You are on page 1of 9

MEASUREMENT OF TRANSVERSE

NATURAL FREQUENCIES AND


OBSERVATION OF CORRESPONDING
MODE SHAPES OF CIRCULAR PLATES
EXPERIMENT NO. : 4

Date of
experiment: 19/08/2016
Date of report submission: 23/08/2016

1 : AIM
To measure the transverse natural frequencies corresponding to
different modes of a circular aluminium plate and compare
theoretical and observed values.

2 :APPARATUS

1: Electromagnetic vibration 1.Exciter (Syscon


make)
The shaker table motion is generated due to the movement
of the voice coil placed in a magnetic field.Input to the voice
coil is
given by a
power
amplifier that

amplifies the low powered


dynamic signal given to it.The voice coil is wound on the shaker
head,which is supported on flexure mounts,which sets it into
motion.

2:Test specimen : Circular plate (Material


Aluminum; Diameter=300mm;
Thickness=1.526mm)
It is an aluminium circular plate with a central hole through
which a bolt of the exciter is passed and the plate is thus
centrally clamped using a nut.

3: Signal generator and power amplifier:SI-28


,Make SYSCON
It gives a low powered sinusoidal signal of the desired
amplitude and frequency that is amplified by the power
amplifier and then the amplified signal is input to the voice coil
of the exciter.Any other external signal can also be connected
to the power amplifier.

4: Stroboscope: DIGI STROB (0-18000rpm)


An electronic stroboscope is used as a non-contacting
frequency sensor or tachometer to measure the rpm or
frequency of a rotating or a vibrating object. It consists of a
high intensity Strobe lamp and circuitry which allows the user
to vary the frequency of the electrical pulse signal that
energises the lamp. Rotating or a vibrating body is illuminated
by short light pulses at a known frequency. Due to persistence
of vision when the frequency of the strobe lamp matches with
the vibrating body then the body appears to be stationary .

3 :THEORY
Vibration is defined as a motion which repeats after equal
interval of time and is also a periodic motion. The swinging of a
pendulum is a simple example of vibration. Vibration occurs in
all bodies which are having mass and elasticity.
Types of Vibration:

a) Free vibration:
Free vibration occurs when a mechanical system is set in motion with an
initial input and allowed to vibrate freely. Examples of this type of
vibration are pulling a child back on a swing and letting go, or hitting a

tuning fork and letting it ring. The mechanical system vibrates at one or
more of its natural frequencies and damps down to motionlessness.
b) Forced vibration:

Forced vibration when a time-varying disturbance (load, displacement or


velocity) is applied to a mechanical system. The disturbance can be a periodic
and steady-state input, a transient input, or a random input. Examples of these
types of vibration include a washing machine shaking due to an imbalance,
transportation vibration caused by an engine or uneven road, or the vibration
of a building during an earthquake.
TIME PERIOD

It is the time required for one complete cycle or to and


fro motion. The unit is seconds.
Frequency (f or )
It is the number of cycles per unit time. The unit are
radians/sec. or Hz.

Amplitude (X or A) :
It is the displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium
position. It has units of length in general.

Natural Frequency (fn):


It is the frequency with which a body vibrates when subjected
to an initial external disturbance and allowed to vibrate without
external force being applied subsequently.

Longitudinal, Transverse and Torsional Vibrations


When the motion of mass of the system is parallel to the axis of
the system, we have Longitudinal vibrations.
When the motion of mass is perpendicular to the system axis
the vibrations are Transverse vibrations
When the mass twists and un twists about the axis the
vibrations are Torsional vibrations.

Resonance
When the frequency of vibration equals the natural frequency
of the object resonance occurs and high amplitude vibrations
are observed.
Using the plate theory and appropriate clamping conditions,
the equations obtained for natural frequencies are as follows:

1.65 D
R 2 t

7.2
R2

Where,

D(Plate Modulus)=

Et 3
12(1 2 )

R=Plate radius=150 mm.


=poissons ratio=0.33
E=Youngs modulus =71 GPa =71000MPa
= Density of plate material =2700 kg/m3
t=1.526 mm.

Different mode
circular plate

shapes

of

vibrating

PROCEDURE:
1. Clamp the plate on vibration exciter as shown in
figure.
2. Check whether the knobs regulating the amplitude
and the frequency of excitation on the control unit
are in minimum position before switching on the
control unit.
3. Switch on the system and set the amplitude level
at 0.6 A.
4. The frequency of vibration is selected by a selector
switch.
5. Excite the plate in the frequency range 1-10 Hz, 10100 Hz, 100-1000 Hz using fine adjustment knob.
6. Observe and spot frequencies with high amplitude
of vibration, sudden rise and fall in the amplitude of

vibration and higher generated noise. These


frequencies are the natural frequencies of the
circular plate.
7. Measure the frequencies of vibration using
stroboscope at all observed natural frequencies
8. The measureable frequency for stroboscope is 150
to 18000 rpm which corresponds 2.5 to 300 Hz of
plate vibration.
9. Higher natural frequencies (300 Hz) to be spotted
by physical feel or quality of sound.
10.Note down the readings obtained from the
experiment.

4 :OBSERVATION
4.1 : EXPERIMENTAL READING
MODE
1
MODE
2
1
2

FUNCTION ANALYSER READING


31.8 Hz
STROBOSCOPE
FREQUENCY
100.2Hz
READING
1910 RPM
31.83 Hz
6058 RPM
100.96 Hz

4.4 : SAMPLE CALCULATION


Function Analyser

D(Plate modulus)
=23,594.68mm

Et 3
12(1 2 )

71000 1.526 3
12 (1 0.33 2 )

1.65 23.59
0.152 2700 1.526 10 3

=175.488 rad/s= 27.9 Hz

1.65 23.59
0.152 2700 1.526 10 3

=765.769 rad/s= 121.87 Hz


Error
1stmode=
=3.8Hz

theoretical-practical=|-3.8|

Error
2ndmode=theoretical-practical=|21.67|
=21.67 Hz
% Error 1stmode= 11.9%
% Error 2ndmode= 17.78%
Stroboscope
% Error 1stmode =14.096 %

% Error 2ndmode =17.206 %

6 :CONCLUSION
Percentage error was calculated for both the
observations made directly from function analyser
and by using stroboscope.
The error observed in stroboscope has to be less
since it is providing a hard and fast way of
measuring rather than depending on our hearing
and judging. But observations tell otherwise. This
maybe because of various other reasons such as:
1: Material was assumed to be homogenous and
isotropic which no material is in real world.
2: The thickness of aluminium plate was assumed
to be constant throughout.
3: Human Error
4: Error in the function analyser and stroboscope
readings