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Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.

FORCE AND MOTION

2.1

ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION

Distance and displacement


1.

2.

Types of physical quantity:


(i)

Scalar quantity: .

(ii)

Vector quantity:

The difference between distance and displacement:


(i)

Distance:

(ii)

Displacement:

3.

Distance always longer than displacement.

4.

Example:

The following diagram shows the location of Johor Bahru and Desaru.
You can travel by car using existing road via Kota Tinggi, or travel by a
small plane along straight path.
Calculate how far it is from Johor Bahru to Desaru if you traveled by:
a. The car
b. The plane

Kota Tinggi
53 km

41 km

Solution:

Johor Bahru

60 km

Desaru

Hands-on Activity 2.2 pg 10 of the practical book.


Idea of distance and displacement, speed and velocity.
Speed and velocity
1.

Speed is ..

2.

Velocity is: .....

3.

Average of speed:

4.

Average of velocity: ...

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

5.

Example:
An aeroplane flies from A to B, which is located 300 km east of A. Upon reaching B, the
aeroplane then flies to C, which is located 400 km north. The total time of flight is 4
hours. Calculate
i.
The speed of the aeroplane
ii.
The velocity of the aeroplane
Solution:

Acceleration and deceleration


1.

Study the phenomenon below;

0 m s-1

20 m s-1

40 m s-1

Observation:
2.
3.

Acceleration is, .
Or, a v u
Then, a =
t
Example of acceleration;
t=2s
t=2s
A

0 m s-1

40 m s-1

20 m s-1
2

20 0
2
= 10 m s-2

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Calculate the acceleration of car;

4.

i)

from A to B

ii)

From B to C

Deceleration happens ...

5.

Example of deceleration;
A lorry is moving at 30 m s-1, when suddenly the driver steps on the brakes and it stop 5
seconds later. Calculate the deceleration of lorry.

Analysing of motion
1.

Linear motion can be studied in the laboratory using a ticker timer and a ticker tape.
Refer text book photo picture 2.4 page 26.
(i)

Determination of time:

(ii)

Determination of displacement as the length of ticker tape over a period of time.

x
(iii)

.y

Determine the type of motion;

. . . .
. . . .
..
. . . . . .
.
.
......
. . .
.
. . . .
...

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

(iv)

Determination of velocity

displacement =
Velocity, v
(v)

time = ..

Determine the acceleration


Length/cm
v

8
7
6
5
4
3

2
1
0

ticks

The equation of motion


1.

The important symbols : ..

2.

The list of important formula;

3.

Example 1 : A car traveling with a velocity of 10 m s-1 accelerates uniformly at a rate of 3


m s-2 for 20 s. Calculate the displacement of the car while it is accelerating.

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Example 2 : A van that is traveling with velocity 16 m s-1 decelerates until it comes to rest.
If the distance traveled is 8 m, calculate the deceleration of the van.

Execise 2.1
1.

Length / cm
Figure 2.1 shows a tape chart
consisting of 5-tick strip. Describe
16
the motion represented by AB and BC.
In each case, determine the ;
12
(a)

displacement

(b)

average velocity

8
4
0

(c)

2.

Figure 2.1
A
B

C Time/s

acceleration

A car moving with constant velocity of 40 ms-1 . The driver saw and obtacle in front and
he immediately stepped on the brake pedal and managed to stop the car in 8 s. The
distance of the obstacle from the car when the driver spotted it was 180 m. How far is the
obstacles from the car has sttoped.

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.2

0m
0s

ANALYSING MOTION GRAPHS

100m
10s

200m
20s

300m
30s

400m
40s

500m
50s

displacement
time

The data of the motion of the car can be presented.


The displacement-time Graph
a)

displacement (m)

Graph analysis:

time (s)
b)

displacement (m)

...
Graph analysis:
..

time (s)
c)

displacement (m)

.
Graph analysis:
.

time (s)
d)

Displacement (m)

..
Graph analysis:
.
..

time (s)

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

e)

displacement (m)

Graph analysis:
..
..
..

time (s)
..
f) displacement (m)
A

Graph analysis:
B

..
..

