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6

Chapter Six

Advertising Design
Theoretical Frameworks
and Types of Appeals
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Ecko Enterprises

Urban Apparel
Ecko Enterprises 1993
G-Unit Clothing Company
Zoo York label
Complex Magazine
Advertising in hip hop
magazines

Discussion Slide
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Advertising Design:
Theoretical Frameworks and
Types of Appeals

Chapter Overview
Advertising design
Hierarchy of effects model
Means-end theory
Visual and verbal imaging

Advertising appeals

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FIGURE

6.1

Creative Brief

The objective
The target audience
The message theme
The support
The constraints
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Hierarchy of Effects Model


Cognitive
Awareness
Affective
Knowledge
Conative
Liking

Preference
Conviction
Purchase
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Means-End Chain
Product
Attributes

Executional Framework

Leverage
Point

Consumer
Benefits
Personal
Value

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FIGURE

6.2

Personal Values

Comfortable life
Equality
Excitement
Freedom
Fun, exciting life
Happiness
Inner peace
Mature love
Personal accomplishment

Pleasure
Salvation
Security
Self-fulfillment
Self-respect
Sense of belonging
Social acceptance
Wisdom

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FIGURE

6.3

Means-End Chain for Milk

Attributes

Benefits

Low fat

Healthy

Calcium
Ingredients
Vitamins

Personal Values

Self-respect
Wisdom
Healthy bones Comfortable life
Wisdom
Good taste
Pleasure
Happiness
Enhanced
Excitement
sexual ability Fun
Pleasure
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FIGURE

6. 4

B-to-B Means-End Chain for Greenfield Online

Attributes

Benefits

Internet

Robust samples Job security

Speed

Quicker results Self-fulfillment

Expertise

Actionable
information
Reliability

Experience

Personal Values

Wisdom
Social acceptance
Job security

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Verbal and Visual Elements


Balance
Visual processing
Easier to recall
Stored both as pictures
and words
Concrete vs. abstract

Radio visual imagery


Visual esperanto
B-to-B advertisements

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F I G U R E 6. 5
Types of Appeals

Fear
Humor
Sex
Music
Rationality
Emotions
Scarcity
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FIGURE

6.6

Behavioral Response Model

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Fear Appeal
A television advertisement by
the Connecticut Department
of Health using a fear appeal.
Click picture to play video

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Fear
Appeal
What level of fear
is appropriate?

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Humor Appeal
Used in 30% of all ads.
Should be related
directly to customer
benefit.

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F I G U R E 6. 7
Reasons for Using Humor in Ads

Captures attention
Holds attention
Often wins creative awards
High recall scores
Consumers enjoy funny ads
Evaluated as likeable ads
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F I G U R E 6. 8
Sexuality Approaches

Subliminal techniques
Sensuality
Sexual suggestiveness
Nudity or partial nudity
Overt sexuality

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Sex Appeal
Breaks through clutter
Use has increased
Not as effective as in
the past
Advertisers shifting to
more subtle sexual
cues.

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Sex Appeal
Subliminal Approaches

Sex cues or icons placed in ads


Goal is to affect subconscious
Not effective
Ad clutter requires stronger ads to get
attention

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Sex Appeal
Sensuality
Women respond to sensuality approach
Viewed as more sophisticated
Relies on imagination
Requires greater mental processing

Can be more enticing than raw sexuality

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This Finnish ad,


promoting tourism to
Helsinki, stays away
from overt sexuality.
Instead, it focuses on a
more sensual approach.

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Sex Appeal
Sexual Suggestiveness

Suggests sexual themes or nudity


Clairol Yes, yes, yes campaign
Gay and lesbian themes
Encourages use of imagination
Requires greater mental processing

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Sex Appeal
Nudity or Partial Nudity
Used for wide variety of products
Attract attention
Not always designed to solicit
sexual response
Underwear commercials

Decorative models

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FIGURE

6.9

Factors to Consider Before Using Decorative Models

Improves ad recognition, not brand recognition.


Influences emotional and objective evaluations.
Produces higher purchase intentions when the
product is sexually relevant.
Attractive models produce a higher level of
attention than less attractive models.

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Sex Appeal
Overt Sexuality

Acceptable for sexually-oriented products


Used to break through ad clutter
Often used for a shock effect
Danger of being offensive

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Are Sex Appeals Effective?


Research Results:
Sex and nudity do increase attention.
Rated as being more interesting.
Often leads to strong feelings about the ad.
Brand recall is lower.
Often interferes with message comprehension.
May impact feelings toward the brand
Shift in attitude towards over time
Liberal (Okay)

Conservative (Not Okay)

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Sex Appeals in International Advertising


Varies across countries
Determined by religions, culture, and
value systems
Moslem countries
Middle eastern countries
European countries
France

United States
Chile

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Disadvantages of Sex Appeals

Less influence today


Reduces brand recall
Affects comprehension
Creates dissatisfaction
with ones body
Females
Males

Stereotyping of females

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Music Appeals
Has intrusive value.
Gains attention and increases the retention of visual
information.
Can increase persuasiveness of an advertisement.
Design Questions:

What role will music play?


Will a familiar song be used or new song created?
What emotional feeling should song solicit?
How does the music fit with the message of the ad?

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Music Appeal
The TV advertisement
for Matts uses a
musical appeal with a
jingle written
specifically for the ad.

Click here to play video.

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10 Songs Most Likely to Get


Stuck in Your Head
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

Chilis (Baby Back Ribs)


Who Let the Dogs Out?
We Will Rock You
Gimme a Break, Kit Kat bar jingle
Theme from Mission Impossible
YMCA
Whoomp! There It Is
The Lion Sleeps Tonight
Its a Small World After All
Macarena (Bayside Boys Mix)

10 Songs Most Likely to Get Stuck in Your Head, Advertising Age, Vol. 75, No. 21
(December 20, 2004), p. 12.
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Rational Appeals

Based on hierarchy of effects model.


Print media is well suited for rational appeals.
Used by business-to-business advertisers.
Well suited for complex and high involvement
products.

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Emotional Appeals
Based on three ideas:
Consumers ignore most ads.
Rational ads go unnoticed.
Emotional ads can capture attention.

Creatives believe emotional appeals are the


key to developing brand loyalty.
Effie Awards humor and emotions
B-to-B advertisements using more
emotional appeals.
Works well when tied with other appeals.
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FIGURE

6 . 12

Emotions Used in Advertisements

Trust
Reliability
Friendship
Happiness
Security
Glamour/luxury
Serenity
Anger
Protecting loved ones
Romance
Passion
Family Bonds
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Emotional
Appeal
This ad by
iparty.com is
designed to invoke
emotional feelings.

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Scarcity Appeals
Based on limited supply.
Based on limited time to purchase.
Often tied with promotion tools such
as contests, sweepstakes, and
coupons.
Encourages customers to take action.

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Scarcity Appeals
An ad by Diamond
Security using a
scarcity appeal.

Click picture to play video

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Best Ads
76% used humor
67% used emotions
5% used rational

Super Bowl
Appeals

Worst Ads
26% used humor
33% used humor
94.9% used rational

Festive Occasion
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Structure of an Advertisement

Headline
Subheadline
Promise of a benefit
Amplification
Proof of claim
Action to take
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