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EIGHT: The Artificially Paradises of the Nineteenth Century

Written by Wolfgang Schivelbusch


Tuesday, 19 February 2013 00:00 - Last Updated Thursday, 21 February 2013 16:44

If I weren't afraid of hashish, I'd stuff


myself with it as though it were bread.
-FLAUBERT

Every society has the pleasure goods, stimulants, and inebriants it deserves, needs, and can
tolerate. Since classical antiquity the chief intoxicant of western civilization has been alcohol. In
whatever forms it has been consumedas wine, beer, or hard liquorit has become so
permanent an element of our culture, we cannot imagine life without it. There have always been
attempts to do away with alcohol. But these have only been quixotic episodes, as American
Prohibition of the 1920s has shown most recently. Yet the temperance movements have very
convincing arguments at their disposal. The socially destructive consequences of alcoholism
are all too obvious. Alcohol addiction is one of the most devastating ills of our civilization. That
its material cause, alcohol, should be so firmly anchored in our culture demonstrates an
apparent need for it.

The same cannot be said of the group of narcotics that have achieved such a tremendous
significance in other cultures but never really gained a foothold in Europe. These drugs might be
referred to as intoxicantsand "poison" translates the toxin in intoxicant quite literallya
designation the bitterest ideological opponents of alcohol have applied to it too. Rudolf Gelpke,
a cultural critic in the tradition of Nietzsche and Ernst Jiinger, points out that these toxic
substances, or poisons, "are not just this or that substance; rather they are specific substances
that, in specific dosages, produce a 'toxic' effect on a specific organism. Thus the same
substance in different dosages can be used either as a narcotic or as a poison. . . . There is
only one possibility for an objective justification of the term 'intoxicant' applied to drugs, and that
is the equation of intoxication and poisoning. Anyone who reasons and judges in this way, at
least is doing so precisely and rigorously. But in that case he must be consistent, and without
exception judge every instance of inebriation as a 'case of poisoning.' Furthermore, he must
pretty much put alcohol at the top of his blacklist of 'intoxicants' or poisons. . . . Apart from
members of certain sects, Europeans would more or less instinctively find it ridiculous to speak
of wine as a 'narcotic.' And rightly so: it is ridiculous. But these same Europeans would also
consider it entirely valid if in keeping with the technological Westernization of the planet, and
with the help of various organizations and commissions . . . Asians, Indians, and other
non-Caucasians were to be forbidden their 'narcotics' by an appeal to an ostensibly objective
science that designated them as 'intoxicants/ poisons."

The taboo on narcotics (opium, hashish, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, morphine, etc.) and their
being made illegal in today's world happened fairly recently. Until the end of the nineteenth
century narcotics were treated and used in a laissez-faire manner. How freely and naively they

1/5

EIGHT: The Artificially Paradises of the Nineteenth Century


Written by Wolfgang Schivelbusch
Tuesday, 19 February 2013 00:00 - Last Updated Thursday, 21 February 2013 16:44

were used, and with what consequences, is exemplified in the history of opium.
Opium, the Proletariat, and Poetry

At the beginning of the nineteenth century opium was commonly available as a sedative and
painkiller. It was used somewhat as aspirin is today and had a regular place in the family
medicine chest. The family doctor prescribed it like any other medication. It was freely
obtainable in pharmacies at a relatively reasonable price and was taken to overcome hysterical
and nervous conditions, motion sickness, migraines, etc. Perhaps its most significant use was in
juices and syrups given to children to lull them to sleep. The prominent opium addicts of the
century usually traced the start of their addiction to just such dosing with opiates in childhood.

