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PC 12 Midterm Review

Chapter 1 Review

Multiple Choice

1. y f (x) contains the point (3, 4). (3, 4) is


then transformed to (5, 5). Which of the
following is a possible equation of the
transformed function?
A y 1 f (x 2)
C y 1 f (x 2)

B y 1 f (x 2)
D y 1 f (x 2)

B (1, 3) C (3, 1) D (3, 1)

y x
3.

is vert. expanded by a factor of 2,


reflected vertically, and then horizontally
translated left 3. Which equation represents
the transformed function?

y 2 x 3
A

8. When y f (x) is transformed to y 3f (x


2) 5, the (2, 5) becomes (x, y). Determine
the value of (x, y).
1
3

2. y x is vertically expanded by a factor of 3


, & then horizontally translated 3 units left
and vertically translated up 1 unit. Which of
the following points is on the transformed
function?
A (0, 0)

7. If the range of function y f (x) is {y y 4},


state the range of the new function g(x) f
(x 2) 3.

f (x) is stretched horizontally by a factor


1
2

of
and compressed vertically by a factor
of . Determine the equation of the
transformed function.
10. f (x) x2 x 2 is multiplied by k to
create a new function g(x) kf (x). If the
graph of y g(x) passes through the point (3,
14), state the value of k.
11.

Sketch the graph of the inverse


relation.

a)

b)

y 2 x 3
B

y 2 x 3
C

y 2 x 3
D

4. Which of the following transformations would


produce a graph with the same x-intercepts
a y f (x)?
A y f (x) B y f (x) C y f (x 1) D y f (x) 1
5. Given the graph of y f (x), what is the
invariant point under the transformation y
f (2x)?

A (1,
0)
1

B (0,
)

6. What will the transformation of the graph of


y f(x) be if y is replaced with y in the
equation y f(x)?
A Reflected in the x-axis. B Reflected in the y-axis.
C Reflected on line y x. D Reflected on line y 1.
Short Answer

12. The graphs of y f (x) and y g(x) are


shown.
a)

If the point (1, 1) on


y f (x) maps onto
the point (1, 2) on y
g (x), describe the
transformation and
state the equation of
g (x).

b) If the point (4, 2) on y f (x) maps onto the point


(1, 2) on y g (x), describe the transformation and
state the equation of g (x).
13.
Consider the graph of the function y f
(x).

What is the graph of

a) Describe the transformation of y f (x) to


y 3f (2 (x 1)) 4. b) Sketch the graph.

f ( x)
?

14. A function is defined by f (x) (x 2)(x


3).

a) If g(x) kf (x), describe how k affects the y-int of the


graph yg(x) compared to yf(x)
b) If h(x) f (mx), describe how m affects the x-int of
the graph of y h(x) compared to yf(x).
15. Complete the following for f (x) x2 2x
1.

a) Write the equation in the form y a(x h) k.


b) What are the coordinates of the vertex of xf ( y).
c) State the equation of the inverse. d) Restrict the
domain of y f (x) so that its inverse is a function.
2

Chapter 2 Review

Multiple Choice

1. Which radical function has a domain of


{x | x 2, x R}
{ y | y 3, y R}
& range of
?
y 3 x2
y3 x2
A
B
y 3 x2
y3 x2
C
D
2. Given that (x, 4x2), x 0, is on the function y f (x),
y f ( x)
which of the following is the point
on?

x,

x,

B (x, 2x) C (x, 2x2) D (


2x)
y f ( x)
3. The radical function
has an x-int at 2. If the
graph of the function is stretched horizontally by a factor of
A (

4x2)

1
2

5.

The point (4, 10) is on the graph of the function


f ( x) k 3( x 1) 4.
What is the value of k?
A 2

B 2

f ( x) x .
6. The point (4, y) is on
The graph is
transformed into g (x) by a horizontal stretch by a factor
of 2, a reflection about the x-axis, and a translation up 3
units. Determine the coordinates of the corresponding
point on the graph of g (x).
7. State the invariant point(s) when y x2 25 is
y x 2 25.

about the y-axis, what is the new x-int?

