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SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN THE AIR FORCE

AFASES -2010

REGARDING THE CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL OF UNMANNED AERIAL


VEHICLES (UAVs)
Vasile PRISACARIU *
Vasile ANDRU *
* Air force Academy Henri Coand Bra ov, Romania
Abstract: UAVS, constitutes an important branch of aerospace, UAVs sites because construction and
operating costs incomparably smaller than the well-known aircraft will be used increasingly over the
coming decades.
Unmanned aircraft successfully interwoven with the limits of design simplicity rules and laws
as they are designed and constructed. Using this category of aircraft is not without weight, and their
usefulness is confirmed every day.
Keywords: UAV systems (UAS), aerial vector, Civil Aviation Authority, aerial code.
1. Introduction
One of the key factors of higher education
reform is to refocus and reorganize scientific
research. This activity should be tightly woven
with the education process, taking into account the
need to train professionals who can compete with
their qualifications and performance at the
frontiers of knowledge, the Romanian universities
more competitive market leading skills and
institutional support for training of elite
performance among the younger generation.
Given the continued development of the
field unmanned aircraft (UAV) project aims to
substantiate the certification and approval
documentation required for UAV's and familiarity
with the terms of this area of activity of the
aviation industry.

are not considered unmanned vehicles. Unmanned


vehicles are the primary component of unmanned
systems.
UAV is contiunes field expansion in both
constructive solutions and the tasks that can be
fulfilled by them, whether using UAVs to the top
sites were military excusiv currently have a wide
use in civilian areas. UAV sites today know a great
variety of shapes, sizes, configurations and
construction characteristics.
The main reasons to use this type of
aircraft is reduced construction and operating cost
compared with older sisters with human pilot.
Note that air vectors satisfying simple
missions do not require specialized training of
human operators on the ground, but the situation
changes in UAV sites that have a high degree of
complexity of construction and equipment on
board, it is necessary both to a specialized training
of human operators as well as a logistics training.
Another important indication is that missiles are
not part of the UAV category sites for simple
reason that they can be reused after the mission
although
they may
be (self)
guided.
There is now passed to another concept in this
field UAVs - unmanned aerial vehicle system.

1.1. Short presentation of unmanned aerial


vehicles - UAVs. Unmanned aircraft in the
general sense is the vector actually and equipment
that are located on its board. Together executing
specific tasks which were built and designed.
UAV: A powered vehicle that does not carry a
human operator, can be operated autonomously or
remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and
can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload. Ballistic
or semi-ballistic vehicles, cruise missiles, artillery 1.2. Classification UAV sites
projectiles, torpedoes, mines, satellites, and The most important criteria for the classification of
unattended sensors (with no form of propulsion) unmanned aircraft:
a. in terms of weight:

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Category
Micro
Mini
Light
Medium
Heavy

Weight
Sub 5 kg
5 50 kg
50 200 kg
200 2000 kg
> 2000 kg

Sample
Dragon Eye
RPO Midget
Raven
A-160
Global Hawk

b. in terms of andurance and range of:


- andurance / low range: up to 1 hours (short
mission) and the range under 100 km
- andurance / medium range: between 1 and 5
o'clock and range between 100 and 1500 km
- andurance / high range: 5 to 24 hours and range
between 100 and 250 km
- andurance / veryhigh range: over 24 hours and
the range between 250 and 22000 km
c. in terms of altitude at which it operates:
- Low altitude - up to 1000 m,
- Average altitude - between 1000 and 10000 m
- High altitude - more than 10,000 m

Category verylight unmanned aerial vehicle


Helicopter..Raptor..90V2
Raptor 90 is a helicopter UAV used in data
acquisition by photogrammetry. It is fitted with
wireless and inertia for carrying out the tasks in the
system manually or automatically using a
specialized software for GPS navigation. For
shooting Station is equipped with a high resolution
photo.
Tehnical data
Fuselage length
Fuselage width
Fuselage height
Diameter rotor bearing
Anti-torque rotor diam.
Weight
Misions

1410 mm
190 mm
465 mm
1580 mm
260 mm
5 kg
Image acquisition

1.3 Types of UAVs


Category micro unmanned aerial vehicle
MAV VTOL experimental
The GPS receiver has the following
characteristics:
Receiver type
Frequency
Accuracy
Accuracy time
Operational limits