In any case, not only did opium have an assured place in the middle-class medicine chest, it
was also an integral part of the lives of the working class. Marx, who coined the phrase that
religion was "the opiate of the people," knew very well that the people of his day actually
consumed opium: "Just as it is in the English factory districts, so too in the agricultural districts
opium consumption is expanding day by day among adult workers, male and female." The retail
sale and consumption of opium became considerable, almost comparable to the volume of
business in taverns. According to one report from this period, "in every village in the
surrounding area there was a store in which laudanum bottles [laudanum being a solution of
alcohol and opium, the commonest form of opium consumption] were stored by the hundreds,
ready for purchase by the workers as they streamed out of their factories on Saturdays."
Thomas De Quincey, in his Confessions of an English Opium-Eater, has left us a vivid depiction
of the casualness, ease, and cheapness with which opium was made available to the working
population: "These respectable London druggists, in widely remote quarters of London, from
whom I happened lately to be purchasing small quantities of opium, assured me that the
number of amateur opium-eaters (as I may term them) was, at this time, immense; . . . This
evidence respected London only. But (and this will possibly surprise the reader more) some
years ago, on passing through Manchester, I was informed by several cotton manufacturers that
their work-people were rapidly getting into the practice of opium-eating; so much so, that on a
Saturday afternoon the counters of the druggists were strewed with pills of one, two, or three
grains, in preparation for the known demand of the evening. The immediate occasion of this
practice was the lowness of wages, which, at that time, would not allow them to indulge in ale or
spirits; and, wages rising, it may be thought that this practice would cease."

2/5

EIGHT: The Artificially Paradises of the Nineteenth Century


Written by Wolfgang Schivelbusch
Tuesday, 19 February 2013 00:00 - Last Updated Thursday, 21 February 2013 16:44

OPIUM DEN IN LONDON'S EAST END, CA. 1870 (Woodcut by Gustave Dore.)

CENTURY
WOMEN
WORKERS
SMOKING
OPIUM
IN
NEW
YORK,
END
OF
THE
NINETEENTH
conclusions
Baudelaire,
users
drug
nineteenth
were
viewed
physiological
embarked
became
preference
intoxication
hashish
.is,
one
drink
the
.This
.asocial,
artistic
Orient.
body,
Why,
effects
can
consumption
to
it.
of
ordinary
as
But
become
(drugs
smoking
opium
one,
attain
in
hashish
upon
objectionable.
and
of
egocentric,
Opium
century
for
was
truth,
hashish
Nerval,
he
sense)
hashish
and
hashish
paradise?
literary
which
and
acceptance
would
in
fundamentally
one,
was
should
both
is
and
his
has
were
Theophile
hashish.
belongs
ainto
to
at
is
evil
draw
dream
suicide
avant-garde
destructive:
hashish,
made
over
were
been
one
be
this
Romantics.
one
this
Instead,
In
inradically
from
of
short,
wine
the
time
which
dreamlike,
The
to
somewhat
became
itlandscape.
work,
weapon.
opium
Gautier,
part
athe
drugs
sense
itpredictable,
were
as
Paris
artists
wine
would
"Wine
today
solitary
of
toil,
set
part
They
by
a
the
their
from
closely
of
to
"Club
Wine
is
write,
unreal,
work
apart
the
overshadowed
and
The
of
be
every
his
name
heightens
same
for
proclaimed
joys;
agenda.
the
aworking-class
the
famous
people
aesthetes
makes
of
des
program
journey
controllable,
create,
from
interrelated).
Orient,
asocial.
police
art
only
period
opposite
it Hachischins"
was
a
inThe
the
one
who
the
bourgeois
poetry
or
his
into
chief
the
of
transplanted
created
consumed
by
escaped
Baudelaire
what
will,
most
opium
good
subsequent
asociality.
of
work
artist
the
population
rational,
the
might
Baudelaire's.
De
collection
hashish
have
fantasy-Orient
famous
generally
and
for
equated
and
Quincey,
an
world
to
agree
opium
hapless
asocial
you,
peaceable.
bourgeois
explicitly
who
an
For
poetic
hashish
abolishes
in
writings.
that
The
writers,
ersatz
him,
the
ifthus
with;
literary
better-known
extensively,
Coleridge,
in
was
figure.
fantasy
Flowers
idlers."
first
ageneration
formulated
alcoholic
that
win
land
only
affair;
sudden
were
Life
increasingly
Hashish
it.
production
half
the
Life
Wine
the
of
This
(in
and
of
notorious
Poe,
whereas
of
right
fantasy,
opium
as
and
an
Evilthat
moment
fact
the
art
view
sustains
isolates.
of
his
well
almost
to
work
the
that
thus
with
poet
of
as