A 2

B 1

4. This graph is of the function y f (x).

Short Answer

2
1

C 2

transformed into
f (x) 2x

8.

is horizontally translated 6 units left. State


the equation of the translated function g (x).
9. This graph is of the function y f (x).

a)

Determine the
equation of the
graph in the
form
f ( x ) b( x h ) k .

b) Determine the
equation in simplest

y x
10. a) Describe the transformation of
y 4 2 x 3.

to

y 4 2 x 3.
b) State the domain and range of
c) Explain how the graph of the transformed function
0 2 x 3 4.
can be used to solve the equation

f ( x)
11.

is stretched vertically by a factor of 4,


reflected in the y-axis, vert. translated up 3 units, and
horizontally translated left 5 units. Write the equation of
the transformed function, g (x), and sketch g (x),

1. The graph of a third-degree polynomial


function of the form P(x) ax3 bx2 cx d
is shown.

Which statement
about the values
of a and d is
correct?
A a 0 and d 0
B a 0 and d 0
C a 0 and d 0
D a 0 and d 0

2. Which polynomial function has zeros of 3, 1,


and 2, and y-intercept 6?
A (x 3)(x 1)2(x 2) B (x 3)(x 1)(x 2)
C (x 3)(x 1)(x 2) D (x 3)(x 1)(x 2)2
3. The graph of P(x)ax4 bx3 cx2 dx e is
shown

12. What number(s) is exactly one third its square root?

x 1 3x 7
13. Mary solved
algebraically and
determined that the solution is x 3 and x 2. John
solved the same equation graphically. He sketched
y 3x 7,
graphs of the functions y x 1 and
and
determined that the point of intersection is (3, 4).

x 1 3 x 7.
a) Determine the correct solution to
b) Explain how Marys and Johns solutions relate to
the correct solution.

3x 1 2 x 2.
2

14. a) Solve
restrictions on the variable.

b) Identify any
c) Verify your solution.

15. On a clear day, the distance to the horizon, d, in


d 12.7 h ,
kilometres, is given by
where h is the
height above ground, in metres, from which the horizon
is viewed. If you can see a distance of 32.5 km from the
roof of a building, how tall is the building, to the nearest
tenth of a metre?
Chapter 3 Review

Multiple Choice

Consider the following


statements.
i) The y-int at point S
is
equal to the
constant e.
ii) a 0
iii) The multiplicity of
the
zero at point T is 2.
A Statement i) is true.
B Statement ii) is true.
C Statement iii) is
4. f (x) (x 4)(x 2)(x 6) is horizontally
expanded by a factor of 2. Which statement
is true?
A The new zeros of the function are12, 8,
4.
B The new zeros of the function are 3, 2,
1.
C The new y-intercept is 96.
D
The new y-intercept is 24
Short Answer

5. When f(x) x3 7x2 kx 17 is divided by


x 5, the remainder is 2. Determine the
value of k.
6.The graph of the polynomial function P(x)
a(x b)(x c)(x d) is shown. Determine the
value of a.

vertically 1 unit up. Explain how the domain


and range of f (x) are changed.
Chapter 4 Review

Multiple Choice
7
4

1. What is the exact value of csc


2
2

2
2

2. Determine tan if

7. If P(x) x4 bx2 c, P(1) 9, and P(3) 25,


what are the values of b and c?
8. The volume of a box is represented by the
function V(x) x3 6x2 11x 6. The height
of the box is x 2. If the area of the base is
24 cm2, determine the height.
9. Determine the largest possible solution to
the polynomial equation x3 10x2 33x 36.
10.
Perform the division (x3 5x2 x 5) (x
2). Express the result in the form
P( x)
xa

11.

Q( x )

5
12

12
13

5
12

and cos 0.
12
5

D
P


7
6

3. What are the coordinates of


if P() is the point of
intersection of the terminal arm & the unit circle?

1 3
2, 2

3 1
2 , 2

3 1
2 , 2

3 7
,
4 4

5
,
4 4

xa

0, , ,

5
4

D 120 360n, 240 360n, n I

14.
The graph of the function f (x) x3 is
translated horizontally to create g(x). If the
point (4, 8) is on g(x), determine the
equation of g(x).
15.

