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DESIGN AND SIMULATE AN AERODYNAMIC

URABNCONCEPT CAR
BODY FOR THE SHELL ECO-MARATHON WITH
LESS COEFFICIENT OF DRAG
A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the
School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
Mapua Institute of Technology

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering

By:
Da Silva, Elisario M.
2009108764
Diwa II, Jose S.
2009151238
Pimentel, Marc Desie D.
2010100349

December 2014

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................... i


LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................... iii
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... iv
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................2
1.1 Background of the Study ........................................................................................2
1.2 Statement of the Problem .......................................................................................3
1.3 Objectives of the Study ...........................................................................................3
1.3.1 General Objective ...........................................................................................3
1.3.2 Specific Objectives ..........................................................................................4
1.4 Significance of the Study .........................................................................................4
1.5 Scope and Limitations .............................................................................................4
1.5.1 Vehicle Design .................................................................................................5
1.3.1 Dimensions ......................................................................................................5
1.3.1 Time Constraint ..............................................................................................5
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ...............................................6
2.1 Review of Related Studies .......................................................................................6
2.1.1 Computational Study of Flow Around a Car body (Z. Zheng 2009) .........6
2.1.2 Design and Construction of the Urban-concept Car Exterior for Shell Ecomarathon Asia 2011 (M. Bernabe et. al, 2011) ..................................7
2.1.3 Simulation and analysis of drag and lift coefficient between Sedan and
Hatcback car (Salleh 2009) .................................................................7
2.2 Review of Related Literature .................................................................................8
2.2.1 Vehicle Forces .................................................................................................8
2.2.1.1 Lift .........................................................................................................8
2.2.1.2 Drag .......................................................................................................8
2.2.1.3 Downforce .............................................................................................8
2.2.2 Aerodynamic ...................................................................................................9
2.2.2.1 Dynamic Pressure ................................................................................9

2.2.2.2 Center of Pressure................................................................................9


2.2.1.3 Flow Similarity ...................................................................................10
2.2.1.4 Reynolds Number...............................................................................10
2.2.3 Types of Flow ................................................................................................11
2.2.3.1 Continuum Flow.................................................................................11
2.2.3.2 Free Molecular Flow ..........................................................................11
2.2.3.3 Low Density Flow ...............................................................................11
2.2.3.4 Viscous Flow .......................................................................................11
2.2.3.5 Inviscid Flow.......................................................................................12
2.2.3.6 Incompressible Flow ..........................................................................12
2.2.3.7 Compressible Flow .............................................................................12
2.2.3.8 Subsonic Flow .....................................................................................13
CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ........................................................14
3.1 Shell Eco-marathon Rules 2013 ...........................................................................14
3.2 Aerodynamics ........................................................................................................14
3.2.1 Bernoullis Principle.....................................................................................14
3.2.1.1 Bernoullis Equation ..........................................................................15
3.2.2 Front Pressure ..............................................................................................17
3.2.3 Drag Force.....................................................................................................18
3.2.4 Coefficient of Drag .......................................................................................19
3.2.1 Down Force ...................................................................................................20
3.3 Energy Losses due to Aerodynamic Resistance ..................................................22
3.4 Power Required for Rolling Resistance...............................................................23
3.5 Energy Saved Due to Weight Reduction .............................................................24
3.6 Resistance Due to Inertia ......................................................................................24
3.7 Wind Speed in Manila ...........................................................................................25
CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................26
4.1 Considering the Parameters .................................................................................27
4.1.1 Shell Eco-marathon Asia Rules 2013 ..........................................................27
4.1.2 Theoretical Consideration ...........................................................................27
4.1.3 Exterior Body Design of the previous entry Habagat ...........................27

4.2 Design of the Exterior Body .................................................................................28


4.2.1 TVR TUSCAN ..............................................................................................28
4.2.2 3D Design using Computer Software..........................................................29
4.3 Simulation of Aerodynamic Characteristics .......................................................30
4.3.1 Simulation of Exterior Body of Haribon ....................................................30
4.3.2 Aerodynamic Characteristics Comparison ................................................31
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS ...................................33
5.1 Results.....................................................................................................................33
5.1.1 Data of Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag were calculated using the
Autodesk Flow Design Simulation Software. ......................................................33
5.2 Discussion ...............................................................................................................34
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION......................................36
6.1 Conclusion ..............................................................................................................36
6.2 Recommendation ...................................................................................................37
Appendices ........................................................................................................................38
Appendix A. Gannt Chart ...............................................................................................38
Appendix B. Expenses .....................................................................................................38
Appendix C. CAD of Exterior Body of Haribon ...........................................................39
Appendix D. CAD of Exterior Body of Habagat ...........................................................43
Appendix E. Dimensions of Exterior Body of Habagat ................................................47
Appendix F. Dimensions of Exterior Body of Haribon ................................................49
Appendix G. Computations of Wind Speed ..................................................................51
Appendix H. Simulation of Exterior Body of Habagat using Autodesk Flow
Design .........................................................................................................53
Appendix I. Simulation of Exterior Body of Haribon using Autodesk Flow
Design .........................................................................................................55
Appendix J. Step by step method using Autodesk Flow Design ..................................57
Appendix K. Shell Eco-marathon Asia Rules 2013.......................................................61
Appendix L. Computation of Percent Difference of Frontal Area ..............................63
Appendix M. Shell Eco-marathon Asia 2014 ................................................................64
Appendix N. Sponsors .....................................................................................................66

