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MINISTRY OF LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT

SMALLHOLDER DAIRY COMMERCIALIZATION PROGRAMME

FINAL REPORT

REF: CONS/SDCP/06/2008-09

TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A WORKABLE DISEASECONTROL


STRATEGY IN GOATS

COUNTRY:

PROGRAMME NAME:

KENYA

SMALLHOLDER DAIRY
COMMERCIALIZATION PROGRAMME

IFAD GRANT NO. 815-KE:

LOAN NO. 678 KE

APRIL 2010

1.1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The consultants are grateful to various individuals and institutions who contributed to the success of
this study.
Our special gratitude goes to the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and
the Government of Kenya (GoK) for financial support and to the Smallholder Dairy
Commercialization Programme for giving us the opportunity to conduct this study.
We are greatly indebted to Moses Kembe, the Programme Coordinator, for his assistance
during the study. We also wish to acknowledge the support of Mr. Bernard Kimoro and
cooperation of the other Programme officers, District Livestock Production Officers, District
Dairy Officers, District Veterinary officers, Division Livestock Extension Officers and
Veterinary Officers who provided data and information for this survey.
We also wish to acknowledge the role played by Susan Kamola, the Procurement officer, and
other staff at the Programme Co-ordination Unit. We are also very grateful to the enumerators,
people who participated in the interviews and Focus Group Discussions and the many dairy
producers from various Dairy Commercialization Areas (DCAs).
We are very grateful to the contribution and assistance received from staff in the Faculty of
Veterinary Medicine and the various Government Departments in the Programme area.
Finally, we wish to express our gratitude to the Director of Veterinary Services for the support
and facilitation of this study.
The data obtained during this study will assist in the development of a workable disease control
strategy and thus improve productivity of livestock in the Programme districts of the
Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Programme (SDCP).

Prof. T. Maitho
Team Leader

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
1.1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................ ii
3.0
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ......................................................... v
4.0
LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................... vi
5.0
LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................... vi
6.0
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................ vii
7.0
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................ 1
7.1
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Profile. ................................................... 1
7.2
Dairy Goats ............................................................................................... 1
7.3
Desktop Study ........................................................................................... 1
7.4
Study Area ................................................................................................. 1
8.0
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY ........................................................................ 2
9.0
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY ................................................................ 2
11.1 Diseases of Dairy Animals in the Programme Area. .................................................. 7
11.1.1 Types of Ectoparasites and DiseasesTransmitted in the Programme Districts. ....... 7
11.1.2 Incidences of Feed borne Mycotoxicosis, Zoonotic, and Breeding Diseases ......... 8
11.1.3
Awareness ............................................................................................... 9
11.1.4
Service Delivery ........................................................................................ 9
11. 2.0
DISCUSSION ................................................................................................. 10
11.2.1
Social Economic Information.................................................................. 10
11.2.1.1
Challenges Facing Service Delivery ....................................................... 10
11.2.2
Prevalence and Control of Goat Diseases ............................................... 10
11.2.3.1
Characterization and Occurrence of Diseases in Goats10
11.2.3.1.1
Ectoparasites.10
11.2.3.1.2
Breeding Diseases ................................................................................... 12
11.2.3.1.3
Bacteria Diseases in Goats ...................................................................... 12
11.2.3.1.3
Diarrhoea Diseases in Goats .................................................................. 13
11.2.3.1.4
Viral Diseases in Goats .......................................................................... 13
11.2.3.1.5
Feed Borne Mycotoxicosis14
11.2.3.1.6
Plant Poisoning..15
11.2.3.3
Wild animals17
11.2.3.4
Herbal Medicines.17
11.2.4
Strategies of Tick Borne Disease Control ............................................... 20
11.2.5 Disease Control and Management Strategy ........................................................... 26
11.2.8
Service Delivery Model in the Programme Districts .............................. 31
12. Conclusions ................................................................................................................ 34
13.Recommendations ........................................................................................................ 34
14.
References ............................................................................................... 36
Appendix 1:TERMS OF REFERENCE ........................................................................... 38
The Terms of Reference for Development of a Workable Disease Control Strategy are: 38
Appendix 2: QUESTIONNAIRES ................................................................................... 39
QUESTIONNARE FOR MAJOR FEED MANUFACTURERS/ SUPPLIERS .............. 57
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QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MILK PROCESSOR(S).......................................................... 59


Appendix 3: KEY INFORMATION SCHEDULE ...................................................... 66
Appendix 5: ENUMERATOR TRAINING GUIDE ................................................... 67
CHECKLIST FOR FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION ....................................................... 69
OBSERVATION CHECKLIST ....................................................................................... 71
Appendix 6: List of Stake holders ................................................................................ 73
Appendix
7: CURRICULUM VITAE FOR PERSONNEL ................................... 76
Curriculum Vitae for Prof T. Maitho ................................................................................ 76
Curriculum Vitae for Prof. Paul W. N. Kanyari : ........................................................... 78
Curriculum Vitae for Dr. Simon M. Macharia (BVM, MSc.) ......................................... 80
Curriculum Vitae for Nduhiu Gitahi ................................................................................. 82
Curriculum Vitae for Mr. Stanley W. Chege .................................................................... 84
ANNEX 1
General Information on Stakeholders ..................................................... 85

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3.0

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

AHA

Animal Health Assistant

AI

Artificial Insemination

CCPP

Contagious Caprine Pleuro Pneumonia

DCAs

Dairy Commercialization Areas

DLPO

District Livestock Production Officer

DLEO

Dairy Livestock Extension Officer

DVO

District Veterinary Officers

ECF

East Coast Fever

FGD

Focus Group Discussion

FFM

Food/Feed manufactures

FMD

Foot and Mouth Disease

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

NGO

Non Governmental Organization

PA

Programme area

PhD

Doctor of Philosophy

PO

programme Officer

SDCP

Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Programme

SPSS

Statistical Program for Social Scientists.

IFAD

International Fund for Agriculture Development.

LSD

Lumpy Skin Disease

RVF

Rift Valley Fever

TOR

Terms of Reference

VCO

Vector Control Officer

VO

Veterinary officer

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4.0

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Levels of Education and marital status of interviewed dairy producers from the
Programme Districts. .......................................................................................................... 6
Table 2. Vector-borne Parasitic Diseases of Goats in the Programme Districts. ............... 7
Table 3. Endo-parasitic Diseases of Dairy Goats in the Programme Area. ....................... 8
Table 4. Summary of Goat Diseases in the Programme Area. ........................................... 9
Table 5. Control of Vector Borne Diseases in Goats ....................................................... 21
Table 6. Important Groups of Acaricides Used to Control Vector Borne Diseases in Goats.
................................................................................................................. 22
Table 8: Summary of disease control strategy of goats in the programme districts ......... 22
Table 8b. Summary of Disease Control and Management Strategy. ............................... 27
Table 9. Summary of Service Delivery Model in the Programme Districts. ................... 31
Table 10. Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Programme - Key Informant Schedule 66
Table 11. Summary of Dairy Producers in the Programme area. ..................................... 85
Table 12. Summary of Dairy Producers Farms visited in the Programme Area. ............ 85
Table 13. Summary of Key Informants in the Programme Area. ..................................... 86
Table 14. Summary of Focus Group Discussions in the Programme Area. ..................... 86

5.0

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1:

Map of Programme Districts. .................................................................... 3

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6.0

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Programme (SDCP) is supported by International


Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the Government of Kenya (GoK) and covers
the nine districts of Nakuru; Trans Nzoia; Uasin Gishu; Nandi North; Bomet; Nyamira; Kisii
Central; Lugari and Bungoma. The Programme is implemented under The Ministry of
Livestock Development (MoLD).
The livestock sector is important since it contributes to 12% of Kenyas Gross Domestic
Product and employs 50% of Agricultural Labor Force. The major development challenges
facing the country include high poverty and unemployment levels especially among the youths.
Its now recognized by various stakeholders that the livestock sector has a great potential of
reducing poverty levels and can contribute to Kenyas economic growth. This observation is in
line with key government policy documents like Vision 2030 poverty reduction strategy for
revitalizing agriculture. Therefore, there is a need to address these challenges by increasing
livestock production, supply of livestock products and improving the health of animals.
Attempt has been made by SDCP and other stakeholders to improve the dairy industry and
increase milk production in the rural areas. Hence, the overall goal of the programme is to
increase the income of the poor rural households who depends substantially on production and
trade of dairy products for their livelihood. The purpose of the programme is to improve the
financial returns of small operators and enable more rural households to create employment.
The programme realizes that disease control is vital towards reduction of dairy animals
mortality and increase milk production in the area.
Professionals from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine were hired in order to conduct a study
on incidence of dairy cattle diseases with emphasis on vector-borne diseases. The output of the
study is to develop a workable disease control strategy.
A study was planned in order to meet the set objectives of the study. A desk top study was
initially conducted in order to review diseases of dairy animals, and conditions, disease control
management practices, service delivery channels and then evaluate their effects, economic
impact in the nine programme Districts.
The literature review was useful since it provided secondary data which assisted in the
identification of information gaps in the study area. A field survey was conducted in the Dairy
Commercialization Areas (DCAs) and targeted dairy producers, government and private
personnel working with the groups. A target population of 218 respondents which included
smallholder dairy producers and other stakeholders was selected using stratified random
sampling technique.

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The primary data was collected from dairy producers, group leaders, government personnel,
private animal health providers, milk processors, and other key informers. The three DCAs
were stratified into Divisions and locations and sample size for each area was determined.
Focus group discussions were also held with representatives of dairy producers and key
informants in the three DCAs. The key officers were also interviewed. Experienced
enumerators were identified, recruited and trained in the Programme area. An initial pilot study
was conducted in order to pretest the questionnaires and information obtained was used to
improve the data collection instruments.
The data collection instruments included: questionnaires, interviews, and observations.
Secondary data was collected from relevant literature and project documents. The consultants
administered the questionnaires with the assistance of the trained enumerators. Consultants and
experts conducted focus group discussions and made observations.
The collected data was processed using statistical software package for data management. The
descriptive and inferential statistics, epidemiological and socio-economic analysis were also
performed. The finding of the survey are presented following the terms of reference, using
prose, tables and figures. The findings are followed by discussion, conclusions and
recommendations made from the study.
Finally, the information generated from the survey was utilized in the development of the
disease control strategy. The proposed disease control strategy and service delivery model
should be implemented in order to control disease and conditions in the programme area.

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7.0

INTRODUCTION

7.1
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Profile.
The University of Nairobi was established as a National University in 1970 and the Faculty of
Veterinary Medicine was established from Makerere University in 1962. The Faculty offers degrees
in the areas of livestock sector and wildlife. The Faculty is a center of excellence in training,
research, and outreach programmes, and has experienced staff in research and consultancy.
7.2
Dairy Goats
Goat rearing is important since dairy goats contribute to food security by producing milk and
meat required by the growing population in the country.
The major challenges facing goat production are various diseases affecting goats in the dairy
commercialization area. This has lead to decrease in goat milk production, decline in households
income and aggravation of poverty in the DCAs.
There is therefore a need to control goat diseases in order to increase goat population and
consequentially raise dairy producers income.
There is limited information on goat diseases and goat diseases control strategy in the DCAs.
The current study was undertaken in order to establish Dairy goat diseases occurring in the DCAs
and then develop a disease control strategy to mitigate identified diseases and conditions.
7.3
Desktop Study
A desktop study was conducted in order to review dairy related diseases and evaluate their effects
and economic impact in the nine original programme Districts. The literature review provided
secondary data, which helped in identifying information gaps in the area of study. The literature
search also helped in understanding the current situation of dairy cattle and goats diseases in the
programme Districts.
7.4
Study Area
The study was conducted in the dairy commercialization areas (DCAs) in the nine programme
Districts. The target population of smallholder dairy farmers was selected using both stratified
random sampling and purposive sampling methods .The household heads and/or dairy producers as
well as group leaders participated in the study.
Primary data was collected from dairy producers, veterinary personnel, major milk processors
small milk traders, feed manufacturer, and other stakeholders in the DCAs. Field data was collected
using questionnaires, interviews and also by observation.
The data was processed and analyzed using statistical software for data management and
analysis.
The epidemiological, statistical and social-economic analysis was performed.
Finally, inferences were made on the effects of dairy related diseases/conditions on production
and economic impact in the nine programme Districts.
The information obtained from the study will enhance our knowledge on disease control and milk
production and also assist in the development of a disease control strategy. The information
obtained from the study was presented in a stakeholders workshop, and a final report was prepared
and submitted to the Programme Coordination Unit.

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8.0 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


Smallholder dairy commercialization programme is supported by International Fund for
Agricultural Development, and the objective of the study is to undertake a quick review of dairy
related diseases, their incidences, prevalence/morbidity and mortality rates and subsequently to
evaluate their effects and economic impact under the common dairy production system in the
Programme districts as follows, Nakuru, Nyamira, Bomet, Kisii Central, Uasin Gishu,Lugari, Nandi
North, Trans Nzoia and Bungoma.
The purpose of the programme is to improve the financial returns of dairy producers and enable
more rural households to create employment.

9.0

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The livestock sub-sector is important as it contributes to 10% of the countrys GDP and creates
over 50% of the agricultural sector labour force. The dairy sector is still growing and smallholder
dairy farmers produce over 85% of total annual milk production and contribute to 3.5% of total
GDP. Hence, dairy industry contributes to household income and poverty reduction through the
sale of milk, milk products and livestock.
Dairy farming also contributes to employment creation, food security, and improvement of
nutrition status and health of the poor rural householders. The major challenges facing the dairy
industry are various livestock diseases and conditions, which cause great economic loss due to
decrease in productivity and death of livestock.
There is therefore a need to develop a diseases control strategy, which would improve animal
health service delivery and thus reduce mortality and production of dairy animals. The proposed
strategy will establish incidences, prevalence, morbidity and mortality of dairy animal diseases
common in the programme areas, and also assess the social-economic aspect of dairy-related
diseases in the area.
The findings will benefit smallholder dairy producers because it will identify diseases trends and
prevalence in the nine programme Districts. The study will benefit Ministry of Livestock
Development and stakeholders by providing information on areas that need attention and
improvement of animal health. The study will also benefit researchers in the field of livestock since
it will identify knowledge gaps in livestock diseases and thus stimulate further research in disease
control.
Lastly, the disease control strategy will facilitate disease control and improve productivity of
dairy goats.

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10.

METHODOLOGY

A map illustrating the programme Districts covered in the survey is given below. The map shows
the 9 districts visited during the study.

Figure 1:

Map of Programme Districts.

