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MEASUREMENT OF TRANSVERSE NATURAL

FREQUENCIES AND OBSERVATION OF


CORRESPONDING MODE SHAPES OF CIRCULAR
PLATES
EXPERIMENT NO. : 4

Date of experiment: 19/08/2016

Date of report submission: 23/08/2016

1 : AIM

To measure the transverse natural


natur frequencies corresponding to different
modes of a circular aluminium plate and compare theoretical and observed
values.

2 :APPARATUS

1:

1.Exciter
Exciter (Syscon make)

Electromagnetic vibration

The shaker table motion is generated due to the movement of the voice
coil placed in a magnetic field.Input to the voice coil is given by a power
amplifier that amplifies the low powered dynamic signal given to it.The voice
coil is wound on the shaker head
head,which
,which is supported on flexure mounts,which
sets it into motion.

2:Test
Test specimen : Circular plate (Material Aluminum;
Diameter=300mm; Thickness=1.526mm)

It is an aluminium circular plate with a central hole through which a bolt of


the exciter is passed and the plate is thus centrally clamped using a nut .

3: Signal generator and power amplifier:SI-28 ,Make SYSCON

It gives a low powered sinusoidal signal of the desired amplitude and


frequency that is amplified by the power amplifier and then the amplified
signal is input to the voice coil of the exciter.Any other external signal can also
be connected to the power amplifier.

4: Stroboscope: DIGI STROB (0-18000rpm)

An electronic stroboscope is used as a non-contacting frequency sensor or


tachometer to measure the rpm or frequency of a rotating or a vibrating
object. It consists of a high intensity Strobe lamp and circuitry which allows the
user to vary the frequency of the electrical pulse signal that energises the
lamp. Rotating or a vibrating body is illuminated by short light pulses at a
known frequency. Due to persistence of vision when the frequency of the
strobe lamp matches with the vibrating body then the body appears to be
stationary.

3 :THEORY

Vibration is defined as a motion which repeats after equal interval of time and
is also a periodic motion. The swinging of a pendulum is a simple example
of vibration. Vibration occurs in all bodies which are having mass and elasticity.
Types of Vibration:

a) Free vibration:

Free vibration occurs when a mechanical system is set in motion with an


initial input and allowed to vibrate freely. Examples of this type of
vibration are pulling a child back on a swing and letting go, or hitting a
tuning fork and letting it ring. The mechanical system vibrates at one or
more of its natural frequencies and damps down to motionlessness.
b) Forced vibration:

Forced vibration when a time-varying disturbance (load, displacement or


velocity) is applied to a mechanical system. The disturbance can be a periodic
and steady-state input, a transient input, or a random input. Examples of these

types of vibration include a washing machine shaking due to an imbalance,


transportation vibration caused by an engine or uneven road, or the vibration
of a building during an earthquake.
TIME PERIOD

It is the time required for one complete cycle or to and fro motion.
The unit is seconds.
Frequency (f or )

It is the number of cycles per unit time. The unit are radians/sec. or Hz.

Amplitude (X or A) :

It is the displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium position. It has


units of length in general.

Natural Frequency (fn):

It is the frequency with which a body vibrates when subjected to an initial


external disturbance and allowed to vibrate without external force being
applied subsequently.

Longitudinal, Transverse and Torsional Vibrations

When the motion of mass of the system is parallel to the axis of the system, we
have Longitudinal vibrations.
When the motion of mass is perpendicular to the system axis the vibrations are
Transverse vibrations
When the mass twists and un twists about the axis the vibrations are
Torsional vibrations.

Resonance

When the frequency of vibration equals the natural frequency of the object
resonance occurs and high amplitude vibrations are observed.
Using the plate theory and appropriate clamping conditions, the equations
obtained for natural frequencies are as follows:

1
2

1.65 D
R 2 t
7.2
R2

Where,

Et 3
D(Plate Modulus)=
12(1 2 )

R=Plate radius=150 mm.


=poissons ratio=0.33

E=Youngs modulus =71 GPa =71000MPa

= Density of plate material =2700 kg/m3


t=1.526 mm.

Different mode shapes of vibrating circular plate

PROCEDURE:

1. Clamp the plate on vibration exciter as shown in figure.

2. Check whether the knobs regulating the amplitude and the


frequency of excitation on the control unit are in minimum
position before switching on the control unit.
3. Switch on the system and set the amplitude level at 0.6 A.

4. The frequency of vibration is selected by a selector switch.

5. Excite the plate in the frequency range 1-10 Hz, 10-100 Hz, 1001000 Hz using fine adjustment knob.

6. Observe and spot frequencies with high amplitude of vibration,


sudden rise and fall in the amplitude of vibration and higher
generated noise. These frequencies are the natural frequencies
of the circular plate.
7. Measure the frequencies of vibration using stroboscope at all
observed natural frequencies
8. The measureable frequency for stroboscope is 150 to 18000
rpm which corresponds 2.5 to 300 Hz of plate vibration.

9. Higher natural frequencies (300 Hz) to be spotted by physical


feel or quality of sound.

10.Note down the readings obtained from the experiment.

4 :OBSERVATION

4.1 : EXPERIMENTAL READING

MODE
1
2

FUNCTION ANALYSER READING


31.8 Hz
100.2Hz

MODE
1
2

STROBOSCOPE READING FREQUENCY


1910 RPM
31.83 Hz
6058 RPM
100.96 Hz

4.4 : SAMPLE CALCULATION


Function Analyser

Et 3
71000 1.526 3
D(Plate modulus) = 12(1 2 ) = 12 (1 0.33 2 ) =23,594.68mm

1.65 23.59

0.152 27001.526103

=175.488 rad/s= 27.9 Hz

1 .65 23 .59

0 .15 2 2700 1 .526 10 3

=765.769 rad/s= 121.87 Hz

Error 1stmode= theoretical-practical=|-3.8|=3.8Hz

Error 2ndmode=theoretical-practical=|21.67|=21.67 Hz
% Error 1stmode= 11.9%

% Error 2ndmode= 17.78%


Stroboscope

% Error 1stmode =14.096 %

% Error 2ndmode =17.206 %

6 :CONCLUSION

Percentage error was calculated for both the observations


made directly from function analyser and by using stroboscope.
The error observed in stroboscope has to be less since it is
providing a hard and fast way of measuring rather than
depending on our hearing and judging. But observations tell
otherwise. This maybe because of various other reasons such
as:
1: Material was assumed to be homogenous and isotropic
which no material is in real world.
2: The thickness of aluminium plate was assumed to be
constant throughout.
3: Human Error
4: Error in the function analyser and stroboscope readings