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Electrical Engineering Lab Report
Wien Bridge Oscillator Design Problem
EL 250
Experiment

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Lab #5

Course Title:

Course Number:

Date Performed:

Fall 2015

Principal Investigator:

Maurice G. Richards

Lecturer:

Table of Content

Introduction

Objective

Equipment

Material

Procedure

Diagrams

Calculations

11

Data

13

Discussion

14

Conclusion

15

1|Page

INTRODUCTION

The Wien Bridge Oscillator is the standard oscillator for low to moderate frequencies, in the

range of 5 Hz to about 1 Hz. Its almost always used in commercial audio generators and is

usually preferred for other low frequency application.

(Expert from: Electronic Principles Malvino and Bates 7th Edition)

The Wien Bridge Oscillator is one type of sinusoidal feedback oscillator. A fundamental part of

the Wien-bridge oscillator is a lead-lag circuit. The lead-lag circuit of the Wien Bridge oscillator

has a resonant frequency, , at which the phase shift through the circuit is

and the attenuation

is . Below the lead circuit dominates and the output leads the input. Above

(Expert from: Electronic Devices - Floyd 9th Edition Electron Flow Version)

(Diagram captured from: Electronic Devices - Floyd 9th Edition Electron Flow

2|Page

OBJECTIVE

The purpose this experiment exercise is to design a Wien Bridge Oscillator to operate at

approximately 1.6 kHz

EQUIPMENT

DC Power Supply

Multimeter

Potentiometer

Oscilloscope

MATERIAL

741 Op Amp

Resistors

Capacitors

Connecting Wires

3|Page

PROCEDURE

Circuit Construction

A 741 series OP amp was used in the construction of the Wien Bridge Oscillator.

The power supplies, VCC and VEE, 12V and -12V respectively, were used.

Both capacitors used the circuit were 0.01F.

The resistance of R1 was equal to that of R2 based on knowledge of how a Wien Bridge

Oscillator works.

The resistance of R1 and R2 were calculated and the both resistors of that value were

placed in the circuit.

A resistor of 1k resistance was also placed in the circuit as R3.

A suitable value R4 was calculated and the corresponding resistor was appropriately

utilized.

Circuit Analysis

The Oscilloscope was connected to three key points of the circuit to observe the signal

being generated at each point.

The positive feedback, the negative feedback, and, the output were all key focuses of

observation.

Lab Report

A lab report was written with a compilation of the various calculations, diagrams of

circuits, syncrograms of waveforms, and explanations of how they all demonstrate the

workings of a Wien Bridge Oscillator.

4|Page

DIAGRAMS

a 741 Op amp.

5|Page

DIAGRAMS

Diagram A2, showing the schematic of the Wien Bridge Oscillator and

the oscilloscope, with the three main points of observation.

6|Page

DIAGRAMS

SYNCROGRAM OF WAVEFORMS

Voltage vs. Time

--- RED LINE

--- BLUE LINE

--- MAGENTA LINE

: Output

: Positive Feedback

: Negative Feedback

7|Page

Graph B1, showing the observed oscillation of the non inverting waveform. A slightly skewed

sinusoidal wave of approximately 4V was observed.

8|Page

INVERTING WAVEFORM

clipping at about 3.5 V. Also the waveform is roughly 180o out of phase with that of the noninverting waveform.

9|Page

OUTPUT WAVEFORM

Graph D1 showing observed oscillation of Output waveform. The graph shows a similar

propagation to that of the non-inverting waveform. Unlike the non-inverting waveform, the

output waveform has significant clipping at around 11V.

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CALCULATIONS

formulae were derived and transposed to make them the subject of the

equation. With given information, the value of

was calculated as shown below.

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CALCULATIONS

The practical value of

used in this experiment was

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DATA

TABLE A

Measured Frequency

Theoretical Frequency

1.578 kHz

1.591 kHz

TABLE B

Component

Value

10.0 k

10.0 k

1.0 k

2.2 k

0.01

0.01

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DISCUSSION

When the circuit is initially turned on, there is more positive feedback than negative feedback.

this allows the oscillation to build up. After the output signal reaches a desired level, the negative

feedback becomes large enough to reduce loop gain AvB to 1.

The reason AvB decreases to 1 is because at power up, resistor R3 has a low resistance, and the

negative feedback is small. For this reason, the loop gain is greater than 1, and the oscillations

can build up to the resonant frequency. As resistor R3 heats up slightly, its resistance increases.

At some high input level, resistor R3 has a resistance of exactly that of resistor R4. At this point,

the closed-loop voltage gain from the non-inverting input to the output decreases.

(Diagram captured from: Electronic Devices - Floyd 9th Edition Electron Flow

When the power is first turned on, the resistance of resistor R3 is less than that of resistor R4. As

a result, the closed loop voltage gain from the non-inverting input to the output is greater than 3

and Av(CL)B is exactly equal to 1.

As the oscillations build up, the peak-to-peak output becomes large enough to increase the

resistance of resistor R3. When its resistance equals resistor R4, the loop gain Av(CL)B is exactly

equal to 1. At this point the oscillations become stable, and the output has a constant peak-topeak value.

14 | P a g e

CONCLUSION

The experiment was executed successfully. A Wien Bridge Oscillator was constructed, and its

characteristics were observed. Based on previous knowledge, the data received was expected.

The values obtained were in close comparison to theoretical values. This experimental exercise

deepened my understanding of the operations of a Wien Bridge Oscillator.

15 | P a g e

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