10.1
Programme target area
The field study was conducted between 19th November, 2009 and 14th December 2009 in the
following 9 Districts covered by the programme; Nakuru, Nandi North, Trans Nzoia, Uasin-Gishu,
Bomet, Nyamira, Kisii Central, Lugari and Bungoma Districts.
10.2
Research Design
A descriptive survey was conducted in the 9 districts in order to gather data which was used in
identifying the problem. The descriptive method was used to gather data from government
personnel, managers, chairpersons of committees, smallholder dairy producers and other
stakeholders in the dairy commercialization programme area. The descriptive method was preferred
because it allowed enough data collection from the programme area in a short time.
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10.3
Research Instruments
Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussion and observations in
order to get a holistic view of the situation in the programme area. The focus group discussion
targeted selected dairy producers from the dairy groups and leaders. The collected data captured
information on disease/conditions, disease control, economic impact and production.
10.4
Questionnaires.
Questionnaires were used to collect data from the respondents and included statements, closed
questions and open-ended questions because a large sample was required.
The questionnaires targeted smallscale dairy producers, selected group leaders, District Veterinary
Officers (DVO), Heads of Veterinary Investigation Laboratories, private practitioners, major milk
processor, small milk trader and a feed manufacturer.
10.5
Interviews
Interviews were conducted on key personnel in order to get further information and they dealt
with diseases of dairy goats.
The interview schedules contained questions relevant to the objectives of the study and
the interview schedules targeted Heads of the programme, stakeholders and selected group leaders.
10.6
Observations
Data was also obtained by observation of various aspects of interest in order to obtain first hand
information. The information was obtained on various aspects of diseases/ conditions; poisonous
substances, vectors of dairy animals, facilities and methods of vector and disease control.
10.7
Data collection
The consultants obtained a letter of introduction from the Programme Coordinator and held initial
meeting with key staff of smallholder dairy commercialization Programme in order to get
information and documents on the programme.
The consultants were assisted by enumerators to administer questionnaires and interviews to the
respondents and focus group discussions were held with selected farmers from Dairy
commercialization areas.
The respondents who were unable to fill the questionnaires were taken through the questionnaires
and their responses recorded appropriately by the enumerators. The consultants also visited farmers
in the DCAs and recorded relevant information from the farmers.
10.8
Target Population
The target population was selected using a stratified random method from the 8400 smallholder
dairy producers in the Dairy Commercialization Areas. The survey targeted government officers,
managers, and chairpersons of selected dairy groups, dairy producers and other key stakeholders.
The data was collected at three levels;

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Firstly, at zonal level data was collected from 3 Heads of veterinary investigation laboratories, 1
major milk processor, 1 small milk trader, 1 major feed manufactureres, 4 animal health providers
and the programme liaison person (Table 9).
Secondly, at District level, data was collected from the 9 District veterinary officers, 9 District
Livestock Production Officers, 27 Division livestock extension officers, 1 Vector control officer
(Table 9).
Finally, at Dairy group level, a total of 89 dairy goat farmers were interviewed from 8400 dairy
producers in the 380 dairy groups in the programme area, 62 respondents were males whiles 27
were females (Table 7). In addition 10 focus groups discussions with a total of 63 dairy producers
were conducted in the study area. The focus group discussions were distributed as follows; 2 in Ce
Kisii Central, 2 in Lugari, 2 in Nandi North, 2 in Tran Nzoia and 2 in Bungoma District(Table 10).
10.9
Sampling Technique
A sample size of 218 respondents was selected from the population and represented the
population adequately. The sample size of 89 dairy goat producers was obtained using
Epidemiology tables at 97% confidence interval and 3% disease prevalence level. The respondents
at Dairy group level were selected from the members of dairy producers in the 27 groups within the
Dairy commercialization area.
The sample size of dairy goat farmers per District was as follows ; Nakuru 31, Bomet 22,
Nyamira 8, Kisii Central 5, Nandi North 5, Uasin Gichu 5, Lugari 4, Bungoma 5, Trans Nzoia 4
(Table 9).
10.10 Data analysis
The data management and analysis was performed using statistical programme for social
scientists. The collected data was sorted, cleaned, and entered in a database, then processed and
results interpreted.
Finally, inferences were made on the occurrence and control of dairy related diseases/conditions
and on economic impact in the programme Districts.
10.11 Pilot Study
A pilot study was carried out in order to establish if the instruments were reliable and detected
errors were corrected before proceeding with data collection. In addition, the study established that
instruments were comprehensive in eliciting intended information from the respondents.

11.
11.0

FINDINGS OF FIELD SURVEY.


General Information on respondents

The general information of respondents included: gender, marital status, level of education and
source of income is summarized in Table 1. A total of 336 respondents filled the dairy famers
questionnaires and 101(30%) of respondents were females while 235(70%) were males (Table 1).
Majority of the respondents were people aged 35 - 55 years (56.3%) while young people aged 1934 years were 16.4% (Appendix 1). The marital status of respondents show that 90% of respondents
were married. The education levels of respondents indicate that 50.3% had secondary education,

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32.7% had primary education and only 2.1% lacked education. This shows that majority of farmers
are literate.
Table 1. Levels of Education and marital status of interviewed dairy producers
from the Programme Districts.
DISTRICTS GENDER (%) EDUCATION LEVEL (%)
MARITAL
STATUS (%)
Male Female Secondary Primary None Married Single
Nakuru
57
43
52
43
5
92
8
Nyamira
74
26
69
28
3
85
15
Bomet
69
31
50
50
0
89
11
Kisii
68
32
53
37
3
95
5
Central
Uasin Gichu 76
24
54
47
0
81
19
Lugari
66
34
79
21
0
90
10
Nandi North 83
17
59
36
5
95
5
Trans Nzoia 70
30
89
11
0
89
11
Bungoma
62
38
62
24
2
89
11
Type of farming
The major source of income for the respondents was livestock farming (44.3%), milk production
(39.3 %), and crop production (20%). Majority of the farmers (77.3%) owned the land and farmers
with a farm size of 1-4 acres were 55.9%. The most common type of farming practiced was both
dairy and crop farming.
Economic Aspect
The major source of income for the 336 respondents was livestock farming (44.3%), milk
production (39.3 %), and crop production (20%). Majority of the farmers (77.3%) owned their land
and farmers with a farm size of 1-4 acres were 55.9%. The most common type of farming practiced
was both dairy and crop farming.
The main source of income for goat producers was milk production. The average numbers of
goats kept by respondents were two, which produced an average of 1.8 liters of milk per day. The
average price of goat milk was Ksh. 39.50. Family labour was mainly used in the production of goat
milk and the cost of labour varied from Ksh.500 to 1500 per month depending on the number of
animals kept in the farm.
Dairy goat farmers purchased various inputs in order to control diseases and vectors in their
farms. The average cost of treatment of goat diseases was Kshs. 198 per month. The respondents
spent Ksh. 40 per month to control ectoparasites and a minimum of Ksh. 20 per month to deworm
one goat. A total of 94% of respondents use pesticides on goats to control ticks, fleas and lice. The
methods commonly used on goats to control ectoparasites were spraying (59.9%), dipping (28.5%)
and dusting (1.6%).
Most of the farmers (97.7%) indicated that they gave salt lick to dairy animals. Those respondents
who gave powder and block saltlicks were 77.7% and 14.3% respectively.

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Dairy Goat Producers farm visits


The dairy goat producers who were visited in the 9 programme Districts are given in Table 11.
Some of the farms whic were visited had both dairy cattle and dairy goats. The information
obtained indicate that the common breeds of dairy goats in the programme area were Toggenburg,
German Alpine, Saanen, Nubian cross and Cross breeds.

11.1 Diseases of Dairy Animals in the Programme Area.


11.1.1 Types of Ectoparasites and DiseasesTransmitted in the Programme Districts.
Table 2. Vector-borne Parasitic Diseases of Goats in the Programme Districts.
Vectors
1.
i)

Ticks
Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

ii)
iii)

Rhipicephalus evertsi
Amblyomma variegatum

2.
i)

Tse tse fly


Glossina pallidipes

3.
i)

Mange
Psoroptic

Demodectic
iii) Chorioptes mange
4.
Lice
i)
Linognathus stenopsis
ii)
Damalinia caprae

Disease/ Condition

Districts

Nairobi Sheep Disease

NN, TN

Heart water (bush sickness),


Nairobi Sheep Disease

Lu

Bo, Bu
Trypanosomosis (Nagana)
Lu
Pruritis
Pruritis

ii)

5.

Nk, TN, Bu
Anaemia
Anaemia
NN, Nk, TN, Bu

Fleas
Irritation, allergy

6.
i)

Biting flies
Stomoxys calcitran (stable fly) Anthrax

KC, Bu.

NN= Nandi North, TN= Trans Nzoia, Lu= Lugari, Bo= Bomet, Bu= Bungoma, KC = Kisii Central, Nk = Nakuru

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Table 3. Endo-parasitic Diseases of Dairy Goats in the Programme Area.


Endoparasites
1.

Helminths

i)

Nematodes: Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus


chaerbertia, Oesophagostomum, Nematodirus, Bunostomum

ii)

Hookworm, Toxocara vitulorum, cooperia, Dictyocaulus

iii)

Trematodes: Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantic

Disease /Condition
Helminthiasis
Anaemia
Unthriftiness

Anaemia
Unthrifitiness

iv)

Cestodes: moeniezia genus, cysticercus, Echinococcus

Anaemia

Granulosus

Hydatidosis

2.

Coccidia

i)

Eimeria species

Coccidiosis

11.1.2 Incidences of Feed borne Mycotoxicosis, Zoonotic, and Breeding Diseases in the
Programme Districts.
The important parameters which describe diseases in livestock are given below. A visit to the
programme area showed that the incidences of diseases/ conditions of dairy animals in the month of
November 2009 was as follows; Heartwater, Trypanosomosis, Helminthiasis, Coccidiosis,
Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Mastitis and Milk fever.
The annual prevalence rates of dairy goat diseases given in the TORs varied from one disease to
another. The decreasing annual prevalence rates of important diseases in the programme area was;
Helminthiasis, Heartwater, Eye infection, Pneumonia, Foot rot, Coccidiosis, Mange and Goat pox.
The most prevalent disease in goats was Heartwater and had the highest mortality rates while
pneumonia had highest morbidity rate in goats.
The following are important Dairy related diseases as per the TORs identified in the programme
area:
Breeding disease; brucellosis.
Zoonotic disease; anthrax
Feed-borne disease; plant poisoning.
Dairy related disease; mastitis

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11.1.3 Awareness
The percentage of dairy producers who kept farm records was 54.2 % (N=89). The distribution
of farm records kept by this group of farmers showed that 55.8% kept milk records, 27% breeding
records while 1.2% kept records of diseases in the farm. A total of 96.4% of respondents indicated
that there is a need to train farmers on record keeping in order to improve the health of the animals.
11.1.4 Service Delivery
The service delivery was provided mainly by Private Animal Health service providers under the
supervision of District Veterinary Officers. The government personnel mainly undertake disease
control, disease surveillance, and meat inspection. The veterinary service providers in the
Programme area are as follows; Government personnel, Private veterinarians, Animal Health
Assistants, private non-professional providers, Dairy goat Assistants, farmers and herbalists.
Table 4. Summary of Goat Diseases in the Programme Area.
Disease

Districts in Programme area


Nakuru Nyamira Bomet Kisii Uasin Lugari Nandi Trans
Central Gichu
North Nzoia

Abortion
Anthrax
Bloat
+
Brucellosis
CCPP
+
Coccidiosis
+
Diarrhoea
Eye infection Foot rot
Goat Pox
+
Heart water
Helminthiasis +
Hydatidiosis
+
Mange
Mastitis
+
NSD
Orf
Pneumonia
+
TrypanosomosisPlant Poisoning +
Rabies
-

+
+
+
-

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
-

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-

+
+
+
+
-

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-

Bungoma

+
+
+
+
-

CCPP = Contagious Caprine Pleoropneumonia, NSD = Nairobi Sheep Disease

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

11. 2.0

DISCUSSION

A discussion of results obtained from baseline survey is presented in four parts following the
Terms of Reference. Part one covers the social economic aspect while part two and three gives
characterization, occurrence and control of goat diseases. Part four covers the disease control
strategies.

11.2.1 Social Economic Information


11.2.1.1 Challenges Facing Service Delivery
There are several challenges, which face Animal Health service delivery in the Programme area.
The major challenges include; inadequate trained personnel and transport at the grassroot level,
inadequate funds and facilities for disease control, high cost of inputs, poor management and
maintenance of communal dips, analysis of dipwash on time so that the concentration of acaricide
in the dipwash can be maintained at the correct strength, irregular dipping of animals in some areas,
treatment of livestock by laymen and herbalists. The information obtained from the respondents
show that 66% treat their animals and refer difficult cases to veterinary personnel. The farmers
purchase drugs for treatment of animals from local Agro-vet shops and often obtain information on
drugs from staff selling drugs. It was observed that some Agro-vet shops were not managed by
qualified staff. The farmers reported in focus group discussions that most of them are not trained on
Animal Health care and they usually obtain information on veterinary drugs from Agro-vet
personnel.
The sale and handling of controlled veterinary drugs by unqualified people can lead to misuse of
drugs followed by development of drug resistance and drug residues in animal products.

11.2.2 Prevalence and Control of Goat Diseases


11.2.3.1 Characterization and Occurrence of Diseases in Goats
11.2.3.1.1 Ectoparasites
11.2.3.1.2 Tick borne Diseases in Goats
The important ectoparasites in goats included ticks, tse tse flies, mites, lice, and fleas and
Stomoxys species. The tick borne diseases occurring in the programme area are given in Table 2
and 3and a discussion of the diseases is given below.
Nairobi Sheep Disease (NSD)
Nairobi Sheep Disease (NSD) was prevalent in Nandi North and Trans Nzoia Districts. The
disease is caused by a nairovirus, which is transmitted by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and
Amblyomma variegatum. NSD is less severe in goats than in sheep and a mortality of upto 80%
have been reported. The disease is characterized by fever, mucopurulent nasal discharge, dysentery
and abortion.
Control
i. Isolate sick animals
ii. use acaricides on goats in endemic areas in order to reduce prevalence of ticks.
iii. vaccinate goats before introduction
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10

Heartwater
Heartwater is caused by Cowdria ruminatium rickettisia in goats. It is transmitted by
Ambylomma variegatum ticks. The disease is acute in nature and is characterized by fever,
anorexia, hydropericardium, diarrhoea, foamy salvation, convulsions, circling and death.
The disease was reported in Lugari district.
Mild Anaplasmosis
Anaplasma ovis causes mild anaplasmosis in goats and is transmitted by Boophilus and
Rhipicephalus species of ticks. The disease is characterized by anaemia, icterus, anorexia and
respiratory distress.
Theileriosis
Theileriosis is caused by Theileria ovis and Theileria hirci in goats and it is transmitted by
Rhipichephalus evertsi. The disease is also transmitted by Rhipicephalus spp especially R. bursa
but transmission of the disease by ticks is not fully understood. The disease often occurs in goats
introduced into enzootic areas and goats exhibits a very high mortality of upto 100%. The disease is
characterized by fever, inappetance, enlarged lymph nodes, anaemia, icterus, emaciation and death.
The disease was not reported in the programme area although goats which recover develop
immunity lasting for several years.
The above three diseases are controlled by isolating sick animals and using acaricides on goats
regularly.
Coccidiosis
The disease is characterized by diarrhoea with blood, and emaciation and often occurs in young
animals less than 2 years old. The disease is most prevalent in wet areas and in animals kept indoors
due to contamination of feeds or water.
Coccidiosis in goats occurred in Nakuru, Nyamira, Nandi North, Uasin Gishu, Lugari, and Trans
Nzoia districts. The disease is caused by Eimeria arloingi and is characterized by diarrhoea and
emaciation. The organism damages intestines and disease frequently affects kids
Control of Cocidiosis
i)
Examine protozoa in faeces by using a microscope
ii)
Isolate affected animals
iii)
Feed animals with good hay and clean water
iv)
Treat affected animals only by using sulphonamides or amprolium.
Trypanosomosis in goats
The disease was reported in Bomet and Bungoma districts in the programme area.
Trypanomosis in goats is less severe than in cattle and is caused by T. congolense, T. vivax, T.
evansi, and is transmitted by Glossina species. The main clinical signs include fever, anaemia,
and emaciation.The disease is controlled by using recommended drugs and insecticides.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