The function f (x) x4 is horizontally


1
2

stretched by a factor of
about the y-axis,
reflected in the x-axis, and translated

3
7
, ,
4
4

5. Determine the general sol. in degrees: 2 cos 1 0

13.
Graph f (x) x x 10x 8. State the xints, y-ints, and the zeros of the function.
Determine the intervals where the function is
positive and negative.
3

0,
D

A 240 360n, 300 360n, n I

3
2 , 2

12.
The graph of y x x cx 4 has an xint of 1. Determine the value of c and the
remaining x-ints
3

4. Solve for tan2 tan 0 and 0 2.

.
Factor x4 13x2 12x completely.

sin
12
5

B 60 360n, 300 360n, n I


C 60 360n, 120 360n, n I

Short Answer
6. Convert to radian measure. Answers in exact values.
a) 270
b) 540c) 150
d) 240
7. Convert the following radian measures to degree
measure. Round answers to 2 decimal places.

a) 3.25 b) 0.40 c)

7
4

d) 5.35

8. The minute hand of an analogue clock completes one


revolution in 1 h. Determine the exact value of the
angle, in radians, the minute hand moves in 135 min.

9.

Use the information in each diagram to determine the


value of the variable. Round to 2 decimal places.
a)
b)

b) Explain how you can use equations A and B to solve


equation C, 0 .
Chapter 5 Review Multiple Choice
1. The minimum value of the function f () a cos b( c)
d, where a 0, can be expressed as

A ad B adc C
c)

d |a| D

d a
b

2. Which equation represents the graph below?

d)

1
x
4

y 8 sin

1
x
2

y 8 sin
sin

B
C y 8 sin
(2x)
D y 8 sin
(4x)

5
7
2 cos (120) tan
.
6
4

10. Simplify exactly:


11. Given that sin 0.3 and cos 0.5, determine the
value of tan to the nearest tenth.
sin

3
2

P() =

3 1
,
,
2 2

13. If

P ?
2

what are the coordinates of


4
5

14. Consider an angle of


radians.
a) Draw the angle in standard position.
b) Write a statement defining all angles that are
coterminal with this angle.
15. The point (3a, 4a) is on the terminal arm of an angle in
standard position. State the exact value of the six
trigonometric ratios.
16. Solve the equation sec2 2 0, .
17. Consider the following trigonometric equations.

2 sin 3 0
A

1
x ,
2
6

y sin

directions

12. If
, determine the coordinates of P() where
the terminal arm of intersects the unit circle.

3. When y sin has been transformed according to the

2 cos 1 0
B

2 2 sin cos 2 sin 6 cos 3 0

C
a) Solve equations A and B over the domain 0 .

the horizontal phase shift is

12

units to the right

units to the left

C units to the right


D 3 units to the left
4. Colin is investigating the effect of changing the values
of the parameters a, b, c, and d in the equation
y a sin b( c) d. He graphed the function f (x) sin
. He then determined that the transformation that does
not change the x-intercepts is described by
A g () 2 sin B h () sin 2
C r () sin ( 2)
D s () sin 2
Short Answer
5. The pedals on a bicycle have a maximum height of 30
cm above the ground and a minimum height of 8 cm
above the ground. A cyclist pedals at a constant rate of
20 cycles per minute. Write an rquation for this periodic
function in the form y a sin (bt) d.
6. Write the equation of a cosine function in the form y a
cos b(x c) d, with an amplitude of 2, period of 6,
phase shift of units left, and translated 3 units down.
7. State the amplitude and range for y 5 sin 3.

8. a) What system of equations can be solved using the


graph below?
b) State one single equation that can be solved using the
graph. Then, give the general solution

d) Write the equation of the sine function that models


the bottles distance below the pier.
e) You can reach 0.9 m below the pier. Use your
equation to estimate the length of time, to the nearest
tenth of a second, that the bottle is within your reach
during one cycle.
f ) Write the cosine function for this situation. Would
your answer for part e) change using this equation?
12. Two sinusoidal functions are shown in the graph.

9.

Consider the graph of y tan , where is in radians.


a) What is the general equation of the asymptotes?
b) What are the domain and range?