C time (s)

The velocity-time Graph


v/ m s-1

a)

Graph analysis:
..
..

t /s

v/ m s-1

b)

Graph analysis:
....

c)

t /s

v (m s-1)

Graph analysis:
...

t1

t2

t (s)

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

v (m s-1)

d)

Graph analysis:
.......
..

t (s)

....

v (m s-1)

e)

Graph analysis:
......
.

..

t (s)

Examples
1.

s/m

Calculate:(i) Velocity over OP, QR and RS


(ii) Displacement

Solution :

t/s

2.

v/m s-1

Calculate:(i) acceleration,a over OP, PQ and QR


(ii) Displacement

10
P

Solution :

10

t/s

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Excercise 2.2
1.

(a) s/m

(b) s/m

(c)

s/m

10
t/s

-5

4 t/s

t/s

-10
Figure 2.21

Describe and interpret the motion of a body which is represented by the displacement
time graphs in Figure 2.21

2.

Describe and interpret the motion of body which is represented by the velocity-time
graphs shown in figure 2.22. In each case, find the distance covered by the body and its
displacement
(a)

v/m s-1

(b)

v/m s-1
10

t/s
-5

0
-10
Figure 2.22

t/s

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.3

UNDERSTANDING INERTIA

Idea of inertia
1.

2.

3.

Hand-on activity 2.5 in page 18 of the practical book to gain an idea of inertia

4.

Meaning of inertia :
...

Mass and inertia


1.

2.

Refer to figure 2.14 of the text book, the child and an adult are given a push to swing.
(i)

which one of them will be more difficult to be moved ...

(ii)

which one of them will be more difficult to stop? .

The relationship between mass and inertia : .


..

3.

The larger mass .

Effects of inertia
1.

2.

Positive effect :
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Negative effect : .
(i)

...

..
(ii)

(iii)

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

(iv)

Execise 2.3
1.

What is inertia? Does 2 kg rock have twice the inertia of 1 kg rock?

2.

Figure 2,3
A wooden dowel is fitted in a hole through a wooden block as shown in figure 2.31.
Explain what happen when we
(a)

strike the top of the dowel with a hammer,

(b)

hit the end of the dowel on the floor.

2.4

ANALYSING MOMENTUM

Idea of momentum
1.

When an object ic moving, ...

2.

The amount of momentum ...

3.

Momentum is defined.

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Conservation of momentum
mg

mb

vg = 0

vb

(mb + mg)
Starting position before
she catches the ball

vb&g

Receiving a massive ball

vb

vg

mb

Throwing a massive ball

mg

Starting position
before she throws
the ball

The principle of conservation of momentum :

1.

Elastic collision ...


u1
m1

v2

u2
m1

m2

12

m2

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Before collision
2.

after collision

Inelastic collision :...


u1
v

u2 = 0
m2

m1

m1 + m2

Before collision
3.

explosion :

after collision

........
v1

(m1 + m2), u = 0

Before explosion

v2
m2

after explosion

Example 1 :

Car A

Car B

Car A of mass 100 kg traveling at 30 m s-1 collides with Car B of mass 90 kg traveling at
m s-1 in front of it. Car A and B move separately after collision. If Car A is still moving at
s-1 after collision, determine the velocity of Car B after collision.

20
25 m

Solution :

Example 2 :
Car A of mass 100 kg traveling at 30 m s-1 collides with Car B of mass 90 kg traveling at
20
-1
m s in front of it. Car A is pulled by Car B after collision. Determine the common velocity of
Car A and B after collision.
Solution :
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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Example 3 :
A bullet of mass 2 g is shot from a gun of mass 1 kg with a velocity of 150 m s-1 . Calculate the
velocity of the recoil of the gun after firing.
Solution :

Exercise 2.4
1.

An arrow of mass 150 g is shot into a wooden block of mass 450 g lying at rest on a
smooth surface. At the moment of impact, the arrow is travelling horizontally at 15 ms-1.
Calculate the common velocity after the impact.

2.

A riffle of mass 5.0 kg fires a bullet of mass 50 g with a velocity of 80 m s-1 .Calculate the
recoil velocity. Explain why the recoil velocity of a riflle is much less than the velocity of
the bullet.