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................70

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1 Effect of the wind angle to the drag and lift coefficient ..........................6
Figure 2-2 Center Pressure (Anderson 2001) .............................................................9
Figure 2-3 Example of Flow Similarity (Anderson 2001) ........................................10
Figure 2-4 Division of Flow (Anderson 2001) ...........................................................12
Figure 2-5 Subsonic Flow (Anderson 2001) ..............................................................13
Figure 3-1 Bernoullis Principle .................................................................................16
Figure 3-2 Bernoullis Principle on wing with Air as fluid......................................13
Figure 3-3 Drag Force generated by motion and air flow .......................................18
Figure 3-4 Various shapes with coefficient of drag ..................................................20
Figure 3-5 Down force on an automobile ..................................................................21
Figure 3-6 Rolling resistance on automobile tire ......................................................23
Figure 3-7 Wind Speed graph in Manila for the month of February .....................25
Figure 4-1 Process Flowchart of the study ................................................................26
Figure 4-2 HABAGAT ................................................................................................28
Figure 4-3 TVR TUSCAN ..........................................................................................28
Figure 4-4 Haribon CAD using Autodesk Inventor .................................................29
Figure 4-5 Flow Simulation of Haribon using Autodesk Flow Design ...................30
Figure 4-6 Habagat CAD using Autodesk Inventor .................................................31
Figure 4-7 Flow simulation of Habagat using Autodesk Flow Design....................32

LIST OF TABLES

Table 5-1 Aerodynamic Characteristics of Habagat ................................................33


Table 5-2 Aerodynamic Characteristics of Haribon ................................................34

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This thesis is the end of our journey in obtaining our BS degree in Mechanical
Engineering. We have not travelled alone in this journey. The contributions of many different
people, in their different ways, have made this study possible.
Foremost, we would like to extend our appreciation and thank God for the wisdom and
perseverance that He has bestowed upon us throughout this study.
Moreover, we would like to grab this opportunity to express our gratitude to everyone
who supported us throughout this journey. We are thankful for their aspiring guidance,
invaluably constructive criticism and indeed friendly advice during the study. We are sincerely
thankful to them for sharing their truthful and illuminating views on a number of issues related to
this thesis project.
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to our advisor Prof. Sherwin S. Magon for
the continues support in this research, for his patience, motivations and immense knowledge.
This work would have not been possible without his guidance, support and encouragement.
Under his guidance we overcame many difficulties and learned a lot.
Besides our advisor, we would also like to thank our panels; Engr. Igmedio Isla, Engr. Jaime
Honra and Engr. Hans Felix Bosshard for their helpful criticisms, insightful comments and
valuable suggestions.
Last but not the least, we would like to thank our families especially our parents for
supporting us spiritually throughout our lifes.

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ABSTRACT

The Shell Eco-marathon is an annual competition wherein teams from different


universities design and construct vehicles with the aim to travel the furthest distance with least
amount of energy. Detailed design must be employed in order to have an ideal model in
fabrication of vehicle parts. In this study, the grouped designed and simulated a vehicle body to
be used by an urbanconcept vehicle.
The group employed engineering software namely Inventor and Flow Design. The
vehicle body is designed using Inventor. Flow Design is used to simulate the aerodynamic
characteristic of the design in comparison with the design of the old vehicle Habagat.
Using different wind speeds, the vehicle design, named Haribon, resulted to a coefficient
of drag of 0.3.

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
This is a study to design and simulate an aerodynamic urbanconcept exterior body for Shell
Eco- Marathon Asia 2013 to attain low coefficient of drag and help the vehicle attain less fuel
consumption. This chapter discusses the background, statement of the problem, objectives,
significance and scope and limitations of the study.
1.1 Background of the study
The Royal Dutch Shell sponsors an annual competition about the future of
transportation and mobility titled Shell Eco-marathon. It is a worldwide competition
wherein students are challenged to design, build and drive the most energy-efficient car.
The competition is focused on maximizing a vehicles mileage with a given amount of
fuel rather than achieving high speeds. The winner of the competition would be the
vehicle that could travel the most distance given one liter of fuel.
This is the third time that the Mapa Institute of Technology School of Mechanical
and Manufacturing Engineering will be competing for the challenge under the
urbanconcept category. Urbanconcept is a prototype car that contains all the features of
todays commercially available cars. The institutes first urbanconcept entry in 2011 was
named Habagat. Due to some constraints and difficulties, it was unable to finish the
race.