16 channels
4 Hz
2,5 m
50 nanosec
18 km i 515 m/sec

The final goal is microUAV experimental


audio-video
surveillance
enclosed
large
perimeters. Quiet diesel engine provides the air
carrier near the zones of interest.
Tehnical data
Lenght
Maximum weight
Weight
Engine
Operational autonomy
Operational altitude
Materials used

800 mm
1,5 kg
0,2 kg
2x0,2 kw electrical
20 min
1000 m
carbon and kevlar

System hardware aboard Raptor 90 V2

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Neptune RQ-15A
Neptune was developed by TRS
Technologies for a range of maritime missions.
The vector is driven by a small piston engine, it
can land on water. Introduced in fuselage bulkhead
equipment includes a GPS system, wireless control
Category heavy
equipment, data acquisition system and flight
A. Shadow 600
management sensors in real time.
Shadow is designed and developed by AAI
Corporation, which took it as a goal for autonomy
for 12-14 hours and a payload of approx. 40 kg.
85% is built from composite materials and
equipped with digital avionics.

Tehnical data
Length
Span
Max. speed
Min. speed
Max. distance operational
Autonomy
Total weight
2 stroke engine
Ground crew

1,8 m
2,1 m
156 km/h
111 km/h
75 km
4h
36 kg
15 CP
1

Tehnical data
Span
Length
Wing area
Weight useful
Total weight
Max. speed
Cruising speed
Min. speed
Max. distance operational
Autonomy
Operational ceiling
Engine

6,7 m
4,87 m
3,71 m2
41,3 kg
265 kg
200 km/h
148 km/h
120 km/h
200 km
14 h
4877 m
52 CP

Category light
Jordan Falcon
Part of the family KADDB - JAI UAV, it provides
capabilities and performance on a wide range of
air applications (recognition day and night,
overflight and data acquisition). Complete system
that includes an air carrier catapult launch and
landing a parachute recovery. Internal equipment 2. Some aspects regarding certification
are multiple, GPS, autopilot, rangefinder, Unmanned Aircraft
generating 900 W and 240 wh battery.
2.1 Romanian legislation
Tehnical data
According to Romanian Air Code have the
Max. speed
180 km/h
following definitions:
Cruising speed
120 km/h
"3.16. certification - recognition that a service,
Min. speed
80 km/h
product, or a piece of equipment, organization or
Max. distance operational
450 km
Autonomy
4h
person complies with applicable requirements and
Empty weight
40 kg
issue the relevant certificate attesting to his
Total weight
60 kg
compliance, certification may also result in
2-stroke combustion engine with
200 cm3
conferring a right, under regulations in force;
water cooled
3.17. certificate - the document issued as a result
Ground crew
4
of certification in accordance with specific
regulations applicable;
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3.19. airworthiness certificate / license -individual


document certifying the airworthiness of aircraft;
3.20. certificate of registration / identification individual document certifying the registration of
aircraft, giving it its nationality;
3.21. type certificate - the document that defines
the type design of an aircraft and certifies that this
project type comply with the airworthiness
requirements applicable; "
Overview of unmanned aircraft standpoint
Legislative:
Unmanned aircraft (UAV) in the sense
RACR-AZAC have the following description:
"Unmanned aerial vehicle on board (UAV)
- a vehicle that meets the conditions specified in
RACR-AZAC.100 section (1). E - unmanned
aerial vehicles on board, with an operating mass of
less than 150 kg.
Onboard unmanned aerial vehicles subject
to this regulation are divided into following
categories:
(i)Category A: unmanned aerial vehicles on board,
with MTOM less than 25 kg, with the following
limitations:
Aerodina
- UAV piston engine: cylinder capacity of less
than or equal to 150 cm3;
- UAVs with electric motor: the total power
exceeding 15 kW;
- UAV engine turboprop: total power exceeding
15 kW;
- UAV with jet engine: thrust of less than or equal
to 30 daN, with a thrust / weight without fuel
higher than 1.3.
Aerostat
- UAV hot air: the total mass of gas cylinders on
board, more than 5 kg;
- UAV with inert gas: maximum structural mass of
less than 25 kg.
If an unmanned aerial vehicle on board (UAV)
Class A encompasses different types of propulsion,
the limit is then set in proportion to the engine
under the maximum authorized above.
(ii)Class B1: any UAVs not meeting of Class A,
with mass of than 150 kg. "
UAV sites must also have the following as:
AZAC.110 Documents admissibility A.RACRflight;