OPIUM
DREAMS
dreams
not
that
212-13)
orgiastic
Quincey
fantastic
Praxitelesbeyond
dreaming
household
things
John
an
others
oriental
"opium-eater,"
Martin,
of
or
wrote
and
imagery
sleep,'
the
The
countenances,
experienced
destructive
poets
that
who,
of
Fall
callest
opium
ofswept
of
the
unlike
and
nonetheless
Nineveh
brain,
splendor
into
inpower
the
Europe
cleansed
states
1822:
his
sunny
images
cities
literary
of
that
"Thou
of
in
1829
gave
light
Babylon
intoxication.
this
and
from
enraptured
ofcontemporaries
John
(above)
buildest
the
period
permanent
temples,
thefaces
and
Martin.
'dishonors
reached
reveal
and
upon
Pictures
Hekatompylos;
beyond
ofform
tormented
long-buried
the
Thomas
aits
of
fascination
in
like
bosom
the
the
absolute
hisBelshazzar's
art
grave.'
fantastic
De
the
beauties
and,
ofQuincey
"opium-dreamers."
Phidias
darkness,
with
peak
"'from
The
visions
the
and
with
Feast
the
and
enthusiasm
same
the
out
the
anarchy
to
Coleridge,
from
blessed
of
the
opium
blend
the
dreams
1826
De
for
ofof was
all
(pp.

3/5

EIGHT: The Artificially Paradises of the Nineteenth Century


Written by Wolfgang Schivelbusch
Tuesday, 19 February 2013 00:00 - Last Updated Thursday, 21 February 2013 16:44