1.2 Statement of the Problem


In 2011, Habagat, the Eco-Car of MIT was heavy. The vehicle body was made of
fiber glass material. The factors that affected the 2011 Eco-Car were the excessive tubes
that were used as support mounting for the vehicle body, the wide frontal area, and the
heavy body cover. With this study, the design and performance of the vehicle car body
may be improved by analyzing the factors that affect the aerodynamics.
The challenge with this study is to be able to design and construct a vehicle body that
would have less drag than commercial vehicles in accordance to the existing competition
rules to be able to help achieve better fuel economy.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The goal of the Shell Eco-marathon competition is to challenge students in building
the worlds most fuel efficient vehicle. Eco-cars should consume less of fuel as possible
over some distance.
This study aims to satisfy the following general and specific objectives as shown
below:
1.3.1 General Objective
The study aimed to design and simulate an aerodynamic vehicle body for the
Mapas eco-car urbanconcept entry to help the car to attain less drag coefficient and
determine its aerodynamic performance.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives


1.3.2.1 Design an exterior body for an urbanconcept car that is compliant with
the rules of Shell Eco-Marathon 2013.
1.3.2.2 Minimize the frontal area of the eco-car Haribon, it should be less than
that of Habagat.
1.3.2.3 Use of Computer Aided Design software in developing the design of the
vehicle.
1.3.2.4 Simulate and compare the previous vehicle Habagat to the new design
Haribon in terms of coefficient of drag.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of this aerodynamic study can be used as reference for anyone who
wishes to participate in the Shell Eco-marathon Challenge or any competition that holds
the same goals and nature. The techniques and principles in this study can also be used as
reference for any individual who will study aerodynamic effects on automotive vehicles
and the like.
1.5 Scope and Limitations
The study only covers the design of the vehicle body and the simulation of its
aerodynamic performance. The limitations are due to the rules and regulations given by
the Shell Eco-marathon Asia 2014 and the time-constraint to design the vehicle.

1.5.1 Vehicle Design (Article 25, page 13)


b) Aerodynamic appendages, which adjust or are prone to changing shape due to
wind whilst the vehicle is in motion, are forbidden.
1.5.2 Dimensions (Article 45, page 20)
a) The total vehicle height must be between 100 cm and 130 cm.
b) The total body width, excluding rear view mirrors, must be between 120 cm
and 130 cm.
c) The total vehicle length must be between 220 cm and 350 cm.
d) The track width must be at least 100 cm for the front axle and 80 cm for the
rear axle, measured between the midpoints where the tyres touch the ground.
e) The wheelbase must be at least 120 cm.
f) The Drivers compartment must have a minimum height of 88 cm and a
minimum width of 70 cm at the Drivers shoulders.
g) The ground clearance must be at least 10 cm.
h) The maximum vehicle weight (excluding the Driver) is 205 kg.
1.5.3 Time-constraint
This study is limited since the organizers of the Shell Eco-marathon competition
require the teams to finish and submit the designs in less than half a year.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The presentation of both thesis and journal articles in this part shows to expound further how
aerodynamic concepts can significantly affect the output of a vehicle.
2.1 Review of Related Studies
The presentation of both thesis and journal articles in this part shows to expound
further how aerodynamic concepts can significantly affect the output of a vehicle.
2.1.1 Computational Study of Flow Around a Car body ( Z. Zheng 2009).
Z.Zheng made a study about the flow around a car body with different relative
angle wind to car axis, varying it from 0 to 30 as shown in figure 2-1. The scale of
the automobile he uses is 435 mm x 168 mm x 148 mm (length x width x height) with
360,000 mesh size. In this study, the drag and lift coefficients are used in order to
compare the different effects of the front window angle on the performance of the
vehicle.

F
Figure 2-1. Effect of the wind angle to the drag and lift coefficient (Zheng 2009)
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2.1.2 Design and Construction of the Urban-concept Car Exterior for Shell Ecomarathon Asia 2011 (M. Bernabe et. al, 2011)
Previous vehicle entry of Mapa for Shell Eco-Marathon Asia urbanconcept car
made a research about its exterior body. The researcher design and fabricate the
exterior body of an urbanconcept that compete in Malaysia on 2011. The design of
the exterior body has average coefficient of drag of 9.7. Tear drop shape of an
exterior body was highly recommended by the researchers since it only has 0.05
coefficient of drag.

2.1.2 Simulation and analysis of drag and lift coefficient between Sedan and
Hatcback car (Salleh 2009)
The thesis showed difference coefficients barriers and lift coefficients for two
basic design types of sedan and hatchback cars. Process simulation and analysis for
14 both the model design was conducted with computer-aided drawing software and
analyzed using COSMOS Floworks software. Restriction coefficient and lift
coefficient for the hatchback design is lower than the sedan design. With this
observation, the hatchback design becomes more efficient and its aerodynamic value
increases.

