c

4.4.2

Algebraic Expression of

4.5

Newton-'type Algorithm

Expression of ~l (0)

"

F(~)

39
41
41
)

5.1

/1

t-O

Determina tion of f.1

CHAPTER '," V

'

RESULTS

43

Convergence o-f the Newton-type

44

--

Algorithrn

Cz

----==--

---==--....::::::...:;;:.. - -

Numerical

VI

CONCLUSIONS

50

CIRCUIT CONFIGURATIONS

51

CHAPTER

corre1a~ions

5.2

47

APPENDIX

AND STATE-VECTORS IN THE


12 SUBINTERVALS

"

A.1

1 /
1

Subinterva1

51

A.2

Subinterva1

k=2

51

A.3

Subinterval

k=3

52,

A.4

Subinterval

k=4

52

Subinterval

k:5

53

A.5
",,::

Subinterval

k=6

53

A.7

Subinterval

k=7

54

A.a

Subinterval

k=8

54

A.9

Subinterval

k=9

55

A.1O

Subinterval

k:lO

55

A.ll

Subinterval

k=l1

56

1
\

A.6

'"

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1

k=1

ill

'---......;-

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____________

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure No.

Title
~,

2-1
,,2-2

HVDC

inverter system.

(a)/ Three-phase Voltages vI ,v 2and v 3'

10'

(b) De Voltage, =2 n /3
2-3

'(a) Circi t topology for subinterval,' 13


, k=l, when three valves are '
conducting. "

(bl

, . ...

circuit topology for subinterval, k=2,0 when two valves are


cpnducting .

1
1

2-4

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3-1

{
~

3-2

Continuity Requirement
Peripdicity. and Continuity
, requirement of the~teadY-7tate
solution in HVDC~a1YSiS.
(a) circuit topo1ogy for subinterval, k=3, when three valves
are co.nducting.
(h) Circuit topology for subinterval, k=2, when two valves are '
conducting.
''',.

3-3

Valve currents'i , i b , and i in


a
c
the 12 subintervafS (ks1, ... l2} of
the fundamental wave period T.
l
'.tt
1

l~~'

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1

16

18

22
1

~.

24

(,

ix

1.

F~gure

No.

4-1

Tit1e
Newton-t,ype algori thm

42

!-

5-1

(a) Convergence of F (ft) towards


1

,,45

zero aS a function of the


i teration mlInber,.i
,

Cb) 'Conlmutation time, ftl l, against


the iteration number ,-1
5-2

Commutation angle

ft

.)

as a func-

tien of swi fching angle,

'1 ,

46

49

ct

Line: ",semi-analytical" method.


Crossed ,points: Numericall inte,
gration

A-l

Circuit configuration during


subinterval

51

k-l

'"

A-2

,Circuit, configuration dring


stlbinterval

A-3

51

k=2

Circuit configuration during

52

subinterval
,

A-4

'1

k=3

Circuit configuration during


subinterval

A-5

52

k:4

Circuit configuration during


subinterval

A-6

Circuit

k=5

config~ration

subinterval

53
1

during

53

~=6

--_

..

_------..

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'

- ....

~~

-... ___

__

--- _.

'-

- --

1
1

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Fig:ur No.

!illi.

..

A-7

Page

Circuit configuration during


subinterval k.7

54

1
1

,f

1
1
1

A-a

Circuit configuration during


subinterval k=S

54

A-9

Circuit-""-, configuration during


-

55

\ sUbinte~al

k=-9

"

A-lO

Circuit configuration during


1

A-ll

k ... 1O

Circuit configuration during


subinterval k=ll

A-l2

1f

subint~rval

55

Circuit configura ti on
subinterval - k=12

<J.

dur~ng

56

56

!1-

'1.,.
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,
LIST OF TABLES

Table No.

Title

2-1

pa<fe

Valve switching sequence


during one period T-.
(

.)

1.

12 l"
if

II

-~'~~~~~~~~~~~~~---------""""""

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xi
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NOMENCLATURE
Matrices
[A]

the~

Constant coefficient matrix of

system of

linear differential equations (equation 3-3).


" ,

[B ]

Constant mat ri x of the, system of linear

diffe~,~

ential equations (equation(3-3.


[C ij]

Partition of the state transition matrixfl (~~


,defined in equation (4-22).

[ CP]

Dimensional compatibility matrix defined in


equation (4-8).

[Cs]

Rearrahgement rnatrix defined in equation (4-13).

[~J

Constant matrix constituting of

-1,0 and 1

(equation (A-I .

[IJ

ldentity.

[L]

Inductance matrix in henry.1

[M]

Modal matrix of [A ] (equation (C-2.

R
[RJ

General purpose vector.


Resistance matrix in ohm.
"-.

Forc~ng

function of the system of linear differ-

entia1 equations (equation(3-3.

o
l

-- -'!J--

1.\\

xii

Vector of the state-variable of the system of


'1:

diffrential equations:
~,

~ks

Particu!ar integral.
Diagonal matrix of the eigenvalues of rnatrix

[A]

(equation (C-2)).
Constant of integration.
State-transition rnatrix defined in
Transpose.
Inverse.

(
,

"

equa~ion

(3-5).

,1

xiii

Subscripts

,
a,b, c

Phases in the ac side.

d
j

. .

rDc quanti ty .
-

.\

Cycle number (Fig. 3-1).

Subinterval number.

Iteration number.

.s

particular part of th,e solution (equation (3-4) ) ._

Quantity of synchronous machine.


\ ,

Il.

. Quanti ty of' the trans former ""

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Constants
i
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Amplitude of the source.

Id

Constant

J
f

dc' current.

'

IV
"

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Inductance

(henry) .

Resistance

(ohm) .

fundamen tal wave period.

V
d

Constant

Firing angle of a valve.

peruni tized closure norm.

,."

'-

dc

voltage.

Commutation time (sec)

'j.

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--

'"

-_,41 _

_
9~

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xiv

(r~

Angular frequency of 60 H

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Variables
i,e

Instantaneous current and voltage.

time.

In~tantaneous

voltage.

..

Ct

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CHAPTElt

INTRODUCTION
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..

Electrical pow,er may be transmitfed by me ans of


.. aerial Unes or
Although the

un~~rgFound

mai~

cables, in either ,ac' or dc forme

bulk of' electric power is transmitted using

ac, there are occasions where dc transmission finds its niche,


in:

/'

a) Very long transmission distances.

.)
"

b) Underwatr transmission.
l

c) Interconnection of systems at different frequencies.

d) Reinforcement of large

ac

systems.
,

Research in HVDC revolves around the


J~,\

of component~, th-e converter station


ers

[11,

developme~t

dc circuit break-

[2J, Ithe effe'ct of harmonies [3], multiterrninal

topolog~es

etc [4-1~ . However, this thesis is concerned with~the predictions of the

syst~

Qehaviour, More precisely, it is

concerned,with a method of predicting the steady-state per-

.,
,

formance of the HVDC system using the digital computer.'

, l

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Stte of Art

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To date, the methods for predicting the perfor.rnance charpcteristics for design, research and operation, fall
under two major categories:
1.1.1

Ana10g sim~tion Methods


The simulation of the HVDC

~ystem

is performed

using; sorne. ana log representation of the system equations. The


converter station is u~ually modelled by a thyristo~ bridge.
~

This method is an excellent tool for system study,


and is the workhorse in rsearch laboratories [11-13J
/

1.1.2

Digital simulation Methods


\

HVDC

The use of the digital computer as tool for


system analysis is still

i~

its infancy.

~evelopmental

wo;i

falls under two further sUQdivisionp:


a)

'1

Load!Flow Studi~s

Load-flow studies [14-17J


t~~

needs of

th~

are oriented to

system dispatcher. In these studies

l,

a number of gross assumptions have been made to

,simplify th~ analysis. Typically the commutation

p~riod

i;

neg~d

and the' phase current takes a

rectangu1ar form.
Recently there 1 has been a spate of activities
1
(

in this area following

i~terest

in multiterm1nal

stations and acide system interactions [4

1/

10J

/
b)

Studies
The majority of papers in the area of HVDe

t'

analysis makesuse of numerical integration techniques [18 - 2SJ.' This is an all-powerfu,l method
which is'suitable for any conceivable situation.
Thus the system may be unbalanced, unsymmetrical
and faulted. One can use it for transient analysis'
and

~ady~stat

analysis. However, one pays

a cost for the generality of these 'all-purpose programs.