quite
ample
antibourgeois
and
dream-poems
lose
narcotics,
modern
of
effect.
revealed.
itself
implemented
which
fully
poets'
In
the
asocial
actual
dissolution
explained
their
were
unintended
nineteenth
at
dreamsnot
ammunition
In
drug
least
the
identity
Nevertheless,
and
another
practice
significance
course
legislation
was
feelings
until
first
as
by
of
function.
century.
as
such,
the
a
the
made
with
matter
a
the
realm
quite
of
ordinary
few
actual
self
of
the
nineteenth-century
which
threats
attributed
would
the
society
years
the
so
altogether.
to
It
unto
The
nineteenth
would
control
dangers.
shock
poetic,
poets
household
to
not
sheer
ago
to
itself.
awareby
have
be
in
society
measures
still
of
the
The
vividness
describing
bourgeois
absurd
Bourgeois
century
course,
characterized
these
come
remedies.
poets
deep-seated
emotional
opium
these
out
to
drugs.
the
and
about
yet
of
to
of
advance
individual.
opium
anxiety
previously
its
opium
and
their
real
unmistakably
prohibitions
Suddenly
indifference.
atmosphere
eventually
ItThe
the
hashish
dangers
took
formulations
fear
and
and
fantasies
such
attitude
Of
of
hashish
the
hidden
hashish
they
course,
any
poets
ain
with
even
poetic
their
simplistic
in
The
narcotics
toward
emerge
were
contact
effects
which
gave
as
performed
without
which
reflections.
publication
that
imagination
means
the
narcotics,
middle-class
society
these
view
as
with
does
of
were
first
mirror
the
the
dangerous
for
these
of
a
not
measures
opium
amply
drugs.
of
remarkable,
tried
the
cause
images
and
cannot
these
mean
drugs,
expansion
to
society
literature
them
It
and
protect
was
of
were
be
the
to
narcotics
century.
forming
the
heroin
had
society.
massive
centurythe
multiplied
process
Other
case
had
(1874)
of
discoveries
Morphine
of
First
on
quantities
history
were
the
a
expansion
the
habit.
Crimean
among
incidence
from
no
drinking
of
longer
in
Thomas
an
opium
for
also
particular
these
we
addict
the
War,
of
world:
contributed
regarded
have
had
first
drug
was
de
the
fully
the
time
added
Quincey's
an
already
American
addiction.
the
aware
escalation
same
or
in
recognition
to
a
used
military
observed
the
new
of
effect
Confessions
Civil
Morphine
his
fact
as
dimension
of
hospitals
naively
addiction.
on
Warthen
that
toxicity
of
for
the
the
by
made
tobacco
drug
as
phenomenon
of
the
with
during
to
The
an
they
the
in
its
end
scene
considerable
English
in
production
way
drug
had
the
of
and
First
as
the
great
from
been
problem.
after
of
Opium-Eater
the
nineteenth
World
addiction,
military
wars
in
spread
of
the
consequences
the
morphine
War.
It
Thirty
of
was
first
into
the
of
century
of
was
The
hard
half
used
Years'
the
civilian
nineteenth
(1817)
wars
written
of
actual
liquor
in
for
the
War.
life,
and
asa
became
laissez-faire
English
that
remained
law
Because
stated
opium
"Pharmacy
a
at
social
only
was
of
the
state
these
that
to
discretion
phenomenon
balked
be
and
the
pharmacological
sold
pharmacist
Poisons
at
only
of
taking
the
that
in
Act"
pharmacist.
pharmacies;
drastic
could
had
and
of
to
1868,
no
sociological
measures.
know
longer
(Poisons
decreed
and
the
that
be
customer
One
developments
ignored.
were
what
how
of
much
treated
was
the
personally.)
Yet
earliest
already
and
the
just
drug
to
legislators
as
drug-control
whom
customary
addiction
liberally.
itcaused
of
now
Here
procedure:
the
laws,
sold
liberal
the
the
great
treaties
international
promulgate
The
fateful
opposition
moral
decisive
negotiated
role
national
and
opium
to
opium
impetus
political
slavery.
shortly
trade.
drug
had
for
campaigns
The
laws,
Only
played
before
modern
antiopium
which
in
in
and
the
drug
China.
wake
in
after
the
essence
legislation
campaign
nineteenth
The
the
of
these
First
Chinese
remain
culminated
eventually
World
agreements
century,
opium
in
War,
effect
came
comparable
question
with
did
a
to
series
the
from
the
present
individual
goal
sparked
outside
of
in
international
its
curbing
day.
fervor
one
Europe.
countries
of
only
the
the
It
to
was
Opium
and
Colonialism
culture
Europe.
the
Chinese
rage
trade.
equal
From
eighteenth
English
Chinese
among
partner
In
as
the
The
Empire
the
an
nineteenth
East
had
seventeenth
Chinese
opium
of
century
European
the
ever
India
no
European
use
culture.
since
made
Company.
century
opium
for
and
upper
the
anything
its
Yet
had
early
powers,
to
closer
seventeenth
itoutlaw
the
classestea,
The
had
been
eighteenth
the
present
acquaintance
company
become
these
used
Europeans
century.
day,
articles
in
centuries,
that
silk,
had
China
western
only
only
porcelainrepresented
enjoyed
could
were
as
two
with
when
much,
various
offer
regularly
public
or
a
European
lively
three
the
them
that
opinion
chinoiseries
Middle
paid
trade
is
centuries
in
to
exchange.
"help,"
for
has
say
relationship
Empire
lucrative
in
seen
as
that
cash,
earlier.
largely
little,
was
were
Chinese
because
items
as
that
with
Up
still
all
in
until
of
an
of

OPIUM
SMOKING
INinCHINA
and
Although
Europeans
friend
Opium
coffeehouses
(facing
smoking
opium
smoked
page),
was
became
(above).
tobacco.
or
repeatedly
establishments
a regular
Theprohibited,
smoking
part of
that
took
all
daily
were
levels
place
lifeopen
at
ofatthe
society
home,
toend
the used
of
when
public
theit,entertaining
eighteenth
inmuch
the same
in the
century.
away
way
business
as inns