2.5

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECT OF A FORCE

Idea of force
1.

What will happen when force act to an object?

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Idea of balanced forces


1.

An object is said to be in balance when it is:

2.

Stationary object

explanation :

Stationary object

...

3.

An object moving with uniform velocity


..
...

explanation :
..

..
..

...

..
..
Idea of unbalanced forces
1.

A body is said to be in unbalanced..

2.

..

Explanation;

..

Relationship between forces, mass and acceleration (F = ma)


Experiment 2.2 page 29.

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Aim : To investigate the relationship between acceleration and force applied on a constant mass.
Experiment 2.3 page 31
Aim: To investigate the relationship between mass and acceleration of an object under
constant force.
1.
Refer to the result of experiment 2.2 and 2.3,

2.

1 newton (F = 1 N) is defined as the force required to produce an acceleration of 1 m s-2


(a=1 m s-2) when its acting on an object of mass 1 kg ( m = 1 kg)
So,

3.

Example 1 :

Calculate F, when a = 3 m s-2 dan m = 1000 kg

Example 2 :
m = 25 kg
F = 200 N

Calculate the acceleration, a of an object.

Exercise 2.5
1.

A trolley of mass 30 kg is pulled along the ground by horizontal force of 50 N. The


opposing frictional force is 20 N. Calculate the acceleration of the trolley.

2.

A 1000 kg car is travelling at 72 km h-1 when the brakes are applied. It comes to a stop in
a distance of 40 m. What is the average braking force of the car?

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.6

ANALYSING IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE

Impulse and impulsive force


1.

Impulse is .

2.

Impulsive force is

3.

Formula of impulse and impulsive force:


Refer, F = ma

Example 1;

wall
If ; u = 10 m s-1 , v = - 10 m s-1 , m = 5 kg
Impulse, Ft =

Example 2;

and t = 1 s

and impulsive force, F =

Wall with a soft surface


If ; u = 10 m s-1 , v = - 10 m s-1 , m = 5 kg
Impulse, Ft =

and t = 2 s

and impulsive force, F =

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

4.

The relationship between time of collision and impulsive force.

Exercise 2.6
1.

A force of 20 N is applied for 0.8 s when a football player throws a ball from the sideline.
What is the impulse given to the ball?

2.

A stuntman in a movie jumps from a tall building an falls toward the ground. A large
canvas bag filled with air used to break his fall. How is the impulsive force reduced?

2.7 BEING AWARE OF THE NEED FOR SAFETY FEATURES IN VEHICLES

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Safety features in vehicles

Reinforced passenger compartment


Head rest

Crash resistant door


pillars

Windscreen
Crumple zones

Anti-lock brake
system (ABS)
Traction control

bumpers

Air bags

Importance of safety features in vehicles


Safety features

Importance

Padded dashboard

Increases the time interval of collision so the impulsive force


produced during an impact is thereby reduced

Rubber bumper

Absorb impact in minor accidents, thus prevents damage to the car.

Shatter-proof windscreen

Prevents the windscreen from shattering

Air bag
Safety seat belt

Side bar in doors

Acts as a cushion for the head and body in an accident and thus
prevents injuries to the driver and passengers.
Prevents the passengers from being thrown out of the car. Slows
down the forward movement of the passengers when the car stops
abruptly.
Prevents the collapse of the front and back of the car into the
passenger compartment. Also gives good protection from a side-on
collision.

Exercise 2.7
1.

By using physics concepts, explain the midifications to the bus that help to improve that
safety of passengers and will be more comfortable.

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.8

UNDERSTANDING GRAVITY

Carry out hands-on activity 2.8 on page 35 of the practical book.


Acceleration due to gravity.
1.

An object will fall to the surface of the earth because...

2.

The force of gravity also known ...

3.

When an object falls under the force of gravity only, ...

4.

The acceleration of objects falling freely

5.

The magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity depends ...

Gravitational field
1.

The region around the earth is .

2.

The object in gravitational field

3.

The gravitational field strength is defined ..

4.

The gravitational field strength, g can be calculate as;

5.

At the surface of the earth, .


..

6.

This means
..
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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

7.

