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Voltage and Turn Ratio Test of Transformer

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Transformer Ratio Test


The performance of a transformer largely depends upon perfection of specific turns or voltage
ratio of transformer. So transformer ration test is an essential type test of transformer. The
voltage should be applied only in the high voltage winding in order to avoid unsafe voltage.
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Ratio test of transformer and


check of phase displacement

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Actually the no load voltage ratio of transformer is


equal to the turn ratio. So ratio test of
transformer
Procedure of transformer ration test

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1) First, the tap changer of transformer is kept in


the lowest position and LV terminals are kept
open.
2) Then apply 3-phase 415 V supply on HV
terminals. Measure the voltages applied on each
phase (Phase-Phase) on HV and induced
voltages at LV terminals simultaneously.
3) After measuring the voltages at HV and LV
terminals, the tap changer of transformer should
be raised by one position and repeat test.
4) Repeat the same for each of the tap position
separately.
The above transformer ratio test can also be
performed by portable Transformer Turns Ratio
(TTR) Meter. They have an in built power supply,
with the voltages commonly used being very low,
such as 8-10 V and 50 Hz. The HV and LV
windings of one phase of a transformer are
connected to the instrument, and the internal
bridge elements are varied to produce a null
indication on the detector.
Let's have a discussion on Transformer Turns
Ratio (TTR) Meter method of turn ratio test of
transformer
A phase voltage is applied to the one of the
windings by means of a bridge circuit and the
ratio of induced voltage is measured at the
bridge. The accuracy of the measuring
instrument is < 0.1 %

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6/28/2014 4:35:50 PM

Voltage and Turn Ratio Test of Transformer

Theoretical turn ratio =

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HV winding voltage
LV winding voltage

This theoretical turn ratio is adjusted on the transformer turn ratio tested or TTR by the adjustable
transformer as shown in the figure above and it should be changed until a balance occurs in the
percentage error indicator. The reading on this indicator implies the deviaton of measured turn
ratio from expected turn ratio in percentage.
Deviation in percentage =

Measured turn ratio - expected turn ratio


X 100 %
Expected turn ratio

Out-of-tolerance, ratio test of transformer can be due to shorted turns, especially if there is an
associated high excitation current. Open turns in HV winding will indicate very low exciting current
and no output voltage since open turns in HV winding causes no excitation current in the winding
means no flux hence no induced voltage. But open turn in LV winding causes, low fluctuating LV
voltage but normal excitation current in HV winding. Hence open turns in LV winding will be
indicated by normal levels of exciting current, but very low levels of unstable output voltage. The
turn ratio test of transformer also detects high resistance connections in the lead circuitry or
high contact resistance in tap changers by higher excitation current and a difficulty in balancing
the bridge.
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