OPIUM
AND
IMPERIALISM
This
1911
poster
depicts
China's
predicament
from
the
Nationalists'
viewpoint:
the
Chinese
giant,
in
chains
and
held
down
by
boulders
of
the
opium
addiction
that
had
been
forced
itabove
by
foreign
powers.
proportionately
aggressive.
India
for
cheap
Estimates
increased
The
compare
Europe
say,
was
However,
Chinese
comparison
reflected
was
Company,
commodity
since
the
reflected
are
the
Trade
products
role
the
in
that
weaker
situation
its
which
with
opium
seventeenth
for
between
in
coffee
opium
the
in
enforced
Obviously
as
cash,
played
changed
English
company,
consumption.
the
consumption,
equal
1767
the
European
century:
in
its
gin
such
company
and
China
partners
during
will
produced
epidemic
1850,
by
an
the
since
powers,
the
means
just
increase
was
stagnation
now
in
eighteenth
on
as
the
immediately
less
transformed
offered
a
the
of
large
brought
than
its
early
of
own
a
all
century
a
scale
sociopolitical
special
century,
capitalist
England,
springs
militia.
far-reaching
into
century
on
when
aof
trade
its
trade
Instead
Chinese
to
activity
plantations
became
with
mind.
life
the
item,
dictatorship
social
in
Chinese
that
ofof
One
China,
opium
opium.
continuing
more
western
of
consequences.
inmight
consumption
Empire
and
one
Itby
Europe
also
the
might
in
to
pay
grew
aEast
grows
very
the
On
an
urgent
accessories
opium
all
grow
ever
The
parts
invitation
house
situation:
low
larger
increasingly
spread
increasingly
smoking
as
of
to
itseventyfold.
calls
the
numbers.
very
may
necessary
is
"Large
of
Empire
not
the
has
high.
opium
be,
evident.
forthcoming.
poor."
best
for
when
Chinese
The
The
the
through
a
to
physicians
long
establishments
opium
report
consumption
they
More
commercial
time
have
Chinese
Administrative
and
smoking
of
threatened
a
expect
more
first
western
of
society
smoked
itfirms
are
opium
frequently
to
is
be
offered
amissionary
officials
keep
regular
cut
invited
is
aeighteenth
welfare
rapidly
pipe
across
opium
one
in
and
feature
to
grow
of
from
sees
a
and
rising.
all
opium.
the
on
pipe
more
classes
1868
the
hand
of
police
the
Its
the
prosperity
In
unfortunate
numerous,
opium
contains
calamitous
for
well-to-do
household.
are
of
their
the
prepared
and
population,
business
of
this
and
resent
victims,
families
this
consequences
.coffee
description
.India.
the
for
.people.
The
itwas
friends.
a
nation
and
ifmore
the
from
policy,
such
vice
in
Inofof

4/5

EIGHT: The Artificially Paradises of the Nineteenth Century


Written by Wolfgang Schivelbusch
Tuesday, 19 February 2013 00:00 - Last Updated Thursday, 21 February 2013 16:44

