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Traffic Light Systems from Real Time Perspective

Abdelkarim Jaafreh, Qusai Dmoor, Amjad Khamayseh, Saleh Bashabsheh


Computer engineering department, Mutah University.
KERAK, JORDAN.

RTS.QASA@yahoo.com
Real time system.
DR. Mokhled Tarawneh.

Abstract-Traffic light system gives security from traffic


congestions and reducing the traffic jam, also it
organizes the traffic flow. This paper proposes our
system and analyses it by discuss the timing system,
control system, and monitoring system.In addition, we
suggest some solution for emergency and official
processions to give the traffic light more flexibility.

Keywords - traffic light , sensor , scheduling , clock driven ,


actuator , controller , embedded system , emergency
vehicles , official procession waiting , Polluter of the
environment , criminal people .

[1] INTRODUCTION

Figure 1: Example configuration of wireless sensor network for


traffic surveillance at an urban intersection.

II. FLOWCHART AND TASK GRAPH

Increasing congestion level in public road networks is a


growing problem in many countries. The 2007 Urban
Mobility Report estimates total annual cost of congestion
for the 78 U.S. urban areas at 69.5 billion dollars, the value
of 3.5 billion hours of delay and 5.7 billion gallons of
excess fuel consumed. [1] Any remedial strategy for the
efficient management of roads requires the measurement of
traffic conditions. For instance, the traffic management
center (TMC) uses measurements of traffic at urban
intersections to optimize traffic signal light settings based
on traffic queue lengths. And road users can use this
information to better plan their activities and adjust their
routes [2].Most conventional traffic surveillance systems
use intrusive sensors, including inductive loop detectors,
micro-loop probes, and pneumatic road tubes, because of
their high accuracy for vehicle detection (> 97%).
However, these sensors disrupt traffic during installation
and repair, which leads to a high installation and
maintenance [3].

Figure 2: Flowchart for traffic light system.

The reference value of the traffic timing is taken from


traffic engineering; it gives the minimum value for each
states of traffic light before first operating[4]. The sensors
is based underground and find the density of the traffic
motion of vehicles, these sensors may be coil, camera, or
laser as radar. The sensors are put in different distance from
traffic (<100m).

We note that the state is periodic task and other is aperiodic


task just use in offline mode but in modern system it
operates in pipeline to reduce the delay time in the whole
system.

III. TIMING CONSTRAINT


This timing for the reference value but it is not fixed all the
time:
TABLE 1:
THE TIME CONSTRAINT FOR THE REFERANCE VALUE.

Color

Task

pi

ei

di

ri

Priority

Green

T1,1

70

30

30

Yellow

T1,2

70

35

red

T1,3

70

35

70

We can determine the all parameter for each task in off line
mode, then we can use clock driven algorithm.
Figure 3: Detection on intersection.

Controller was put in box beside the traffic and it find the
suitable timing by some algorithm to extension the delay
for states but with limit determines by the traffic
engineering supported for controller. Actuator changes the
timing of the traffic if the density is as normal the actuator
set the timing to the reference value.

Calculating utilization factor (U):


U = (ei /pi) = 30/70 + 5/70 + 35/70 = 1
Utilization factor is = 1, from this we conclude that the
system is normal, and we can start scheduling.
Calculating the Hyper period ( H ):
The hyper period is the LCM (p1, p2, p3) = LCM (70, 70,
70) = 70
We can determine the all parameter for each task in off line
mode, and then we can use clock driven algorithm.
Calculating the dead line ( d ):
For T1,1 we can assume the deadline equal the execution
time and in this case d1=30, for T1,2 (according to the
previous case) the deadline must equal the execution for
task1,1 + the execution for task1,2, d2 = 30 + 5 = 35, and
d3 = e1+e2+e3 = 30 + 5 + 35 = 70.

Figure 4: the time trace for the task (reference value).

From the time constraint table, we note that:


Our system is nonflexible and straight forward
simply.
All parameters are known and fixed.
The schedule of the jobs is computed off-line or
pipeline in rare systems.
Figure 2: Task graph for traffic light system.

The decisions, about which jobs extension, are


made at specific time instants.
From these points we note that the traffic light system can
be schedule by clock driven scheduling. Pre-compute static
schedule off-line (e.g. at design time): can afford expensive
algorithms [5].

IV. PROBLEMS and SOLUTIONS


Problem 1: The emergency vehicles and official procession
waiting:
This problem can be solved by using sensitive sensors for
emergency klaxon, Emergency detector-camera, and laser
communication but these solutions is not good because we
need the enough distance before the emergency cars reach
the intersection [7]. So other solutions can be suggested in
this case: first one identifies a default way to reach the
goals, the second is traffic control and command center this
one is suitable and found in many countries.
Problem 2: the maintenance for the traffic:
This can be done by using a network that connects the
traffic light with management center that must make a
decision to maintain the failure, such as the conflict.

Figure 5: Maintenance for local traffic light controller.

V.CONCLUSIONS
1. Traffic light is good solution for many problems
may happen on the intersection in urban areas.
2. The timing system must take into account the cost of
the fuel and late for work, it is very expensive.
3. We can use the detection system (Camera) to serve
the surrounding community as a surveillance system
by capturing a picture for the criminal people and
Polluter of the environment.

REFERENCES
[1] 2007 Urban Mobility Report,
http://mobility.tamu.edu/ums/report/.
[2] Sinem Coleri, Sing Yiu Cheung and Pravin
Varaiya ,
Sensor Networks for Monitoring Traffic,
www.sinemergen.com/allerton_traffic_2005.pdf
[3] S. Oh, S.G. Ritchie and C. Oh. Real time traffic
measurement from single loop inductive
signatures. 81st TRB Annual Meeting, January
2002, Washington, D.C.
[4] Tom Bellemans, Bart De Schutter, Bart De Moor,
Models for traffic control,
www.dcsc.tudelft.nl/~bdeschutter/pub/rep/01_11.
pdf
[5] Jane Liu, prentice hall, April 2000, Real Time
Systems.
[6] www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/java/trafficControl/trafficC
ontrol.html
[7] Jeffrey F. Paniati, Marilena Amoni, January 2006,
Traffic Signal Preemption for Emergency
Vehicles,
http://ttap.colostate.edu/Library/FHWA/FHWAJPO-05-010.pdf