(1) Each aircraft must have a national permit to


fly;
(2) Aircraft that have electronic radio equipment
on board to licensed radio issued under the law.
2.2 International legislation
Canadian Aviation Regulations:
"Unmanned Air Vehicle" means a power driven
aircraft, other than a model aircraft, that is
operated without a flight crew member on board.
Unmanned air vehicles have been given many
names, but are most commonly referred to as
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), unmanned air
vehicles, remotely operated aircraft or remotely
piloted vehicles. Unmanned air vehicles may take
the form of airships, aeroplanes or rotorcraft.
Basically, they could be considered to be any
unmanned aircraft that performs a useful mission
and can be remotely controlled or has autonomous
flight capability.
How unmanned air vehicles are different from
model aircraft:
"Model aircraft" means an aircraft, the total weight
of which does not exceed 35 kg (77.2 pounds), that
is mechanically driven or launched into flight for
recreational purposes and that is not designed to
carry persons or other living creatures. Although
some micro unmanned air vehicles may weigh less
than 35 kg, they are operated by research
institutions and other organizations for nonrecreational purposes.
How unmanned air vehicles are regulated:
Section 602.41 of the CARs states, no person shall
operate an unmanned air vehicle in flight except in
accordance with a Special Flight Operation
Certificate (SFOC). Section 623.65 outlines
information that should be submitted when making
an application for a SFOC. Be sure to make your
request as early as possible and provide as much
information as possible. You must be able to
demonstrate the predictability and reliability of the
unmanned air vehicle, essentially that it has the
ability to perform in the desired environment. The
requirement for a SFOC is intended to ensure the
safety of the public and protection of other users of
the airspace during the operation of the unmanned
air vehicle. The following constitutes an
application to conduct the flight of an unmanned
air vehicle:
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(a) the name, address, and where applicable, the


telephone number and facsimile number of the
applicant;
(b) the name, address, and where applicable the
telephone number and facsimile number of the
person designated by the applicant to have
operational control over the operation (Operation
Manager);
(c) method by which the Operation Manager may
be contacted directly during operation;
(d) the type and purpose of the operation;
(e) the dates, alternate dates and times of the
proposed operation;
(f) a complete description, including all pertinent
flight data on the aircraft to be flown;
(g) the security plan for the area(s) of operation
and security plan for the area(s) to be overflown to
ensure no hazard is created to persons or property
on the surface;
(h) the emergency contingency plan to deal with
any disaster resulting from the operation;
(i) the name, address, telephone and facsimile
numbers of the person designated to be responsible
for supervision of the operation area (Ground
Supervisor), if different from the Operation
Manager during the operation;
(j) a detailed plan describing how the operation
shall be carried out. The plan shall include a clear,
legible presentation of the area to be used during
the operation. The presentation may be in the form
of a scale diagram, aerial photograph or large scale
topographical chart and must include at least the
following information:
- the altitudes and routes to be used on the
approach and departure to and from the area where
the operation will be carried out;
- the location and height above ground of all
obstacles in the approach and departure path to the
areas where the operation will be carried out;
- the exact boundaries of the area where the actual
operation will be carried out;
- the altitudes and routes to be used while carrying
out the operation;
- any other information pertinent to the safe
conduct of the operation requested by the Minister.
Unmanned Air Vehicles Operating Beyond Visual
Range