Example 1.
Can you estimate the gravitational force act to your body?
mass = 60 kg, g = 9.8 N kg-1, F = ?

Example 2,
A satellite of mass 600 kg in orbit experiences a gravitational force of 4800 N. Calculate
the gravitational field strength.

Example 3,
A stone is released from rest and falls into a well. After 1.2 s, it hits the bottom of the
well.
(a) What is the velocity of the stone when it hits the bottom?
(b) Calculate the depth of the well.

Weight
1.

The weight of an object is defined ..

2.

For an object of mass m, the weight can be calculate as :

Example :

The mass of a helicopter is 600 kg. What is the weight of the helicopter
when it land on the peak of a mountain where the gravitational field is
9.78 N kg-1?

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Exercise 2.8
1.

Sketch the following graphs for an object that falling freely.


(a)
(b)
(c)

Displacement-time graph,
Velocity-time graph
Acceleration-time graph

2.

The following data was obtained from an experiment to measure the acceleration due to
gravity.
Mass of steel bob = 200 g, distance covered = 3.0 m, time of fall = 0.79 s.
Calculate the acceleration due to gravity of steel bob.
Give the explanation why your answer different with the constant of gravitational
acceleration, g = 9.8 m s-2.

2.9

IDEA OF EQUILIBRIUM FORCES

An object is in equilibrium when :


1.

2.

stationary object

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

An object moving with uniform velocity

Addition of Force
1.

Addition of force is defined as

.....

Examples : the forces are acting in one direction


F1 = 10 N
F2 = 5 N
Resultant force, F
Example : the forces are acting in opposite directions
F1 = 10 N
F2 = 5 N
Resultant force, F
Example : the forces are acting in different directions
F2 = 5 N
500

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

F1 = 10 N

Parallelogram method:
1.

Draw to scale.

2.

Draw the line parallel with F1 to the edge of F2, and the line parallel with F2 to the
edge of F1

3.

Connect the diagonal of the parallelogram starting from the initial point.

4.

Measure the length of the diagonal from the initial point as the value of the
resultant force.
F2

F1
Triangle method
1.

Draw to scale.

2.

Displace one of the forces to the edge of another force.

3.

Complete the triangle and measure the resultant force from the initial
point.

Example 1:

During Sport Day two teams in tug of war competition pull with forces of
6000 N and 5300 N respectively. What is the value of the resultant force?
Are the two team in equilibrium?

Example 2:

A boat in a river is pulled horizontally by two workmen. Workmen A

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

pulls with a force of 200 N while workmen while workmen B pulls with a
force of 300 N. The ropes used make an angle 250 with each other. Draw a
parallelogram and label the resultant force using scale of

1 cm : 50 N.

Determine the magnitude of resultant force.

Resolution of a force
1.

Resolution of a force is

Refer to trigonometric formula:

Example :

The figure below shows Ali mopping the floor with a force 50 N
at an angle of 600 to the floor.

F = 50 N

25

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Example of resolution and combination of forces


F=?

200 N
400

Problem solving
1.

When a system is in equilibrium, .

2.

If all forces acting at one point are resolved into horizontal and vertical
components,

3.

Example 1; Show on a figure;

700

a)T

a) the direction of tension force, T of string


b) the resultant force act to lamp
c) calculate the magnitude of tension force, T

700

b) T

mlamp = 1.5 kg
Wlamp = 14.7 N
Exercise 2.9
1.

Two force with magnitude 18 N and 6 N act along a straight line. With the aid of
diagrams, determine the maximun possible value and the minimum possible value of the
resultant force.

26

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2.

A football is kicked simultaneously by two players with force 220 N and 200 N
respectively, as shown in Figure 2.9. Calculate the magnitude of the resultant force.

220 N
900
200 N

2.10

UNDERSTANDING WORK, ENERGY AND EFFICIENCY

Work
1.

Work is done, ..

2.

WORK is the product..

3.

The formulae of work;

4.

Example 1;

Force, F
s

Example 2;

27

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

80 N
600
s= 5m

Example 3;

Example 4;
F = 600 N

S = 0.8 m
Energy
1.

Energy is .................................................................................................................

2.