10. A boat is travelling along a narrow river between two


observers, as shown. The driver and both observers can
hear the boats motor, but the sound that each of them
hears is different, depending on their location in relation
to the boat. The observer in front of the boat hears a
higher-pitched noise than the driver hears. The observer
behind the boat hears a lower-pitched sound than the
driver hears.

a) What characteristics of the two graphs are the same?


b) Which parameters must change to transform the graph
of f (x) to the graph of g(x)?
c) Determine the equation for each of the graphs in the
form y a cos b(x c) d.
Chapter 6 Review

Multiple

Choice

1. Simplify the expression


a) Suppose the sound of the boat is modelled by a
sinusoidal function. Which characteristicamplitude,
period, or rangevaries among the three waves?
b) Which parameter in y a sin bt d would change if
all three functions were graphed?
c) Which observers model equation would have the
largest value of the changing parameter?
11. You are sitting on a pier when you notice a bottle
bobbing in the waves. The bottle reaches 0.8 m below
the pier, before lowering to 1.4 m below the pier. The
bottle reaches its highest point every 5 s.
a) Sketch and label a graph of the bottles distance
below the pier for 15 s. Assume that at t 0, the
bottle is closest to the bottom of the pier.
b) Determine the period and the amplitude of the
function.
c) Which function would you consider to be a better
model of the situation, sine or cosine? Explain.

cot 2
1 cot 2

A cos2 B sin2 C tan2 D sec2


2. The value of (sin x cos x)2 sin 2x is
A 1

B 0

3. The expression

1 tan 2
1 tan 2

A cos 2 B sin 2

C 1 D 2

is equivalent to
C

cos2 D sin2

4. If you simplify sin ( x) sin ( x) it is


A 2

B 0

C 2

D not possible

5. Which of the following is not an identity?


A sec cos sin tan B 1 cos2
cos2 tan2

cos
tan

csc cos tan


C

cos2
D

1 cos 2
2

1. D

2. C

4. A

3. C

5
sin .
12

6. A
y

7. {y | y 1, y R}
10. k 3.5
11. a)

Short Answer

5. B

8. (0, 20)

1
f (2 x)
3

9.

b)

6. Determine the exact value of


sin 2 x
1.23.
1 cos x

7. Given

What is the value of cos x?

8. If 5 7 sin 2 cos2 0 on the domain 90


180, what is the value of ?
cos

5
3

13
2

9. If

12. a) vertical exp. by a factor of 2 about the x-axis;


g ( x) 2 x

, determine the exact value of

sin .

1
4

b) hor. comp by a factor of


about they-axis;
13. a) vertical stretch by a factor of 3 about x-axis, horizontal
1
2

10. What single trigonometric function is equivalent to


y
y
sin (3 y) cos cos(3 y)sin
2
2

stretch by a factor of
about the y-axis, reflection in the y-axis,
horizontal translation 1 unit
right,
vertical
translation
units upy14. a)
y-intercept
6k; The 4original
b)
intercept is multiplied by the value of k.

sin x csc x 1

x-intercept =

3
m

; The original x-

intercept is multiplied by the value of


.15. a) y (x 1)2 b) (0, 1) c)

a) Verify the equation is true for


.
b) Is the equation an identity? Explain.
12. Consider the equation sin2 x cos4 x cos2 x sin4 x.
a) Verify the equation for x 30.
b) Prove the equation is an identity.

Chapter 2 Review Answers


1. A

tan x sec x
sin x

cot x
1 sin x

2. B

3. B
4. D
5. B
g ( x) 2( x 6)

7. (5, 0), (5, 0) 8.

a) State the non-permissible values if 0 x


360.
b) Prove the equation is an identity
algebraically.
14.
Solve sin 2x cos x 0 algebraically if
x .
15. Solve csc2 x 4cot2 x algebraically. State the general
solution in radians.

Chapter 1 Review Answers

1
m

13. Consider the equation

b)

11. Consider the equation

Answers

g ( x) 4 x

6. (8, y 3) or (8, 1)
f ( x) 4( x 1) 2
9. a)

g ( x) 2 x 1 2
9b)
10. a) vertical stretch by a factor of 2 about
the x-axis, translation down 4 units, translation right 3 units
{ y | y 4, y R}
{x | x 3, x R}
b) domain:

; range:
0 2 x 3 4
c) The solutions to
are the x-intercepts of the
g ( x) 4 ( x 5) 3
y 2 x 3 4.
graph of

11.