Bsically, they are slow in cornputing the
steady-state solutions which are the solutions
that

(}

the investigator is rnost interested in. This

is because one does not know what initiai conditions


to use in order to arrive at

As such, one makes

a guess

th~ steady-state solution.

of the initial conditions!

ti

tnd runs the prograrn for a sufficiently long time

\or ,the transients to subside. Usually, the time

constants assodiated with the transients of the

tt

sy~tem,

1
1.2

,are generally qui te long compared with the

ti,{y integration step,\


Staterneqt of the Problem
This thesis recognizes that in rnany applications

the investigator i5 interested rnainly in the steady-state


~.

'
solu~ion.

Furtherrnore, a large blass

o~

HVDC problerns falls

l~

1
j

under what may be described as symmetrical and balanced networks. As such, there is a 'need for a quick and fficient
"-

methodifor the solution of this class of problern.


As has been stated

i~

the foregoing section, the

slowness of the numerical integration methods in arrivi~g at


the steady-state lies in the fact that transients are unavoidably excited

u~~ess

one is tortunate in guessing the

correct initial conditions. Thus, if on makes a correct guess'


Q

of the initial state

~(O)

such that, after the time period T,

the state vector !(T) is equal to

~(O),

then one is sure to

be at the steady-state. This method, of course, has ta ken


advantage of the periodicity of the steady-state solution.
The steady-state analysis of linear and nonlinear
,
1

circuits with periodic inputs have always treated the subject


as a tw6-point boundary value prob1em [26-30], in which one
,

<
l

,attempts to find a systematic method of converging quickly ta


J

the initial states which satisfy the periodicity requirl2ijlent.


l

!(O) eq'ual to !,(T). In fact, for linear systems,

~la

closed form

I-

i.,
l

!1

of the initial state x(Q) is derivable.


J

However, as

app~ied

to HVDC analysis the problem

becomes more complexe This is because the six valves of the'

1 ,
1

converter
, bridge are triggered , sequentially once in a cycle.
,

This breaks the fundamental period


into 12 subintervals.
In
1 l
'
ech subinterval the system netwo~k

is

mode1led by a differ~

ent circuit topology. This changes the problem ta a 13-point

(J

1
~

-------

"

boundary 'value problern.


\

'-

" The HVDC analysis is further complicated by the


fact that the durations of the commutation subintervals are
1

unknown, 'and are themselves solutions to the system equations.


Thus far, the statement of the 13-point boundary
;/

enun~iated

valoe problem has been

in the most genetal way.

For the restricted cases in which the following assurnptions


can be made:
a) linear circuit representatioh of'system topologies,
b) symmetrical three-phase circuits on the ac side, ,c) equally spaced triggering of the converter valves
at T/6,
it is possible to redu ce the problem to a three-point bbund,

ary value problem. This reductio,n is amenable because:


a) The assumption

of

<

linearity allows one to write a

closed-form analytical formula ,relting the termina~


state vector to the initial state vector of each
subinterval.
b) The ass~ption of symmetrical network topologies
and equally spaced triggerings allow one to consider
the

~solutions

of any two consecutive subintervals

to be the ;templates from which the solutions of the


entire period can be constructed.
The foregoing assumptions tantalize one to the

o
(

------

\ ,

(
\.

'

6
jo

prospect of an analytical solution.nUnfortunately, the 'com-

mutation time, f.1, is basically unkno,,:,n. This has to be


.
s61ved from a .,transcendental equation involving the cornmutation current diminishing to zero. The solution of tl1~
transcendental equation is obtained numerically. For this
,

.,

wr-

reason the method described in, this thesis .i:s called a


"semi-analytical" method.
,
[
o

1.3

Organization of the Thesis

\
This thesis is organized in tne/fol-lowing way:
Chapter II is' a brief review of the Graetz
1

bridge of' the converter station.


for an HVDC

[13J

~n

inverter station

is chosen as an Fllustrati ve ex-

ample and is examined in detail. This illustrq..five


example is used throughout this thesis for the exp lanation

of the " semi-analytical" method (Chapter lH)


,

and to glve quantitative results (C?apter V) .

\i

Chapter III presents in a detailed' fashion


the central ideas of the "semi-analytical" meth~d.

lt

itemizes the properties of the steady-state solution


and t he

.
prop~rtl.es

f rom the Jund


'
.
erly~ng
assumptl.ons,

which are exploi ted in the "semi-analytical" analysis.' r

i Chapter IV organizes aIl th~perties toge ther

and derives the pertipent equations.

"-.

Chapter V gives a quantitative check to the


,co-rrect answer and effectiveness of the "semi-analytical"
metllod.
,

CHAPTER

,<

II

REVIEW OF THE THEORY OF THE GRAETZ BRIDGE


,

2. 1

Introduction
The theory of an HVDC

conver~er

9tation is well

. This chapters devot~d to a quick review

known

of the theory of ft,s

opera~ion.

Rather t:han discussing the

subject in generar terms, a specifie examp1e is chosen as


,

,il1ustrated in Fig. 2-1.

-ea+ Ls

Rs

Vfr

t
Id

(
V4

vs

~d

V2

Fig. 2-1

,f

HVDC system showing the Graetz bridge) inverter


connected to a,synchronous ~qchine and a balanced
load on the ac side and a constant current' source
,

.
Ij)

on the de side.

Fig. 2-1 represents an inverter station consisting of the following parts:

1"

:\
1

,..,8

1
"
1
1

al

An ideal/constant direct current source" Id' This


represents the curreht from an HVDC transmi'ssion
line.

b.)

A Graetz bridge, referred als,? as a three-phase


six pulse bridge, consisting of six controlled
valves. The valves are nurnbered vl to V6 accordt~eir

ing to
c)

firing order.

A three phase transformer connecti'ng the ac side


1

of the Graetz bridge with the load, and the synchronous machine. Each phase of the transformer
o

is represented by its equivalent model consisting of an inductance LT ,and a resistance


d)

R.r'

,C'

'\

three phase load., Each phase co.nsists ,of an in-

1,
1

duc tance oin parallel with a resistance, Land R


,

respectively.

....

1\

"

el

The last part of the station is a synchronous


machine. It is represented by its

simplestimo~el,

this being an ideal voltage source behind an


equivalent stator inductance

(subt~ansient),

LS

and a stator resistance, RS' The instantaneous


t-

line to neutral EMFS of the machine are:

'11/2) 1

e C (t )
1

Em sin ( c,,) t .. 5'!: / 6 )

(>

---.:;;......--.~----

..

- ---..

------~

..._.-

(2-1)

where: Em
w

= Amplitude

of the source.

angular frequency of 60H

This synchronous ~achine is included in this


1

inverter station in order to provide natural


1

commutation t9 the bridge. In this inverter


system it also furnishes part of the inductive
power requirement on the ac side.

",,1

Bridge Operation

As shawn in Fig. 2Tl, the rGraetz bridge is cam-

.posed of six controlled valves. As is well known, the ignition

of each controiled valve may be detained by the

"delay angle"

,01..

l3l]

It i6 well' known

.1 '
Il

~4

1
.J

that the bridge

operates as:.
1

ft

i)

a converter fbr

ii)

an inverter for

< < /2
"'/2 < <

cr

7r

cr

11"

and

,)

In or der 1;0 illustrate the meaning of the firing

1
!

,t..

angle cr,

the voltages vI' v 2 and v 3 (6e Fig. 2-1) are

shown in Fig. 2-2 (a). The DC voltage, Vd' for

cr

=2

;
11'

/3 :hs

shown in Fig 2- 2 (b) .

j
i

!j

r
1

Although the trigger signal which fires a valve


is controlled by the value of a, the extinction of a valve

is uncontrolled. The method of swi tching a valve off is the reversal of the'current

'0

th~ough

that valve. This change of state


'\
,

.
1

-- .. -

cr.

-"

1\
!
1

10

(~l

"

J
~I

t)

. V (t)
2

Va(t)
1

;"
,

,t

..,

T
(a. )

'Id

fi-

~a
--111

Cl
1

l,
J
(b)

Fig. 2-2 (a)


(b)

Il.

\r\

3-phase voltages VI' v 2 and v 3


..pC voltage Vd for' Cl = 271:/3.

\~

11

of a valve, from the conducting to the non-conducting position and

vice~versa,

is known as "commutation" of th.e ...

valve. Furtherrnore, the time required for the current of a


,valve to drop to zero is the "commutation" tirne and will be
denoted as "jJ." sec. throughout this work.
Du~ing

normal operation of the bridge, the valves

are triggered successively in the order shown in Fig. 2-1.


The system completes one cycle after each

val~~

has been

triggered once and has conducted for a specified period of


time, which is usually one third of a cycle,or

2~/3

radians.