Energy cannot be ....................................................................................................


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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

3.

Exist in various forms such as ...

4.

Example of the energy transformation;

5.

Example :

Work done and the change in kinetic energy


Force, F

s
1.

Kinetic energy is

2.

Refer to the figure above,


Through, v2 = u2 +2as
u=0
and, as = v2

3.

Example 1;

A small car of mass 100 kg is moving along a flat road. The


resultant force on the car is 200 N.
a) What is its kinetic energy of the car after moving through 10 m?
b) What is its velocity after moving through 10 m?

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Work done and gravitational potential energy

h = 1.5 m
1.

Gravitational potential energy is...

2.

Refer to the figure above;

3.

Example; If m = 10 kg

Principle of conservation of energy


Carry out hands-on activity 2.10 on page 38 of the practical book.
To show the principle of conservation of energy.
1.

Energy cannot be

2.

Example : a thrown ball upwards will achieve a maximum height before changing its
direction and falls

3.

Example in calculation : A coconut falls from a tree from a height of 20 m. What is the
velocity of coconut just before hitting the earth?

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Power
1.

Power is

2.

A weightlifter lifts 180 kg of weights from the floor to a height of 2 m above his head in a
time of 0.8 s. What is the power generated by the weightlifter during this time?
g = 9.8 ms-2)

Efficiency
1.

Defined...

2.

Formulae of efficiency :

3.

Analogy of efficiency;

Energy transformation
4.

Example; An electric motor in a toy crane can lift a 0.12 kg weight through a height of
0.4 m in 5 s. During this time, the batteries supply 0.8 J of energy to the motor. Calculate
(a) The useful of output of the motor.
(b) The efficiency of the motor

31

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Carry out hands-on activity 2.11 on page 39 of the practical book to measure the power.

Exercise 2.10
1.

What is the work done by a man when he pushes a box with a force of 90 N through a
distance of 10 m? State the amount of energy transferred from the man to the force.

2.

A sales assistant at a shop transfers 50 tins of milk powder from the floor to the top shelf.
Each tin has a mass of 3.0 kg and the height of thee top shelf is 1.5 m.

2.11

(a)

Calculate the total work done by the sales assistant.

(b)

What is his power if he completes this work in 250 s?

APPRECIATING THE IMPORTANCE OF MAXIMISING THE EFFICIENCY OF


DEVICES

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

1.

During the process of transformation the input energy to the useful output energy,
..

2.

...

3.

Example of wasting the energy;


..
Input enegy
from the petrol

output
energy

. .
....

.. .. .

....

. . .

4.

The world we are living in face acute shortage of energy.

5.

It is very important that a device makes

Ways of increasing the efficiency of devices


1.

Heat engines ..

2.

Electrical devices. ......

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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Operation of electrical devices


1.

The electrical devices increase the efficiency.

2.

Proper management .....

3.

..

2.12

UNDERSTANDING ELASTICITY

Carry out Hands-on activity 2.12 page 40 of the practical book.


1.

Elasticity is ...

2.

Forces between atoms ..

3.

Forces between atoms in equilibrium condition


Force of attraction
Force of repulsion

Force of repulsion

Explanation :

4.

Forces between atoms in compression


compressive force

compressive force
Force of repulsion

Force of repulsion
Explanation ;

34

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

5.

Forces between atoms in tension


force of attraction

stretching force

stretching force

Explanation ;

Carry out Experiment 2.4 on page 41 of the practical book


To investigate the relationship between force and extension of a spring
Hookes Law
1.

Hookes Law states

2.

Elastic limit of a spring is defined.

3.

The spring is said to have a permanent extension,...

4.

The elastic limit is not exceeded,.

5.

Graf F against x
F/ N
E

35
0 R

x (cm)

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

6.

Spring Constant, k
F/N
0.8

0
Example 1;

x/cm

A spring has an original length of 15 cm. With a load of mass 200 g


attached, the length of the spring is extend to 20 cm.
a.
Calculate the spring constant.
b.
What is the length of the spring when the load is in increased
by 150 g? [assume that g = 10 N kg-1]

Example 2;

The graph shows the relationship between the


stretching force, F and the spring extension, x.
(a) Calculate the spring constant of P and Q.
(b) Using the graph, determine the
stretching force acts to spring P and
spring Q, when their extension are 0.5 cm

Graph F against x of
F (N)
spring P and spring Q
8

7
6
Q

5
4
3
2
1
0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

x (cm)
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Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Elastic potential energy


1.

