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You are on page 1of 76

URABNCONCEPT CAR

BODY FOR THE SHELL ECO-MARATHON WITH

LESS COEFFICIENT OF DRAG

A Thesis Proposal

Presented to the

School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Mapua Institute of Technology

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering

By:

Da Silva, Elisario M.

2009108764

Diwa II, Jose S.

2009151238

Pimentel, Marc Desie D.

2010100349

December 2014

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................... iii

ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... iv

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................2

1.1 Background of the Study ........................................................................................2

1.2 Statement of the Problem .......................................................................................3

1.3 Objectives of the Study ...........................................................................................3

1.3.1 General Objective ...........................................................................................3

1.3.2 Specific Objectives ..........................................................................................4

1.4 Significance of the Study .........................................................................................4

1.5 Scope and Limitations .............................................................................................4

1.5.1 Vehicle Design .................................................................................................5

1.3.1 Dimensions ......................................................................................................5

1.3.1 Time Constraint ..............................................................................................5

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ...............................................6

2.1 Review of Related Studies .......................................................................................6

2.1.1 Computational Study of Flow Around a Car body (Z. Zheng 2009) .........6

2.1.2 Design and Construction of the Urban-concept Car Exterior for Shell Ecomarathon Asia 2011 (M. Bernabe et. al, 2011) ..................................7

2.1.3 Simulation and analysis of drag and lift coefficient between Sedan and

Hatcback car (Salleh 2009) .................................................................7

2.2 Review of Related Literature .................................................................................8

2.2.1 Vehicle Forces .................................................................................................8

2.2.1.1 Lift .........................................................................................................8

2.2.1.2 Drag .......................................................................................................8

2.2.1.3 Downforce .............................................................................................8

2.2.2 Aerodynamic ...................................................................................................9

2.2.2.1 Dynamic Pressure ................................................................................9

2.2.1.3 Flow Similarity ...................................................................................10

2.2.1.4 Reynolds Number...............................................................................10

2.2.3 Types of Flow ................................................................................................11

2.2.3.1 Continuum Flow.................................................................................11

2.2.3.2 Free Molecular Flow ..........................................................................11

2.2.3.3 Low Density Flow ...............................................................................11

2.2.3.4 Viscous Flow .......................................................................................11

2.2.3.5 Inviscid Flow.......................................................................................12

2.2.3.6 Incompressible Flow ..........................................................................12

2.2.3.7 Compressible Flow .............................................................................12

2.2.3.8 Subsonic Flow .....................................................................................13

CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ........................................................14

3.1 Shell Eco-marathon Rules 2013 ...........................................................................14

3.2 Aerodynamics ........................................................................................................14

3.2.1 Bernoullis Principle.....................................................................................14

3.2.1.1 Bernoullis Equation ..........................................................................15

3.2.2 Front Pressure ..............................................................................................17

3.2.3 Drag Force.....................................................................................................18

3.2.4 Coefficient of Drag .......................................................................................19

3.2.1 Down Force ...................................................................................................20

3.3 Energy Losses due to Aerodynamic Resistance ..................................................22

3.4 Power Required for Rolling Resistance...............................................................23

3.5 Energy Saved Due to Weight Reduction .............................................................24

3.6 Resistance Due to Inertia ......................................................................................24

3.7 Wind Speed in Manila ...........................................................................................25

CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................26

4.1 Considering the Parameters .................................................................................27

4.1.1 Shell Eco-marathon Asia Rules 2013 ..........................................................27

4.1.2 Theoretical Consideration ...........................................................................27

4.1.3 Exterior Body Design of the previous entry Habagat ...........................27

4.2.1 TVR TUSCAN ..............................................................................................28

4.2.2 3D Design using Computer Software..........................................................29

4.3 Simulation of Aerodynamic Characteristics .......................................................30

4.3.1 Simulation of Exterior Body of Haribon ....................................................30

4.3.2 Aerodynamic Characteristics Comparison ................................................31

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS ...................................33

5.1 Results.....................................................................................................................33

5.1.1 Data of Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag were calculated using the

Autodesk Flow Design Simulation Software. ......................................................33

5.2 Discussion ...............................................................................................................34

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION......................................36

6.1 Conclusion ..............................................................................................................36

6.2 Recommendation ...................................................................................................37

Appendices ........................................................................................................................38

Appendix A. Gannt Chart ...............................................................................................38

Appendix B. Expenses .....................................................................................................38

Appendix C. CAD of Exterior Body of Haribon ...........................................................39

Appendix D. CAD of Exterior Body of Habagat ...........................................................43