11

11.2.3.1.2
Breeding Diseases
Brucellosis (Mediterranean Fever)
Brucellosis was reported in goats in Kisii Central, Uasin Gishu and Trans Nzoia districts. The
disease is mainly caused by Brucella melitensis but Brucella abortus also cause Brucellosis in
goats. The organisms persist in the genital system of the males and disease is transmitted to the
females at the time of service. The disease is of economic importance because it causes loss of
milk and abortion.
The disease is characterized by mastitis, unthriftiness, cough, infertility, metritis, and
abortion after third mouth of gestation.
Control
The disease is controlled by using the following methods
i)
Surveillance of the disease.
ii)
Examine males before using them for breeding.
iii)
Use artificial insemination.
iv)
Advice people to boil milk before consumption.
v)
Government should subsidize A.I. service to farmers.
vi)
Train stakeholders on control of breeding diseases.
vii)
Train farmers on record keeping.
11.2.3.1.3
Bacteria Diseases in Goats
Foot Rot
Foot rot in goats was reported in Bomet and Trans Nzoia districts. The disease is caused by
Fusiformis nodosus. The disease affects the horny and soft parts of the feet and is characterized
by inflammation, pain and lameness.
Control of Foot Rot
The disease is controlled by;
i) Systemic and local treatment with penicillin.
ii) Walking the goats through a 5% copper sulphate foot bath in order to reduces incidence
of the disease.
Pneumonia in Goats
Pneumonia was prevalent in Nakuru, Nyamira, Bomet, Lugari, Trans Nzoia and Bungoma
districts. Acute pneumonia is caused by Pasteurella haemolytica (pneumonia), Lentivirus
(progressive pneumonia), Chlamydial psittaci (Chlaydial pneumonia), maellerius capillaries
(verminous bronchitis), Mycoplama strain F 38, and Mycoplasma mycoides mycodies.(acute
pneumonia)
Tetrecyclines or penicillins are used to treat acute pneumonia and verminous pneumonia
is controlled by using levamisole or benzimidazole anthelmintics.
Contagious Caprine Pleuro Pneumonia (CCPP)
The main clinical signs observed in CCPP and in acute pneumonia include; fever,
cough, weakness, and nasal discharge.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

12

Control of CCPP
CCPP is controlled by;
i)
Imposing quarantine and controlling movement of animals.
ii)
Early treatment with Tylosin.
iii)
Vaccination with inactivated vaccine has been used.
11.2.3.1.3
Diarrhoea Diseases in Goats
Diarrhoea in goats was reported in Trans Nzoia and Bomet districts.
The most common causes of diarrhoea in goats were helminthiasis, coccidiosis, Clostridium
perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella Dublin, Salmonella anatum, and Escherichia
coli. Diarrhoea in goats is also caused by Nairobi Sheep Disease, Paratuberculosis, and bracken fern
poisoning due to intestinal carcinoma.
Control of Diarrhoea
The following strategies of diarrhoea control should be used;
i)
Early treatment of affected animals.
ii)
Prevent introduction of carrier animals to farms known to be free of disease.
iii)
Buy feed from reputable manufacturers to avoid introduction of Salmonellosis in the
farm.
iv)
Limit spread of disease within the group of animals by;
a) Isolate and treat carrier animals
b) Avoid movement of animals from the affected farms by Salmonella
c) Avoid faecal contamination of feed and water supply.
11.2.3.1.4
Viral Diseases in Goats
Goat pox
Goat pox was reported in Nakuru and Trans-Nzoia Districts.
Goat pox is caused by poxviruses. The disease is characterized by low grade fever, nasal and ocular
discharges.The vesicle or papules are found around the lips, mouth, nostrils and on the udder and
teats in the milking goat.
Control
Prevent spread of the disease by using the following methods.
i. Isolate affected animals.
ii. Good hygiene practice on the farm by the farmer.
Orf
Orf or contagious Ecthyma was reported in Bomet district.
The disease is caused by paramyxovirus and is a contagious dermatitis which affects both goats and
sheep. The disease is characterized by formation of papules, vesicles and large scabs. The disease
often affects young animals and lesions are found on the lips, mouth and feet.
Control
i. Isolate affected animals and use antibiotics to control secondary bacteria infections.
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13

ii. Use aerosol Spray on affected goats.


iii. Walk goats with infected feet through a foot-bath with a disinfectant.
Rabies
Rabies in goats was reported in Kisii Central. The disease is caused by a Lassaviruse and is
transmitted by saliva of rabid animals. The disease is characterized by signs of central nervous
disturbance and salivation
Control
Reduce cases of rabies by; Reduce rabies cases in domestic carnivores by annual vaccination of
animals.
i. Notification of suspected rabies cases and destruction of dogs with clinical signs and animals
bitten by rabid animals.
ii. Mass vaccination of dogs during campaigns.
iii. Control stray dogs
iv. Reduce the contact rate between domestic animals and wildlife especially by fencing.

11.2.3.1.5
Feed Borne Mycotoxicosis
Mycotoxicosis was reported in dairy cattle but not in dairy goats in Nakuru and Nandi North
districts in the programme area. Mycotoxicosis are secondary toxic metabolites produced by
moulds and are of veterinary importance since treatment with drugs doses not alter the course of the
disease. Mycotoxins also led to feed spoilage and cause acute and chronic effects in the livestock.
Mycotoxins also impairs the efficiency of immune system and affected animals are susceptible to
infectious diseases. Respondents interviewed indicated that aflatoxins are the most common
mycotoxins affecting feeds in the area especially after rainy seasons. The consultants also observed
fungal growth in hay left in the field during wet season. It appears that goats are selective and they
avoid mouldy feeds during grazing.
The high humidity during rainy season and temperature range of 110C 280C in the programme
area favors growth of fungi in feeds. The growth of Apergillus flavus in cereal grains such as
maize, wheat, and barley leads to production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1. Calves are very
susceptible to aflatoxins, and aflatoxicosis is observed when they are fed with feed contaminated by
aflatoxins at 0.2mg/Kg and above. Dairy cattle consuming feed with 1.3 mg/Kg of aflatoxins
exhibit clinical signs of aflatoxicosis within 4 weeks.
The clinical signs of aflatoxicosis in ruminant animals include anorexia, depression, ataxia,
anaemia, icterus, expistaxis,and haemorrhagic enteritis. Chronic aflatoxin poisoning causes icterus,
liver cirrhosis, necrosis, hepatic carcinomas and rough hair coat.
Control of Mycotoxicosis
Mycotoxicosis presents a veterinary problem since suitable drugs for treatment of mycotoxicosis
have not been developed. Hence control of mycotoxin contamination of feed should be undertaken
by farmers and other stakeholders in feed industry.
The following measures should be undertaken in order to prevent mycotoxicosis in livestock.
i) Do not feed animals with contaminated feed.
ii) Remove feed containing mycotoxins from animal compounds.

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iii) Dairy cattle should not be fed with aflatoxin contaminated feed since aflatoxin M1 is
excreted in milk and is harmful to calves and humans.
iv) Animals exposed to aflatoxins should be fed with high quality proteins and vitamins;
D,E,K,A and B complex.
v) Add propionic acid, a mold inhibitor to feeds in order to prevent growth of fungi.
vi) Cereals eg maize, wheat and Barley should be dried well until moisture content is below
23% in order to prevent growth of field and storage fungi.
vii) Animal feeds should be preserved well, in leak proof buildings and feeds should be
placed on wooden planks or on polythene papers in order to avoid moisture absorption of
water from the floor.
viii) Feed infested with fungi should not be fed to animals and feed samples should be
analysed in order to determine if mycotoxins are present.
11.2.3.1.6
Plant Poisoning
Veterinary personnel and farmers suspected poisons to cause acute or chronic toxicity in dairy
animals, but the exact cause of poisoning was not confirmed due to lack of sensitive instruments for
the analysis of poisons in the area.
However, plant poisoning of dairy animals by cestrum was confirmed in Nandi North and Nakuru
districts. Cestrum species causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and digenerative changes in the liver
and kidneys in goats and calves (Mugera and Nderitu, 1968).
Control of poisoning
Poisoning by poisonous plants is controlled by uprooting of poisonous plants and cultivation of
the farm.
11.2.2.2
Characterization and Occurrence of Other Important Diseases
The other important diseases in the programme area include; mastitis, milk fever, bacterial
diseases and viral diseases.
Mastitis
Mastitis was reported in 5 programme districts. A total of 40% (N=336) respondents indicated
that mastitis occurred in the cattle within one year. Only 4.8% of respondents had mastitis in dairy
goats within one year. A total of 64% respondents said that some of the intermammary tubes they
used were not effective, since mastitis recurred.
Mastitis is caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, staphylococcus aureu and dysagalaetiae,
Corynebacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli. Mastitis is of economic importance since it causes
lose of milk due to destruction of mammary grand by the pathogenic organisms and death of
animals.
Control of Mastitis
Mastits is controlled using the following methods;
i)
Early diagnosis and treatment with suitable antimicrobial agents and allow a withdrawal
period of 72 hours after local treatment.
ii)
Milk affected udder frequently
iii)
Check milk with strip cup
iv)
Milk affected cows last
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15

v)
vi)

Use suitable milking salve with dichorophen during milking.


Cull chronic carriers or recurring cases of mastitis.

Anthrax
Anthrax was prevalent in Kisii Central, Bungoma districts.
The disease is caused by Bacillus anthracis, which attacks man, all domestic animals and many
wild animals. Anthrax is characterized by fever, swollen throt and sudden deaths in cattle, and by
acute death in goats and sheep.
Control of anthrax
Anthrax is a notifiable disease and is controlled by the following methods;
i)
Rapid diagnosis by examination of smears.
ii)
Disposal of carcass by efficient and safe means such as burning or burial.
iii)
Supervision of carcass until it is disposed off, with efficient methods of sterilization with
disinfectants of any blood or discharges.
iv)
Annual vaccination and control of movement of unvaccinated animals.
v)
Milk from or in contact with infected animals should not be consumed.

Dermatophylosis (Cutanoeus streptotrichosis)


Dermatophylosis in was prevalent in Kisii Central, Lugari and Trans Nzoia districts. The disease
is caused by Dermatophilus congolense and is prevalent during rainy season with high temperature
and humidity or when ectoparasites damage epidermis of the skin.
The disease frequently affects cattle, goats and sheep and is most prevalent in young animals.
Dermatophylosis congolenses causes acute dermatitis due to the filamentous invasion of the skin.
Control of Dermatophylosis
The disease is effectively controlled by;
i)
Isolate affected animals.
ii)
Treating affected animals by using penicillin and streptomycin or tetracycline.
iii)
Applying acaricides to control ectoparasites and biting flies.

Pink eye
The disease occurred in goats in Bomet district and is caused by Moraxella capri and Coplasma
conjunctivae. The disease is aggravated by dusty environment and flies serve as vectors and young
animals are frequently affected. The disease is characterized by corneal opacity lacrimation and
mucopurulent ocular discharges. The disease is controlled by administration of penicillin,
streptomycin and tetracycline.
Pneumonia
Pneumonia was prevalent in Nyamira, Nandi North and Trans Nzoia districts. The acute and
chronic forms of pneumonia are caused by pathogenic organisms and such as bacteria, viruses,
mycoplasma, fungi and worms. The acute pneumonia is often caused by Pasteurella haemolytia,
Corynbacterium pyogenes, mycoplasma mycoides mycoides and Actimycetes aspergilus.
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The clinical signs include, fever, dyspnea, weakness and cough. Chronic pneumonia is caused by
Aspergillus and Dictyocaulus viriparus and is characteriosed by increased respiration rate,
persistent coughs, nasal discharge and emaciation.
Control of Pneumonia
The control method used depends on the proper diagnosis of the causative organism.
i)
Avoid overcrowding and ensure animals have adequate ventilation.
ii)
Isolate affected animals from healthy ones.
iii)
Use relevant chemotherapeutic agent for the pathogenic organism. The bacterial,
Mycoplasma, Actinomycetes, Mycotic pneumonia, lungworm infections are treated with
antibiotics, tylosin, ketoconazole and levamisole or benzidazole anthelmintics.
Rift valley Fever
Rift valley fever (RVF) was reported in Uasin Gishu District.
RFV is caused by Phlebovirus and epidermics often occur after 5 years. The disease is spread by
mosquitoes especially during wet season. The disease is characterized by fever, anorexia, salivation,
nasal discharge, diarrhea, drop in milk production and abortion. The disease is severe in young
calves, kids and lambs and a mortality of over 20% has been reported. While a mortality of 10% has
been reported in adult cattle.
Control
The disease is controlled by annual vaccination of animals using inactivated vaccine and dipping
or spraying animals in order to reduce risk of mosquitoes.
11.2.3.3
Wild animals
Focus group discussion and interviews with Animal Health Providers showed that wild animals
interacted with domestic animals especially near forests. The wild animals can transmit diseases to
domestic animals, since they act as reservoirs of various pathogenic organisms and ectoparasites
(eg) ticks, fleas, lice and worms.
The disease transmitted by wild animals include, viral diseases (rabies), fort and mouth disease,
bacterial diseases (anthrax, tuberculosis), tickborne diseases (corridor disease which is caused by
Theileria lawrencei which affects the African buffalo and also cattle) and endoparasites (helminths)
Control of wild animal diseases
Dairy animals exposed to wild animals should be dipped or sprayed frequently using acaricides
and dewormed frequently using antihelmintics. Sick domestic animals should be reported and
treated by animal health service providers. The animals should be vaccinated against serious fatal
diseases such as rabies, anthrax and fort and mouth. The domestic animals should have adequate
feed in order to avoid farmers taking animals to the forest during dry seasons.
Finally, effort should be made to fence around forests as it was done recently around Aberdares
ridges.
11.2.3.4

Herbal Medicines
Information obtained in focus group discussions indicated that herbal remedies are being
used to treat livestock diseases in some areas. The use of herbal remedies was prevalent in Trans

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17

Nzoia district near Mount Elgon and Kisii Central district and the remedies were given orally to
treat pneumonia and diarrhea in animals.
The farmers said that they seek services of herbalists because herbal medicine and
services are cheaper and herbalists are readily accessible. The common condition/diseases of
ruminants treated by herbalists included; pneumonia, diarrhea, worms, wounds and brucellosis. The
respondents claimed that some herbal remedies improve health of animals but sometimes diseases
like brucellosis recur after treatment. Although herbal medicines are affordable and available, the
use of herbal remedies for treatment and control of parasites in livestock is associated with several
risks such as hepatotoxicity which is from plants containing pyrolizidine alkaloids.
Abortion associated with castor oil and aloe plants, blood coagulation disorders by plants
containing coumarins eg alfalfa. In view of the potential risk to humans and animals research
should be conducted in order to establish the efficacy and safety of the herbal remedies and a
registration to control herbalist in the control of animal diseases should be fast tracked. The
veterinary department should revise operational policies in order to assist in the enforcement of
regulations and standards of drugs / chemicals.
11.2.2.3
Service Delivery
The important Animal Health Service providers include government personnel, private
service providers and community.
Animal Health Service Providers
Government Service
The service is managed by DVO in each District and has the following features.
Strengths
(i)
Staff is well trained and experienced.
(ii)
Good availability of information and records.
(iii)
Good support from stakeholders and sensitizes stakeholders.
(iv)
Conducts livestock disease surveillance, control animal movement in the
district.
(v)
Carries out vaccination campaigns.
(vi)
Coordinate vectors and livestock control.
(vii) Service in effective.

The SWOT analysis is given below.