Elastic potential energy ..


spring with the original length
F compression
x

spring compressed
F

x = compression

x
x

spring extended
x = extension

F, extension

Other situation where the spring extended


and compressed
Relationship between work and elastic potential energy
F/N

Graph F against x

F
x

x / cm

Example ;

5 kg

15 cm

8 cm

Factors that effect elasticity


Hands-on activity 2.13 on page 42 the practical book to investigate the factors that affect
elasticity.

Type of material
different
Diameter of spring wire
same
Diameter of spring
same
Length of spring
same
Summarise the four factors that affect elasticity
37

same
different
same
Same

same
same
different
same

same
same
same
different

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Factor
Length
Diameter of spring
Diameter of spring wire
Type of material

Change in factor
Effect on elasticity
Shorter spring
Less elastic
Longer spring
More elastic
Smaller diameter
Less elastic
Larger diameter
More elastic
Smaller diameter
More elastic
Larger diameter
Less elastic
the elasticity changes with the type of materials

Exercise 2.12
1.

A 6 N force on a spring produces an extension of 2 cm. What is the extension when the
force is increased to 18 N? State any assumption you made in calculating your answer.

2.

If a 20 N force extends a spring from 5 cm to 9 cm,


(a)
what is the force constant of the spring?

(b)

Calculate the elastic potential energy stored in the spring.

38

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Reinforcement Chapter 2
Part A : Objective Questions
1.

When a coconut is falling to the


ground, which of the following
quantities is constant?
A.
B.
C.
D.

2.

3.

5.

In an inelastic collision, which of the


following quantities remains
constant before and after the
collision?
A.
Total acceleration
B.
Total velocity
C.
Total momentum
D.
Total kinetic energy
Calculate the weight of a stone with
mass 60 g on the surface of the
moon.
(The gravitational acceleration of the
moon is 1/6 that of the Earth.)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

4.

Velocity
Momentum
Acceleration
Kinetic energy

A.
mass and acceleration
B.
weight and force
C.
mass and velocity
Which of the following diagrams
shows a body moving at constant
velocity?

6.

A.

2N

2N

B.

12 N

7N

C.

12 N

14 N

D.

20 N

17 N

The graph below shows the motion


of a trolley with mass 1.5 kg.
Velocity / ms-1
4

0.1 N
0.2 N
0.4 N
0.6 N
0.8 N

0
2
4
6 Time / s
Calculate the momentum of the
trolley from t = 2s to t = 4s.
A.
B.
C.

The momentum of a particle is


dependent on

39

1.5 kg m s-1
3.0 kg m s-1
4.0 kg m s-1

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

D.
E.
7.

6.0 kg m s-1
7.5 kg m s-1

Solution :

This figure shows an aircraft flying


Lift
in the air.
Thrust

Air friction

9.

Weight
The aircraft above accelerates if
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Lift Weight
Thrust Lift
Lift Air friction
Thrust Air friction
m = 0.3 kg

10.

5m
What is the momentum of the stone
just before it hits the ground?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

A big ship will keep moving for some


distance when its engine is turned off.
This situation happens because the ship
has
great inertia
great acceleration
great momentum
great kinetic energy
An iron ball is dropped at a height of
10 m from the surface of the moon.
Calculate the time needed for the
iron ball to land.
(Gravitational acceleration of the
moon is 1/6 that of the Earth and
g = 9.8 N kg-2)
A
B
C
D
E

0.15 kg m s-1
0.3 kg m s-1
1.5 kg m s-1
3.0 kg m s-1
15.0 kg m s-1

0.6 s
1.4 s
1.7 s
3.5 s
12.0 s

Part B : Structure Questions


1.