1<1-

Thus under non-faulty conditions there is always a pa th from


the dc ~ide of the system t? the ac side and back to the dc
side through tHe conducting valves.
t'
~.3

12 Switching Subintervals
During normal operation, at least two valves are

conducting simultaneously; one from the top of the bridge


(namely VI, V3 or VS)and a second one from the bottom part of
the bridge (narnely V2, V4 or V6).The valve from the top of
the bridge perrnits the dc current to

flow~towards

the ac "

side, and the valve from the bottom of the. bridge leads the
current out df the ac side\.
T~e

six triggerings of

break the prob1em in 12

-------

~he

sbintervals~

valves in one period

'it0

12

Ir

(-_1

SUBINTERVAL NUMBER
1

=1

V2
V3
V4

2 1

V3
V4

31
V3
V4
VS

V4
VS

7 1

1 6 1
VALVES CONDUCTING
V4
VS
V6

VS
V6

VS
V6
VI

V6
VI

V6 VI
VI V'2
V2

VI
V2
V3

V2
V3

Valve

Il

V2
V3
V4

.,

Table 2-1

8 1 9 1 10 1 III 12 1 13

switching sequence dUl:'ing one period T.

'Table 2-1 enumerates aIl possible combinations of


l

,j

the conduc,ting valves during one cycle in the sequence they


occur in the partieular example.

( ,J

i)

"

During the even subinterval, k

2n (n

= 1,2,3 ... ),

'1

only two valves are conducting.


ii)

Durin9rthe odd subinterval, k

= 2n

+ l(n

= o~

)
,1

l,

2, ..... ), three valves are conducting simultanr

eously. This is the commutation subinterval, during which the change-over of current, from one
valve to another valve, oceurs. This change-over
of current does not happen instantaneously. At

1
,

the beginning of such a subinterval a new valve


is fired while one that was already conducting

ceases \ at the end of the subinterval.

o
, '

13

2.4

Circuit Topology
As describe4 in section 2.3 the circuit topology .

,may exist in two main configurations with eit.her two or three


valves conducting. In the chosen example,' the circuit topo'\

logies of the HVDC inverter system for the subinterval numbers

k=l and'2 are shown in Fig. 2-3(a) and (b) +espectively.


(a)

1
\ld
V2'

(:'

"

(b)
V3

V4

.,

'"

'

Fig. 2-3(a)
Cb)

Circuit topology for subinterval,


k = l, when three valves are conducting.
Circuit topology for sUbinterval,
k
2, when two valves are conducti~g.

'

14

Commutation Subinterval k

2.4.1

It is worthwhile emphasizing that the reversaI


of current of the extinguishing valve (in this case V2) does
not occur
the

This is due to the inductances in

instanta~eously.

circ~it.

Thus, it is clear that the magnitude of the


depends on the size of these induc-

commutatio~ time,~,

tances.
Commutation occurs during the odd subintervals,
r,

= 2n

at

=0

(n

O,1,2.~.).

The subinterval k = l

with the triggering

earlier) , and ceases at

= IJ.

o~

begins

valve V4 (which was off

sec. with the extinction of

valve\V2.

2.4.2

Non-commutative Subinterva1

=2

i'

The non-commutative subinterval is the period


<,

between two consecutive commutation subintervals. This is


taking place for

k - 2n (n

= 1,2,3 ... )

and exactly, two

valves are conducting.,


The valves are considered as ideal switching
elements with the 'following characteristics:
a)

,f

TheYf.have zero resistance to positive anode CUrr;.:f..l

rentithat is to say, they are considered as short


circ~~ts

b)

when'they are conducting.

They have an infinite resistance to current

ir.f

15

the reverse direction.

Also they are open circuits

when they cease to conduct.


2.5

Magnetic Flux Continuity Constraint


,In each subinterval the

dynamic~

of the system "of

Fig.2-l, may be described by rnqthematical equations in a


"

state-space variable forro:


~k

= ~k (x-k, t)

= 1,2,3 ..

where

( 2-2)

'"

is the subinterval number.


,,

From a circuit point of view, Fig. 2-1 contains


a three phase voltage source, a dc urrent source and linear

l
l

circui t elements'.~ Thus the system differentia1 equations

describing the network in each particular subinterval, are


linear. Therefore, J it has a closed forrn solution. These solu\

,1
1

tions may be expressed analytically except of the cdnstants of


---~

integration. The constants of integration

!
1

ing

~e

obtained by invok-

the cong~raints of periodicity (to be iscussed in sec-

tion 3.2) and of magnetic flux continuity.

1
1

t
1

At the instant of time when any valve begins or


ceases conduction, the circuit changes its configuration.
The

sqlut~ons

of, twc

pieced together by

contiguou~

satisfyin~

systems of equations are

the conditions of the magnet-

ic flux continuity constraint which in this case is the currents in the inductance elements

L , Ls and L.
T

.~

"

.
IG

(~

..

SUBINT~~ ~UMBER

):

,1,

'k

"'k+l

- \

1tK+I
\

Fig. 2-4

1
1

Continuiy requirement.

Cf
,More
\

kth subinterval

pr~cisely,

evalu~ted

the terminal state


1

t~rmination

..

tirne t

of the

is used
k
to fom the initial sta te ~k'+ 1 (tk ) of the next subinterval.

at the

~k(tk)

/-

1
1

,r

j
t

17

lI

!,

(:

1HAPTER

III

>

PROPERTIES OF STEADY-STATE SOLUTIONS IN HVDC


\
\

3.1

Definition of Steady-State Solutions in HVDC


For the purpose of this analysis, it is necessary

to assume that a steady-state in .the HVDC system existlil. An


HVDC system is said to have arrived at its steady-state when
\

aIl the transients have disappeared and the system has resumed a cyclic operation of period T. This definition correto the sarne notion of steady-state in

"

sponds

Thus the system in the steady-state fulfils the following

analysis.

conditions:
a)

a~

AlI transients from faults, switchings and reclosures have died out.

b)

AlI transients due to a transition of the sY,stem


from one steady-state condition to another ~eadyl

state condition due to a change in the load,have


disappeared.
c) . Each cycle of operation is identical to every
other one.
,

Therefore the steady-state is defined as the


\

periodic; solution of the state-space variable, that i5:


1
, .
\
~)

where:

~(t)

= ~(t

T)

(3-1)

is the state-yector and

T is the pe'riod of the fundamental wave.

\-

..

"-.

,'

l'

18

f'
Il

1
11 -1

The periodicity of eguation (3-1) together with


i1lustra~

the continuity requirements of equation (2-2) are

ted in Fig. 3-,1. From this the following can be inferred:


a) The final conditions of each cycle

are equal

to the initial conditions of the next cycle

j+l.

b) The intermediate events within a cycle are repeated with a period

T.

"-

CYCLE

~~ER
"

,\\

t.----T
Fig. 3-1

,,

-----""'4'..~lfooI.t----- T -"-----+1

Periodicity and continuity reguirement of the


steady-state solution in HVDC analysis.

\
,In

\ -,
'~
ac analysis the "s1ready-state'~ution is

the "particular integral" alone and the

"transi~nt"

solution

is the "complementary'function" of the system equations. In


HVDC it is

worthwh~le

to stress that in contrast to

. "steady-state" solutiqn is composed of the


ular

SUIn

ac" the

of the "partic-

integrals" and the "complementary functions" of the

system differential equations in the subintervals.


"

$
,
"

,.

i1

19

3.2

Properties of the Steady-State .Condition in HVDC Analysis

"'-

The semi-analytical method of finding the steadystate solution in HVDC recognizes and exploits the following
properties:
3.2.1

Symmetrical Three-phase Circuits and symetrical


Triggerin<]
1.

The

ac side of the system is assumed,to fulfil

the requirements of:


a)

thr~e-phase

balanced and syrnrnetrical circuit.

i1

This means that:

J.

i) the impedances of
er' are

~ach

Phase\of the

transform~'

~),

'~

equa~ 1

, '4

lJ

ii)

the load is balanced"

1i

iii) the "subtransient" inductance and the stator


.

resistanc

1
hav~

\
1

the same value for each phase,

Cl

1
1
1

iv) the phase voltags of the synchronous machine

haye equal amp'litude and have a pha,se ang:le of

~ radians between them.


b)

\.
d

:~
';1
J

J>

Symmetrical triggering. This means that the valves


of the Graetz ?ridge receive the triggering pulse
at equally spaced intervals of T/6.
,

As a, oonsequence of the symmetry and equally spaced

triggering, there exists only two basic circuit topologies


fo~
,

l
~

20

the 12 subintervals in the fundamental period T. These basic


circuit topologies are as shown in Fig. 2-3(a) and {b). The
topologies of

th~

other ten subintervals are repeated forms

of Fig. 3-2(a)an(b), except that ,the currents have to be


re-label1ed because of the valve swi tching se,quences as
Q.

shawn in Table 2-1. This property is defined as transposed


symmetry.
To illustrate the
the subintervals k

= 1,2,3

transpo~ed

symmetry property,

and 4 will be examined. Their

circui ts topologies are shown in Fig, 2-3~}', (b) and "Fig.