Opportunities
(i)
Good vaccine reserve
(ii)
Links with organizations with finances to support livestock.
(iii)
Good support by Veterinary Investigation Laboratories.
(iv)
Good support by stakeholders and farmers.
Weaknesses
(i)
Low staffing levels
(ii)
Inadequate transport facilities materials and equipments.
(iii) Inadequate information systems Low funding of livestock research.
(iv)
Inadequate enforcement of Livestock movement and migration of livestock.
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Threats
(i)
Low funding levels for operations and maintenance inadequate technical staff.
(ii)
Prevalence of Livestock diseases and pests.
(iii) Insecurity in some livestock production areas.
(iv)
Presence of some non professional service providers.
(v)
Ignorance of diseases by farmers.
(vi)
Emerging diseases.
2. Private Service Providers
The SWOT analysis is given below.
Strengths
(i)
Well trained professional staff.
(ii)
Good support from farmers and stakeholders.
(iii)
Good accessibility by farmers.
(iv)
Efficient since management is easy.
Opportunities
(i)
Availability of livestock resources.
(ii)
Availability of drugs, and pesticides
(iii)
Good support by farmers.
Weakness
(i)
Limited staff
(ii)
Limited Service delivery since a limited area is covered
(iii) Inadequate transport facilities tools materials and equipment.
(iv)
Inability to enforce livestock movement and migration.
(v)
Limited disease records.
(vi)
Lack capacity for disease surveillance.
(vii) Service is expensive.
(viii) Service not sustainable.
Threats
(i)
Poor funding of operations throughout the year.
(ii)
Inadequate technical staff.
(iii) Insecurity in some livestock production areas.
(iv)
Emerging diseases.
3. Community Animal Health Service (CAHS)
The SWOT Analysis of CAHS in given below.
Strengths
(i)
Respect by farmers due to experience in several disease conditions.
(ii)
Easy access by farmers.
(iii)
Good availability of providers is good services.
(iv)
Low cost of the service.
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19

Opportunities
(i)
Availability of livestock in the vicinity.
(ii)
Availability of several medicinal plants in the local area.
(iii) Farmers ignorance on disease conditions in rural areas.
(iv)
Lack of access to conventional medical services in rural areas.

Weaknesses
(i)
Limited Animal Health Service delivery.
(ii)
Limited back-up staff.
(iii) Inadequate facilities, materials and equipments.
(iv)
Inability to limited medical knowledge.
(v)
Inability to enforce animal movement and migration.
(vi)
Record keeping or diseases is poor.
(vii) Lack capacity of disease surveillance.
(viii) Service is not sustainable.
Threats
(i)
Uncertainty in quality of remedies and water used in the preparation.
(ii)
Efficacy and safety of remedies is often unknown.
(iii) Poor diagnosis of diseases conditions.
(iv)
Emergency of diseases.
(v)
Insecurity in some livestock production areas.
(vi)
Environmental degradation.
The livestock extension service and veterinary service need to be strengthened by providing more
personnel and facilities in order to serve farmers more efficiently and effectively. The information
obtained in the study showed that 95% of farmers have mobile telephones. The expansion of
communication systems in the rural areas will assist in the livestock extension activities and thus
improve efficiency and reduce cost of Animal Health Service delivery as more famers in the rural
areas are purchasing solar mobile telephone.
In conclusion a well coordinated systematic approach of disease control from farm and group,
DCA and district levels using a combination of strategies of disease control will reduce gradually
the risk of disease in the area. However more facilities for disease control should be established at
strategic points in order to improve access ability and efficiency of veterinary service to farmers.
Finally the operational policies of veterinary Department will assist in the enforcement and
implementation of disease control. Meat inspection and artificial insemination service delivery and
thus improve livestock health and production.
11.2.4 Strategies of Tick Borne Disease Control
The strategies for control of vectors and drugs used in the treatment of vector borne diseases are
summarized in Table 7, 8 and 9. The most effective strategy of controlling vector borne diseases
(VBD) in ruminants is to use a strategy of controlling vectors and early treatment of vectors borne
diseases. The vectors are controlled by using chemicals given in Table 6 and drugs summarized in
Table 7.
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The chemicals currently used to control vectors include; amitraz, pyrethroids, organophosphates
and carbamates (Table 6). Amitraz and pyrethroids are the most widely used chemicals to control
ticks and tse tse flies in the country since they are effective and they also control other ectoparasites
in ruminants. The chemicals should be used following the recommended dose and frequency of
application in order to avoid development of resistance. The acaricides kills ticks in the predilection
sites and breaks the life cycle of ticks. The common methods used for the application of the
chemicals are given in Table 6 and include, dipping, hand-spraying and hand dressing.
The problem associated with use of ectoparasiticides include high costs, environmental pollution,
residues in animal products and gradual development of resistance. The main advantage of these
chemicals is that they are highly effective against ectoparasites and they reduce mortalities
associated with VBDs. The study conducted indicated that majority (60 %) of dairy producers spray
animals.
The drugs commonly used in the programme area for the treatment and control of VBDs are
given in Table 7. The drugs are effective and are given by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes to
animals. However most of these drugs have a narrow therapeutic index and animals should be given
the recommended dose in order to avoid side effects.
The result of the survey indicated that the drugs for treatment of ECF are expensive ( Ksh.1600
to 4000) depending on the size of animal and drug used. Majority (69 %) of the dairy producers
said that the drugs used for treatment of ECF was unaffordable and this has lead to death of infected
animals.
Table 5. Control of Vector Borne Diseases in Goats
1.
Tick Species
Parasite/ Causative Agent
Disease Transmitted Control
Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Virus
Nairobi Sheep Disease Spraying
(Brown ear tick)
Pour-on
Rhipicephalus avertis
Theileria ovis, Spirochaeta theileria Benign Theileriosis
Spraying
(Red-legged tick)
Spirochaetosis
Pour-on
Boophilus decoloratus
Spirochaeta theileria
Spirochaetosis
Spraying
(Blue tick)
Pour-on
Amblyomma spp.
Rickettsia ruminates
Heart water
Spraying
(Bont tick)
Nairobi Sheep Disease Pour-on
2.

Glossina pallidipes

Trypanosoma vivax
Trypanosoma congolense
Chorioptes mange
Psoroptic mange
Dermodectic mange

Trypanosomosis

3.

Mange

4.

Lice

Irritation

Fleas

Linognthus stenopsis
Damalinia caprae
Siphonoptera

5.
6.

Biting flies

Stomoxys

Irritation

Mange irritation
Anaemia

Irritation

LU, NN,
TN

Spraying
Pour-on
Spraying
Dipping

BO, BU

Spraying
Dusting
Spraying
Pour on
Spraying
Pour on

NA

NA=Nakuru, NN=Nandi North, TN=Trans Nzoia, LU=Lugali, BO=Bomet, BU=Bongoma, KC=Kisii

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

Districts
NN TN

21

LU

NA
KC, BU

Table 6. Important Groups of Acaricides Used to Control Vector Borne Diseases in Goats.
Vector
Acaricides
Method of Application Districts
Ticks
Amitraz
Spray
NN, TN
Pyrethroids
Dip
Organophosphates
Pour-on
Carbamates
Dusting
Tse tse fly
Pyrethroids
Spray
BO, BU
Organophosphates
Dip
Mange
Organophosphate (Coumaphos)
Spay
LU
Ivermectin
Topical application
Fleas/Lice
Carbamates
Spray
NA
Organophosphates
Dip
Pyrethroids
Dust
Biting flies
Organophosphates
Spray, dip, and dust
KC, BU
Pyrethroids
NA = Nakuru, NN = Nandi North, NT=Trans Nzoia, BO=Bomet, BU=Bungoma, LU=Lugali,
KC = Kisii Centre
Table 8: Summary of disease control strategy of goats in the programme districts
Districts
Vectors
Ticks

Nairobi Sheep

Control Strategy

NA

NY

BO

KC

UG

LU

NN

TN

BU

Disease
Heart water

Tsetse flies

Trypanosomo-

sis

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

Spray animals using


recommended
acaricides.
Apply pour-ons
Use recommended
acaricides at the dose
rates and frequency
Check acaricide
strength regularly
Ensure proper
management and
maintenance of hand
pump
Early treatment of
sick animals
Spray animals using
recommended
insecticides
Apply pour -ons
Train farmers on tsetse
control
Avoid grazing animals
in highly infested
tsetse areas.
22

Mange

Pruritis

Endopar-

Helminthiasis

Coccidiosis

Mycotoxicosis

asites

Feed borne

Clear bushes in the


farms Use drugs to
treat sick animals
Spray animals with
insecticides
Use ivermectin
Spray animals using
recommended
insecticides
Apply pour-ons
Use effective drugs
Deworm animals
before rainy season
Deworm ruminant
animals every 3
months.
Deworm cats and dogs
every 2 months
Enforce meat
inspection regulations
and advice people to
cook meat well in
order to control tape
worms .
Drain swamps in order
to control Fasciola
species
Feed animals with
clean water and feed.
Isolate affected
animals
Use sulphonamides or
Amprolium to treat
animals.
Train farmers on

diseases

good feed preparation


& preservation.

Farmers should buy


feed from reputable
manufacturers.

Remove
contaminated feed

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

23

from animal
compounds.

Advice farmers not


animals with
contaminated feeds.

Surveillance of
mycotoxins in feeds.

Plant

Identify poisonous

poisoning

plants (eg) cestrum.


Uproot plants and
cultivate the farm.

Breeding

Brucellosis

diseases

Examine males
before using them for
breeding

Surveillance of
diseases

Advice people to boil


milk before
consumption

Increase awareness of
farmers on use of AI
in goals

Infertility

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

Surveillance of
diseases in the area
Government should
subsidize AI to levels
affordable by farmers

24

Bacterial

Mastitis

diseases

Mycoplasma

CCPP

disease

Viral disease

Rabies

Goat
+

Advice farmers to
wash udder and use
milking salve
Early diagnosis and
treatment of cows with
mastitis.
Frequent milking of
affected udder.
Cull cows with
recurrent mastitis
Disease surveillance
quarantine
Control movement of
vaccinated animals
Chemotherapeutic
treatment
Disease surveillance
Impose quarantine and
control movement of
animals
Vaccinate animals
regularly.
Reduce contact
between domestic and
wild animals by
fencing
Vaccinate dogs and
cats against rabies
annually
Use properly stored
vaccines.
Subsidize vaccines to
affordable levels by
farmers.
Report suspected cases
of diseases
Disease surveillance
Vaccinate animals
Quarantine and control
movement of animals
Avoid overcrowding
of animals
Disinfect affected
premises

NA= Nakuru, NY=Nyamira, BO=Bomet, KC=Kisii Central, UG=uasin Gichu, LU=Lugali, NN=Nandi North, TN=Trans Nzoia, BU=Bungoma S=suspected

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

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11.2.5 Disease Control and Management Strategy


The proposed strategic plan will give future direction on the control of diseases and assist in the
implementation of an effective disease control strategy and achievement of the overall goal of the
programme of increasing the income of the poor rural households who depend on production and
trade of dairy products for their livelihood.
The aim of the plan is to provide an efficient and sustainable frame work which will facilitate
disease control and livestock productivity. The main objective is to enhance livestock production
through the provision of accessible inputs and service to farmers and the specific objective is to
improve on animal disease and pest control. The objective will be achieved through the strategy and
attention should be paid to the activities during planning and implementation stages

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

26

Table 8b. Summary of Disease Control and Management Strategy.


Strategy

Activity

Improve
Animal
animal
disease
disease and
surveillance
pest control
Vaccination
Animal movement
Control
Vector and pest
control
Setting up tick
control strategies

Capacity building

Outputs Targets

Performance
Indicators

Responsibility

11 surveys of diseases
per year

Number of
Surveys
conducted

DVO

52% of animals
vaccinated
per year

Number of
animals
vaccinated
Number of
One patrol per
patrols
year
conducted
Number of crush
one crush pen per group
Pens constructed
Improve tick
Information
control
obtained. Survey
practices and
conducted and
developed
strategy
strategy
developed
Number of
disease
control
Establish disease
committees
control committees
formed
in each DCA

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DVO/
Stakeholders
DVO
DVO/
Stakeholders

DVS/ DLPO

DVS/ DLP

Activity

Improve
breeding
services

Train stakeholders
100 service providers and Number of individuals trained
on management
farmers per district per Improved community A.I.
and control of animal
year
service
breeding diseases

Veterinary
drugs and
chemicals

Promote proper &


Safe use of drugs
and chemicals in
livestock

Improve
availability
conduct commercial
of high
animal feed quality
quality
control surveys
livestock
feeds
Review national
drugs policy and
animal feedstuff
policy
Develop
appropriate
policy &
Formulate animal
legal
disease control
regulation
policy
framework

Outputs Targets

Performance
Indicators

Strategy

Responsibility
DVS, DLP

number of field days


1 field demonstration per held per year
DVS
District
improved quality of livestock
products
Conduct 10 animal feeds
Conduct two inspections per
quality control
year
inspections

DVS/DLP

Policies reviewed and


One policy formulated

DVS/DLP

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

Number of policies reviewed


One policy

28

Strategy

Activity

Outputs /Targets

Construct 2 field offices


in each district to
Strengthen Construct permanent
accommodate staff
capacity of offices
Recruit 3 technical staff
the MOLD Staff recruitment
per district annually
to deliver
Enhance transport
Purchase 1 motor
services
capacity
vehicle and 3 motor
cycles per DCA

Improve
breeding
services

Performance
Indicators

Field offices constructed


Number of staff recruited
Number of vehicles and
motorcycles purchased

Responsibility

PS/DVS/DLP

Individuals trained on
management and control
Train stakeholders on
of breeding, (100 disease
management and
service providers and
control of animal
farmers per year in each Number of individuals trained
breeding diseases
DVS/DLP
district)
Number of meetings held
Promote registration
Conduct one sensitization
of livestock
meeting on livestock
breeding stock
registration in the districts

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The implementation of the plan will need financial support, extra staff, good team work and good
communication system as well as supply of adequate inputs at the right time. The strategic plan for
disease control will be implemented by Animal Health providers under the direction of District
veterinary officers and will lead to effective animal health care system in the programme area.
The implementation of the plan can be affected by environmental issues as improper use of
pesticides can affect health of humans and livestock hence the programme should support safe use
of pesticides.

11.2.6 Disease Control Policies


The following are important policies which assist in the operations of veterinary services and
implementation of disease control strategy.
i. Animal disease act.
The act deals with matters related to the disease of animals
ii. Veterinary surgeons Act.
The act deals with registration of veterinary surgeons and other matters of veterinary practice.
iii. Pharmacy and poisons act
The act regulates veterinary drugs in the country.
iv. Pest Control Products Act
The act regulates handling and use of products for the control of pests in animals and plants.
The above policies are being reviewed in order to reflect current practices in the livestock sector.
The revised livestock medicines and poisons Bill will improve management of veterinary medicine
while revised veterinary act will enhance professionalism in the delivery of services. The two bills
will be tabled in Parliament in February 2010.
11.2.7 The key strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats which affect
objectives and disease control in the programme area are given below.
Strengths
Well trained and experienced staff
Availability of basic information
Availability of animal genetics lines
Good support from the stakeholders
Opportunities
Livestock resources
Availability of chemotherapeutic agents and pesticides
Strong linkage with organizations with finances to support livestock sector
Good support by stakeholders and famers
Existence of a private thriving sector involved in processing of livestock products
Weakness
Low staffing levels
Inadequate transport facilities. Tools, materials and equipments
Inadequate information systems
Inadequate enforcement of livestock movement and migration of livestock.
Threats
Low funding levels for operations and maintenance.
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Inadequate Technical staff


Prevalence of livestock diseases and pests
Insecurity in some livestock production area.
Presences of some non professional service providers
Emerging diseases
Ignorance of diseases by some famers.
11.2.8 Service Delivery Model in the Programme Districts
The proposed service delivery model for the programme districts is given in Table
7 below. The model was developed after data collection, observations, discussions and
interviewing farmers and other stakeholders in the programme area. The model will assit
service providers, stakeholders, dairy groups and 8,400 smallholder dairy producers in
the 27 dairy commercialization area. The model will also assist in the improvement of
and service delivery disease control enhanced livestock health and thus improve livestock
productivity and increase incomes of dairy producers.
The model will also enhance financial returns of women and households since many
women are now keeping dairy goats in the programme area.
The effectiveness of the proposed model can be affected by the informed community
based animal delivery system operating in some rural areas the service providers involved
in this system are informally trained and lack sufficient information on safety and
efficacy of drugs used in veterinary medicine. The service delivery does not fit existing
policies within the regulating livestock sectors and service providers who target poor
farmers with low income in the rural areas are prohibited by law from supplying or
administering veterinary medicines to animals thus service delivery should be regulated
in order to avoid misuse of drugs control in the rural areas.
The success of the area proposed model will depend on good planning, and
implementation, financial support, capacity building of service provider and extension
and training personnel of farmers every two months
Table 9. Summary of Service Delivery Model in the Programme Districts.
Personnel
Activities
Personnel Activities
VIL staff, DVOs

Disease surveillance and


monitoring

District veterinary

Implement policies

DLP

Implement policies

Officer

Surveillance of disease:

/ District

Strengthen and supervise

management of veterinary

Dairy

services and staff strengthen

Officers

extension services

Facilitate tick control strategies

transportation

Facilitate capacity building

Coordination and facilitation

Train stakeholders on proper

of disease control activities

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record keeping

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Management and facilitation


of meat inspection

Coordinate and facilitation of


disease control activities

Management and facilitation


of meat inspection

Coordinate and supervise


control of vectors

Managment and coordination


of A.I service

Train stakeholders on control


of livestock diseases and
keeping of records

Animal Health

Implement livestock policies

DLEO/

Service Providers

Implement disease control

Leaders of

in the dairy

activities

Dairy

commercialization

Strengthen capacity building

Groups

areas

and extension services

of local committees

coordinate level

Organize training activities,

Disseminate information to
members

workshops farmers field days


and field demonstrations.