Appendix E. Dimensions of Exterior Body of Habagat ................................................47

Appendix F. Dimensions of Exterior Body of Haribon ................................................49

Appendix G. Computations of Wind Speed ..................................................................51

Appendix H. Simulation of Exterior Body of Habagat using Autodesk Flow

Design .........................................................................................................53

Appendix I. Simulation of Exterior Body of Haribon using Autodesk Flow

Design .........................................................................................................55

Appendix J. Step by step method using Autodesk Flow Design ..................................57

Appendix K. Shell Eco-marathon Asia Rules 2013.......................................................61

Appendix L. Computation of Percent Difference of Frontal Area ..............................63

Appendix M. Shell Eco-marathon Asia 2014 ................................................................64

Appendix N. Sponsors .....................................................................................................66

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................70

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1 Effect of the wind angle to the drag and lift coefficient ..........................6

Figure 2-2 Center Pressure (Anderson 2001) .............................................................9

Figure 2-3 Example of Flow Similarity (Anderson 2001) ........................................10

Figure 2-4 Division of Flow (Anderson 2001) ...........................................................12

Figure 2-5 Subsonic Flow (Anderson 2001) ..............................................................13

Figure 3-1 Bernoullis Principle .................................................................................16

Figure 3-2 Bernoullis Principle on wing with Air as fluid......................................13

Figure 3-3 Drag Force generated by motion and air flow .......................................18

Figure 3-4 Various shapes with coefficient of drag ..................................................20

Figure 3-5 Down force on an automobile ..................................................................21

Figure 3-6 Rolling resistance on automobile tire ......................................................23

Figure 3-7 Wind Speed graph in Manila for the month of February .....................25

Figure 4-1 Process Flowchart of the study ................................................................26

Figure 4-2 HABAGAT ................................................................................................28

Figure 4-3 TVR TUSCAN ..........................................................................................28

Figure 4-4 Haribon CAD using Autodesk Inventor .................................................29

Figure 4-5 Flow Simulation of Haribon using Autodesk Flow Design ...................30

Figure 4-6 Habagat CAD using Autodesk Inventor .................................................31

Figure 4-7 Flow simulation of Habagat using Autodesk Flow Design....................32

LIST OF TABLES

Table 5-2 Aerodynamic Characteristics of Haribon ................................................34

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This thesis is the end of our journey in obtaining our BS degree in Mechanical

Engineering. We have not travelled alone in this journey. The contributions of many different

people, in their different ways, have made this study possible.

Foremost, we would like to extend our appreciation and thank God for the wisdom and

perseverance that He has bestowed upon us throughout this study.

Moreover, we would like to grab this opportunity to express our gratitude to everyone

who supported us throughout this journey. We are thankful for their aspiring guidance,

invaluably constructive criticism and indeed friendly advice during the study. We are sincerely

thankful to them for sharing their truthful and illuminating views on a number of issues related to

this thesis project.

We would like to express our sincere gratitude to our advisor Prof. Sherwin S. Magon for

the continues support in this research, for his patience, motivations and immense knowledge.

This work would have not been possible without his guidance, support and encouragement.

Under his guidance we overcame many difficulties and learned a lot.

Besides our advisor, we would also like to thank our panels; Engr. Igmedio Isla, Engr. Jaime

Honra and Engr. Hans Felix Bosshard for their helpful criticisms, insightful comments and

valuable suggestions.

Last but not the least, we would like to thank our families especially our parents for

supporting us spiritually throughout our lifes.

iii

ABSTRACT

universities design and construct vehicles with the aim to travel the furthest distance with least

amount of energy. Detailed design must be employed in order to have an ideal model in

fabrication of vehicle parts. In this study, the grouped designed and simulated a vehicle body to

be used by an urbanconcept vehicle.

The group employed engineering software namely Inventor and Flow Design. The

vehicle body is designed using Inventor. Flow Design is used to simulate the aerodynamic

characteristic of the design in comparison with the design of the old vehicle Habagat.

Using different wind speeds, the vehicle design, named Haribon, resulted to a coefficient

of drag of 0.3.

iv

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

This is a study to design and simulate an aerodynamic urbanconcept exterior body for Shell

Eco- Marathon Asia 2013 to attain low coefficient of drag and help the vehicle attain less fuel

consumption. This chapter discusses the background, statement of the problem, objectives,

significance and scope and limitations of the study.

1.1 Background of the study

The Royal Dutch Shell sponsors an annual competition about the future of

transportation and mobility titled Shell Eco-marathon. It is a worldwide competition

wherein students are challenged to design, build and drive the most energy-efficient car.