THE
OPIUM
INDUSTRY
OF
THE
EAST
INDIA
COMPANY
The
drug
that
was
poured
into
China
was
produced
on
a
vast
scale.
After
the
opium
pulp
had
been
boiled,
itbe
was
placed
in
smaller
containers
and
set
out
to
dry
in
a
huge
storage
chamber
(above),
then
for
eventual
shipping
in
enormous
warehouses
(facing
page).
stored
century;
The
smokingbut
force,
Chinese
and
socially
in
opium
the
government
to
destructive
early
no
legalized:
avail.
nineteenth
consequences
In
tried
a
the
classic
repeatedly
century
notorious
instance
they
of
to
opium
opium
had
resist
of
colonial
begun
wars
use
the
resistance
compulsory
were
to
gunboat
assume
first
revealed
was
diplomacy.
trade
catastrophic
finally
by
in
prohibiting
the
crushed
proportions.
late
eighteenth
by
opium
military
dates
self-determination
was
buyers
thoughts,
"It
is
a
in
means
no
docile.
the
much
accident,"
history
of
Someone
less
killing
of
one
act.
East
the
two
commentary
dreaming
opium
Asian
birds
with
peoples"
problem
opium
one
on
this
stone:
fall
dreams
(Wissler).
within
chapter
opium
is
the
For
.not
in
yielded
same
colonial
European
going
time
to
huge
history
formulate
span
colonialism
profits,
runs,
as
the
anticolonial
and
"that
the
loss
itand
rendered
opium
the
of
decisive
trade
its
outside
not
for
internal
opium
Insisting
statement
highest
medicinal
It
purposes
is
being
astounding
to
trade,
their
possible
consumption.
itsold
this
a
purposes,
proposed
wasn't
necessity
homeland.
declared
of
foreign
levels,
the
how
They
raising
the
company's
of
The
in
deliberately
commerce,
adding
Warren
took
life
company
a
East
statement
the
but
ithas
for
that
price
a
India
Hastings,
desire
"pernicious"
granted,
would
and
and
ifsociety
of
Company
itled
systematically
were
took
to
the
1813
stimulate
the
of
drug
ready
the
possible
how
course,
governor
article
itself,
position
in
to
repugnant
Britain
demand
of
do
the
that
to
the
luxury,
general
its
stop
that
instigator
colonial
this
and
part
for
the
its
a
commodity
its
ought
thing
in
of
opium
use
government
overseas
the
masters
Bengal,
and
entirely,
itYork,
not
interest
considered
in
chief
to
England,
was
were
declared
be
possessions
except
beneficiary
should
of
permitted,
to
able
mankind.
be
opium.
the
that
used
for
stop
to
deploy
to
opium,
of
except
only
its
the
the
comparison
instinctualcontrol
abandoned
alcohol,
a
However
peripheral
hardly
naively
themselves
with
drug.
matters.
opium-drugged
and
was
unrestrainedly
Compared
to
nonetheless
opium,
semicolonial
and
with
being
opium
that
what
even
imposed
was
China
thousands
consumed
going
shows
on
it.
on
That
in
of
that
in
China,
workers
nineteenth-century
several
an
unconsciousone
opium
used
dozen
in
itThe
as
Europe
Romantic
a
Europe,
substitute
remained
might
poets
say
for
Third
made
the
fit
society
England
Company.
firms'
to
English
The
to
spend
balance
importation
carry
World.
of
with
sound
indolent,
imperialism
India,
on
out
.its
.a
sheet
tea"
instinct
.end.
China
sale
its
in
of
dreamy,
(Teff).
1831,
great
Chinese
of
in
opium
with
the
let
opium
the
global
for
Opium
the
English
which
inactive,
Far
example,
tea
in
East
to
exchange
undertakings,
East,
the
to
the
East
India
England.
Chinese
teaa
uncompetitivemanageable.
West
but
China
India
Company
which
for
kept
formula
Tea,
bought
was
tea,
Company.
was
thoroughly
opium
mainly
only'
the
paid
have
which
11
beverage
one
out
for
8
The
through
million
not
with
of
side
typified
million
handsome
its
only
opium,
that
worth
of
own
the
"Put
(against
explains
the
Europe's
was
agency
system
of
ledger.
which
in
profits
opium
to
its
bills
keep
the
simplest
of
relationship
is
made
this
demonstrated
the
successes
from
drawn
English
other
East
corporation
Chinese
form,
on
India
side
'country