Make collective decisions on


dairy farming.

Train farmers on proper tick


control methods, appropriate

Assist in management and


supervision of farmers

feeding, pasture and feed

Dairy

preservation, record keeping

farmers

and other animal husbandry

Organise meetings and


coordinate activities at local

meetings, seminars,

Election of leaders and members

Sensitize farmers on disease


control, and vector control.

Adopt appropriate feeding, good

practices.

milking practices, good

Supervise dairy groups and

preservation of feeds and milk

farming activities.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

Keep farm records

Attend farmers training, and


32

meetings on dairy production


activities

Present animals for all routine


vaccination programmes

Report suspected disease cases


to the nearest animal health
service providers

Use artificial insemination


services for breeding and
appropriate hygienic farm
practices

Procure disease control inputs


and feeds from reputable
suppliers.

Boil milk and cook meat before


consumption.

SDCPP

Coordinate activities and prepare budget

Coordinator/staff

Facilitate disease and tick control strategies and activities

Strengthening capacity building and improve transport capacity in the programme


area

Improve ICT service and farm record management

Strengthening capacity for extension and delivery of A.I

Improve management of dairy groups and dip management

Piloting of disease control and management strategy for at least 4 years in the
programme districts

Building linkages/networks between actors in the animal health management chain


to create awareness

Support formulation/review of policies and bills for animal health management and
control in the country

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12. Conclusions
The following conclusions were made from the study;
1. A total of 21 diseases were identified in goats in the programme area.
2. The diseases were caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, rickettsia, protozoa, worms
and poisonous substances.
3. The notifiable diseases of goats found in the programme area were; anthrax, rabies,
contagious caprine pleropneumonia, heart water, goat pox and parasitc mange.
4. The important ectoparasites occurring in the programme were; ticks, glossina, mange,
fleas and bitting flies, while the common endoparasites were, Nematodes, Trematodes,
Cestodes and Coccidia.
5. The identified vector borne disease were; heartwater, Nairobi Sheep disease and
Trypanosomosis.
6. The most prevalent goat disease in the area were; Helminthiasis, Cocidiosis, Pneumonia,
Tick borne diseases, foot rot and Trypanosomosis.
7. The most prevalent tick borne diseases were; Nairobi sheep disease and heart water while
brucellosis was the main zoonotic breeding disease identified in goats.
8. Mycotoxicosis was not reported in goats but plant poisoning was reported in the district.
9. The awareness level of goat producers on disease control was low.
10. The control of goat diseases was expensive and farmers spent Ksh. 40 to 350 per month
per animal to control diseases.
11. The effectiveness of acaricides/ insecticides used by farmers was variable and dependent
on farmers awareness and chemicals used.
12. The effectiveness and efficacy of drugs used against endoparasites depended on farmers
awareness on type of drug and frequency of drug administration.
13. The Animal heath service delivery was provided by Government personnel and private
Animal Health providers and some unqualified people. There is a need to improve
effectiveness of service delivery in order to improve health of goats.
There is a need to improve disease control strategy and dissemination of information to
the farmers .
13.Recommendations
The following recommendations were made from the study
1. The characterized ectoparasite vectors and endoparasites occurring in the
programme area should be controlled using efficient control strategies in order to
reduce population of vectors.
2. The farmers should dip or spray animals using recommended acaricides at regular
intervals in order to control vectors effectively.
3. Veterinary personnel and SDCP staff should sensitize farmers to dip or spray all
animals regularly and report sick animals early so that they can be treated quickly
and thus reduce vector borne diseases in the area.

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4. In the programme areas where domestic animals interact with wild animals,
farmers should be advised to fence the farms and follow stringent, regular dipping
and spraying practices.
5. The DVOs, DLPs and SDCP staff should facilitate capacity building and also
train dip attendants in order to control vectors and diseases effectively and also
strengthen extension services in order to disseminate information and create
community awareness.
6. The dairy producers should partner with local leaders, SDCP Staff and other
stakeholders in order to provide facilities for vectors control and diseases control
and also employ qualified animal health providers in order to enhance
accessibility of services, reduce costs of service delivery and hence make the
programme sustainable.
7. SDCP Staff, DLPOs, DDPOs should sensitize farmers on group leadership,
endoparasite control strategies and mineral supplementation of dairy animals.
8. The DVOs and SDCP Staff should coordinate vector and disease control
strategies from farm level, DCAs and District levels, The DVOs and veterinary
staff should strengthen animal diseases and mycotoxins surveillance, vaccination
of animals and also facilitate meat inspection.
9. The capacity of VILs should be strengthened with more technical staff and
equipments in order to increase efficiency of disease diagnosis and surveillance of
emerging diseases.The SDCP Staff, DVOs, DLPOs, DDPOs should sensitize
farmers on prevention of mycotoxins in feeds, facilitate mycotoxins control
strategies and also upscale efforts of feed conservation.
10. The DVOs and DLPOs should strengthen and facilitate extension services and
also train dairy producers on vectors and disease control and keeping of farm
records.
11. Zoonotic breeding diseases can be controlled by improving breeding practices of
goats, increasing A.I. coverage efficiency and also registering farmers with
breeding bucks in the programme area. The local community should also be
advised to boil milk before consumption in order to reduce incidence of
brucellosis.
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12. The SDCP Staff, DVOs, DLPOs and DDPOs should sensitize farmers on
effective mastitis control strategies, keeping of dairy records and good animal
husbandry practices.
13. The service provided by private animal health service providers is ineffective
since it is often unaffordable by dairy producers.
14. The DVOs should prepare a budget and an annual action plan for diseases control
in the districts and also plan for continuing veterinary education for staff in order
to increase awareness and effective control of diseases.
15. The DVOs should strictly enforce and implement policies on diseases control so
that animal health service delivery is effective and unqualified people should be
barred from treating animals since they are ineffective and offer poor ineffective
service. In addition, DVOs should control livestock movement during disease
outbreaks and also sensitize nomadic communities on disease control.
16. The DVOs and Department of wildlife staff should implement strategies for
control of diseases, which are transmitted from wildlife to domestic animals in the
area.
17. The recommended animal health service delivery model in the programme area
should be implemented by relevant staff of Veterinary Department, Livestock
production, and SDCP and funds for facilitation of implementation should be
provided by the stakeholders.
18. Finally, further studies should be undertaken on usage of chemotherapeutic agents
and emerging hazardous environment pollutants, infertility and mastitis in the
programme districts. The surveys should put emphasis on acaricides, insecticides,
anthelmintics antimicrobial drugs usage and resistance, local poisonous
substances, screening of mycotoxins in feed, control of TBDs and mastitis,
breeding and infertility and diseases transmitted from wildlife to domestic
animals.

14.
1.
2.

References
Government of republic of Kenya. Ministry of Livestock Development. Annual report,
2008. Government printers, Nairobi.
Government of republic of Kenya. Ministry of Livestock Development. Annual report,
2007. Government printers, Nairobi.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

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3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.

10.

11.

12.
13.

14.

15.

Government of Kenya (2001) National Poverty Reduction Strategy. Government


printers Nairobi.
Government of Kenya (2007). Kenya Vision 2030. A Globally competitive and
prosperous Kenya. Government printers, Nairobi.
Department of Veterinary Service, Annual Reports, 2007.
Ole mapenay I. M., Maitho T. and Mitema S. E. 1997. Aspects of the pharmakinetics
of oxycycline given to healthy and pneumonic East African dwarf goats by
Intramuscular injection. Veterinary research communication 21 (b), 453-462.
Putt S. N. H., Shaw A. P. M., Woods L., Tyler L., and James A. D. 2003. Veterinary
epidemiology and economics in Africa. Reading University, Reading.
Putt SNH, Shaw APM, Woods AJ, Tyler L, and James AD. 2003. A manual for use in
the design and appraisal of livestock health policy.
Anakalo Shitandi, Gathoni Anakalo, Tura. Galgalo and Milcah. Mwangi. Prevalence
of Bovine Mastitis Amongst Small Holder Dairy Herds In Kenya. Israel journal of
veterinary medicine.
Mdegela R. H., L. J. M. Kusiluka, A. M. Kapaga, E. D. Karimuribo, F. M. Turuka, A.
Bundala, F. Kivaria, B. Kabula, A. Manjurano1, T. Loken and D. M. Kambarage.
Prevalence and Determinants of Mastitis and Milk-borne Zoonoses in Smallholder
Dairy Farming Sector in Kibaha and Morogoro Districts in Eastern Tanzania. J. Vet.
Med. B 51, 123128 (2004) Blackwell Verlag, Berlin ISSN 09311793.
Kiara H, Matere CN, Mulira G, Mbogo SK, Muraguri G and Kariuki DP. (2000)
Evaluation of alternative tick control strategies in Cattle following immunisation
against east coast fever
And the role of simulation modeling. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium
on Epidemiology and Economics, Available at www.sciquest.org.nz.
Request for proposal, Ref: CONS/SDCP/06/2008-09
Leah T. M. and Robert C. J. (1981). Present status of chemotherapy and
chemoprophylaxis in the eastern hemisphere. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 13: 91 147.
Nanyende D. W., Arimi S. M., muchemi G., Kitala P.M., and Eberhard Z. 2008.
Estimation of the prevalence in humans in northern Turkana district of Kenya.
Proceeding of the 6th Biennial scientific conference and exhibition, Kabete, Nairobi.
Kanyari P.W.N., Allonby E.W., and Wilson A.J., and Munyua W.K. 1983. Some
economic effects of trypanosomiasis in goats. Tropical Animals Health and
Production, 15, 153-159.

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Appendix 1:TERMS OF REFERENCE


The Terms of Reference for Development of a Workable Disease Control Strategy are:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

vi)

vii)

Characterize type, and occurrence of ectoparasite vectors (ticks and tsetse flies), and
endoparasites under different dairy production systems within the programme district;
Identify and characterize diseases transmitted by the vectors and endoparasites (where
necessary), and their incidences, prevalence rates/mobidity and mortality rates;
Define the disease incidences for feed borne mycotoxicosis and zoonotic breeding
diseases such as brucellosis;
Assess awareness levels and the economic impact of existing diseases control and
management practices among dairy producers;
Define the effectiveness and efficiency of vector borne diseases, endoparasites, feedborne mycotoxicosis and breeding borne zoonotics (brucellosis) control and management
practices amongst dairy producers.
Assess the existing service delivery channels, and service providers (both public and
private), and effectiveness and efficiency of their service delivery in the control and
management of vector and vector borne, endoparasites, mycotoxicosis and breeding
zoonotics.
Based on identified gaps in the technical skills amongst producers, service providers and
service delivery channels, develop an efficient and effective sustainable diseases control
and management strategy that is replicable and within the overall policy of the
Government.

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Appendix 2: QUESTIONNAIRES
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR DISTRICT VETERINARY OFFICERS
Please respond to the questions by putting a tick next to the applicable response or give a
brief answer to the questions below.
The information provided will be treated confidentially
ENUMERATOR INFORMATION:
Name of Enumerator: ______________

Date: __________________
_______________

_________________

Serial No. ______________________


Management section
1.

Name of Respondent_____________ ____________________ ________________

2.

Title: Dr. _____, Mr.____,

3.

Qualification (s), tick in the right box:

Bachelors degree

Masters

PhD

4.

Years of experience in the field:

5.

District Name:________________________ Number of Divisions:_________________________

6.

Station Name: ____________________Total No. of Livestock Farmers in your District:

7.

Give the number of personnel in your station.

Technical personnel
8.

Non technical personnel

Do you have enough personnel for veterinary services in your District? Yes

No

If No, what number do you consider adequate? _____________________________


9.

Does your District have livestock extension officers? Yes

No.

If Yes, state the Number.


10.

Are extension officers adequate? Yes

11.

Indicate in the box the total Number and Sex of livestock in the district, indicate in the box:

Total

No

Sex

Cows

Males

Females

Goats

Males `

Females

Sheep
Dogs
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Others
12.

Specify_________________________________________
Indicate in the box the total number of Dairy Cows by their Breeds:

Friesian

Arshire

Cross Breeds

Guernsey

Others

Jersey

Specify____________________

13.

Total Milk production in the District.

14.

What is the type(s) of Dairy cattle Farming system practiced in the District.

Zero-grazing

Free-Range

Litres.

Semi- zero grazing

Others

Specify_________________________________
15.

Give the total number of Dairy goats in the District. ______________

16.

Give the breeds of dairy goats in the District. __________________________________

17.

Which are the common types of Dairy cattle Feed(s) used in the District?

Fodder Crops, Yes

No

If Yes, Please state the common type(s) of Fodder crops available:


________________________________________________________________________
Concentrates, Yes

No

If Yes, Please state the common type(s) of Concentrates available:


________________________________________________________________________
Salt licks, Yes

No

If Yes, Please state the common type(s)of salt licks are available:
Blocks
18.

Powder
Do you have Other animal health providers in your District?

Yes

No.

If Yes, give the other Key animal health providers in your area (where appricable):
Private Vets.

Number

Paramedical

Number

NGOs

Number

Herbelist
19.

Number

Specify_____________

In your opinion do you have enough funds for your disease control operations?
Yes

No

If No, suggest two (2) ways of securing extra funds for your operations:
i)___________________________________ii) ___________________________
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20.

Do you have enough transport for your operations? Yes

No.

If No, suggest Two (2) ways in which official transport in the field can be improved?
i)_______________________________________________________________________
ii)______________________________________________________________________
21.

How do you operate in the field?

Via designated routes


22.

Through a Stationary Center

How do famers get access to you or other veterinary personnel?

By visiting your office


By Other Means
23.

Both

By written notes

By Mobile phone

Specify them _______________________________

Which method do you use to communicate with farmers on veterinary seminars and other

matters?

Yes

No

Holding barazas,
Letters
Churches
Mass media

Specify Which media _____________

E-mails
Others,

Specify ____________________________________

24.

How many times in a year do you pass disease control information to farmers? _______

25.

How do you manage veterinary services records and data?

Record books
26.

Files

Computers

Do you have the following in your office?

Computer (s),

Yes

No.

Mobile phone (s) Yes

No.

DISEASE SECTION
27.