The competition is focused on maximizing a vehicles mileage with a given amount of

fuel rather than achieving high speeds. The winner of the competition would be the

vehicle that could travel the most distance given one liter of fuel.

This is the third time that the Mapa Institute of Technology School of Mechanical

and Manufacturing Engineering will be competing for the challenge under the

urbanconcept category. Urbanconcept is a prototype car that contains all the features of

todays commercially available cars. The institutes first urbanconcept entry in 2011 was

named Habagat. Due to some constraints and difficulties, it was unable to finish the

race.

In 2011, Habagat, the Eco-Car of MIT was heavy. The vehicle body was made of

fiber glass material. The factors that affected the 2011 Eco-Car were the excessive tubes

that were used as support mounting for the vehicle body, the wide frontal area, and the

heavy body cover. With this study, the design and performance of the vehicle car body

may be improved by analyzing the factors that affect the aerodynamics.

The challenge with this study is to be able to design and construct a vehicle body that

would have less drag than commercial vehicles in accordance to the existing competition

rules to be able to help achieve better fuel economy.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The goal of the Shell Eco-marathon competition is to challenge students in building

the worlds most fuel efficient vehicle. Eco-cars should consume less of fuel as possible

over some distance.

This study aims to satisfy the following general and specific objectives as shown

below:

1.3.1 General Objective

The study aimed to design and simulate an aerodynamic vehicle body for the

Mapas eco-car urbanconcept entry to help the car to attain less drag coefficient and

determine its aerodynamic performance.

1.3.2.1 Design an exterior body for an urbanconcept car that is compliant with

the rules of Shell Eco-Marathon 2013.

1.3.2.2 Minimize the frontal area of the eco-car Haribon, it should be less than

that of Habagat.

1.3.2.3 Use of Computer Aided Design software in developing the design of the

vehicle.

1.3.2.4 Simulate and compare the previous vehicle Habagat to the new design

Haribon in terms of coefficient of drag.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The significance of this aerodynamic study can be used as reference for anyone who

wishes to participate in the Shell Eco-marathon Challenge or any competition that holds

the same goals and nature. The techniques and principles in this study can also be used as

reference for any individual who will study aerodynamic effects on automotive vehicles

and the like.

1.5 Scope and Limitations

The study only covers the design of the vehicle body and the simulation of its

aerodynamic performance. The limitations are due to the rules and regulations given by

the Shell Eco-marathon Asia 2014 and the time-constraint to design the vehicle.

b) Aerodynamic appendages, which adjust or are prone to changing shape due to

wind whilst the vehicle is in motion, are forbidden.

1.5.2 Dimensions (Article 45, page 20)

a) The total vehicle height must be between 100 cm and 130 cm.

b) The total body width, excluding rear view mirrors, must be between 120 cm

and 130 cm.

c) The total vehicle length must be between 220 cm and 350 cm.

d) The track width must be at least 100 cm for the front axle and 80 cm for the

rear axle, measured between the midpoints where the tyres touch the ground.

e) The wheelbase must be at least 120 cm.

f) The Drivers compartment must have a minimum height of 88 cm and a

minimum width of 70 cm at the Drivers shoulders.

g) The ground clearance must be at least 10 cm.

h) The maximum vehicle weight (excluding the Driver) is 205 kg.

1.5.3 Time-constraint

This study is limited since the organizers of the Shell Eco-marathon competition

require the teams to finish and submit the designs in less than half a year.

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The presentation of both thesis and journal articles in this part shows to expound further how

aerodynamic concepts can significantly affect the output of a vehicle.

2.1 Review of Related Studies

The presentation of both thesis and journal articles in this part shows to expound

further how aerodynamic concepts can significantly affect the output of a vehicle.

2.1.1 Computational Study of Flow Around a Car body ( Z. Zheng 2009).

Z.Zheng made a study about the flow around a car body with different relative

angle wind to car axis, varying it from 0 to 30 as shown in figure 2-1. The scale of

the automobile he uses is 435 mm x 168 mm x 148 mm (length x width x height) with

360,000 mesh size. In this study, the drag and lift coefficients are used in order to

compare the different effects of the front window angle on the performance of the

vehicle.