3-2 (a)

(b),

The odd subintervals ,are essentially the commutation subintervals in which three valves are conducting

(~ }

._

1/

simultaneously"
During subinterval

!
.i
1

= l,

V4 is

starts conducting. The current through V2 tends

V3 carries the entire

current Id' At the beginning of subinterval

l
!

1
1

= l,

";

due ta natural commutation. The end of'this


~

~t

"-

subinterval 's marked by ,the cessation of conduction of V2

"
2

and the complete transfer of current I~ t~ the b~an~h of V

The sarne effects are observed during the-subinterval

= 3,

The

differenc~

1s that the valves involved

in this commutation subinterval have changed and the branch


currents must be re-labelled. The raIe of V3 is now played

'{
')

---

-------------=--~-----~-~---

\,

"'----

'-,

21
,1

.[!' ('-,

by V4. 'The valve te be fired at the beginning of this period

p'

<'

vs whereas the valve 'which is going to cease

i5

con,~uction

at the end of this subinterval is V3. By ind~btioh, it can


be concluded that aIl the odd numbered supintervals are
transposed forms of the subinterval

=,1.

The ev en subintervls are essentially the noncommutative subintervals in which two valves are conducting
sirnultaneously.

.j

'\

The transposed symmetry is also observed in the'


ev en subintervjls. 'During subinterval

=2

the valve V3

is conducting on the top of the bridge and V4 is onducting


~

on the bottom of the bridge. During subinterval ,k

=4

.1

the

valve VS is conducting on the top of the bridge and the

J1
~

valve V4 on the bottom of the bridge'.

\'

"

!f

"".,.

~
l

.j

~"

1
"

1
\,

"
(

&

\.

. 1

1
1

.22

-1

V3 \15

'1

c,

IJ
(

"

i!
1

!
,

'1

Fig. 3-2{a)
(b)

.,
Circuit topology for subinterval, k = 3,
<
when three valves are conductirig.
Circuit tOP9logy for subi"nterval, k = 4,
when two valves are conducting.

(
\

l '

----- --- --------

ij
.1

23

The ab'ove paragraphs explained the transposition

'1

symmetry in the Graetz bridge. Fg. 3-3 shows the current's


i , ib and i on the transformer branches as a function of
a
c
'time. The transposition property is clearly observed. The
current 'wav-eforms in the subinterval

=1

are repeatedly

transposed in all the odd subintervals. Sirnilarly, the

cur~
1

rent waveforrns olf the even subintervals are repeatedly the


transposed forms of' those in
~,

This transposed (T/6)

= 2.
~

.,..

periodicity means" that

the behaviour in a basic subinterval spanning a brne of T/6

suffices in describing the behaviour of the complet period


of tirne T. Any two adjacent subintervals such as the one for
k ;

ft

,
~

1 and 2 constitute this subperiod of TV6.

d~

,~

~)

~l

This transposed T/6 periodicity is illustrated

in Append~x~A. Appendix A shows the' circuit configurations

.;

for the 12 subintervals for the l in,verter ~xarnple of Fig. 2~'l.

.,

In this exarnple, the state-vectors of the commutation subI[

intervals

.1

"-

"

(k odd) ar 7 all six-tuple vectors. The current

elements which consti tute

!.1'!.3'

... !.ll

'1

'..1

are listed in

!-.

this Appendix A. The state-vectors of the non-cornrnu tative

.,

~ubintervals

(k even) contain five currentl elements. The


1
current elements wh~ch consti tut 7 !.2' ~4' . ~12 are alsOi

J .

,l~sted

in Appendix A.

.
-

-_.-

~---~

: ...... _

......

""'~,b~

...,r...~ ...~~.>k'"l", ....M:>!""~~~-.ti(,..4~.y~ ..I."

'

-'

24

,
1

With

the definitions of the state-vectors

!k (k - 1,2,3 ... ) as gi ven in Appendix A, the transposed"\


b~

(T/6) periodicity can

expressed mathemat1cally as:

r'

(t + nT/6)

~k+2n

= ~k(t)

(3-2)

,----

n = 1,2,3'0'
Il

where

k+2n

1,2

is the subinterval number.

sus :-INTERVAL
K:i Il 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 ~ 1 6

NUMBER.
'1 7 1 8 1

9,1 10 1111121131141
J

VALVES ' CONDUCTING

(
i

ha

:r,

!(

V2 V3 V3 V4 V4 V5 V5 Vs VS VI \fI V2 V2 V3
V2 V2 V3 v3 V4
VI
V6
V3 V4 V4 V5
V4
~ ,.~f .~~ y'3
V4
V5
7'

!'iiiI::

ib

~f-

,
1

a.-.

"
T

1"-

ro.;,:'

a.-.

t
t

.-1

tl

Fig. 3-3

1
1

Valve

currents i a , ib and i c in the 12 subintervals


(k =~l, 0.012) of the'fundarnenta1 wave period, T.

J'

25

3.2.2

Linear Circuit Theory


As has already been discussed in section 2.4,

the system equations describing ea,ch subinterval are linear.

Equation (2-2) in its linear form becomes:


"
1

( 3-3)

= 1,2,3 ..

= subinterval
~k

=a

state-vector of dimension n .
k

=,forcing

~k(t)

number

~)

function vector of dimension m conk

taining elements of the three-phase


source and the dc current source.

\.

nk
[B~J

x,~

= nk x mk

.~

~"

constant matrix

~
l

constant matrix

1
1

From linear' circui t 1;-heory

.1

Il

equation (3-3) ,

1~

= ~ks (t)

+ [cI>k (t)]

lk

~
~

has a closed forro solution as f6l1ows:


x k (t)

[32 ]

.J

1~
(3-4 )

~
~

where

,1

X~s(t)

= particular

integral (dimension n )
k
(3-5)

= state-transition

fk

matrix

- constant of integration

-.

26

T~e

forcing function

~k

(t) ,which is known ex-

plicitly,together with the constant matrices

[Ak] and [Bk]

determine uniqu~ly the solutions o.f the particular integral,


,.,:P

x k (t). Themethod for solving for

- s

- ks

(t) is shown in

Appendix B.
The state-transition matrix

[!l>k (t)]

ls a function

alone. The method for evaluating [cJI k (t)]


is given in Appendix C.

of the matrix [Ak]

The solutiors of equation (3-4) are known except


for the unknown constants of integration

,~,

= 1,2.

These

unknown constants are obtained from the initiallconditions


of each of the subintervals. In the case where subintervals
k'::

1,2 are chosen as the representatives of the complete

cycle, the initial conditions needed are at t


As will be

sho~n,

= 0 and

.~.

the magnetic flux continuity

requirements will impose the conditions that the states at


-

>-

the end 'of one subinterval become the states of the initial
\

conditions of the subsequent subinterval. This requirement


1

.
,;

combined_ with the periodicity requirement will make it possi,

ble

te obtain two sets of linear simultaneous algebraic

equations, from which the unknown constants, !k (k

= 1,2

will be solved.

()

27

(
3.2.3

Magnetic Flux

Contin~ity

The "magnetic flux continuity" condition requires


that at the jqint of two subinterva1s there is a continuity
;

of currents

ih

the inductance.

conditions of each subinterval

'

In consequence, the initial


are obtained from the final

.
\ su b'~nterva 1 .
con d ~'t'~ons 0 f t h e prev10us

In the case where interva1s

= 1,2

are chosen

as the representatives ?f a complete cycle, their joint is

:,
'"'4

at

t=~.

At this point of

of subinterval
tions of

~~(~)

=l

t~e,

the final conditions of

~1 (~)

are'obtained from the initial condi-

of subinterval

= 2.

This property is

used in solving for the integration constants lk

in equa-

tion (3-4).
Mathematically this is expres-sed as:
1

~2 (~)

[cp J ~l (~)

(3- 6)
,

where
~~

~he

This

li

[cp]

i5 an (n ' x nI)' dimension compatibility matrix.