2.2 Related Literature


This section discussed related literature regarding aerodynamic.
2.2.1 Vehicle Forces
There are four main forces that affect the aerodynamics of a vehicle.
2.2.1.1 Lift
Lift is a force perpendicular to the velocity flow of air. Lift opposed the
weight of a vehicle. (Anderson 2001) Lift helps heavy vehicle to consume less
energy by decreasing the force due to weight.
2.2.1.2 Drag
Drag is a force parallel to the velocity flow of air. It also opposed the
motion of vehicle through air. (Anderson 2001) Drag is generated through
interaction of the vehicle to a form of liquid or gas.
2.2.1.3 Downforce
Downforce is a force perpendicular to the velocity flow of air. Downforce
is generated because of gravitational attraction of the vehicle to earth.
(Anderson 2001)

2.2.2 Aerodynamics
The dynamic of gases, especially atmospheric interactions with moving objects.
(Anderson 2001)
2.2.2.1 Dynamic Pressure
Dynamic pressure is a property of moving gas. It is also used in the lift
coefficient and drag coefficient theory. Dynamic pressure is directly
proportional to density and velocity which have a unit of pressure. (Anderson
2001).
2.2.2.2 Center of Pressure
Center of pressure is located where the resultant of a distributed load
effectively acts on the body. Center of pressure is just like center of gravity
where center of gravity is located on a body due to weight while center of
pressure is located on a body due to pressure. When moment is applied to the
center of pressure the acting distributed load will be equal to zero. (Anderson
2001)

Figure 2-2 Center Pressure (Source: Fundamentals of Aerodynamics 2001)


9

2.2.2.3 Flow Similarity


In flow similarity two different parameters are considered, two different
bodies and flow fields but these parameters must be dynamically similar. The
streamline pattern must be geometrical, force of coefficient must be the same,
and dimensionless coefficients must be the same if plotted in nondimensional
coordinates. Flow similarity is commonly applied to wind tunnels and
computer simulation. (Anderson 2001)

Figure 2-3 Example of Flow Similarity (Source: Fundamentals of Aerodynamics 2001)


2.2.2.3.1 Reynolds Number
Reynolds number is important in Flow similarity, since in flow
similarity the two different bodies that will be compared must have the
same Reynolds number. Reynolds number is also equal to the ratio
inertial force and viscous force. (Anderson 2001)
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2.2.2.4 Types of Flow


In Aerodynamics there are different kinds of flow that is being considered.
2.2.2.4.1 Continuum Flow
Continuum flow exist when the body surface experience frequent
molecules impact and the body cannot distinguish the individual
collision. In continuum flow the fluid is treated as a continuous flow.
Continuum flow is the most common flow that is being used in
aerodynamics application. (Anderson 2001)
2.2.2.4.2 Free Molecular Flow
Free molecular flow is opposite of continuum flow where the
impact of the molecules to the body surface is infrequent because the
molecules is spaced. In free molecular flow the body can distinguish
each molecular impact. (Anderson 2001)
2.2.2.4.3 Low Density Flow
Low density flow is a flow which can experience both
characteristics of free molecular flow and continuum flow.
2.2.2.4.4 Viscous Flow
Viscous flow is a flow which exhibit effects of a transport
phenomenon. Transport phenomenon is a phenomena of mass diffusion,
viscosity and thermal conduction which occur when the mass,

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momentum and energy are transported from one location to another


fluid. (Anderson 2001)
2.2.2.4.5 Inviscid Flow
Inviscid Flow is opposite of viscous flow which do not exhibit
effects of transport phenomenon. (Anderson 2001)

Figure 2-4 Division of a flow. (Fundamentals of Aerodynamics 2001)

2.2.2.4.6 Incompressible Flow


Incompressible flow is a flow where density is constant. (Anderson
2001)
2.2.2.4.7 Compressible Flow
Compressible flow is a flow where density is variable. (Anderson
2001)

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2.2.2.4.8 Subsonic Flow


Subsonic flow is a flow where the Mach number of the flow field
is less than 1. The streamlines of subsonic flow is smooth. Subsonic
flow has a rule of thumb, where rule of thumb stated that Mach
number of a body must be less than 0.8 (Anderson 2001)

Figure 2-5 Subsonic Flow (Fundamentals of Aerodynamics)

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CHAPTER 3
THEORETICAL CONSIDERATION
This chapter focuses on the concepts involved in an aerodynamic design for a vehicle
exterior body. The vehicle body plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of a vehicle
since it is in primary contact with the air flow. The parameters that are set by Shell EcoMarathon Challenge in the design of the vehicle exterior body are also discussed in this chapter.
3.1 Shell Eco-marathon Official Rules
The primary consideration in the design of the vehicle exterior body should comply
with the rules and regulations of the Shell Eco-Marathon (SEM). There are set of
specifications for the vehicle dimensions and safety issues that should be followed.
3.2 Aerodynamics
The aerodynamics is one of the important parameters in the design and development
of automobile. Under road conditions, an automobiles performance is affected by air
resistance. When a car is in motion, air flow in opposite direction and in some cases it
flows across the vehicle. Therefore, to be able to overcome this resisting flow of air, a car
should be driven with greater amount of power to move forward.
3.2.1 Bernoullis Principle
The basic principle in consideration for aerodynamic design is the Bernoullis
principle. This theory states that as the fluid velocity increase, the pressure exerted by
that fluid decreases, various flows can be examined using this theory. The Bernoullis

