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Jabatan Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan Malaysia

(Department Of Occupational Safety And Health Malaysia)

Introduction to
Ergonomic Module and
Checkpoint
Systematic Occupational Health Enhancement Level
Programme (SOHELP)

SCOPE OF PRESENTATION
(SKOP PEMBENTANGAN)
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Introduction of Occupational Disease


Basic Introduction to Ergonomics
Ergonomic Checklist/ Checkpoint

Based on ILO Ergonomic


Checkpoint 128 criteria
for assessment
The important outline
the process of identifying,
assessing and controlling
problems related to
safety and health at the
workplace

Jabatan Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan Malaysia


(Department Of Occupational Safety And Health Malaysia)

Definition of Occupational Diseases

According to the Protocol of 2002 to the


Occupational Safety and Health Convention,
1981 (No. 155), the term Occupational
Disease covers any disease contracted as a
result of an exposure to risk factors arising from
work activity (sebarang penyakit yang
disebabkan oleh pendedahan terhadap
faktor risiko yang timbul daripada aktiviti kerja)
.

Kesan Kemalangan
Pekerjaan
VS
Kesan Kesihatan
Pekerjaan

Figure 1: The Hidden Epidemic: Global Picture


Reference: ILO-The Prevention of Occupational Diseases

Effect of Work on Health

Effect of Health on Work

Figure 1: Categories of Disease at the Workplace


Reference: Textbook of Occupational Medicine Practice (3rd Edition)

STATISTIK PENYAKIT DAN KERACUNAN PEKERJAAN YANG


DILAPORKAN KEPADA JKKP MALAYSIA BAGI TAHUN 2005 - 2015

YEAR

NO. OF CASES

2005

319

2006

420

2007

594

2008

545

2009

791

2010

1426

2011

1198

2012

1792

2013

2588

2014

2648

2015

5960

TOTAL

18,281
Occupational Health Division,
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Department of Occupational Safety & Health, Malaysia

STATISTIK PENYAKIT DAN KERACUNAN PEKERJAAN


BAGI TAHUN 2015
Bilangan Kes
Yang Diterima

Jenis Penyakit
Occupational Lung Diseases (OLD)
Occupational Skin Diseases (OSD)
Occupational Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL)
Occupational Muscular - Skeletal Disorders (OMD)
Occupational Poisoning

126
46
5366
249
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How About Cases Other Than Noise Induced Hearing Loss ?

Occupational Health Division,


Department of Occupational Safety & Health, Malaysia

MODEL KESAN PENYAKIT PEKERJAAN TERHADAP


MAJIKAN DAN NEGARA

Peningkatan
Perbelanjaan
Perubatan

Peningkatan
Pembayaran
Pampasan
Penyakit
Pekerjaan

Kehilangan
Punca
Pendapatan
Kehilangan
Pekerja Yang
Produktif

Penyakit dan
Keracunan
Pekerjaan

Penurunan
Produktivit
Syarikat dan
Ekonomi Negara

NEGARA

Jenis Hazad Kesihatan Terhadap Pekerja?

Hazad Ergonomik
Hazad Fizikal
Hazad Biologi
Hazad Psikologi

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ERGON
WORK

NOMOS

LAW OF
SURROUNDING (Natural Law)

Ergonomic
LAW OF WORK
(GREEK TERM)

The science of fitting the task and working


environment to the worker.
Adoption of the job and workplace to the
worker by designing tasks depending upon:
Workers capabilities
Workers limitations

ERGONOMIC HAZAD - Science of fitting the work to the user


instead of forcing the user to fit the work

Reference: CDC NIOSH Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers

Reference: CDC NIOSH Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers

Ergonomic Related Workplace Health Problem


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The Institute of Medicine estimates

of the economic burden of WMSDs,


as measured by compensation
costs, lost wages, and lost
productivity, are between $45 and
$54 billion annually
(Centre for Disease Control and Prevention)

30.1% of Occupational ergonomic

stressors attributable Disability


Adjustable Life Year (DALYs) in 2004
had occurred in Low- and middleincome countries of the South-East
Asia Region

(WHO:Burden of disease: Ergonomic stressors


by region)

JKKP Malaysia

Fit things to
people, not
people to
things

Ergonomic Risk Factors


Primary Risk
Factors
Awkward
postures
Excessive
forces
Extreme
frequency of
movement
(Repetitive
Movement)
Static Posture
Vibrations

Ergonomics
Factors
Soft tissues
compression
Impact Stress
Glove issues

Physical
Stressors

Psycho-social
Factors

Temperature
Hot/ Cold
Noise
Lighting

Feeling stress,
fatigue
Feeling
overloaded,
too much work
Monotony,
bored, too little
stress
Lack of control,
machine
pacing
job security
and
satisfaction
Morale: poor
profits, poor
supervisor, poor
management

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JKKP Malaysia

Risk of Injury
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Due to exposure to risk factors


Depends on:

duration (how long)


frequency (how often)
magnitude (how intense)

JKKP Malaysia

What is Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) ?


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Aches and pains of usually upper body joints and

muscles
Persistent pain that will not subside spontaneously
after a few days

Difficult to treat - rarely can be cured


Prolonged expensive medical treatment
Not easy to recognize in early stages when
condition is still reversible
Huge impact on productivity and costs

JKKP Malaysia

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)


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JKKP Malaysia

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The Benefits Of Good Ergonomics Practices

Safer and Healthier Work


More Comfortable Workplace
Minimize Human Error
Less Injuries and Illnesses
(decreased absenteeism and turnover)

Maximize efficiency
Improved the
quality of working

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PPE in Ergonomics

Reference: Work Safe BC PPE 09-001 Personal Protective Equipment


JKKP Malaysia

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Level of Implementation SOHELP


Ergonomic 23
Checkpoint
3 (Fair)

2 (Basic)

1 (Entry)

Conduct Workplace Ergonomic Checklist and/or


Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment
Establish Standard Operating Procedure in Ergonomics
Use Warning Signs and Labels That Workers Understand
Easily and Correctly.
Provide Personal Protective Equipment That Gives
Adequate Protection Against Ergonomic Risk Factors.
Conduct Ergonomics Training to Employee
Person in Charge (PIC) Attended Program
PIC prepare planning to Implement the Program
Person in Charge (PIC) - to conduct internal training
Commitment from management to implement program
Appointment of person- in-charge (PIC) to implement
program

JKKP Malaysia

Level of Implementation SOHELP


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LEVEL

ERGONOMICS

No New Case Of Health Problem Related To Ergonomic


Full Implementation of Workplace Ergonomic Checklist
and/ or Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment
4 (Advanced) Implementation 50% of Workplace Ergonomic Checklist
and/ or Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment
To notify Work related Musculoskletal Diseases (WRMSD) to
DOSH and verify control at the workplace
5 (Excellent)

JKKP Malaysia

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Sumber Rujukan
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Ergonomic Checkpoint 2nd Edition - ILO


Workplace Safety and Health Guidelines:

Improving Ergonomics in the Workplace


Workplace Safety and Health Council in
collaboration with the Ministry of Manpower
Ergonomics Guidelines For Occupational
Health Practice In Industrially Developing
Countries - International Commission on
Occupational Health (ICOH)
JKKP Malaysia

Ergonomics Checklist.xls

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