2
compatibility matrix consists of O's and l's as elements.

[cp]

matrix is required because !.2 (t) and

~l(t)

do not

have the sarne dimensions.

!}

As will be shown in the next

the

?eriod~

i
\

icity in

s~ction

requirernent together with the (T/6) - period-

icity requirement will provide the second necessary initial


\

condition at t = O. This is needed in order to solve for


the unknown integration
constants
l,
J

5,..

-,...

r
j

28

(:
3.2.4

Periodici ty in

T_

"\

The periodici{y in

T requirernent demands that

the initial conditions of each cycle are equal to the initial


conditions of any other cycle. Simi+arly, the final conditions
of each cycle are equal ,to the final conditions of any other
cycle.
Mathematically, the periodicity in

T requirement

of the ini,tial conditions of the first cycle is expressed


as:
~l (0)

= ~13 (Tl

(3-7 )

Equations (3-7') is needed in order to solve for


the initial conditions of the system at

= O.

Equati9ns (3-6) and (3-7) are the two terminal


conditions by which the constants of integration

ik

: (k=1,2)

can he solved. Of course, equation (3-7) inyo1ves the subinterval

= 13.

However, by exploiting the

T/6 transposed

periodicity property of equation (3-2), one does not need to


solve beyond the intervals

= 1,2.

stress that the commutation tirne,

It is important to
, itself is an algebra-

ic unknown. In consequence, the solutions of

lk

are functions Qf ~ . The next section shows hO;

(k

= 1,2)

may be

obtained.

(~)

",

29

3.2.5

The Conunuta tion Time

JJ.

In order to evaluate

~2(~)'

the commutation

"

time, p. , needs to be known explici tly. It has already been


\

discussed in section 2. ~,that t,he triggering of a valve is

controlled at will but the switching off is not controllable.


, This

commutation time

depends on the parameters of the

system. It is the point in

t~e

when the current in the corn-

mutating valve tends to reverse in di:ction.


In order to find the commutation tirne p.

one must

f,

write an equation of the branch current of the commutating


valve and solve for

when the value of this current equals

zero.
(
The expression of the commutation current is a
nonlinear function of

~.

It is therefore necessary to solve

it numerically. This is the reason why the rnethod'for solving the steady-state in HVDC analysis is called

Il

semi-analy-.:

tical" . ,A recursi ve formula, akin to Newton' s rnethod, is


employed in order to solve the nonlinear

equatio~

~""~-

in

~~~--~---~-~-~----~---

~=-~====

\
1

CHAPTER

IV

DERIVATION OF THE SEMI-ANALYTICAL METHOD

.' ....

4:\. Introduction
Instead of deriving the semi-analytical method
in the most geneFal way, this thesis is

devoted

ent~rely

to the Graetz inverter system as given in Fig. 2-1. This


\

Il

specifie example gives sufficient structure from which sorne


of the fine points will have to be solved. Among thes

r points

are:
a)

the system dimensions of the odd and the even


subintervals are

ap~iieation

incompatibl r

b)

the

of the T/6 transposed syrnmetry,

c)

the determination of the commutation time

p.,(

Essentially, the derivation consists of organizing

the information based on the properties described 'in

chapter III,

50

that the constants of integratton


"

and p can be solved explicitly.

(k=1,2)

'

Although this specifie ex-

ample lacks generality, the ideas have applicability in


more eomplex situations.
fo

In the development of the derivation, the two


systems of linear differential
interva1s

e~uations

describing the sub-

1!2 are so1ved exp1ieitly. The solutions of


\

these two systems of equations give rise to two algebrae

C)

unknowns

~l(O)

and

,
~2(P).

The matching of the terminal con-

'\
\

----- - -

-.

---~ -

-~

-- ------

31

ditions of the two subintervals resu1ts in an equation of


~l(O)

in terms of the single algebraic unknown

Finally by swdstituting
of subinterval

constant,~

~l (0) into the system of equations

l, one derives a nonlinear equation in

This equation is solved for

Il'

Il

by ernploying a recursive nuI

merical routine akin to Newton's rnethod.


4.2

State-Space Solutions in the Subintervals,

k~1,2

The first step leading to the drivation df the


serni-analytical method is te1 obtain solutions of the system
,of equations for each\ subinterval,

k =1,2. It is :to be

pointed out that the state-variables in each subinterval have


different dimensions.

It should be stressed, that for the purpose

~f

this analysis, under symmetrical conditions, the coefficient


\
matrices [~],[BkJ, and the forcing function ~k(t) are
equal in aIl the odd subinterva1s.Similarly, [~],[BkJ and
1)

~k(t)

are equal in the even subintervals.'These are con-

sequences of the T/6 transposed,syrnmetry. As a result, one

needs only to solve for the state equations in the subintervals

k'~

1,2 only. The solutions in the other subinter-

vals can be derived by re-labelling the current e1ernents


with respect to the elements of the solution vectors ~k(k=l,2).
The state-vectors in all the 12 subintervals together with

()

the circuit configurations are shown in Appendix A'.

, ;

"
32
\

4,2.1

Subinterval

=1

The system of linear differential equations describittq the network in subinterval k

= l,

shown .in Fig, 2-~) ,

is given by:
(4-1 )
1

where the constant matrics

[Al] and [Bl]

are of dimension

x n ) and (n x ml) respectively, and the forcing funcl


l
tion vector, ~l (t) is of dimension ml' These are listed in
(n

Appendix D. l,
The state-variables are of dimension
~re

=6

and

choseri to be:

1
1

(4-2 )

t
t

The total solution of equatfon (4-1), aqcording


\

to the general solution, equation (3-4l, is as follows:

1
1

!.l(t)

= ~ls(t) +

[4>I(t)]

1~1(O)

~lS(O)}
(4-3 )

\.

where

!ls (t) a~~ [CPI Ct)]

T,he expression

1~1 (0)

are listed in Appendices B -and \ '

- ~ls (O)} on the right hand side is

the unknown integration constant

Il

accord~ng to equation

(3-4). This i.s obtained by substi tuting

and

(3-4),

~ls

(0) may be evaluated

=0

in equation_

~xp1icitly

as in

7
1

33

Appendix

while Xl (0) is an algebraic' unknown of the initial

condi tions at

4.2.2

= o.

Subinterval

k -

The system of linear differential equations


des;,
cribing the network in subinterval k=2, shown in Fig. 2-3 (b) ,
is given by:

~2

= [A 2 ]

~2

[B2J~2(,t)

where the constant matrices [A2J


(n

x n ) and (n
2

x m2 )

u (t) is of: dimension


2
\

and

(4-4)

[B2]

are of dimension

respectively and the forcing vector


ID

These are listed in Appendix D.2.

The state-variables are of dimension

n - 5 and
2

are chosen to be :,'


K2 Ct) T

[i2 (t), i3 (t.) , i5 (t), i7 (t), i9 (t)]


( 4-5)
equ~tion

The total solution of

(4-41 is similar

to equation (4-3). and is given by:

~2

(t)

= !.2s (t)

+'

[4> 2 (t-.u>]

{ !2 (p)

~~ ~,u)}
(4-6)

where

!.2s (t)

and

~~ (t-p~

are

~i.sted

The expression {!2 (,u) - ~2S (,Il)}


the unknown in tegra tion constant
~ ,-

in

!.2'

'and C.

on the right hand side i6


1

i2

according to 1:.he equa tion

(3-4). This i6 obtained by substituting


(3-4) and solving for

APpendi~e6

=p.. in

equa'tion

As in equation (4-3), x

2s

(,Il)

is

34

evaluated explid:tly in Appendix

. Unfortunately,

(~) is an algebraic unknown of the initial conditions


2
of the subinterval k = 2, at t = p.

The algebraic unknown as posed in the solUtions


in equatins (4-3) and (4-6) are

~1(O)

andx (p.). They are


2
themsel ves functions 'of the unknown conunutation time, p.
~

The following section discusses the mat ching of the terminal

'

~l

condi6tions. 'This leads to an expression .for

(0) as a

function of, Il alone.

4.3

Matching of Initlal and Final Conditions


In order to solve for the ,unkn<?wns

~l

(0)

and !.2 (fI)

of equations ( 4-3) and (4-6 ) one uses:


a}

the flux continuity requirement at

= Il. ,

t}

the periodicity in

,j

T requirement given in

equation (3-7)
These requiremen ts are used at the points
and

4 3. l

=ft

O.

Ma tching the Termina l Conditions a t

=p.

From the flux continui ty requirement at

='!J!f

one can de ri ve the unknown initial conditions of subinterval


k

= '2,

!.2 (p.), from the final 'conditions of subint~rval

= l,

!.l (Il). This is possible because the currents in the


five elements of the 'state-vector

()

~1

(t) ,

the

1,
:

.'
r

!l

,,
1

, 35

1
l

e1ern,nts of the
ement of

stat~-vector ~7 (t).
i

'!1 (t), that is

interval

,=

(t)

However, the sixth ~ e1-

ceases to

flo~

in the sub-

2. Furthermore, ic (t) is not an el'ement of


~

!2(t). Therefore, oneohas:

(4-7 )

where

[cp
J
,

is the dimensiona1

compatil;:li~ity

matr'ix (5 x 6)

'.

of the forro:

""

[CJ;]

1
0

O.

0 '1

<7

Equation

(4-7)

(4-8 )

shows how the dimension

inco~pati-

bi1ity
4

tion at

difficulty in matching the final and initial condit :P- is overcome.

b:Q

and from the (T/6) - transposed periodi:city, one can derive.


"\

k:::~, ~l(O),

the initial conditions of subinterval


,<the final condition.s of subinterval

from/

2, ~2(T/6).

From th~ periodicity-in - T requirement, ~equation

1
1

o
.~-~---

36

"

~~-

'

Furthermore, from Appendix A , the state-vector


of subinterva1

k = 12 has the following forros:

~12 (t) T

;I

-i3 (t) ,-il (t) ,-i g (t)',-i rt) ,-iJ (t) ]

, (4-10)
,

Equation (4-9) at t-T may be partltioned as follows:


~

~13

(T)

[~fl~:~]'

=,

-Id

( 4-1~)
"

w~ere

.,
'elements of
,resents

the term

represents

th~irst\five

~13 (T). The 1ast row in equation (4-11) rep-

the element lC(t) of equation (4-9) at

= -Id

t=T. Thu5

-Id because at-t=T-, the ~a1ue of

this last element is


ic(T )

~13(T)

\,

fram Fig.- 3-3.,

Now, using the


1
~

con~inuity

requirement at t=T

one has:

(4-12)

~h~re the matrix

[Cs J i5 needed

of the currents of, ~12(T)


,

ta match with those of

~13 ( 0 ) .
~

This matrix i5:


-1 --1

[Cs]
'-

"

0
..... -

in rearranging" the or der

0'

,0

_\0

"

,,
1

---~----

(4-13r----':

37
r-

(r

At

= 0,

equation

~1 (0)

may be

partit.i~ned ,las
\

fo11ows:

(4-14)~
\'

5
?5.1(O)

where the term


of
J

~1(O).

represents the first fiv& e1ements

The 1ast row in

eq~ation

(4-14) is

-Id

because

iJO-):::~Id priori to the firing of V4.


1

App1ying continui ty-in - T


and

requirement, at

=0

one obtains:

t ::: T

(4-15 )

!(O) = ~13 (T)


,r-

( ']

One fur"ther substitutes (4-12) into (4-15) to


get:

,
~

:s.f(O) =

f (

[~~]

~12 (T)

(4-16)

"1

Now from the transposed periodicity in T/6 reequation (3-2) one has:

quir~ment,

'1
1

?5.12 (T)

=!2 (T/6)

(4-17 )

/'"
So that the equation (4-16) is rewritten as:
\

:s.i(O) =

[cs] ~f(T/6)

(4-18 )

o
/

'

38

As a summary of this section, the initial and


final conditions to he used are:

-i

a)
b)

at
at

t
t

=0
= f.L

,!i<O)
~2 (,u)

= [cs']
= [cp]

!2(T/6)

(4-19)
~:

?!.l (Il)

(4-:20)

In section 4.4 these results are used in order


to find an 'algebraic function of

!.l (0)

a:s a function of 1-'-

only.

,,
i .

4.4

Determination of 1-'- \,
Using the two sets of ini tial condi tio'ns deri ved

1
f

in section (4.3), that is equations 1 (4-7) ,and (4-19), an

')

is derived as a function of # alone.


a.

Furthe

solved by a
of