14

equation will be used in the calculation of fluid flow. Also, the Bernoullis principle
came from Thermodynamics.
3.2.1.1 Bernoullis Equation
Energy Balance, Assuming zero friction loss
From Energy Balance:
Energy In = Energy Out

(Eq. 3.1)

1 +1 +1 +1 =2 +2 +2 +2

(Eq. 3.2)

(2 1 2 +1 + +1 = 2 2 2 +2 + +2 )
1 2
2

1
2
+1 + +
= 2 2 2 +2 + +

1 2

+1 + 1 =
2

1 2
2

2 2
2

+2 + 2

+1 +1 =

2 2
2

+2+2

(Eq. 3.3)
(Eq. 3.4)
(Eq. 3.5)
(Eq. 3.6)

Note: Force (F) is equal to the product of Pressure (P) and Area (A). There
is also not change in temperature (T=0)
Equation 3.5 and 3.6 are called Bernoullis equation. Either of the two
equations can be used to calculate problems in fluid dynamics.
The second law of thermodynamics states that when energy is transferred,
that energy cannot be conserved and some energy must be reduced to some lower
value. From the second law of thermodynamics, the Bernoullis equation (Eq.
3.5) is modified in consideration of friction losses ( ).
1 2

+1 + 1 =
2

2 2
2

+2 + 2 +

(Eq. 3.7)

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Rearranging to show pressure difference, Eq. 3.7 yields:


1 2

2 2 1 2
2

(Eq. 3.8)

Fig. 3-1 Bernoullis Principle


(Source: cdxtexbook)

Fig. 3-2 Bernoullis Principle on wing with Air as fluid


(source: uafedu)

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From the law of mass conservation and continuity equation, mass does not
change with respect to position, nor is it affected by pressure, temperature or
motion.
1 = 2

(Eq. 3.9)

1 1 1 = 2 2 2

(Eq. 3.10)

1 = 2

(Eq. 3.11)

Q=

(Eq. 3.12)

Note: Fluid is assured incompressible


From Eq. 3.10 the density was cancelled due to the same material:
1 = 2

(Eq. 3.13)

3.2.2 Front Pressure


Front pressure is caused by the compressed air molecules acting against the
direction of motion of a vehicle. As a vehicle is moves forward, the air attempts to
flow over the vehicle but the front part of the vehicle counters with the air. Since the
vehicle front part exerts force on the resisting air, the air molecules is compressed by
counter force. These compressed air molecules are high-pressure and push the vehicle
toward low pressure zones which are the bottom, top and sides of a vehicle. The
equation governing front pressure is as follows:
=

(Eq. 3.14)

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Where:
= Frontal Pressure
= Drag Force
= Frontal Area
3.2.3 Drag Force
Drag Force is a type of force that is relevant to motion. This force is generated by
interaction between a solid body and a fluid. There are two requirements to generate
drag. First, the body should be in contact with the fluid to generate drag. Since drag
force is acting between a body and fluid, no fluid means zero drag. Second, there
should be a difference in velocity between the body and the fluid.

Fig. 3-3 Drag Force generated by motion and air flow


(source: Bright Hub Engineering)

18

(Eq. 3.15)

Where:
=

12
2

(kinetic or dynamic contribution to pressure)

3.2.4 Coefficient of Drag


The coefficient of Drag is a dimensionless number that is used to quantify
Aerodynamic Drag on a vehicle body as it moves over some fluid. Low drag
coefficient would mean that the vehicle can pass through a fluid with relatively low
resistance. This is the rational on why automotive and aircraft engineers experience
on various shapes and designs to effectively lower the air resistance to maximize
performance.
The area of drag is one factor to determine the aerodynamic efficiency of a body.
In the design a vehicle, the total shape of the exterior body is considered such as the
front and cross-sectional areas. The shape of an object has a very great effect on the
amount of drag (NASA). The computation for coefficient of drag is as follows:
2

= 2

(Eq. 3.16)

Where:
= Drag Force
= Mass density of the fluid
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v = Speed of the object relative to the fluid


= Frontal Area

Fig. 3-4 Various shapes with coefficient of drag


(Source: NASA)
3.2.5 Down Force
Down force is a downward type of force produced due to aerodynamic factors.
There are two things about down force. First is the benefit, it provides additional
contact between the vehicle tires and the road by means of pushing the vehicle
downward. Second is that, excessive down force can lead to larger power requirement
to drive the vehicle, thus translating to more fuel consumption. Down force value

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depends on the function of the vehicle under design. The equation below shows the
formula for down force:
F = 0.5* * * * 2

(Eq. 3.17)

Where:
= Total Area of a vehicle
= Coefficient of Drag
= Density of air depending on temperature and altitude
2 = Speed of the car