F

Figure 2-1. Effect of the wind angle to the drag and lift coefficient (Zheng 2009)

6

2.1.2 Design and Construction of the Urban-concept Car Exterior for Shell Ecomarathon Asia 2011 (M. Bernabe et. al, 2011)

Previous vehicle entry of Mapa for Shell Eco-Marathon Asia urbanconcept car

made a research about its exterior body. The researcher design and fabricate the

exterior body of an urbanconcept that compete in Malaysia on 2011. The design of

the exterior body has average coefficient of drag of 9.7. Tear drop shape of an

exterior body was highly recommended by the researchers since it only has 0.05

coefficient of drag.

2.1.2 Simulation and analysis of drag and lift coefficient between Sedan and

Hatcback car (Salleh 2009)

The thesis showed difference coefficients barriers and lift coefficients for two

basic design types of sedan and hatchback cars. Process simulation and analysis for

14 both the model design was conducted with computer-aided drawing software and

analyzed using COSMOS Floworks software. Restriction coefficient and lift

coefficient for the hatchback design is lower than the sedan design. With this

observation, the hatchback design becomes more efficient and its aerodynamic value

increases.

This section discussed related literature regarding aerodynamic.

2.2.1 Vehicle Forces

There are four main forces that affect the aerodynamics of a vehicle.

2.2.1.1 Lift

Lift is a force perpendicular to the velocity flow of air. Lift opposed the

weight of a vehicle. (Anderson 2001) Lift helps heavy vehicle to consume less

energy by decreasing the force due to weight.

2.2.1.2 Drag

Drag is a force parallel to the velocity flow of air. It also opposed the

motion of vehicle through air. (Anderson 2001) Drag is generated through

interaction of the vehicle to a form of liquid or gas.

2.2.1.3 Downforce

Downforce is a force perpendicular to the velocity flow of air. Downforce

is generated because of gravitational attraction of the vehicle to earth.

(Anderson 2001)

2.2.2 Aerodynamics

The dynamic of gases, especially atmospheric interactions with moving objects.

(Anderson 2001)

2.2.2.1 Dynamic Pressure

Dynamic pressure is a property of moving gas. It is also used in the lift

coefficient and drag coefficient theory. Dynamic pressure is directly

proportional to density and velocity which have a unit of pressure. (Anderson

2001).

2.2.2.2 Center of Pressure

Center of pressure is located where the resultant of a distributed load

effectively acts on the body. Center of pressure is just like center of gravity

where center of gravity is located on a body due to weight while center of

pressure is located on a body due to pressure. When moment is applied to the

center of pressure the acting distributed load will be equal to zero. (Anderson

2001)

9

In flow similarity two different parameters are considered, two different

bodies and flow fields but these parameters must be dynamically similar. The

streamline pattern must be geometrical, force of coefficient must be the same,

and dimensionless coefficients must be the same if plotted in nondimensional

coordinates. Flow similarity is commonly applied to wind tunnels and

computer simulation. (Anderson 2001)

2.2.2.3.1 Reynolds Number

Reynolds number is important in Flow similarity, since in flow

similarity the two different bodies that will be compared must have the

same Reynolds number. Reynolds number is also equal to the ratio

inertial force and viscous force. (Anderson 2001)

10

In Aerodynamics there are different kinds of flow that is being considered.

2.2.2.4.1 Continuum Flow

Continuum flow exist when the body surface experience frequent

molecules impact and the body cannot distinguish the individual

collision. In continuum flow the fluid is treated as a continuous flow.

Continuum flow is the most common flow that is being used in

aerodynamics application. (Anderson 2001)

2.2.2.4.2 Free Molecular Flow

Free molecular flow is opposite of continuum flow where the

impact of the molecules to the body surface is infrequent because the

molecules is spaced. In free molecular flow the body can distinguish

each molecular impact. (Anderson 2001)

2.2.2.4.3 Low Density Flow

Low density flow is a flow which can experience both

characteristics of free molecular flow and continuum flow.

2.2.2.4.4 Viscous Flow

Viscous flow is a flow which exhibit effects of a transport

phenomenon. Transport phenomenon is a phenomena of mass diffusion,

viscosity and thermal conduction which occur when the mass,

11

fluid. (Anderson 2001)

2.2.2.4.5 Inviscid Flow

Inviscid Flow is opposite of viscous flow which do not exhibit

effects of transport phenomenon. (Anderson 2001)

Incompressible flow is a flow where density is constant. (Anderson

2001)

2.2.2.4.7 Compressible Flow

Compressible flow is a flow where density is variable. (Anderson

2001)

12

Subsonic flow is a flow where the Mach number of the flow field

is less than 1. The streamlines of subsonic flow is smooth. Subsonic

flow has a rule of thumb, where rule of thumb stated that Mach

number of a body must be less than 0.8 (Anderson 2001)

13

CHAPTER 3

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATION

This chapter focuses on the concepts involved in an aerodynamic design for a vehicle

exterior body. The vehicle body plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of a vehicle

since it is in primary contact with the air flow. The parameters that are set by Shell EcoMarathon Challenge in the design of the vehicle exterior body are also discussed in this chapter.