Please give the most prevalent i)cattle ii) goat diseases in the District

a) In a decreasing order of Prevalence.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

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______________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
b) Based on the causative agent(s);
Agent

Incidence

Prevalence

Morbidity

Mortality

Viral:
Worms:
Bacterial:
Protozoa:
Ricketial:
Nutrition:
Metabolic:
Poisoning:
Fungal:
Others:
28.

Specify
Which of the following notifiable cattle diseases have been reported in your District for the last

two (2) years? Indicate next to the reported disease the decreasing order(1-8) of prevalence.
Anthrax, Yes

No

Bovine Tuberculosis, Yes

Rinderpest, Yes

No

Bovine pleuropneuminoa,

Yes

Foot & Mouth, Yes

No

Parasitic mange, Yes

No

29.

No

No

Rift valley Fever, Yes

Others, Yes

No

Rabies, Yes

No

Specify ______________________________________

Give incidences of zoonotic breeding diseases in cattle and goats in a decreasing order of

prevalence.
i)

Cattle____________________________________________________________

ii)

Goats____________________________________________________________

30.

Give incidences of Feed borne mycotoxicosis in cattle and goats:

i)

Cattle____________________

ii)

Goats____________________

31.

List acaricides used in your District. ______________________________________

32.

Give the common ectoparasite vectors and the diseases they transmit in a decreasing order of

prevalence and mortality in cattle and goats.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

42

Cattle

Diseases transmitted

Vectors: i)_______________
ii)________________

Prevalence

_________________

Mortality
_________

_________________

_________

______

iii)________________ _________________

_________

_____

Goat

Diseases transmitted

Prevalence

Mortality

Vectors: i)_________________ __________________ _________


ii)_________________ __________________ _________

______

iii)_________________ __________________ _________

______

33.

______

______

Which methods are used to control the following in Dairy cattle and goats?

Ectoparasites:
Cattle___________________________________________________________________Goats_________
___________________________________________________
Disease vectors:
Cattle___________________________________________________________________
Goats___________________________________________________________________
34.

Give common endoparasites in a decreasing order of importance in cattle and goats.

Cattle: ____________,

______________, ________________, _____________

Goat: _____________, ______________, ________________, _____________


35.

Give in a decreasing order of prevalence, common diseases transmitted from wildlife animals to

cattle and goats in the District.


Cattle: _____________, ______________, ________________, _____________
Goats: _____________, ______________, ________________, _____________
36.

Has resistance to the following been observed in the last two years?

Acaricides

Yes [

No [

Antimicrobial agents

Yes [

No [

Antihelmithic

Yes [

No [

37.

Do you have a copy of the Diseases of Animals Act in your office? Yes

No

If No, give one (1)reasons why. i)____________________________________________


38.

Do you disseminate information on the Diseases of Animals act


Yes

No

If Yes, how many times in an year? __________________________________________


39.

Do you send sample of suspected animals to the Laboratory?

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

Yes

No

43

40.

How long does it take to confirm the diagnosis? _________________________________

41.

Give two (2) suggestions on how laboratory diagnosis process can be improved.

i)_______________________________________________________________________ii)______________
________________________________________________________
42.

List three (3) important steps that you take to control cattle and goat disease(s) in District.

i)_______________________________________________________________________ii)______________
________________________________________________________
iii)_______________________________________________________________
43.

Do you have vaccines and other facilities ready for vaccination programmes?

Yes
44.

No

Not Always

Give the average cost of vaccination against common diseases per animal in your District?

Ksh. _______________
45.

What is your opinion on the affordability of vaccination and other control measures, by dairy

producers?
Affordable

Unaffordable

If unaffordable, pleaser suggest one (1) way the cost can be reduced:
i)_______________________________________________________________________
46.

What percentage of animals are vaccinated in your district per annum? _____________

47.

Has any incidence of re- occurrence of disease (s) observed immediately after vaccination of

cattle and goats ? Yes

No

If Yes, state the disease(s) _____________________________________________


48.
Often
49.

Do farmers obtain livestock movement permit when need arise always? Yes
Others

No

Specify _____

Please give three(3)suggestions in order of importance on how disease control process can be

improved in cattle and goats


ii)_____________________________________________________________________________ii)_______
________________________________________________________
iii)______________________________________________________________________
50.
Effective

How do you rate isolation of sick animals as a disease control method, during outbreaks.
Ineffective

51.

Is slaughtering method of disease control practiced in your area? Yes

52.

How would you rate slaughtering method as a disease control strategy?

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

No

44

Effective

Not effective

Rarely used by farmers


53.

Give, where applicable important conventional methods or alternatives methods used to

control the following categories of diseases in cattle and goats:


Viral:
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Bacteria:
______________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Worms:
______________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Protozoa:
______________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Ricketial:
______________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Fungal:
______________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Poisoning:
______________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Nutritional/ metabolic diseases:
______________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Others:
Specify__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

45

54.

Are there breeding diseases in your area? Yes

No.

If Yes, give the common disease(s) in i) cattle and ii) goats in a decreasing order of prevalence:
i)

Cattle:_________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________
ii)

Goats:_________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________
55.

Has Brucellosis been reported in the last three (3) years Yes,

No

If Yes, give incidences / Prevalence _________________________________________________


56.

What percentage or number of dairy cattle are served by A.I. in your district?

_______________________________
57.

Are bulls used by famers for serving cows? Yes

No.

58.

Is the information on cows served by bull available in your District? Yes

No.

If Yes, Give the number and percentages of cattle served by bulls in your District: ___________
59.

Please suggest three (3)ways of reducing breeding diseases in your District:

______________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
60.

Which three (3) challenges do you face in disease control in cattle and goats?

Cattle:

i) ___________________

Goats:

i) __________________ ii) _________________ iii) _________________

61.

Suggest three (3) ways of overcoming these challenges :

ii) _________________

iii) _________________

______________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
62.

Do you attend professional conferences?

Yes

No.

If Yes, how many times per year: __________________________________________________


63.

Have you attended continuing education courses?

Yes

No.

If yes, please specify number of times per year.______________________________________


64.

Do you get feed back from farmers on disease control? Yes

65.

Suggest two (2) ways in which livestock disease control policy can be made more effective:

i)

_________________________________________________________________

ii)

_________________________________________________________________

66.

Do you have disease control strategy? Yes

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

No.

No

46

67.

Please indicate the following, on the effectiveness of current methods of disease control

strategy in the District?


i)

Strengths_______________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________
ii)

Weaknesses____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________
iii)

Opportunities___________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________
iv)

Threats________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________
68.

What is the economic impact of diseases on the following animals?


High

Medium

Low

Dairy Cattle
Dairy Goats

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR FARMERS ON DISEASES CONTROL


Please respond to the questions by putting a tick next to the applicable response or give a
brief answer to the questions below.
The information provided will be treated confidentially
ENUMERATORS INFORMATION:
Name of Enumerator: ______________
District & Serial No. _______________

Date: __________________
_______________
_________________
_______

Summary of Dairy animals in the farm


Dairy cow only [ ]
Dairy goat only
[ ]
Dairy cow and goat
[ ]
1.

Which veterinary service is easily accessible to you?

Government Service
Private Service
Cooperative society
2.

[ ]
[ ]
[ ]

Do you report the following to Veterinary Officers?

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

47

Sick animals

yes [ ] no [ ]

yes[ ]

Dead animals

no[ ]

MASTITIS SECTION
3.
Did you have the following animals affected by mastitis in the last one year?
yes no
Dairy cattle
[ ]
[ ]
Dairy goats
[ ]
[ ]
If yes, give number of animals which were affected and total number of animals in the farm . ________________
__________________________
4.

Were the cows affected by mastitis treated? yes [ ]

no [ ]

If yes, who treated the affected cows?


Veterinary doctor(s) [ ]

Paramedical
[ ]
Self
[ ]

Others
[ ]
5.
How many mastitis tubes did you use per treatment, if you treated mastitis yourself?
One [
]
Two [
]
Three [ ]
More than three [ ]
4.
Were the drugs effective? yes [ ] No [ ] I dont know [ ]
5.
Did mastitis recur in the treated cows? Yes [ ] No [ ]
6.
Do you wash your hands before milking cows? Yes [ ] No [ ]
7.
Do you wash the udder before milking the cows.? Yes [ ] No [
If Yes, indicate what you use to wash the udder ?

Cold water
[
Warm water
[ ]
Water with antiseptic [
8.
9.

]
]

Do you use milking salve before milking your cows? yes [ ] No [ ]


Which method do you use at the end of a milking period of a pregnant cow?

Stop abruptly [ ]

Milk once a day for the next 5 days [ ]


Milk after every other day for 5 days [
10.

Yes [

Do you use dry cow mastitis tubes when you stop milking the pregnant cows?

No [

11.
Have your cows ever been tested for mastitis using simple mastitis tests (California mastitis
test)? Yes [ ] No [
]
12.
What do you do with a cow having chronic or recurrent mastitis?

Retain in the heard

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

48

Cull (Remove from farm)


[
Sell
[ ]
13.

Do you boil milk before drinking? Yes [

No [

ECTOPARASITES
14.

Do you control ticks in your farm? Yes [

No [

If no why ? __________________________________________________
15.

Which method do you use for tick control ?

Dipping
[ ]

Spraying
[ ]

Sport on
[ ]

Others
[ ]
Please specify ________________________________
16.
How owns the cattle dip?
Group [ ]
leased [ ]
If leased, what are the charges? ______________________
17.

Yes [

Do you read instructions on the label before using chemicals for ticks control?

] No[
]
If No, why? _____________________________________________________

18.
19.
20.
i)
ii)
iii)

Which chemical do you use to control ticks in your farm? _________________


Do you think the chemical is effective in tick control? Yes [ ] No [ ]
Do you observe ticks after applying tick control chemical on your dairy animals a;
After 1 day
[ ]
After 3 days
[ ]
After 1 week [ ]

21.

How did you get this information? ____________________________________

22.

How often do you dip or spray your dairy animals?

Once a week
Twice a week
Every two weeks
Once a months
23.

[
[
[
[

]
]
]
]

If you use sport-on, how often do you use repeat application on the animals?

Before one month


After one month
After two month
Dont know
Others

[
[
[
[
[

]
]
]
]
] Please specify_____________________________

24.
How do you dispose unused diluted chemicals (acaricides) for tick control?
__________________________________________________________________
25.
List other ectoparasites which affect your cows and goats.

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
26.

Do you control them? Yes [

No [

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

49

If so which method do you use?


Dipping [ ]
Spraying [
]
Spot on [ ]
Dusting [
]
Herbs
[
]
27.
Do you control fleas and other ecoparasites affecting your goats?
Yes
No
i) Dusting goats
[ ]
[ ]
ii) Spraying goats
[ ]
[ ]
iii) Appling chemical on the floor
[ ]
[ ]
28.
How do you rate treatment of tick borne diseases?
ECF
Others
Cheap
[ ]
[ ]
Affordable
[ ]
[ ]
Expensive
[ ]
[ ]
DE-WORMING
29.

Do you de-worm your cows and dairy goats? Yes [

] No [

If answer is no ,why? __________________________________________


30.

Do you de-worm other animals like sheep and the dogs


Yes
No

Sheep
[ ]
[
]
Dogs
[ ]
[
]
31.
Who deworms your cows and goats?
Veterinary personal
[
]
Herbalist
[
]

Self
[
]
If self, How did you get the information on de-worming? _____________
32.
What type of drugs are used in your cows?
Convectional drugs
[ ]

Herbal medicine
[ ]
Combination of the two
[ ]
Others
[ ] please specify ________________________
33.
How often do you de-worm your dairy cows and goats?
After 3 months
[ ]
3-6months

[ ]
6-9months

[ ]
Others
[
] Please specify _____________________________
VACCINATION
34.
Do you take the following animals for vaccination against serious diseases in your area ?
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

50

Yes
No
Cows
[ ]
[ ]
Dairy goats [ ]
[ ]
If No why ? __________________________________________________________
35.
How do you find vaccination charges?
Cheap
[ ]
Affordable
[ ]
Expensive [ ]
36.
Do you find vaccination effective in the control of fatal diseases in your farm?
Yes
[
]
No
[
]
Dont know [
]
37.
Do you keep information on diseases in your records?
Yes
[ ]
No
[ ]
38.
Give the common cause of death of your dairy animals. ________________
39.
Do you need basic training on disease preventive education? Yes [ ] No [ ]

DAIRY FARMERS QUESTIONNAIRE FARM MANAGEMENT AND


PRODUCTION
Please respond to the questions by putting a tick next to the applicable response or give a
brief answer to the questions below.
The information provided will be treated confidentially
ENUMERATOR INFORMATION:
Date: __________________
Name of Enumerator: ______________
_______________
_________________
District Code & Serial No. _____________ _________
Summary of Dairy animals in the farm
Dairy cattle only
[ ]
Dairy goat only
[ ]
Dairy cattle and goat [ ]
SECTION A
1.
FARMERS DATA
Name of Household Head _________________ _______________ ________________
Code number _______________________
District
________________________________________
Division
________________________________________
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

51

Location
________________________________________
Sublocation
________________________________________
2.
Gender of respondent. Male [ ]
Female [ ]
3.
Age below 18 years
[ ]
19-34 years
[ ]
35-55 years
[ ]
Above55years
[ ]
4.
Marital status
Married
[ ]
Separated /divorced
[ ]
Never married
[ ]
Widower
[ ]
5.
Level of education
None
[ ]
Primary
[ ]
Secondary
[ ]
College
[ ]
University
[ ]
6.
Give years of experience in dairy farming. _______________________________
7.
Give your appropriate source of income
Yes
No
Livestock farming
[ ]
[ ]
Milk production only
[ ]
[ ]
Crop production only
[ ]
[ ]
Business
[ ]
[ ]
Employment
[ ]
[ ]
Size of family __________________people
SECTION B
FARM MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
8.
Ownership of the farm
Self
[ ]
Family
[ ]
Leasehold
[ ]
Others
[ ] Please specify __________________________
9.
Farm size
Below 1 acre
[ ]
2-4 acres
[ ]
Above 4 acres
[ ]
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

52

10.
What are the sources of water in your farm?
Stream/river
[ ]
Rain water
[ ]
Borehole/well
[ ]
Dam
[ ]
Piped water
[ ]
Others
[ ] Please specify ___________________________
11.
Types of farming practices in the farm
Dairy farming
[ ]
Crop farming
[ ]
Both crop and dairy farming
[ ]
12.
Population of animals on the farm
Numbers
Cattle
_____
Goats
_____
Sheep
_____
Dogs
_____
Cats
_____
Others
_____ Please specify __________________
13.
Do you feed dairy animals with poultry droppings? Yes [ ]
No [ ]
If Yes, give any disease(s) you have observed after feeding on poultry droppings.
_________________________________________________________________
14.
Do you give salt licks to dairy animals?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
If Yes which type of salt?
Powder [ ]
Blocks
[ ]
15.
How many dairy cattle do you have? ____________
Give Dairy Breeds of cattle &
Numbers
Friesian
[ ]
_____
Arshire
[ ]
______
Guernsey
[ ]
______
Jersey
[ ]
______
Zebu
[ ]
______
Mixed breeds
[ ]
______
Others
[ ]
______
Total
_______
16.
Distribution of cattle
Cows
_______
Bulls
_______
Calves
_______
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

53

Total
_______
17.
Method of grazing
Zero grazing
[ ]
Free range
[ ]
18.
Give the milking status of your dairy cattle
Cows in milk
_____
Dry cows
_____
19.
Do you keep dairy goats?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
If Yes, give breeds and number.
Breed
Number
Pure breed;
Toggen burgs
[ ]
_______
German Alpines
[ ]
_______
Saaner
[ ]
_______
Mixed Breed
[ ]
_______
Others
[ ]
_______
20.
Give the distribution of the goats by sex and number.
Females [ ]
Males [ ]
Kids [ ]
21.
Give the method used to graze dairy goats
Zero grazing [ ]
Free range [ ]
22.
Give the milking status of your dairy goats.
Number of goats in milk _________
Number of dry goats
_________
23.
Do you keep farm records? Yes [ ]
No [ ]
If yes, give the important farm record(s) you keep. ____________________________
24.
Do you think it important for farmers to be trained on farm records keeping?
Yes [ ] No [ ]
25.
Please give approximate cost of the following:
Dairy cattle Dairy goats
Treatment of sick dairy animals per month
KShs.
________
________
Chemicals for ticks and pests control per month Kshs
________
________
Deworming per month
________
________
Feeding one animal per month on concentrates
And supplements
Kshs.
________
________
Labour per month; i) Farm worker
Kshs.
________
________
ii) If family labour indicate appropriately ________
________
SECTION C
EXTENSION SERVICES
26.
Do you receive extension services? Yes [ ]
No [ ]
If yes, what type of extension service do you receive?
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

54

Disease control
[ ]
Breeding/AI
[ ]
Feeding
[ ]
Milk hygiene
[ ]
Others
[ ] Please specify _________________________
27.
Who provides extension service to you?
Government Personnel [ ]
Private practitioner(s)
[ ]
NGO(S)
[ ]
Radio
[ ]
TV
[ ]
Others
[ ]
please specify ____________________
28.
What radio station do you usually listen to?
English service [ ] Kiswahili [ ]
Vernacular [ ]
29.
Who would you think is the most effective to give you extension service? _________

30.