hqw a nonlinear equation in,u, F(,u) is


formula, in order to find the value
f

il

()
\

"

39

(:

4'.4.1

hlgebraic Expression of
Having matched the initial and final conditions

of subinterval

k ': land 2 as shown in equations (4-7) and

(4-19), one is further interested in finding explicit solutions to equations(4-1) and (4-4). The first step towards
this

g~al\is

~~(O)

to express

as a function of

alone.

This is done as follows:


a)

k = 2

The solution of subinterval

at

=p.

is obtained from eguations(4-7)and (4-3) as:

"2 (~)

[Cp ]{ "16 (~)

th (p) ( [~~~~:] - "ls (O)}


(4-21)

The state-transition matrix[1P (,u>] may be parti1

(
tioned

as follows:

5
5
\

[~l(P)J,

C (,u)
11

(4-22)
- ---

C (,u)
21

-.....)---1
1

1
1

22

(p.)
__

~-

( 4-23)

where

-Id[C12(,u)J~[CllUL)~C12(P.)J~lS(O) +[CPJ~lSI(~)
(4-24 )

r'

;;,
,r

>

40
i

b)

From the initial condition


5

~1(O)

an expression of

'\

i)

Substituting

= T/6

~2 (T/6) = ~2s (~/6)

a~

= 0,

,1

one obtains

as fo1lows:'

1
:,

in equation, (4-6) one has:

+ [ C1>2 ('!l/6-P)]

{~2{P)

~2S{P)}

l'

(4-25) ,

ii)

~2(~)

Equatioh (4-23t is substituted for

and

the resulting equa~ion (4-2S) is substituted on


\

the right hand side of equation (4-19) to get:

!>i (0)

=[

cs]

{!>2 S

(Ji)

(~/6) . +[ 2(T/6-">J
~2 ~ LU)}

Thus rearranging equation

~i (O)

=
x

([cu (P>] !>~


(4 - 26)

~4-26):

Jr

~ [-I}- [C S 2(T/6-!l~ [ Cn (p~ f -1

[cs]

j1!.2S (T/6) + {'''2 (T/6 -"

Id [C 12
- x 2s

("~

(P)] -

(0)

[C ll

(~)

: C
12

j ( [cp]

(p)]

!>ls (p)

::ls (O)

'(4-27)

The above system of equatioJs is a function of


i

on ly one unknown, the conunu ta tion time, P _ One is further


~nterested

in finding an explicit equation in p only in a


Il

form such that one may solve that equation in arder to find p
...

,,_

....

-~~-_

..

_-._-_. --------

. ,,
"

, 41
,

4.4.2

A1gebraic Exprssion of

(~)

It should qe reminded that


commutating current
Furtherrnore

i5 the time tht the

i c (t) (see Fig. 2-3) , goes to zero.

(t) is the 1ast elemnt of the state-vector


c
1. Thus, ohe
~l (t) (see equation 4-2) in subinterva1 k

defines ian equation

F (fl)

to be equa1 to the bottom row

of equation (4-3).

"'-, F (pl = [OOOOOlJ{~lS (Ji)

Q\ (p),

[!~(O)]
-=~~(4-28)
5

where, as already been stated in eguation (4-27),

~1

(0)

is a function of ~ a1one.
The problem now reduces to solving for Ji in:
F(,u)

-Since

=0
F(,u)

(4-29)

ls a nonlinear function in

Ji

.,

it

Jt

, has to be solved iteratively as discussed in section 4.5.

"

:,
';
'!

4. 5

Newton-type

Algori thm .

"

The-algorithm to be used in so1ving

F(p)

i5 shown

,e~
l'
i

graphically in Fig. 4-1, ~~

l!

\;!

i
~

,~

~
'\

"

42

Fig. 4-1

Newton-type

C)

algo~ithm.

It is necessary to assume that the equation


(4-29) has a solution and that the Newton-type recursive

F(,u} ='

formula conv.,erges to the solution

o.

The formula used is:

= ,Il 1T 1

wh~re

,u 0

P.o

(4-30)

F(,uL+l) - FUlj),

- f' (~i of- 1) ....k"'-+...;l"--_L_ __

t-

1,2,3 ...

is the iteration number.

In the next chapter, the

ex~ple

discussed up to

hers is implernented on the digital computer. It will be


shown that in fact the Newton-type algorithm has a very fast
convergence to ,u.o~

,,
l

1
43

f
1

CHAPTER,

RESULTS
In order to dernonstrate, its effectiveness, the

for

"serni-analytical" ~ethod developed is applied to solve

the steady-state of the il1ustrative exarnple shown in Fig.

, 1

2-1. The following points are

a)

highlig~ted:

Rapid Convergence of the Newton-type algori thm


used in solving for the commutation time,

b)

Correctness of the "semi-analytica1" method.


This is established by showing that it predicts

the saroe commutation ang1e,w~


a numerica1 integration

t
1

m~thod.

as the prediction based on


In the numerica1 integration

methC2.-d, the steady-state solution is reached

after inteli

grl,ating for a sufficiently long time sc that ail the tran- ,,l'
sient components
have subsided. '
,
The inverter circuit, Fig. 2-1, under examination
h~s

the fo11owing parameters:


\
i)

Constant

de

current

Id"" .5Amps.

ii)

Transformer:

= .0531

LT

R.r=
iii)

LOad:

H.
\

. 0005 ohms .

R ,.. 425 ohms.

= ,.6986

"

H.

"', .
','

44

r'

!,
1

i
i

iv) Synchronous

LS= .0796 H.

machine~

RS'" . 001 ohms,


E
,m

= lO~ Volts

a =211"/3 radians

= 120

degrees.

where a is the firing angle of each valve, which for


"

an inverter lies within the range of:

<

11"

2'

5.1

<

11"

Convergence of the Newton~type Algorithm


,

The effectiveness of the "semi-analytical" method'


discussed in this thesis is partiy due to

th~

rapid conver-

gence of the recursiv formula. The Newton-type algorithm


(equation 4-30) used in solving the nonlinear equation in
\
~,

F(~),

is based on two initial values' which are:


w~

'1

11"

lB radians
11"

w Il 2

= '9

= 10

de~rees

radians = 40 degrees

It should be noted that

Il

must lie within the

, range:

o<

C)

<

11"

(5-1.)

45
As is well known

WfJ>..!-.

occurs for,

[31J

commutation

fai~ure

The' two initial values employed

wer chosen with the constraint of equation (5-1) in mind.


-1

10

,
f

l,

t,

2
Fig. 5-1{a)

()

...

-"""~_ _-------_._--~---,.._.~---

c?nvergence of F(fJ) towards zero as a function


of the i teration number, L .

l'
1

.,1

:.

()
'J,\

(initial guess,

w~2)

,, \ ,

,1
1
1

,,

,,1

,
,

,
\

,,
\
\
\
\

1
1

\
\

1
1

----,-------,

,
,
,
,
,
1

,i

,
,,

,,

.~

T
Fig.S-1 (b)

1.

2.

Commutation angle, WIL, against the iteration

number~i.

o
)

47

()

Fig.

5-~

displays the rapid convergence of the


I!

Newtori-type'algorithm. Fig. 5-l(a) and (b) plot -respectively


the function,

F(~),

iteration number,

and the commutation

l.

angle,w~,

against the

From these results, 'it is evident that

a very high accuracy is obtained within three or four iterations.


,

(
At this stage one may wonder as to the correctness
of the method. One asks for a basis against w~ich the results
may be checked.

In the section 5.2 a comparison i5 made

fetween the "semi-analytical" method and a purely "numerica,l"


method.
5.2

"

Numerical Correlations
1

As seen in Fig. 5-1, the "semi-analytical" method


results in a very rapid convergence of

1l

~,

F(f) towards zero.

Thus after only four iterations the 'value of the commutation


time,

~,

is found to be acceptable.
In order to check the ,correctness of the "semi-

analytical" method, the problem is solved also by a traditional method. This method is based on the following steps:
~

The initial conditions of the ,system are\guessed.

2.

Numerical integration is perfc;>rmed w-!th a step


s'ize, h:w.t=2 degrees, until a value of the commuta tion time, p., is reached. Th'is is the time

where reversaI of the phase current, ic(t), occurs.

48

3.

The final conditions of one

compl~te

cycl'e are

found, using the (T/6) transposed periodicity

requirement.
4.

5.

These final~conditions

~13{T)

ttie initial conditions,

xl (Or.

are compared with


f

New initial conditions are obtained from ,the

final conditions.
The steps (2.) through (5.) are repeated until
\''

the peruni tized closure norm:

lI~l (0) - ~13 (Tjl/ Il ~l

is acceptably small. In the test the value of

(5-2)

(0) Il

is:

'

.01

Of course,this
, method is more suited for the

,~
""

study of transients: It represents the behaviour of the


system

unde~transient

conditions. In order to arrive at

the steady-state solution, it is necessary to run the program for a sufficiently long time, so that the transient
part of the

solutio~,

r'

dies out. Thus this method is inher-,

ently expensive.
The,problem was solved in the context of the
commutation angle,wp, versus the firing angle,. The switching
tion

(J

ang le,
fai~ure

Cl'

was varied from

occurd,Le.

wp

n /2

radians until commuta-

)n/3 radians. Fig. 5-2 shows

the study of WIJ, versus optained in twodifferent ways:

------

.1

/
o

49
/

~I

a)

The "semi-analytical" method is represented by

the full line.


b)

The numerical method is represented ,by the crossed points.


The slight discrepancy is attributed to having

terminated the numerical integration at an early stage be!

cause of slQw convergence.


Thus, it

rna~

be concluded that the "semi-a.nalyti,


~

cal" method yields in fact the correct solution of the systern. Yet, this novel method arrives at the solution very
rapidly, narnely arter ,only four iteration steps.

,l,

w J..L
o

60

50

30

20

~;~~--~----~--~--_"~I--~I~~
o

90
Fig. 5-2

()

'0

100

120

140

commutation angle,wp , as a fuction of the switching


angle, a. Line: "semi-analytical" method.
Crossed points: numerical lntegration.

-~--~~~---~

..

~.~-~~'"

- ._...,-_'-".....

,- ...

50
JI.'

CHAPTER VI
"
, ;

,,

..

LL

CONeLUSIONS

A new and fast semi-analytical method for solving


1