3.1 Shell Eco-marathon Official Rules

The primary consideration in the design of the vehicle exterior body should comply

with the rules and regulations of the Shell Eco-Marathon (SEM). There are set of

specifications for the vehicle dimensions and safety issues that should be followed.

3.2 Aerodynamics

The aerodynamics is one of the important parameters in the design and development

of automobile. Under road conditions, an automobiles performance is affected by air

resistance. When a car is in motion, air flow in opposite direction and in some cases it

flows across the vehicle. Therefore, to be able to overcome this resisting flow of air, a car

should be driven with greater amount of power to move forward.

3.2.1 Bernoullis Principle

The basic principle in consideration for aerodynamic design is the Bernoullis

principle. This theory states that as the fluid velocity increase, the pressure exerted by

that fluid decreases, various flows can be examined using this theory. The Bernoullis

14

equation will be used in the calculation of fluid flow. Also, the Bernoullis principle

came from Thermodynamics.

3.2.1.1 Bernoullis Equation

Energy Balance, Assuming zero friction loss

From Energy Balance:

Energy In = Energy Out

(Eq. 3.1)

1 +1 +1 +1 =2 +2 +2 +2

(Eq. 3.2)

(2 1 2 +1 + +1 = 2 2 2 +2 + +2 )

1 2

2

1

2

+1 + +

= 2 2 2 +2 + +

1 2

+1 + 1 =

2

1 2

2

2 2

2

+2 + 2

+1 +1 =

2 2

2

+2+2

(Eq. 3.3)

(Eq. 3.4)

(Eq. 3.5)

(Eq. 3.6)

Note: Force (F) is equal to the product of Pressure (P) and Area (A). There

is also not change in temperature (T=0)

Equation 3.5 and 3.6 are called Bernoullis equation. Either of the two

equations can be used to calculate problems in fluid dynamics.

The second law of thermodynamics states that when energy is transferred,

that energy cannot be conserved and some energy must be reduced to some lower

value. From the second law of thermodynamics, the Bernoullis equation (Eq.

3.5) is modified in consideration of friction losses ( ).

1 2

+1 + 1 =

2

2 2

2

+2 + 2 +

(Eq. 3.7)

15

1 2

2 2 1 2

2

(Eq. 3.8)

(Source: cdxtexbook)

(source: uafedu)

16

From the law of mass conservation and continuity equation, mass does not

change with respect to position, nor is it affected by pressure, temperature or

motion.

1 = 2

(Eq. 3.9)

1 1 1 = 2 2 2

(Eq. 3.10)

1 = 2

(Eq. 3.11)

Q=

(Eq. 3.12)

From Eq. 3.10 the density was cancelled due to the same material:

1 = 2

(Eq. 3.13)

Front pressure is caused by the compressed air molecules acting against the

direction of motion of a vehicle. As a vehicle is moves forward, the air attempts to

flow over the vehicle but the front part of the vehicle counters with the air. Since the

vehicle front part exerts force on the resisting air, the air molecules is compressed by

counter force. These compressed air molecules are high-pressure and push the vehicle

toward low pressure zones which are the bottom, top and sides of a vehicle. The

equation governing front pressure is as follows:

=

(Eq. 3.14)

17

Where:

= Frontal Pressure

= Drag Force

= Frontal Area

3.2.3 Drag Force

Drag Force is a type of force that is relevant to motion. This force is generated by

interaction between a solid body and a fluid. There are two requirements to generate

drag. First, the body should be in contact with the fluid to generate drag. Since drag

force is acting between a body and fluid, no fluid means zero drag. Second, there

should be a difference in velocity between the body and the fluid.

(source: Bright Hub Engineering)

18

(Eq. 3.15)

Where:

=

12

2

The coefficient of Drag is a dimensionless number that is used to quantify

Aerodynamic Drag on a vehicle body as it moves over some fluid. Low drag

coefficient would mean that the vehicle can pass through a fluid with relatively low

resistance. This is the rational on why automotive and aircraft engineers experience

on various shapes and designs to effectively lower the air resistance to maximize

performance.

The area of drag is one factor to determine the aerodynamic efficiency of a body.