Do you have the following?


Yes
Mobile phone [ ]
Fixed phone [ ]
Other Communication facility [ ]

No
[ ]
[ ]
Specify _________________

31.

Please indicate how you get information on extension services from providers.
Yes
No
i. Announcement in church
[ ]
[ ]
ii. Local meetings {Barazas}
[ ]
[ ]
iii. Radio
[ ]
[ ]
iv. Phone messages
[ ]
[ ]
v. Daily papers
[ ]
[ ]
32.
Are Extension Services beneficial to you? Yes [ ] No [ ]
33.
Do you have access to disease control information in your area?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
34.
Please give Impact (effect) of disease control programme(s) in your farm?
Poor
[ ]
Good
[ ]
None
[ ]
35.
Which method do you use for breeding?
Dairy cattle
Diary goats
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

55

AI
[ ]
AI
[ ]
Bulls
[ ]
He goats
[ ]
36.
Specify AI service provider for your dairy cattle in your farm?
Government personnel
[ ]
Cooperative society
[ ]
Private service
[ ]
37.
Do you keep AI records?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
38.
Have you encountered breeding diseases in your farm?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]
If yes,
i. Give common disease or major signs. _______________________________
ii. Give number o f dairy animals affected;
Dairy cattle ______Dairy goats ____
iii. Total number of all dairy animals;
Dairy cattle ______Dairy goats_____
39.
Has use of AI service reduced incidence of breeding diseases in your cattle?
Yes [ ]
No [ ]

40.
Please give charges of AI service per cow Kshs._________
How would you rate cost of AI service?
Cheap
[ ]
Affordable
[ ]
Expensive
[ ]
41.
How do you meet cost of AI/treatment of your dairy animals?
Pay cash
[ ]
Get credit from cooperative society [ ]
Get help from farmers groups
[ ]
Postpone treatment /AI to get money [ ]
42.
Please state and give the following.
i) Total milk produced by all cows/ day ______ liters
ii) Total milk produced by all goats/ day ______ liters
43.
How do you market your milk? ______________________________________
44.
What is the average market price per liter of i) cow milk. KShs. ________
ii) goat milk. KShs. ________
45.
What is your monthly income from milk produced in your farm?
i) cow . KShs. ________
ii) goat
KShs. ________
46.
Does your monthly income from milk meet your production cost?
Yes
[ ]
No
[ ]
If No, give one (1)suggestion of improving milk market price. _______________
47.
How do you feed milk to the following?
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

56

Calves
Kids
Sucklig
[ ]
[ ]
Bucket feeding [ ]
[ ]
48.
Please give the average amount of milk given to each calf per day ____________
49.
What do you do with weaned calves and kids?
Calves
Kids
Sell
[ ]
[ ]
Keep in the farm
[ ]
[ ]
QUESTIONNARE FOR MAJOR FEED MANUFACTURERS/ SUPPLIERS
Please respond to the questions by putting a tick next to the applicable response or give a
brief answer to the questions below.
The information provided will be treated confidentially
ENUMERATOR S INFORMATION:
Name of Enumerator: ______________

Date: __________________
_

______________

_________________

Serial No. ______________________


1.

Code Number: _______________________

2.

Name of feed supplier: _________________________________________________________

3.

Name of responder : ________________

4.

District: __________________________________________

5.

Division: __________________________________________

6.

Location: ____________________________, Town: ____________________________________

7.

Give the number of years /months that you have been in animal feed production: ___________

8.

a) List the type of dairy cow feeds you produce/Supply:

_______________

_________________

______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
b) Do you produce dairy goat feeds?

Yes

No

If Yes, Specify ___________________________________________________________________


9.

Where do you get your raw materials from?

Locally
Abroad
10.

Give the main suppliers of your raw materials used in making animal feeds:

_______________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

57

11.

Do you get information on the storage of raw materials after harvest?

Yes
12.

No.
Are you aware of potential feed borne diseases?

Yes

If Yes, do you test the quality of your raw materials? Yes


13.

Do you test the quality of your animal feed?

No.
No.

Yes

No.

If Yes,
i)

Give the name of the laboratory /laboratories where you send your samples for analysis:

_______________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
ii)

List the types of feed toxicants/ contaminants in raw materials and feeds which are commonly

tested
for:____________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
14.

Do you keep records for Laboratory reports? Yes

15.

How do you store your raw materials?

Closed premises
Others
16.

Open premises

17.

Both , open & Closed

Specify _________________________________________________
How do you store your animal feeds after processing?

Closed premises
Others

No.

Open premises

Both , open & Closed

Specify __________________________________________________

How do you dispose spoiled raw materials and animal feeds?

_______________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
18.
Yes
19.
Yes

Do you get technical advice on how to improve quality of your animal feeds?
No
Have you attended Training on improving formulation and quality of animal feeds?
No

If No, which assistance would you need in this area?


_______________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
20.

Suggest two (2) ways in which the feed safety can be improved:

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

58

i)

________________________________________________________________________

ii)

________________________________________________________________________

21.

Do you get feed back from farmers on your feed quality? Yes

22.

Give two (2) ways in which animals feeds can be made cheaper and affordable to farmers?

No

_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MILK PROCESSOR(S)


Please respond to the questions by putting a tick next to the applicable response or give a
brief answer to the questions below.
The information provided will be treated confidentially
ENUMERATORS INFORMATION:
Name of Enumerator: ______________

Date: __________________
_______________

_________________

Serial No. ______________________


PROCESSORS INFORMATION
1.

Name of processor. ________________________________________________

Category of processor. Major [ ]

Small Scale

[ ]

Code number. ______________________________________________________


Location. _______________________________________________________
District. __________________________________________________________
Division. _________________________________________________________
Town. ___________________________________________________________
Name of respondent. _______________________________________________
Qualification of respondent:__________________________________________
Designation. _______________________________________________________
2.

3.

Give total number of farmers who sell milk to you? ________________________

Give total volume (liter) of milk purchased in each district as appropriate.


No. District
Total vol. (liter) of milk Purchased
Per day Per week Per month Per year
1
Nakuru
2
Bomet
3
Central Kisii

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

59

4
5
6
7
8
9

Nyamira
Nandi North
Uasin-Gishu
Lugari
Bungoma
Trans Nzoia

4.

What is the average volume of milk sold by each farmer per day? ________litres.

5.

What is the price of milk per liter? Ksh. ______________

6.

How many times do you pick milk from the farmers per day?
Once [ ]
Twice [ ]
Others [ ]

7.

Please specify. ___________________________________

Do you have milk coolers in your area of operation?


Yes [

8.

No[

How is milk transported from collection centers to the processing plants?


By processor

Cooperative society [

Individual farmer

Others

Please specify ________________________

9.

Do you sell raw milk to customers? Yes[

10.

Give in a decreasing order of importance the three important methods used in the

No [

preservation of milk in your processing plant.


__________________________________________________________________
11.

Which is the most effective methods for milk preservation?

__________________________________________________________________
12.

Do you offer extension service for disease control to farmers in your area of operation?
Yes [

13.

No

Who assists in the control of milk related diseases in your Organization?

Veterinarian
Animal health assistant

Dairy technologist
Layman

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

60

Others

14.

Please specify __________________

Give your opinion on the quality of milk delivered by farmers to the processing plant

Poor

Good

Dont know [
15.

What is the volume of milk rejected due to spoilage in each district, please give

appropriate answer?
No. District

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
16.

17.

Total vol. (liter) of milk


Rejected
Per month Per year

Nakuru
Bomet
Central Kisii
Nyamira
Nandi North
Uasin-Gishu
Lungari
Bungoma
Trans Nzoia

Which period of the year is a lot of milk rejected?


Wet season [

Dry season [

Please give main reasons for milk rejection in the districts you buy milk from.

__________________________________________________________________
18.

Suggest two ways in which milk rejection can be minimized.

i)

____________________________________________________________

ii)

____________________________________________________________

19.

Do you give a feedback to farmers on why their milk was rejected?

Yes

No

20.

List in a decreasing order of importance milk related diseases encountered in factory

laboratory. ______________________________________________________________
21.

Any other in relevant formation.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

61

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR VETERINARY INVESTIGATION LABORATORY


PERSONNEL
Please answer questions by putting a tick against the correct answer and give correct information
on the spaces provided. The information provided will be treated confidentially.
Enumerator Name
Date..
Respondents Name:
Name of Laboratory..
Number..
Code
District ..
Town
Qualification
Designation
1.

Total number of staff working in the laboratory.

2.

Give number of samples analysed per year

3.

Give total post mortems done per year

4.

Give Districts served by the laboratory

5.

Do you perform disease surveillance on your area of operation?

Yes [ ]
6.

No[ ]
If yes, give a list of common diseases under surveillance

7.

Who delivers samples to the laboratory?

Veterinarians

[ ]

Paramedics

[ ]

8.

Do you get history of the case?

a.

Yes [ ]

b.

If yes, give percent of samples accompanied by history of the case.

No[ ]

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9.

Are samples transported to your laboratory well preserved?

a.

Yes[ ]

10.

Please rate farmers level of awareness of diagnostic services

a.

1 25

[ ]

b.

25 50

[ ]

c.

50 75

[ ]

d.

75 100

[ ]

11.

Please comment on facilities preservation in your laboratory

a.

Inadequate

[ ]

b.

Adequate

[ ]

c.

Most not in working condition [ ]

12.

What is the current status of laboratory equipment/facilities

a.

Inadequate

[ ]

b.

Adequate

[ ]

c.

Most items are not in working condition

[ ]

d.

Most items are in working condition

[ ]

13.

Do you have adequate reagents funds to run diagnostic services throughout the year?

Yes[ ]
14.

No[ ]

No[ ]
Give major constraints faced by your laboratory

15.

Suggest three ways of overcoming the constraints.

i)

ii)

________________________________________________________

iii)

..

16.

List the common diseases of dairy cattle and dairy goats based on aetiological agents and

order of importance which are diagnosed in your laboratory in the last one year.
Dairy cattle

Dairy goats

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

63


..
17.

Please give prevalence and mortality rates of common dairy cattle and dairy goats

diseases in your area


Dairy cattle

Dairy goats

18.

Do you do analysis of poisons? Yes [ ]

No [

If No, give reasons


19.

Do you think analysis of poisons is important? Yes [

20.

Suggest 4 effective ways of controlling the diseases diagnosed in your area of operation

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

..

21.

Do you do antimicrobial sensitivity tests in your laboratory?

Yes [ ]

No [

No[ ]

If yes, which drugs are organisms resistant to?

22.

Give average charges of examination of samples from cattle and goats.

23.

How long does it take to examine samples and give results to farmers? .

24.

Do you refer samples to other laboratories?

Yes [ ]
25.

No[ ]
If yes, give the names of the laboratories

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

64

26.

Are diagnostic services affordable by small scale farmers?

Yes [ ]

No[ ]

Dont know [ ]

27.

Suggest two ways of reducing diagnostic services costs

i)

ii)

28.

Do you discuss with farmers methods controlling diagnosed diseases in your area of

operation?

Yes [ ]

No[ ]

Very rarely [ ]

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

65

Appendix 3: KEY INFORMATION SCHEDULE


Table 10. Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Programme - Key Informant Schedule
AREA OF STUDY DATE ACTIVITIES
PERSONNEL
TEAMLEADER
ZONE 1
Day 1 ET, PP,VIL,
Consultant, Expert,
Lead Consultant
DVO, SMT
Enumerator
NAKURU
Day 2 FMAN,
Consultant, Expert,
Lead Consultant
DGC.FGD
Enumerator
Day 3 37 SDPs
Consultant, Expert,
Lead Consultant
Enumerator

ZONE 1 DISTRICTS
ZON 2 DISTRICTS

Bomet

DAY
4

36 SDPs

Consultant, Expert,
Enumerator

Lead Consultant

Central
Kisii

DAY
5

38 SDPs

Consultant, Expert,
Enumerator

Lead Consultant

Nyamira DAY
6

39 SDPs

Consultant, Expert,
Enumerator

Lead Consultant

Nandi

42 SDPs

Consultant, Expert,
Enumerator
Consultant, Expert,
Enumerator
Consultant, Expert,
Enumerator
Consultant, Expert,
Enumerator
Consultant, Expert,
Enumerator

Lead Consultant

Uasin
Gishu
Lugari
Bungom
a
Trans
Nzoia

DAY
7
DAY
8
DAY
9
DAY
10
DAY
11

32 SDPs
38 SDPs
37 SDPs
37 SDPs

Lead Consultant
Lead Consultant
Lead Consultant
Lead Consultant

VIL=Veterinary Investigation Laboratory, SMT=Small Milk Trader, FMAN=Feed Manufacturer, PVET= Private Vet., PC= Prog. Personnel,
LPO= Livestock Production Officer, DGC= Dairy Goat Coordinator, AHP= Animal Health Provider, EO= Extension Officer, FGD= Focus Group
Discussion, KCC =New KCC, DVO = District Veterinary Officer, SDPs =Smallholder Dairy Producers,

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

66

Appendix 5: ENUMERATOR TRAINING GUIDE


The interview will focus on key personnel involved in disease control in the area of study in order
to clear issues on effectiveness of methods used in disease control.
A checklist of will include information the following information.
ENUMERATORS INFORMATION:
Date: __________________
Name of Enumerator: ______________

_______________

_________________

Serial No. ______________________


Name of Key person: _______________
_________________ ________________________
District: __________________________________
Division: _________________________________
Location/Town
Qualification: _____________________________
Designation: ______________________________
o
Common diseases in the area of study.
___________________________________________________
o
Impact of disease on milk production.
____________________________________________________
o
Methods used to control diseases.
_______________________________________________________
o
Clarify the role of the dairy producers in disease control.
_____________________________________
o
Get major constraints in disease control.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________
o
How can constrains be overcome in order to improve disease control.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________
o
Check if the available resources are adequate or not for disease control.
________________________________________________________________________________
___
o
Find out if poverty contributes to poor disease control.
______________________________________
o
Can training of dairy producers assist in disease control?
_____________________________________
o
Is livestock extension programme effective?
_______________________________________________
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

67

o
Can good leadership improve management of communal dips and other facilities?
________________________________________________________________________________
____
o
Enquire if disease records are kept by Dairy farmers.
_________________________________________
o
Are there disease control strategies in the District?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
o
If strategies exist strategies, check if they have been communicated to dairy producers
________________________________________________________________________________
___
o
If disease strategy document dose not exist, which obstacles are being faced?
________________________________________________________________________________
____

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

68

CHECKLIST FOR FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION


A focus group discussion will be conducted in the study area and at least 27 representatives of
dairy producers will be selected from dairy groups in the three Dairy commercialization areas.
The key common issues related to diseases will be discussed.
The following information will be captured:
Facilitators Name: ____________________
__________________
Date:_____________
o
Names and location of Dairy producers ________________
____________________
o
Gender of Participants.
o
Which other animals are kept with cows and dairy goats?
o
Do they keep cows and goats together or separately?
o
Check if communal and/or individual grazing systems is commonly used
o
Check if cows and goats interact with wild animals
o
Are diseases a major problem in the DCAs?
o
If so why?
o
What do they do in order to control diseases in cows and goats?
o
Do they quarantine sick cows?
o
Do they quarantine sick goats?
o
Who offers disease control services?
a)
Government b) Private veterinary c) NGO
d) Self
o
Are they satisfied with the offered services?
o
If not why?
o
Check awareness level of cattle and dairy goats diseases and how they get information.
o
Check farmers with basic training on livestock diseases.
o
Get views on livestock extension services in the DCAs.
o
Check areas with community based animal health workers
o
Find how many have radios and mobile phones.
o
Do they take cattle for vaccination and dipping routinely?
o
Do they spray against ticks and ectoparasites.
o
Do they use other tick control methods
o
Check level of participation in disease control.
o
What hampers disease control in the area of study?
o
What can be done to improve cattle and dairy goat diseases in the area?
o
Check how they keep records on cattle and goat diseases in their farm?
o
Are they aware of livestock movement permits and do they get them
when buying or selling cattle?
o
Do they get permits when selling and buying goats?
o
Do they use conventional medicine or Herbal medicines in treatment of
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

69

o
o
o
o

cattle and goat diseases?