More and more UAV operators are making


applications for Special Flight Operations
Certificates (SFOCs) where the UAV is to be
operated beyond visual range. Once the applicant
demonstrates the ability to conduct a safe
operation, the Minister shall issue the special flight
operations certificate. The SFOC process allows
each application to be considered on it's own
merits, and the operator must evaluate the risks
associated with the proposed operation and
provide satisfactory risk mitigation measures.
Civil Aviation Authority. (SUA)
1. Definition of a Small Aircraft
Any unmanned aircraft, other than a balloon or
kite, weighing not more than 20 kg without its fuel
but including any articles or equipment installed in
or attached to the aircraft at the commencement of
its flight.
2. Models Over 20 kg
NOTE: All model aircraft, except gliders,
weighing more than 20 kg (weight of model
and equipment, but excluding fuel) require an
exemption to fly.
2.1 An EXEMPTION is used to allow an
exception to the established law. Such an
exception is usually only made subject to various
additional conditions to ensure adequate safety.
2.2 A model aircraft, except a glider weighing over
20 kg can only be operated under the terms of an
Exemption issued by the CAA.
2.3 It is unlikely that an exemption will be issued
without the condition that the model must be flown
within the control of a recognized model
association and at a suitable site.
2.4 The maximum weight for a model aircraft to
be treated under the guidelines of CAP 658 is
150kg. Above this weight full airworthiness
regulations may apply.
Builders contemplating the construction of a
model weighing more than 150 kg should contact
the CAA prior to commencing construction.
European regulations (EASA, JAA and
EUROCONTROL)
UAV system: The Policy is applicable to the
UAV system. An UAV system is defined as
follows in the policy:
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UAV System: A UAV System comprises individual


UAV System elements consisting of the flight
vehicle (UAV), the Control Station and any
other UAV. System Elements necessary to enable
flight, such as a Communication link and
Launch and Recovery Element. There may be
multiple UAVs, Control Stations, or Launch and
Recovery Elements within a UAV System.
Flight is defined as also including taxiing,
takeoff and recovery/landing.

level specific UAV operator certification is likely


to be essential.
In future is necessary to take into account
the folowing aspects:
- Integration of UAV into the national airspace
system;
- Communications with UAV operators;
- Identification of UAVs;
- Airworthiness and maintenance.
- Pilot training, experience and qualifications
- Required navigation performance (RNP) and a
Civil Aviation Authority New Zealand
dependence on good and reliable GPS coverage;
Current UAV activity in New Zealand UAVs in - Flight termination systems;
use with a weight capability of 105g to 20kg. They
can travel up to 200kph. They all have GPS, References:
autopilot, altimeters and video cameras and are
History of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles currently authorized to a height limit of 400m by
1
www.vectorsite.net
CAA.
Reglement rile aeronautice romne (Codul
NZ Model Aeronautical Association (NZMAA):
2
Aerian Romn, RACR) ;
Advised that the NZMAA does not wish to be
Civil Aviation Authority - CAP 658, Model
caught up in UAV regulations in a way that would
3 Aircraft: A Guide to Safe Flying, United
restrict their activities.
Kingdom, June 2003;
NZMAA currently has models in 3 categories:
Policy for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Less than 15kg; 15-25kg and 26-100kg.
4 certification, EASA- AMENDAMENT (NPA)
Models less than 15kg do not require any CAA
No 16/2005;
approval. The 15kg and over models are well
Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand,
5
January 2007;
regulated on a one off basis under existing rules.
Models less than 100g are not classified as model
UAV, Liviu Isache, Gndirea Militar
6
Romneasc , nov-dec. 2006;
aircraft at all.
3. Conclusions
A review of unmanned aircraft and equipment by
classifying their wishes with laws and regulations
in the field for clarification of this relatively new
field of aeronautics.
Implementation, exploitation and the
difference in default and equipment lead to
differences in costs and capabilities of these
aircraft already have a history own evolution
alongside the other known types of aircraft.
Legislation on unmanned aircraft (UAV) in
December 2009 in Romania when it is not yet
complete and aligned with international law, one
reason may be that work with UAVs our country is
still at an early stage.
Self-regulation may be possible at the sub100kg (or 10,000 joule) weight/energy level via
certificated UAV organizations, but above this

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Advances in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,


Kimon P. Valavanis, Springer;
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (Systems)
Airworthiness, Heiko Possel, 2007, European
Defence Agency
Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems
International - www.auvsi.org
FY20092034 Unmanned Systems Integrated
Roadmap

Boscoianu, M, Fuiorea I, Pahonie R,


Aeromecanica UAV-urilor, Ed Didactic i
Pedagogic RA, Bucure ti,
Coman, A., Boscoianu, M. - Flexible
Wings for Micro Aerial Vehicles, Poland,
2006;
Air Force UAS Flight Plan 2009-2047

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