In the design a vehicle, the total shape of the exterior body is considered such as the

front and cross-sectional areas. The shape of an object has a very great effect on the

amount of drag (NASA). The computation for coefficient of drag is as follows:

2

= 2

(Eq. 3.16)

Where:

= Drag Force

= Mass density of the fluid

19

= Frontal Area

(Source: NASA)

3.2.5 Down Force

Down force is a downward type of force produced due to aerodynamic factors.

There are two things about down force. First is the benefit, it provides additional

contact between the vehicle tires and the road by means of pushing the vehicle

downward. Second is that, excessive down force can lead to larger power requirement

to drive the vehicle, thus translating to more fuel consumption. Down force value

20

depends on the function of the vehicle under design. The equation below shows the

formula for down force:

F = 0.5* * * * 2

(Eq. 3.17)

Where:

= Total Area of a vehicle

= Coefficient of Drag

= Density of air depending on temperature and altitude

2 = Speed of the car

21

The air contains kinetic energy, which is energy transferred as it comes contact

with another body. This energy from the air, is opposed to the wind direction, and

therefore leads to energy drain for the vehicle. The energy loss is computed by:

= KE

1

= 2 2

1

= 2 2

1

= 2 [( )( )()( 3 )]

(Eq. 3.18)

(Eq. 3.19)

(Eq. 3.20)

(Eq. 3.21)

Where:

= Energy absorbed that cause energy loss and drag

KE = Kinetic Energy in the air transferred in the vehicle

= Mass of air

v = Velocity of the air relative to the vehicle

= Frontal Area of the vehicle

D = Distance travelled by the vehicle

= Coefficient of Drag

22

Rolling resistance pertains to the energy lost when the tire is rolling along its path.

The reason for this energy loss due to rolling resistance is the time deformation due to

continuous use. The equation provided below shows the power requirement for rolling

resistance.

= mgv

(Eq. 3.22)

Where:

= Power needed to overcome rolling resistance

= Rolling coefficient of the tires

m = Mass of the body

g = Gravitational Acceleration

v = Velocity of the car

(Source: Engineering toolbox and BMW)

23

Power is defined as the required energy to move q Newton (N). Body at a velocity

of 1m/s. In SI units, power is expressed in watt (W). The relationship of power to weight

and velocity is given by the equation:

= mgv

(Eq. 3.23)

Where:

= Power save due to reduction of weight

m = Mass of the Body

g = Gravitational Acceleration

v = Velocity of the Car

3.6 Resistance due to Inertia

Inertia resistance is defined by Mass and Inertia. Inertia is difficulty to change the

momentum of a body. The relationship of momentum, mass and velocity is given by:

Momentum (p) = Mass (m) x Velocity (v)

(Eq. 3.24)

Also, From Newtons Law of motion mass (m) can be derived from:

Force (F) = Mass (m) x Acceleration (a)

(Eq. 3.25)

24

The wind speed in Manila from the month of February may vary from 0m/s to

8m/s and the maximum wind speed recorded was 17m/s. At the beginning of the month

the wind speed vary from 3m/s to 7m/s while at the end of the month the wind speed vary

from 4m/s to 8m/s.

Figure 3-7 Wind Speed graph in Manila for the month of February

(Source: https://weatherspark.com/averages/33313/2/Metro-Manila-Philippines)

25

CHAPTER 4

METHODOLOGY

This chapter discussed the methods and procedures of designing and fabricating the exterior

body of urbantype vehicle entry of Mapa Institute of Technology for Shell Eco-Marathon Asia

2013. This chapter also discussed the different software used to help the researcher to conduct

the study. The process flowchart of the study is in figure 4-1:

Computer Software

Simulation of Aerodynamic

Characteristic through Computer

Software

26

The design of the exterior body of vehicle for 2013 was based on different

parameters.

4.1.1 Shell Eco-Marathon Asia 2013 Rules

The Shell Eco-Marathon Rules for 2013 was the basis of the design of the exterior

body. There are limitations and recommendations made by the organizers regarding

the exterior body. Refer to Appendix K for the rules.

4.1.2 Theoretical Consideration

The researcher used the Aerodynamic principles in Chapter 3 as a basis in

designing the exterior body. The shape recommended by NASA was also considered

to attain low coefficient of drag that affect the vehicle performance. Coefficient of

drag can affect the energy needed by a vehicle to run; low coefficient of drag will

give lower energy needed since the air flowing through the vehicle will flows

smoothly to the body.