Fig. 3-5 Down force on an automobile

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3.3 Energy Losses due to Aerodynamic Resistance


The air contains kinetic energy, which is energy transferred as it comes contact
with another body. This energy from the air, is opposed to the wind direction, and
therefore leads to energy drain for the vehicle. The energy loss is computed by:

= KE
1

= 2 2
1

= 2 2
1

= 2 [( )( )()( 3 )]

(Eq. 3.18)

(Eq. 3.19)

(Eq. 3.20)

(Eq. 3.21)

Where:
= Energy absorbed that cause energy loss and drag
KE = Kinetic Energy in the air transferred in the vehicle
= Mass of air
v = Velocity of the air relative to the vehicle
= Frontal Area of the vehicle
D = Distance travelled by the vehicle
= Coefficient of Drag

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3.4 Power Required for Rolling Resistance


Rolling resistance pertains to the energy lost when the tire is rolling along its path.
The reason for this energy loss due to rolling resistance is the time deformation due to
continuous use. The equation provided below shows the power requirement for rolling
resistance.
= mgv

(Eq. 3.22)

Where:
= Power needed to overcome rolling resistance
= Rolling coefficient of the tires
m = Mass of the body
g = Gravitational Acceleration
v = Velocity of the car

Fig. 3-6 Rolling resistance on automobile tire


(Source: Engineering toolbox and BMW)
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3.5 Energy Saved due to weight reduction


Power is defined as the required energy to move q Newton (N). Body at a velocity
of 1m/s. In SI units, power is expressed in watt (W). The relationship of power to weight
and velocity is given by the equation:
= mgv

(Eq. 3.23)

Where:
= Power save due to reduction of weight
m = Mass of the Body
g = Gravitational Acceleration
v = Velocity of the Car
3.6 Resistance due to Inertia
Inertia resistance is defined by Mass and Inertia. Inertia is difficulty to change the
momentum of a body. The relationship of momentum, mass and velocity is given by:
Momentum (p) = Mass (m) x Velocity (v)

(Eq. 3.24)

Also, From Newtons Law of motion mass (m) can be derived from:
Force (F) = Mass (m) x Acceleration (a)

(Eq. 3.25)

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3.7 Wind Speed in Manila


The wind speed in Manila from the month of February may vary from 0m/s to
8m/s and the maximum wind speed recorded was 17m/s. At the beginning of the month
the wind speed vary from 3m/s to 7m/s while at the end of the month the wind speed vary
from 4m/s to 8m/s.

Figure 3-7 Wind Speed graph in Manila for the month of February
(Source: https://weatherspark.com/averages/33313/2/Metro-Manila-Philippines)

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CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY
This chapter discussed the methods and procedures of designing and fabricating the exterior
body of urbantype vehicle entry of Mapa Institute of Technology for Shell Eco-Marathon Asia
2013. This chapter also discussed the different software used to help the researcher to conduct
the study. The process flowchart of the study is in figure 4-1:

Considering the Parameters

Design of the Exterior Body by


Computer Software

Simulation of Aerodynamic
Characteristic through Computer
Software

Figure 4-1 Process Flowchart of the study.


26

4.1 Considering the Parameters


The design of the exterior body of vehicle for 2013 was based on different
parameters.
4.1.1 Shell Eco-Marathon Asia 2013 Rules
The Shell Eco-Marathon Rules for 2013 was the basis of the design of the exterior
body. There are limitations and recommendations made by the organizers regarding
the exterior body. Refer to Appendix K for the rules.
4.1.2 Theoretical Consideration
The researcher used the Aerodynamic principles in Chapter 3 as a basis in
designing the exterior body. The shape recommended by NASA was also considered
to attain low coefficient of drag that affect the vehicle performance. Coefficient of
drag can affect the energy needed by a vehicle to run; low coefficient of drag will
give lower energy needed since the air flowing through the vehicle will flows
smoothly to the body.
4.1.3 Exterior Body Design of the previous entry Habagat
Habagat is the first entry of Team Cardinals for the Shell Eco Marathon Asia
urban type category. The exterior body design of Habagat was reviewed for its
positive and negative aspects. Habagats negative side is its frontal area because it
captures more air, since it is wide. The exterior body is heavy and the under chassis is
not fully covered. These parameters help the researchers in designing the new exterior
body of the urbanconcept vehicle.
27

Figure 4-2 HABAGAT


4.2 Design of the exterior body
4.2.1 TVR TUSCAN
The design of the exterior body of the urbanconcept vehicle for 2013 is based
from TVR TUSCAN. TVR TUSCAN was selected because of the shape of its body.
Its body has low coefficient of drag which can help the performance of the car. The
design of TVR TUSCAN was also considered since the curviness of the body
perfectly fits to the design of the chassis.