to
society
London)
the
was
by
The
New
Tolerance
intoxicating,
cultures.
nothing
inebriants.
power
myths
lord
civilization
domesticated.
greeted
of
once
Regular
Dionysus
of
shook
in
became
the
other
coffee,
which
Every
drug
feast."
in
"Perhaps,"
mankind
from
itmass
modern
than
levels
The
Dionysus,
tamed.
historically
use
tobacco,
a
All
the
fantastic
modern
is
off
to
times
habit-forming.
as
habituation
We
with
exotic
and
Ernst
with
significant
find
have
core
middle-class
expectations
habitual
the
his
spices,
Junger
something
have
other
gone
train
of
Even
large
Use.
shift
become
stimulants,
remarked
through
exotic
of
wine
and
satyrs,
in
This
though
far
masses
a
substances
more
fears
party.
cultural
ordinary
this
is
about
sileni,
true
at
of
process,
powerful,
with
first
The
people
not
pattern
intoxicants
wine,
maenads,
everyday
which
the
stimulants
are
only
becoming
effect
to
"over
but
gone
for
seventeenth-century
once-new
consumption
also
rites.
individuals,
introduced
and
is
today,
millennia
which
powerfully
more
beasts,
habitual
stimulants
as
by
sinister,
of
much
to
their
but
is
appears
use
or
European
exciting
in
also
very
essence
as
its
Europeans
in
and
the
for
original
those
as
novelty
or
entire
spirit
the
breaking-in
consumption
middle-class
etc.,
established
Demand
acted
Under
Prussian
Only
were
accordingly,
Frederick
the
for
state.
still
narcotics,
process
commodities.
them
stimulants
controversial
II,
alone
proved
and
the
to
like
become
tobacco
instead
in
stamps
opium,
too
Only
the
substances,
strong
seventeenth
of
in
routine.
tax
a
hashish,
the
prohibitions,
culture.
alone
and
course
For
often
too
accounted
marijuana,
In
century.
that
this
constant
of
officially
taxes
the
reason
respect
eighteenth
Three
were
for
etc.,
to
prohibited,
they
an
be
they
have
levied
hundred
eleventh
suppressed.
have
may
century
not
on
in
remained
be
yet
years
these
any
compared
did
the
been
Society
case
ago
new
they
revenues
outside
included
coffee,
anything
semiluxuries.
win
with
acceptance.
of
of
the
tobacco,
in
the
the
but
this
state
early
mass
narcotics
now,
the
had
altered
very
emerged
simultaneously
curiosity.
such
intimately
itself
them,
generation.
alcohol
liberation
There
the
prevailing
been
fabric
symbolically
and
as
just
possible
the
drinking
are
"expansion
Traditional
among
(which,
from
despite
marked
related
as
of
conscious
The
indications
that
bourgeois
attitude
all
with
keys
stood
"joint"
the
as
to
all
such
generation
and
by
of
the
drug
we
attempts
opinions
trend-setting,
to
mind
toward
pharmacologically
for
the
became
sort
values.
a
that
have
liberalization
society.
use.
new
achievement,
personality,"
or
of
asmoking.
conversely
seen,
them.
about
very
to
fear
worse
sensibility.
The
a
This
reverse
symbol
of
ideologically
similar
generation
first
Until
still,
contact.
of
consensus
"consciousness-raising,"
sexuality.
effects
authority,
became
felt
the
about
of
from
In
dissolved
development
this
the
menaced
trend,
These
that
the
of
1960,
youth
influential
youth
illegal
has
drugs
The
alcohol-drinking
smoked
there
personal
drugs
crumbled
this
culture
movement.
by
so
fear
only
might
were
has
the
on,
attitude
sectors
of
were
hashish
a
identity
been
drug
hashish
of
contact
questioned.
take
short
since
the
seen
"self-realization,"
of
among
Cigarette
consumption
a
generation
place
time
1960s
and
the
perceptible
and
the
gave
and
as
marijuana
population
ago).
with
1960s.
thus
substances
the
Drugs
marijuana
popular
way
smoking
western
today's
endangered
that
For
to
of
A
relaxation
were
a
etc.,
some
the
new
preceded
catchwords
dissociated
more
new
for
that
illegal
nations
younger
regarded
were
attitude
time
or
the
of
less
with
passing
nominal.
legislation
foreseeable,