4.1.3 Exterior Body Design of the previous entry Habagat

Habagat is the first entry of Team Cardinals for the Shell Eco Marathon Asia

urban type category. The exterior body design of Habagat was reviewed for its

positive and negative aspects. Habagats negative side is its frontal area because it

captures more air, since it is wide. The exterior body is heavy and the under chassis is

not fully covered. These parameters help the researchers in designing the new exterior

body of the urbanconcept vehicle.

27

4.2 Design of the exterior body

4.2.1 TVR TUSCAN

The design of the exterior body of the urbanconcept vehicle for 2013 is based

from TVR TUSCAN. TVR TUSCAN was selected because of the shape of its body.

Its body has low coefficient of drag which can help the performance of the car. The

design of TVR TUSCAN was also considered since the curviness of the body

perfectly fits to the design of the chassis.

28

Considering the aerodynamic principle, rules and the basis design TVR TUSCAN

the researchers came up with the final dimensions refer to appendix. The researcher

uses Autodesk Inventor for making a 3D sketch of Haribon. Autodesk Inventor is a

program that enables you to make a 3D sketch with a desired material and run a stress

analysis test. Finalizing the shape, dimensions and aesthetics of the exterior body is

shown in figure 4-3.

29

The exterior body will be simulated in a computer software to determine its

aerodynamic characteristics and compare to the exterior body of Habagat.

4.3.1 Simulation of exterior body of Haribon

After sketching the exterior body of Haribon in Autodesk Inventor the material

selected was considered and input to the sketch. The exterior body is simulated in

Autodesk flow design to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. Autodesk flow

design is a program developed by Autodesk especially for flow analysis. Autodesk

flow design can determine the coefficient of drag and drag force; speed wind can also

change from 0 to 100 m/s. The model used was imported from Autodesk Inventor,

any CAD program can also be import, orientation of the model can also be change,

and different view of the wind is also available.

30

The aerodynamic characteristics of exterior body of Haribon were compared to

Habagat. The exterior body of Habagat was also 3D Sketch; since the actual exterior

body of Habagat is not available the researcher based the dimensions of the sketch in

the thesis of previous team. The sketch was also simulated through Autodesk flow

design for its aerodynamic characteristics.

31

32

Chapter 5

DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

This chapter shows the results of the simulation and discusses the effect of the results to the

vehicle body.

5.1 Results

5.1.1 Data of Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag were calculated using the

Autodesk Flow Design Simulation Software.

Habagat

Trial

Wind Speed

Coefficient of

Drag Force

Highest Front

(m/s)

Drag

(N)

pressure

(Pa)

7.22

0.47

14.130

26.512

10.56

0.47

30.359

60.388

13.89

0.47

51.602

104.778

33

Haribon

Trial

Wind Speed

Coefficient of

Drag Force

Highest Front

(m/s)

Drag

(N)

Pressure

(Pa)

7.22

0.31

0.074

11.374

10.56

0.30

0.155

22.357

13.89

0.30

0.272

39.983

5.2 Discussion

Three (3) trials were made to acquire data for the simulation of the two (2) models

Haribon and Habagat. The data used in calculating the coefficient of drag and drag force

were based on the actual dimensions of the vehicle. Appendix H and I shows the actual

dimensions of both vehicles, Haribon and Habagat.

The assumption for the simulation is that air is still and that the vehicle speed is used

as the wind speed. Vehicle speed was calculated based on overall distance travelled over

time to finish the race track. The vehicle speed of 26kph is the minimum speed, 38kph is

the median speed and 50kph is the maximum speed. These figures of speed were based

on the SEM 2014 race track and vehicle max speed. The track spans 1.2km and the

competition requires 10laps per trial which translates to overall travel distance of 12km

with a time limit of 29 minutes per trial. Appendix G shows the computation for the

vehicle speed.

34

CAD software is used in determining the vehicle total frontal area and Flow Design is

utilized to calculate the drag forced given the wind speed. Highest front pressure is

calculated as well. The coefficient of drag is determined by the shape of the design. Drag

force is affected mainly by velocity. Increasing velocity yields higher value for drag force

and higher value for frontal pressure.

35

Chapter 6

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter presents the conclusion of the study and recommendations future improvement

of studies that will be conducted.

6.1 Conclusion

To be able to compete, the Shell Eco-marathon 2013 rules and regulations should be

considered. The parameters in the design and the final dimensions are shown on appendix

K.

Frontal area should be reduced if one is to reduce the value of drag coefficient. The

new urbanconcept body for Haribon, has less frontal area as compared to Habagat. The

reduction in front area is 10.59%. Computation for reduction in area is shown in appendix

L.