(i) Car A

(ii) Car B

Diagram 1.1
Diagram 1.1(i) and (ii) show two methods used by the mechanic to move a breakdown
car. A constant force, F = 500 N is used to push and pull the car in method A and B.
(a)
(i)
Which method is easier to move the car?
40

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

(ii)

State a reason for your answer in (a)(i).

(b)

(c)

The frictional force acting between the car and track surface in both methods is
200 N. Calculate, the
(i)
horizontal resultant force in method A.

(ii)

horizontal resultant force in method B.

(iii)

acceleration of the car in method B.

Suggest a method to move Car B so that the acceleration produced is equal to that
of method A.
....

2.

ceiling

Tin

water
P

Q
(i)

a)

hand

Diagram 2.1

(ii)

Diagram 2.1(i) shows tin P that is empty and tin Q that is filled with water. A
student find difficult to pushed tin Q. Write the inference about the observation.

41

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

b)

Diagram 2.1(ii) shows a tin being released from the different positions M and N.
The hand of a student at position R needs greater force to stop the motion of the
tin falling from position M. Explain this observation.

c)

Based on the observation (i) and (ii), state two factors that affect the magnitude of
the momentum of the object.

d)

If water flows out from a hole at the bottom of the tin Q, how would the inertia of
Tin Q depends on time ?

2 ms-1

3.
P

iron ball ( 2 kg )
S
3.0 m

smooth surface
1.0 m
Q

2.0 m

R
Rough surface

Diagram 3

The figure shows a iron ball that is rolled through PQRST. The rough surface of QR has
frictional force of 4 N.
a)
Calculate
(i)
the kinetic energy of the iron ball at P.

b)
c)

(ii)

the potential energy of the iron ball at P.

(iii)

the total of energy of the iron ball at P.

(i)

Calculate the total of energy of the iron ball when it reaches at Q ?

(ii)

Calculate the work done against friction along QR.

42

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

d)

Calculate the total kinetic energy of the iron ball at S.

e)

Calculate the speed of the ball at position T.

Part C : Essay Questions


1.

(i)

(ii)

Diagram 1.1
Diagram 1.1(i) shows the condition of a car moving at high velocity when it suddenly
crashes into a wall.
Diagram 1.1(ii) shows a tennis ball hit with racquet by a player.
a)
(i)
What is the meaning of momentum?
(ii)

b)
c)

Based on the observations of Diagram (i) and (ii), compare the


characteristics of car when it crashes into the wall and the tennis ball when
it is hit with a racquet. Hence, relate these characteristics to clarify a
physics concept, and name this concept.
Explain why a tennis player uses a taut racquet when playing.
In launching a rocket, a few technical problems have to be overcome before the
rocket can move upright to the sky. By using appropriate physics concepts,
describe the design of a rocket and the launch techniques that can launch the
rocket upright.

Answer
a)
car hit the wall.
- The impulsive force will decrease when the time of collision increased.
- The concept is the impulsive force.
b)

- To decrease the time of collision between the ball and the racquet string.
43

Physics Module Form 4


Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

- Impulsive force will be increased.


- The force act to the ball will be increased.
- The velocity of ball w

2.

Properties
Brand

A
B
C
D

Reaction time / s

Mass / kg

0.3
0.5
0.2
0.6

1.5
1.8
0.9
2.5

Engine thrust
force / N
10.0
12.5
6.5
16.0

Resistance
force / N
4.0
2.4
2.2
6.5

In a radio-controlled car racing competition, 4 mini-cars branded A, B, C and D took part.


The information of the 4 cars is given in the table above. Details of the above information
are given as below;
Reaction time - Duration between the moment the radio-controlled is switched on and
the moment the car starts moving.
Resistance
- Average value of opposing forces includes the friction between
wheels and track, and air resistance.
(a)
What is the meaning of acceleration?
(b)
Draw a graph of velocity against time that shows a car moving initially with
constant acceleration, then moving with constant velocity and followed by
constant deceleration until it stops.
(c)
Explain the suitability of the properties in the above table in constructing a radiocontrolled car racing purpose. Hence, determine which brand of car will win the
50-metre race.
(c)
If Car B in the above table is moved up the plane at the angle of 30o to the
horizon,
(i)
Show that the car is able to move up the plane.
(ii)
Determine the acceleration of the car.

44