3
;
2

1. C

2. A

5
;
6

12.
-3;
13. a) x 3 b) Example: Since Mary used an algebraic method,
she must verify her answers. Only x 3 is a solution. John
determined the point of intersection, but only the x-coordinate of
the point of intersection is the solution.
1
,
7
14. a) x
x 1 b) There are no restrictions on the variable.
15. 83.2 m

Chapter 3 Review Answers


a
1. C 2. A
8, c 16
8. 5 cm
3

x 5x x 5
x2

3. D

4. A

9. x 4
x 2 3x 7

5. k 7

1
2

6.

7. b

10.
9
x2

11. x(x 1)(x 3)(x 4)


2, 2
13.

3. A

4. C

5. D

6. a)

b)

c)
4
;
3

b) 22.92 c) 315

6d)
7. a) 186.21
306.53

d)

9
2

9. a) 133.69 or 2.33 b) a 31.85 cm

8.

c)

3
4

r 6.99 m d) a 4.28 ft
1 3
1 3
2 , 2 2 , 2

,
1 3
2, 2

13.
14. a)

10.

12. c 4; x-intercepts:

11. 0.6

4
2n, n I
5

b)

4
5

15. sin

, cos

4 ,
3

3
5

12.

2
,
3 3

, tan

csc

5
4
3
4

5
3

, sec

, cot

; Equation B:

,
4 4
b) Equation C is the product of Equation A times
16.
Equation B (i.e., AB C). Therefore, the solution to
17. a) Equation A:

2
, ,
4 3 3

Equation C is the solutions to A and B:


x-intercepts: 4, 1, 2; y-intercept: 9; zeros: 4, 1, 2;
positive intervals: (4, 1), (2, ); negative intervals:
(,4), (1, 2)

Chapter 5 Review Answers


2
t 19
3

y 11sin

{x | x R}
14. g(x) (x 2)3
15. The domain
does not change under this transformation. The
range changes due to the reflection and the
{ y | y 0, y R}
translation; it changes from
{ y | y 1, y R}.

Chapter 4 Review Answers

to

1. C

2. D

3. D

4. A 5.

1
y 2 cos ( x ) 3
3

6.
7. amplitude: 5; range: {y | 8
y 2, yR}
8. a) y 2cos x and y 1 b) 2cos x 1; x 60
360n, n I, and


n
2

x 300 360n, n I

9. a) x

Left side sin 2 x cos 4 x


sin 2 30 cos 4 30

n I b)

n
2

1

2

domain:{ |
R, n I} range: { y | y
R} 10. a) period b) b
10c) Observer B
11. a)

d 0.3 sin

Right side cos 2 x sin 4 x

13. a) x 0, 90, 180, 270, 360


b) Example:

9.
11. a)

sin
0

cot x

sin x

cot x
cos x cos x

sin x 1 cos x

cos x
sin x

6.


sin

2
2

tan x sec x

Left side

Chapter 6 Review Answers

5
13

13
16

Right side

c)

1. A 2. C 3. A 4. B 5. D

Left side sin x

cos 2 x sin 4 x

Both equations model the same


graph, so the result of the calculation would be the
same.
12. a) amplitude, horizontal phase shift b)
period or b value, and horizontal central axis or d
f ( x) 6 cos 3 x 6, g ( x) 6 cos x 2
value

1 sin 2 x sin 4 x

e) 1.4 s f )

2
d 0.3 cos
t 1.1;
5

b) amplitude is 0.3 m,
period is 5 s
c) Ensure that answers
are accompanied by an
explanation. Example:
Cosine curve may not
b) Example:
have a phase shift if
you consider a negative Left side sin 2 x cos 4 x
a value (that is, a
sin 2 x (1 sin 2 x) 2
reflection in the x-axis).
sin 2 x 1 2sin 2 x sin 4 x

2
5
t 1.1
5
4

d)

sin x 1 sin x

x
cos x
cos

7. 0.23 8. 150

Right side csc x 1

csc 1
2
5 y
sin
1 1
2
0
10.

sin x 1 sin x

2
1 sin x
sin x 1 sin x

(1 sin x )(1 sin x)


sin x
(1 sin x )

Right side
Right side

sin x
1 sin x

2
n,
n;
3
3

5
,
2 6 6

b) No; it is not true for all permissible values of x.


12. a)
Right side cos 2 x sin 4 x
cos 2 30 sin 4 30
3

2

13
16

1

2

14.

15.

nI