The shape of an object affects the numerical value of the coefficient of drag. The

frontal area of the vehicle body is the reference in the simulation of the coefficient of

drag. Minimizing frontal area is the key in reducing drag coefficient. The computed

coefficient of drag via simulation is less compared to commercial cars since its size is

minimized and the body is streamlined.

Drag force, meanwhile is also reduced with minimized frontal area of the design.

Although drag coefficient is determined by an objects shape, drag force can still change

36

depending on the numerical value of the velocity. From the data results, it is clear that

increasing velocity would yield increasing value for the drag force.

6.2 Recommendation

Detailed designing and accurate molding of the vehicle body is a must since the shape

of an object greatly affects the coefficient of drag. The design should be conceptualized

based on existing aerodynamic models such as current trend on car shapes streamlining.

A software simulation is a must in designing the vehicle body so that the team can cut in

determining the optimum shape of the vehicle. Simulation gives the advantage of

skipping construction of prototypes and can give the team more time on fabrication.

Time is limited for the team to produce a vehicle for the Shell Eco-marathon

competition; design phase should be immediately started as soon as a new team is formed

so that design details can thoroughly checked and more time can be provided on

fabrication phase.

The fabrication of the vehicle body should also consider light-weight materials since

it also affects vehicle performance. Rules and Regulations of the Shell Eco-marathon

competition should always be taken into account in the design and fabrication of the

vehicle body.

Besides the above given, teamwork and sharing of ideas gives best result in the

design and construction of a good vehicle.

37

APPENDICES

Appendix A. Gannt Chart

Appendix B. Expenses

Description

Fabrication of Mold

Fabrication of Exterior Body

Total Expenses

Price

P 90,000

P 90,000

P 180,000

38

39

40

FRONT VIEW

TOP VIEW

41

SIDE VIEW

REAR VIEW

42

43

44

FRONT VIEW

TOP VIEW

45

SIDE VIEW

REAR VIEW

46

Units: inches (in)

SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

47

TOP VIEW

48

Units: millimeter (mm)

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

49

TOP VIEW

50

Stop time = 2 sec (at least); say 5 sec stop time per lap.

Total stop time, tstop-total = 5 sec x 10 laps = 50 sec; say 1 min per trial

Total time to finish, ttotal = 29 min (includes stopping time)

Max time for car to finish at track, tmax = 29min 1 min = 28 min

51

1000

12 1

=

=

= 25.71; 26

1

max

28 60

= 50

50 + 26

= 38

2

= 26

1000 1

= 7.22 /

1 3600

= 38

1000 1

= 10.56 /

1 3600

= 50

1000 1

= 13.89 /

1 3600

52

53

54

55

56

Import CAD File, in this study the researcher import locally a CAD file

57

The file imported is saved as a STL; STL is the neutral file format of CAD

On the toggle bar you can edit the XYZ orientation of the model

58

Since the Air Flow is from Left side to right, fix the desired position of the model.

On the toggle bar you can edit the wind speed from 0-100 m/s

59

Different characteristics of the flow lines can be edit on the flow lines settings located at the

toggle bar.

Click the drag plot on the toggle bar to view the drag graph

60

(Vehicle Design)

61

(Dimensions)

62

% Difference =

% Difference =

..

.+.

= 10.59%

63

64

65

Appendix N. Sponsors

Autodesk

BOSCH

Decal Republic

ELEWELD

66

SHELL

SolidWorks

TIARA

Malabon Diesel

SMART

SUN Cellular

TOYOTA

67

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anderson J. D. 2001.Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, Fourth Edition.Singapore: McGraw-Hill

Companies, Inc.: 3-78

Clancy, L.J. 1975. Aerodynamics.London: Pitman Publishing Limited: Section 7.11

Griffith, J.M. and J.R. Venhuizen . 1986. Least- square estimates of automotive drag

coefficients from coast-down test . Idaho National Enqineering Laboratory.

Jameson, Anthony .1990 .Control theory for optimum design of aerodynamic shapes.

Princeton University

Lynn ,D.K., J.B. McCormick, R.E. Bobbett, C.R. Derouin, J. Nachamkin and W. Kerwin. 1979.

Determination of vehicle rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. Los Alamos Scientific

Wong, J. Y. 2001. Theory of Ground Vehicles, Third Edition.New York: John Wiley & Sons,

Inc.: 209-223

Zheng Z., Z. Guan, X. Liu .2009 .Computational study of flow around a car body .

http://www.nasa.gov/aerodynamics

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/lift1.html

https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/K-12/WindTunnel/Activities/lift_formula.html

68

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