Figure 4-3 TVR TUSCAN (Source: http://betterparts.org/tvr/tvr-tuscan.html)

28

4.2.2 3D Design using Computer Software


Considering the aerodynamic principle, rules and the basis design TVR TUSCAN
the researchers came up with the final dimensions refer to appendix. The researcher
uses Autodesk Inventor for making a 3D sketch of Haribon. Autodesk Inventor is a
program that enables you to make a 3D sketch with a desired material and run a stress
analysis test. Finalizing the shape, dimensions and aesthetics of the exterior body is
shown in figure 4-3.

Figure 4-4 Haribon CAD using Autodesk Inventor

29

4.3 Simulation of Aerodynamic Characteristics


The exterior body will be simulated in a computer software to determine its
aerodynamic characteristics and compare to the exterior body of Habagat.
4.3.1 Simulation of exterior body of Haribon
After sketching the exterior body of Haribon in Autodesk Inventor the material
selected was considered and input to the sketch. The exterior body is simulated in
Autodesk flow design to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. Autodesk flow
design is a program developed by Autodesk especially for flow analysis. Autodesk
flow design can determine the coefficient of drag and drag force; speed wind can also
change from 0 to 100 m/s. The model used was imported from Autodesk Inventor,
any CAD program can also be import, orientation of the model can also be change,
and different view of the wind is also available.

Figure 4-5 Flow Simulation of Haribon using Autodesk Flow Design


30

4.3.2 Aerodynamic Characteristics Comparison


The aerodynamic characteristics of exterior body of Haribon were compared to
Habagat. The exterior body of Habagat was also 3D Sketch; since the actual exterior
body of Habagat is not available the researcher based the dimensions of the sketch in
the thesis of previous team. The sketch was also simulated through Autodesk flow
design for its aerodynamic characteristics.

Figure 4-6 Habagat CAD using Autodesk Inventor

31

Figure 4-7 Flow simulation of Habagat using Autodesk Flow Design

32

Chapter 5
DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
This chapter shows the results of the simulation and discusses the effect of the results to the
vehicle body.
5.1 Results
5.1.1 Data of Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag were calculated using the
Autodesk Flow Design Simulation Software.

Habagat
Trial

Wind Speed

Coefficient of

Drag Force

Highest Front

(m/s)

Drag

(N)

pressure
(Pa)

7.22

0.47

14.130

26.512

10.56

0.47

30.359

60.388

13.89

0.47

51.602

104.778

Table 5-1 Aerodynamic Characteristics of Habagat

33

Haribon
Trial

Wind Speed

Coefficient of

Drag Force

Highest Front

(m/s)

Drag

(N)

Pressure
(Pa)

7.22

0.31

0.074

11.374

10.56

0.30

0.155

22.357

13.89

0.30

0.272

39.983

Table 5-2 Aerodynamic Characteristics of Haribon


5.2 Discussion
Three (3) trials were made to acquire data for the simulation of the two (2) models
Haribon and Habagat. The data used in calculating the coefficient of drag and drag force
were based on the actual dimensions of the vehicle. Appendix H and I shows the actual
dimensions of both vehicles, Haribon and Habagat.
The assumption for the simulation is that air is still and that the vehicle speed is used
as the wind speed. Vehicle speed was calculated based on overall distance travelled over
time to finish the race track. The vehicle speed of 26kph is the minimum speed, 38kph is
the median speed and 50kph is the maximum speed. These figures of speed were based
on the SEM 2014 race track and vehicle max speed. The track spans 1.2km and the
competition requires 10laps per trial which translates to overall travel distance of 12km
with a time limit of 29 minutes per trial. Appendix G shows the computation for the
vehicle speed.
34

CAD software is used in determining the vehicle total frontal area and Flow Design is
utilized to calculate the drag forced given the wind speed. Highest front pressure is
calculated as well. The coefficient of drag is determined by the shape of the design. Drag
force is affected mainly by velocity. Increasing velocity yields higher value for drag force
and higher value for frontal pressure.

35

Chapter 6
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter presents the conclusion of the study and recommendations future improvement
of studies that will be conducted.
6.1 Conclusion
To be able to compete, the Shell Eco-marathon 2013 rules and regulations should be
considered. The parameters in the design and the final dimensions are shown on appendix
K.
Frontal area should be reduced if one is to reduce the value of drag coefficient. The
new urbanconcept body for Haribon, has less frontal area as compared to Habagat. The
reduction in front area is 10.59%. Computation for reduction in area is shown in appendix
L.
The shape of an object affects the numerical value of the coefficient of drag. The
frontal area of the vehicle body is the reference in the simulation of the coefficient of
drag. Minimizing frontal area is the key in reducing drag coefficient. The computed
coefficient of drag via simulation is less compared to commercial cars since its size is
minimized and the body is streamlined.
Drag force, meanwhile is also reduced with minimized frontal area of the design.
Although drag coefficient is determined by an objects shape, drag force can still change

36

depending on the numerical value of the velocity. From the data results, it is clear that
increasing velocity would yield increasing value for the drag force.