Steady-state" problems i.n HVD systems using the "digi tal computer has been presented.

The rapid convergence of the

method has been tested. Its correctness has been verified


against the results of a numerical integration method.

To the best of the author's knowledge the method


is a new and original contribution ta knowledge.
The method overcomes the basic shortcoming
conv~rge

the nurnerical integration in not being able to

""

of

,
J

;;:
~

to-

wards the .steady-s,tate sol.ution rapidly. As an extensive

>

part 'of any analysis is concerned with the steady-state "SO-

~
, f

'. f

lution, 'this semi-analytical technique will contribute :O-

1
1

wards making the digital computer into a viable alternative

to analog

simi~ators.

Further work in the development of the semianalytic~l

a)

method should consider:


Automatic compilation of system equations from
E1ystem <~ine diagrams of any confi<iuration.

b)

Unbalanced phases.

c)

Fault conditions.

'd)

Multi-terminal HVDC

systems.~

.'

..

{
l

)
- -l--'"

51
1

1 /

APPENDIX

A
o

CIRCUIT CONFIGUAATt'ON AND STATE-VECTORS


IN THE

A.l

Subinterval

l2 SUBINTERVALS

=1

(A-l)

V3
J

V'l

('l'

Fig. A-l

1
r-

A.2

"

Circui t

Subinterval

k= 1.

configura tian dring subinterval


k

=2

I
[

!2 (t') T

"1

= [i2

(t),

i3 (t), 'iS

(t>, i7 (t),

i9

(t>]

(A-2 )

1i
' '

"14

()

Fig. A-2

Circuit

configuration during 'subinterva~


1

jo

k=2.

52

1
A.3

Subinterval

=3

~3 (t) T =

[-il (t), -i 2 (t), -i (t), -i (t)


7
9

.f

-iS (t), -i (t)]


b
(A-3)

1/

A.4

Circuit

Fig. A-3

Subinterval

configuration during
subinterval
';

"

k=3 _

~4 (t)

=4

(A-4)

t'
f

V4

Fig,_ A.;.4
1

Circuit

configura1tion during, sUbinterval" k.4.

Or

--- - ---

-..,

--

--~

--- -------

--~--

-.----------_

1
j

;:;i.~ ___ ___ ._

53

A.5

Subinterval

k.= 5

(A-5)
,

- eo.. +

Ls

\
1

Fig. A-S

Circuit

configuration during sUbihterval


!

J
A.6

Subinterval

k: 6

k:5.

1
" f
,1

~6 (t) T =' [i~_~~L~ iJ~~_~(~LJS-<~-)-' i:iCt~1

(A-6)

Fig. A-6

()

Circuit

configuration during subinterval

k.6.

54

()

A.7

Subinterval

=7
/11

(A-7)

vs

- eo.. + Ls

V6

Fig. A-7

A.

Circuit

Subinterval

configuration ,during subinterval

k=7.

k = 8

~8(t)T ~[-i2(t),

-i (t), -is(t), -i 7 (t),


3

~i9(t)J
(A-a)

Vi

Fig. A-8

()-

.Circuit

\ \

configuration during subinterval

k=8.

"

55

A.9

Subinterval

=9

1
;

~9 (t) T =

[ 1 (t)',

i 2 (t), i 7 (t), i 9 (t), i 5 (t), ib (t)]


(A-9 )

Fig. A-9

Circuit

qonfiguration during subinterval

,
A.1D Subinterval

k=9.

= 10
(A..,.lO)

VI

Fig. A-lO Circuit

()

configuration during subinterval

k=lO.

56

A.ll Subinterval

k-: 11

(A-11)

V3

,,

,\
'1

,~
1

FIg. A~ll Circuit

configuraton during subinterva\ k=ll

A.12

Subinterval

~'12

~12 (t) T :;: [-i3 (t), -:ii (t), -i 9 (t), -i 5 (t)" -i 7 (t>]
(A-12)

L,. R,.

V3

V2.

~ig.

A-12 Circuit

configuratio~

during

subinterv~l

k:12.

()
,
1
1

1.
"

-- ~"'-""~----""_+1""o;.., ...~~~~ ~~..1.....':If;<,

,,

57

Cj

APPENDIX

PARTICULAR INTEGRAL

In the Kth subinterval, the linear differential


syst;ern of equations describing the net~ork is:

11
(B-l)

where the forcing function

~k

is rendered in the

(t).

form:

(B-2)

where:

1
~

(,
E

i,
1

!!.k

In

sin

-Em cos
E

In

(B-3)\

sin (5 n /6

Em cos (n/6 +
~k

Em sin

Em cos \ (5 1f/6

(B-4)

a)

()

I----~---------------------

'

,
58

o
o
~=

(B-5)

The ,particular integral

~s(t)

of the equation

(3-4) is of the for.m:

!ks (t)

cos

.9:k + sin

w t

t ~ + ~k
(B-6)

where the constants

~k' ~k

and

~k

are of dimension nk
These constants are found by substituting the eqution (B-6)
into the eguation (B-l), and eguating the coefficients af
the left hand side and right hand side of the r,esul ting

()

~k'

equation. Thus

~k

and

~k

are the solutions to the

linear simultaneous equations:


~

- [A.J-l

(B-7),

--k

(B-8)

The inverse matrices involved are calculated


using the subroutine, called

LEQTIF, available 'at McGill

University computer library. The subroutine is in the IMSL


bibrary l Fortran IV System /370-360.

(J

--~"

.----------.-.--'

59
APPENDIX

COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTION

The

homogeneo~s

part of the solution of equation'


D

(3-4) is composed by the state-transition fatrix [r.ilk<t)] and


the unknown integration constants ~k: The state-transition
matrix is calculated as follows:
,

[ tr>k <t)] = exp

[~Jt

(C-l)

or

i'

[ r.ilk(t>l= [
where

~Jexp [AkJt[MkJl

(C-2 )

.~

[~J is the modal matrix which cmtains the eigepvectors


1

of the matrix

[~}

column-wise. [AkJ is a diagonal matrix

containing the eigenvalues of the matrix [~J. The matrices

[~J and [Ak] satisfy the following equation:


(C-3 >

t,

~.;:

.,
;

In the problems where

[~](k=1,2)

are not

chang~d,

the evaluation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors is an

effective way of computing the state-transition matrix through


equation (C-l) .
, The eignvalues and eigenvectors of

~e matriX[~ ]

are calculated numerically usihg a subroutine, called EIGRF,


avail~ble

at McGill University computer

li~rary.

The sub-

routine is in the IMSL Libtary l Fortran IV System /370-360.

()

)1
I_~____----~ -\___

\
/

1
1

, i,

In system parametric studies where

[~J (k-l,2)

a're altered at each parameter chahge, alte.rnate methods tnay

have to be considered. A discussion of the\comparative rnerits

ll

of various nurnerical rnethods and an extensive bibliography


appe~rs in the review paper [34].

1t

o
\

-\
o

. ,
o

\'

61

( -',
D

APPEN'oIX
DERIVATION. OF

D.l

~TRICES ~]_, ~kl

Derivation of the matrices

AND THE VECTOR .!!k (t)

~lJ-'-~lJ

and the Vector u (t)


1

When three valves are conducting


k l, Fig.. A - i.

i~

the subinterval

,from KVL and KCL the following system of

equati9ns is written:

where:
-2L

-L

-L

-L

o
o

L/R

L/R

L/R

o
o

o
o

L/R

o
o

o
o

o
o
o

o
o

-R
-R

()

-L 5

2L

,1

(D-2)

(0-3 )

\
~

... _ _ _

____

_ _ _ _ _ _ ......., _ _ ....... \0-<_

~_.,...

. _ , .......... "_"'~_" ________ _

'

~~.J_

62

~1 (t) T

= [i2 (t), i3 (t), i5 (T), i7 {t), i9

(t.),

ic (t)]

(0-4 )

[G1]

}!1 Ct)

-1

-1

-1
1

-1

-1

(0-5)

-R.r

I(
[e a (t)

e (t), e c (t) ,
b

Id]

1\
where:

~-

Ct') = E sin (wt +7t/6 +


m

Cl' ),

t "

eh Ct)
e

(0-6)

(t) :,E

' m

sin (wt - 7t/2 + Cl'

+ Cl'

sin (wt, + Snj6

(0-7)

"

Equation (0-1) may he rewritten as follows:


!.1 (t)

= [AIJ~1 (t) +

where:
r

[Al]

[B 1]

~l(t}

-1

=-

[Lll

(0-8)

(I:~~9 )

[R1]

-1

[Bl] = ,[Ll] [G1]

(0-10)
~

"<;)

"

'

63

i
1

t
i

'1
The inverse of the matrix [L1] is calculated

using a subroutine, called LEQT1F, avai1able at McGi1l

Universi ty compu1ter 1ibrary The subroutine is in the IMSL


Library 1 Fortran .IV System /370-360.
./'

0.2

Derivation of the Matrices

!!.2 (t)

and the Vector

[A 2]-' [B 2]

When two valves are conducting in the subinterva1

'\

k.2, Fig.

I\-'l.

, from KVL and KCL the following system of

equations is wri tten: .

dt

[R2J!2

, [LJ9-. !2<t)

:;1

(t)

[GJ}!2 ('t)

(D-11)

where:

()
,

[L~ =

Ls
-2Ls

-L

-L

s
s

-L

-L

L/R

L/R

(0-12)

c.
0

1(

Rs

-R
-R

o 1

0
0

>~

q
0

-R

-R

[R2]

.. \

(D-13 )

i \ C)
\
\

.
\

1
1

1._____________._

Il

\
1
1

.j

~2 (t) T =

[i2 (t)" i3 (t)., iS (t), i7 (,t) , ,i9 (t~


1

\.

,,<,

."
j

[G 2]
,

!!2

-1

"0

R
-R

0
-1

(t)?-' ~ [e a

,1

""'\

...,

(D-lS)

J
(t) "

'"

e b (t)

"

e c (t)

Id]

, :

(0-16)
fil>

whre e (t) , e (t) and e' (t) are as decribed in equation (0-7) .
a
b
\
c \
\

l
~

. Equation (0-11) rnay be rewritten as follows:

,,

/
~2 (t)

(.

= .[A2]?i2 (t)

+ [B2J.~2 (t)

(0-17)

. where
T,

J'

-1

[A 2]

[BJ

<l

- - [L2] [R2]

(0-18)

= [L~-1 [G 4]

(D-19)

'j

1
\

,
J

"

"

l1

- -'

1
)

,
1

,
'.

-w-----~.--'~~-~~i~.iii~W,l~'ft:f74_~

l'

65
,

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(
[8

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1

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'1

Trans., PAS-97. Nq. 6. Nov/Dec 1978. PP. 1051-1067.

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()
'\

1
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"J

_,,""

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67

{15 J

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[16J

'

'.
'

May/Jun~

1977, pp. 925-933.

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\

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, [17J

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[19J
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(

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Paper submitted to IEEE.

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()

--

.--~-

-_.

----_~~~'I~;

...

"""~~

. ."'-..,:t_....

-......--.-,---~---

._- -

~---~__--;--""-'-~4r~

.... .ii,:("t.I>'t;",

~ i.-!".,r~~~~