as
greater
This
tobacco
the
interpretation,
social
last
fad.
Efforts
to
did
offshoots
In
that
the
become
problems
three
the
are
new
hashish
under
hundred
a
realityin
so
of
typical
than
advanced
the
widespread
and
way
itscontrolledlegalization.
years
product
marijuana
other
several
movement.
western
ago,
that
words,
of
the
will
for
states
the
industrial
the
someday
1960s,
existing
to
Yet
legalize
simple
(California
drug
nation,
laws
in
join
reason
use
drugs.
the
against
and
itself
process
the
ranks
that
It
New
United
seems
is
itbut
its
evidently
of
appear
of
prohibition
common
disappearing
States,
plausible,
for
increasingly
more
example)
marijuana
pleasure
creates
almost
than
together
to
a
goods
adapt
separated
obvious.
acceptable.
harmless,
designation
line
summed
marijuana
placed
transformation
In
here,
the
instead
United
and
It
up
and
can
are
were
into
involves
Defining
of
the
milder
stepping
among
be
LSD,
two
from
in
States,
declared
newly
"harmless"
seen
categories.
reaching
than
"dangerous
heroin,
the
the
prevalent
in
as
over
liquor"with
popular
soft
the
former,
a
etc.,
first
ityouth
proximity
some
course
drugs,
remains
People
narcotics"
opinion
step
as
drugs
heroin
preliminary
hard
they
of
toward
this
now
to
subject
discussions
hashish
and
about
drugs
tobacco
were
rather
to
refer
LSD
their
"pleasure
to
soft
decision
removed
means
and
to
slipshod
punishment.
and
the
legalization.
them
drugs.
of
marijuana
latter.
these
alcohol,
goods."
as
from
as
formulation
In
to
society
either
The
issues,
other
whether
the
"Marijuana
By
a
as
crucial
meaning
sinister
the
soft,
soft
words,
and
drugs
the
same
these
or
that
the
step
hard.
world
late
when
is
of
have
state
is,
token,
less
drugs
the
on
Margaret
as
Hashish
of
hashish
come
the
distinction
have
toxic
fundamentally
narcotics
are
the
way
to
than
drawn
socially
Mead
and
and
of
be
their
is
and
the
tobacco
iteffects
in
cigarette
"cigarette
smoking
alternative
of
herald
first
available
would
then-new
seventeenth-century
on
inherent
interpreted
has
More
this
soft
introduced
led
direction.
define
drugs
a
part
of
or
was
in
major
has
companies
for
to
smoking.
society
smoking
less
lifestyles,
the
as
of
are
changing,
been
a
curtailment
awhich
at
new
shift
three
medieval
Smoking
last-ditch
closely
the
three
consumption
on
most
may
Nowhere
pleasure
in
have
also
prohibitions
hundred
same
quality
pleasure
hundred
in
be
related
effective
worldview
is
discovered
of
wane.
effort
the
been
harmful
time
forbidden
of
goods),
opposite
years
consumption
this
to
and
bound
in
that
years
Numerous
against
this
in
maintain
a
to
the
(which
ago.
lead
"postindustrial"
this
today's
soft
your
Once
in
ago.
by
direction,
same
an
new
to
coffee
Should
drugs.
law
health."
rightly
much
the
The
increasing
scientific
an
certain
again
still-enforced
similar
view
sectors
to
outright
rationality
and
analogy
The
add
in
soft
as
sniffed
itand
of
The
fact.
conclusions.
is
society
to
tobacco
coffee
investigations
to
decline
drugs
of
the
number
that
prohibition,
their
social
While
the
can
out
and
United
prohibition
in
was
one
(for
population
advertisements
in
be
the
were
which
self-discipline
and
drug
of
smoking
tea
want
day
taken
developing,
These
modern,
States
public
cultural
desperate
have
use
consumption
coffee
become
of
even
there
that,
circumstances
a
has
places.
drugs
that
and
proven
better
bourgeois
stigmatization
and
further.
been
of
in
are
has
the
commonly
rearguard
may
their
middle-class
tobacco
For
term),
attitude
clear
warning
the
increased
gone
defined
expanding,
be
Just
quest
years
hazardous
dynamic
signs
might
furthest
this
were
actions
toward
as
that
of
the
for
use
that
life.

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