6.2 Recommendation
Detailed designing and accurate molding of the vehicle body is a must since the shape
of an object greatly affects the coefficient of drag. The design should be conceptualized
based on existing aerodynamic models such as current trend on car shapes streamlining.
A software simulation is a must in designing the vehicle body so that the team can cut in
determining the optimum shape of the vehicle. Simulation gives the advantage of
skipping construction of prototypes and can give the team more time on fabrication.
Time is limited for the team to produce a vehicle for the Shell Eco-marathon
competition; design phase should be immediately started as soon as a new team is formed
so that design details can thoroughly checked and more time can be provided on
fabrication phase.
The fabrication of the vehicle body should also consider light-weight materials since
it also affects vehicle performance. Rules and Regulations of the Shell Eco-marathon
competition should always be taken into account in the design and fabrication of the
vehicle body.
Besides the above given, teamwork and sharing of ideas gives best result in the
design and construction of a good vehicle.

37

APPENDICES
Appendix A. Gannt Chart

Appendix B. Expenses

Description
Fabrication of Mold
Fabrication of Exterior Body
Total Expenses

Price
P 90,000
P 90,000
P 180,000

38

Appendix C. CAD of exterior body of Haribon

ISOMETRIC FRONT RIGHT VIEW

ISOMETRIC FRONT LEFT VIEW

39

ISOMETRIC REAR LEFT VIEW

ISOMETRIC REAR RIGHT VIEW

40

FRONT VIEW

TOP VIEW

41

SIDE VIEW

REAR VIEW

42

Appendix D. CAD of exterior body of Habagat

ISOMETRIC FRONT RIGHT VIEW

ISOMETRIC FRONT LEFT VIEW

43

ISOMETRIC REAR LEFT VIEW

ISOMETRIC REAR RIGHT VIEW

44

FRONT VIEW

TOP VIEW

45

SIDE VIEW

REAR VIEW

46

Appendix E. Dimensions of Exterior Body of Habagat


Units: inches (in)

SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW
47

TOP VIEW

48

Appendix F. Dimensions of Exterior Body of Haribon


Units: millimeter (mm)

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

49

TOP VIEW

50

Appendix G. Computations for Wind Speed

Shell Eco-marathon Asia 2014 Manila Track

Stop time = 2 sec (at least); say 5 sec stop time per lap.
Total stop time, tstop-total = 5 sec x 10 laps = 50 sec; say 1 min per trial
Total time to finish, ttotal = 29 min (includes stopping time)
Max time for car to finish at track, tmax = 29min 1 min = 28 min

51

1000
12 1
=
=
= 25.71; 26
1
max
28 60
= 50

50 + 26
= 38
2

Assumption for simulation: Air is still, Vcar = Vwind

= 26

1000 1

= 7.22 /

1 3600

= 38

1000 1

= 10.56 /

1 3600

= 50

1000 1

= 13.89 /

1 3600

52

Appendix H. Simulation of Exterior Body of Habagat using Autodesk Flow Design

Trial 1 Speed 7.22 m/s

Trial 2 Speed 10.56 m/s

53

Trial 3 Speed 13.89 m/s

The Streamline Air Flow for the simulation of Habagat

54

Appendix I. Simulation of Exterior Body of Haribon using Autodesk Flow Design

Trial 1 Speed 7.22 m/s

Trial 2 Speed 10.56 m/s

55

Trial 3 Speed 13.89 m/s

The Streamline Air Flow for the simulation of Haribon

56

Appendix J. Step by step method using Autodesk Flow Design

Autodesk Flow Design

Import CAD File, in this study the researcher import locally a CAD file
57

The file imported is saved as a STL; STL is the neutral file format of CAD

On the toggle bar you can edit the XYZ orientation of the model

58

Since the Air Flow is from Left side to right, fix the desired position of the model.

On the toggle bar you can edit the wind speed from 0-100 m/s

59

Different characteristics of the flow lines can be edit on the flow lines settings located at the
toggle bar.

Click the drag plot on the toggle bar to view the drag graph

60

Appendix K. Shell Eco-marathon Asia Rules 2013

Chapter 1 Article 25 of Shell Eco-marathon Asia Rules 2013


(Vehicle Design)

61

Chapter 1 Article 45 of Shell Eco-marathon Asia Rules 2013


(Dimensions)

62

Appendix L. Computation of Percent Difference of Frontal Area

% Difference =

% Difference =

..
.+.

= 10.59%

63

Appendix M. Shell Eco-Marathon 2014

Haribon Passed the Technical and Safety Inspection

Haribon Before the Run


64

Team Cardicals 2014 Urbanconcept Haribon

65

Appendix N. Sponsors

Amameco Industries Resources Corp.

Autodesk

BES Technical Works & Services, Inc.

Blanco Race Engineering

BOSCH

CALCO Industries Incorporated

Decal Republic

ELEWELD

66

Ian Carlo Rice Dealer

SHELL

SolidWorks

TIARA

Malabon Diesel

SMART

SUN Cellular

TRIMEKSTAL Industrial Supply INC.

TOYOTA
67

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Jameson, Anthony .1990 .Control theory for optimum design of aerodynamic shapes.
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