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# Title of the Experiment:

Lab #5

Course Title:

Course Number:

## EL 250 L01 WEB

Date Performed:

Fall 2015

Principal Investigator:

Maurice G. Richards

Lecturer:

## Prof. Thomas R. Rivenburgh

Table of Content

Introduction

Objective

Equipment

Material

Procedure

Diagrams

Calculations

11

Data

13

Discussion

14

Conclusion

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INTRODUCTION

The Wien Bridge Oscillator is the standard oscillator for low to moderate frequencies, in the
range of 5 Hz to about 1 Hz. Its almost always used in commercial audio generators and is
usually preferred for other low frequency application.
(Expert from: Electronic Principles Malvino and Bates 7th Edition)

The Wien Bridge Oscillator is one type of sinusoidal feedback oscillator. A fundamental part of
the Wien-bridge oscillator is a lead-lag circuit. The lead-lag circuit of the Wien Bridge oscillator
has a resonant frequency, , at which the phase shift through the circuit is
and the attenuation
is . Below the lead circuit dominates and the output leads the input. Above

## dominates and the output lags the input.

(Expert from: Electronic Devices - Floyd 9th Edition Electron Flow Version)

## Diagram showing schematic of a Wien Bridge Oscillator

(Diagram captured from: Electronic Devices - Floyd 9th Edition Electron Flow

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OBJECTIVE

The purpose this experiment exercise is to design a Wien Bridge Oscillator to operate at
approximately 1.6 kHz

EQUIPMENT

DC Power Supply
Multimeter
Potentiometer
Oscilloscope

MATERIAL

741 Op Amp
Resistors
Capacitors
Connecting Wires

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PROCEDURE

Circuit Construction

## A Wien Bridge Oscillator was designed to operate at approximately 1.6 kHz

A 741 series OP amp was used in the construction of the Wien Bridge Oscillator.
The power supplies, VCC and VEE, 12V and -12V respectively, were used.
Both capacitors used the circuit were 0.01F.
The resistance of R1 was equal to that of R2 based on knowledge of how a Wien Bridge
Oscillator works.
The resistance of R1 and R2 were calculated and the both resistors of that value were
placed in the circuit.
A resistor of 1k resistance was also placed in the circuit as R3.
A suitable value R4 was calculated and the corresponding resistor was appropriately
utilized.

Circuit Analysis

The Oscilloscope was connected to three key points of the circuit to observe the signal
being generated at each point.
The positive feedback, the negative feedback, and, the output were all key focuses of
observation.

Lab Report

A lab report was written with a compilation of the various calculations, diagrams of
circuits, syncrograms of waveforms, and explanations of how they all demonstrate the
workings of a Wien Bridge Oscillator.

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DIAGRAMS

a 741 Op amp.

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DIAGRAMS

## WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

Diagram A2, showing the schematic of the Wien Bridge Oscillator and
the oscilloscope, with the three main points of observation.

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DIAGRAMS

SYNCROGRAM OF WAVEFORMS

## Graph A1, showing all three waveforms observed on a syncrogram of

Voltage vs. Time
--- RED LINE
--- BLUE LINE
--- MAGENTA LINE

: Output
: Positive Feedback
: Negative Feedback

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## NON INVERTING WAVEFORM

Graph B1, showing the observed oscillation of the non inverting waveform. A slightly skewed
sinusoidal wave of approximately 4V was observed.

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INVERTING WAVEFORM

## Graph C1 showing observed oscillation of Inverting waveform. The waveform experienced

clipping at about 3.5 V. Also the waveform is roughly 180o out of phase with that of the noninverting waveform.

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OUTPUT WAVEFORM

Graph D1 showing observed oscillation of Output waveform. The graph shows a similar
propagation to that of the non-inverting waveform. Unlike the non-inverting waveform, the
output waveform has significant clipping at around 11V.

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CALCULATIONS

## To find values for

formulae were derived and transposed to make them the subject of the
equation. With given information, the value of
was calculated as shown below.

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CALCULATIONS

## The calculated value for

The practical value of

used in this experiment was

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DATA

TABLE A
Measured Frequency

Theoretical Frequency

1.578 kHz

1.591 kHz

TABLE B
Component

Value

10.0 k
10.0 k
1.0 k
2.2 k
0.01
0.01

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DISCUSSION

When the circuit is initially turned on, there is more positive feedback than negative feedback.
this allows the oscillation to build up. After the output signal reaches a desired level, the negative
feedback becomes large enough to reduce loop gain AvB to 1.
The reason AvB decreases to 1 is because at power up, resistor R3 has a low resistance, and the
negative feedback is small. For this reason, the loop gain is greater than 1, and the oscillations
can build up to the resonant frequency. As resistor R3 heats up slightly, its resistance increases.
At some high input level, resistor R3 has a resistance of exactly that of resistor R4. At this point,
the closed-loop voltage gain from the non-inverting input to the output decreases.

(Diagram captured from: Electronic Devices - Floyd 9th Edition Electron Flow

When the power is first turned on, the resistance of resistor R3 is less than that of resistor R4. As
a result, the closed loop voltage gain from the non-inverting input to the output is greater than 3
and Av(CL)B is exactly equal to 1.
As the oscillations build up, the peak-to-peak output becomes large enough to increase the
resistance of resistor R3. When its resistance equals resistor R4, the loop gain Av(CL)B is exactly
equal to 1. At this point the oscillations become stable, and the output has a constant peak-topeak value.

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CONCLUSION

The experiment was executed successfully. A Wien Bridge Oscillator was constructed, and its
characteristics were observed. Based on previous knowledge, the data received was expected.
The values obtained were in close comparison to theoretical values. This experimental exercise
deepened my understanding of the operations of a Wien Bridge Oscillator.

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