What do they do when a sick animal dies?
How they control mastitis in cattle.
How they control ticks and other vectors in cattle.
Check usage of dips and pumps.

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OBSERVATION CHECKLIST
Name of Expert: ______________________ ________Date: _______
District. _______________________________Division. __________________
o
Which are the general climatic condition of the study area?

Temperature Range: _____________________________

Rainfall Range:
____________________________
o
Is the study area a medium or high potential zone?
__________________________________________________________________
o
Check communal and individual grazing systems.
__________________________________________________________________
o
Check if other animals are kept with cows.
________________________________________________________________________________
____
o
Check for cattle-wildlife interactions.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________
o
Types of fodder crops.
__________________________________________________________
o
Check for poisonous substances.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________
o
Check common diseases, parasites and vectors in DCAs.
______________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____
o
Are endo-parasites a problem?
__________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
____
o
Check and rank service providers in the programme area.
________________________________________________________________________________
____
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

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o
Check sources of inputs.
________________________________________________________________
o
Check for vectors and
ectoparasites.______________________________________________________
o
Methods of control of vectors and ectoparasites.___________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____
o
Are disease records kept?
______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____
o
Are there strategies of disease control for cattle and goats in the study area?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________

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Appendix 6:

List of Stake holders

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

73

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

Name
Dr. Kipkosgei Jack Garoli
Dr. James M. Merisya
Dr. Guto Onchoke
Dr. Masinde Isaya Kisiangani
Dr. Jerono Kiptanui
Dr. Siele David
Dr. Allan Nyangweso Muruli
Dr. Githu Kaba
Dr. Mugalani
Dr. Mukendi F. Maindi
Dr. Hector Kusiru
Dr. Susan Amuti
Dr. Wamwea Paul Muringi
Dr. Mutisui Steven Karanja
Mr. S.W.Wafula
Mr. W. S. Mangoli
Mr. Evans Kiplagat
Mr. R. Muhoma
Mr. P. K. Chepkwony
Ms. Faith Gitahi
Mr. Simon K. Langat
John O. Ndege
V. O. Ondigi
P. K. Otieno
J. M. Nyaundi
Eric Ngetich
Samuel K. Rono
Samson Araka
Fanuel A. Anjela
Dominic Simbe
Alex Migika
Romulus Kulo
Belnard W. Chesoli
Nelson Chadamba
Mathews Ambuka
Herbeil Mulusa
Tereza Nasimiyu
Philip Onyapidi
Benard Ndiwa
Difas Kiteywa
Antony Lusala
Godfrey Masiko
Barnaba Magut

Designation
DVO
DVO
DVO
DVO
DVO
DVO
DVO
DVO
Dept. DVO
VO
VO
Dept. VO
Private Vet.
Private Vet.
DLPO
DLPO
DLPO
DLPO
DLPO
DLPO
DLPO
DLPO
DLPO
DDO
DDO
DDO
DDO
DDO
DDO
DDO
DDO
Famer
V-Chair, DCA
Famer
Famer
Famer
AHA
Coordinator, DCA
Chair, DCA
Chair, Group
Chair, Group
Coordinator, DCA
Famer

Agnes Nasimiyu
Famer
44
Isaac
Kisiangani
Famer
45
Elizabeth Bett
Chair, DCA
46
Grace Matetai
Famer
47
Rosebella Kole
Secretary, Group
48
Moses Wafula
Secretary, Group
49
Emily Napunyi
Famer
50
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi
Grace Simiyu
Famer
51
Ruth Simiyu
Chair, Group
52
Jenetrix Tenge
Ass. Sect. Group
53
Edward Wamalwa
Famer
54

District/ Station
Trans Nzoia
Nandi North
Nyamira
Bungoma
Uasin Gichu
Bomet
Kisii Central
Nakuru
Lugari
RVIL Nakuru
RVIL, Kericho
RVIL, Eldoret
Nakuru
Nakuru
Bungoma
Lugari
Bomet
Nakuru
Nandi NNorth
Trans Nzoia
Uasin Gishu
Kisii
Nyamira
Bungoma
Lugari
Bomet
Nandi North
Trans Nzoia
Uasin Gishu
Kisii
Nyamira
Ligari
Lugari
Lugari
Lugari
Lugari
Lugari
Trans Nzoia
Trans Nzoia
Trans Nzoia
Trans Nzoia
Trans Nzoia
Trans Nzoia

Gender
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Female
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Female
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Female
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Female
Female
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male
Male

Trans Nzoia
Trans Nzoia
Trans Nzoia
Trans Nzoia
Trans Nzoia
Bungoma
Bungoma
Bungoma
Bungoma
Bungoma
Lugari

Female
Male
Female
Female
Female
Male
Female
74
Female
Female
Female
Male

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

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Appendix

7:

CURRICULUM VITAE FOR PERSONNEL

Curriculum Vitae for Prof T. Maitho


Proposed Position: Animal Health Professional
Name of Firm:
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Profession:
Veterinarian
Date of Birth:
17/12/1951
Years with firm:
29
Nationality: Kenyan
Membership in Professional Societies:
MKVA, MKVB
___________________________________________________________________
Key Qualifications:
Experience
Prof. Maitho is employed by the University of Nairobi in the faculty of veterinary medicine and
he has working experience of 29 years and he has served as a full professor for 10 years.
He has wide experience in veterinary profession,consultancy, research, training, Administration
and in community service.
He has conducted applied research and consultancy in cattle and published scientific papers in
international Journals and his outstanding research work has been published in an International
Textbook in Pharmacology
He has conducted important research on clinical pharmacology, anthelmintics aflatoxins and
pesticides . He has participated in herd health programmes and thus contributed to disease control
and improvement of dairy cattle in rural areas . He has offered several courses to undergraduate and
postgraduate students in the pharmacology and toxicology section and in the department of clinical
studies
Training
Prof. Maitho obtained a Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and MSc degrees from the University
of Nairobi. He was latter awarded a PhD degree in Pharmacology from Royal Veterinary
College,University of London in 1982.
He is a registered by the Kenya Veterinary Board and is a member of Kenya Veterinary
Association
Responsibility
Prof Maitho will serve as a consultant and a team leader
Assignments
Prof Maitho has served as an acting chairman and Head of section and as a member of several
committee in the faculty and University.
The important recent Assignments undertaken are give below.
Date
location
Assignment
2005-2006
Nairobi and Nakuru
Efficacy of pyrethrins
and other Anthelmintics on
Helminths
2008
Nairobi
Acute toxicity of pesticide products control
Board
2008
Nairobi
Offered services on the formation of
National Veterinary drug policy

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

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Education
Dates
1979-1982
1978-1979
1972-1976

University

Degree

University of London
University of Nairobi
University of Nairobi

Employment Record
Dates
Employer
1997-Date
University
Of Nairobi
2001-2006
,,

PhD
Msc
BVM

Location
Nairobi

Position
Professor

Nairobi

Director Board
Postgraduate studies
Associate professor
Coordinators Msc in
Pharmacology and
Toxicology
Senior Lecturer
Lecturer
Assistant Lecturer

1992-19997
1993-Date

,,
,,

Nairobi
Nairobi

1987-1992
1979-1987
1977-1979
Certification

,,
,,
,,

Nairobi
Nairobi
Nairobi

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

77

Curriculum Vitae for Prof. Paul W. N. Kanyari :


Professor of Veterinary Parasitology
Contact Address and Telephones:
TeleFax: + 254-20-630985/631007
Cell Phone: +254-0722 714284;
E-mail: kanyari@uonbi.ac.ke
Academic and Professional Training:
Ph.D
Doctor of Philosophy in Parasitology, University of Queensland, Australia.
(1983- 1987)
M.Sc.
Master of Science in Veterinary, Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology,
University of Nairobi, Kenya. (1980- 1982)
B. V. M. Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. (1975- 1979)
Academic and Professional Experience.
2006 to date
Professor of VeterinaryParasitology
1997 2006
Associate Professor in Veterinary Parasitology
1990 - 1997
Senior Lecturer, Parasitology, University of Nairobi.
1982-1990
Lecturer in Parasitology, University
of Nairobi
1979-1982
Assistant Lecturer in Parasitology, University of Nairobi.
Administrative and other Responsibilities :
2004 - 2008
Dean, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi
Current Activities: Undergraduate and Postgraduate
Lectures and Supervision and Research
Research Areas:
Control of Goat Trypanosomiasis and the Role of Tse- tse flies at the Coastal region of Kenya
Sheep and Goat Helminthiasis in different Agro-Ecological Regions of Kenya
Coccidiosis in small ruminants in Kenya
Bovine Toxoascariasis in Kajiado District of Kenya, use of laboratory animal models and Control.
Participated in the design and execution of a
successful experiment testing the effectiveness of
Bayticol (Flumethrin) for protection of cattle
against Tse-tse flies at the Coast rovince of Kenya.
Tested a pyrethroid ( Dominex) for its effectiveness in protection of cattle against Tse-tse transmitted
trypanosomiasis - Research work published.
Helminth control among cattle and sheep in semi-arid areas of Kenya
Recent PhD Titles Supervised
Epidemiology and Control of Gastrointestinal Helminth Infections in Sheep in a Semi-arid Area
of Kajiado District of Kenya
A Study of Factors Influencing Pig Health and Productivity in Small Holder Pig Farms in
Trypanosomosis Endemic Area of Western Kenya.
Global Sanitary( Animal Health) Standards and Their Effect on the Kenyan Livestock and Meat
Products Exports.
External Examiner to other Universities
Makerere University, Uganda; Sokoine University of Agriculture;
Egerton University, Njoro; University of Zimbabwe;
University of Zambia
Botswana College of Agriculture
Other Consultancy Services Rendered

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

78

FMC International; Unga Group; Hoechst; Agricultural Research Foundation ( ARF); Kenya
Agricultural Productivity Project[KAPP]
Commission for Higher Education[CHE]; World Bank and Cardinal Agrisytems
Funded Grants:
Cryptosporidiosis: Transmission studies in immunocompromised murine hosts -Council for International
Education of Scholars [CIES ]-USA. 1996 to 1997
Causes of Ostrich chick mortalities in selected localities in Kenya and Alabama-A collaborative Project
between Tuskegee University, USA and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Funded by
USDA 1997 to 2002 .
Helminth Research Project in Kenya - Danish Development Agency [ DANIDA] - Causes of ostrich
chick mortality in Kenya and Alabama, USA - United States Department of Agriculture [USDA] 1994 to
2002
Risk Assessment and Analysis - A collaborative Project between
Tuskegee University, USA and
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi.2002 to 2004.
Urban Livestock Farming and the Risks to Human Health- Lake Victoria Research Initiative[VicRes]Nov 2006 to date. The website link is: www.vicres.net

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

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Curriculum Vitae for Dr. Simon M. Macharia (BVM, MSc.)


Dr. Macharia is a veterinarian by profession specialized in Veterinary Public Health
(Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Health Economics and Zoonoses). He is and has served as
A/Head of Public Health Section. He has a wide experience in teaching at University level and has
done research on Sero-Epidemiology of zoonoses and their control. He has participated in AMREFTERRANOVA commissioned training consultancy to train slaughterhouse inspectors on laboratory
management and Training of staff from VSF Germany on milk hygiene and quality assurance.He
has been involved in training of Government Veterinarians from Kenya, Southern Sudan and
Somalia in Disease Surveillance and Control. He has also conducted training courses on Health
Economics and Entrepreneurship for both Human and Veterinary Medical professionals.

PROFILE:
Name:
Date of Birth:
Contact:

Dr. Simon Mwangi Macharia.


1958.
Address:c/o PHPT Dept., FVM., CAVS.,
University of Nairobi,
P.O. Box 29053, 00625, KANGEMI,
Nairobi, Kenya.
E-Maill:
smacharia@uonbi.ac.ke or sichamz@yahoo.com
Mobile:
+254-2-722936312.ie (0722 9356 312)
Fax:
+254-2-631325 Atten.: Dr. S.M. Macharia, PHPT.
Permanent Address: c/o Harrison Macharia Njine,
Munanda Farm,
P.O. Box 1395, Nakuru Kenya.
Employment :
Lecturer / Vet. Surgeon-University of Nairobi, Kenya.
(Epidemiologist/Healthl Socio-Economist).
Qualifications:
MSc. (Public Health)-Reading, UK. and U.O.N.(1987).
Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine (BVM)- U.O.N.(1985).
International Courses in:
-Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics-UK.(1987),
Canada (1991).
-Computer Soft-Wares (Epidemiological and Statistical,
GIS tools, Report Writing and Presentation) and their
Application in Research.
Specialities:
-Public Health/Epidemiology-(Diseases and their control
strategies)
-Health and Disease Socio-Economics.
Areas of Research:
-Disease Surveillance and Control.
-Socio-Economics of Diseases and their Control.
Responsibilities:
-Teaching various courses to undergraduates and postgraduates.
-A/Section Head.
Co.ordinator of various Diploma, Undergraduate and postgraduate courses.
Assignments and
Projects done:
-Acomparative Sero-Epidemiological Survey for the Prevalence of
Leptospira Antibodies in Domestic Animals and Man in
Nyandarua and Turkana Districts of Kenya. (MSC. Thesis).
-A Preliminary Serological Survey for Leptospira Agglutinins in
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

80

Sheep and Goats of Kenya.


-A Serological Survey in Cattle, Sheep and Goats in Nyandarua
District of Kenya.
-Human Leptospirosis in Turkana District of Kenya.
-A Serological Survey of Leptospiral Agglutinins in Cattle, Sheep
and Goats in Semi-Arid areas of.
-An Investigation of an Out-Break of Bovine Leptospirosis due to
L. hardjo and L. Pomona in a Zero-Grazing herd in Kenya.
-A study of Risk Factors tha affect the distribution of Bovine
Fasciolosis in Kenya.
-An On-Farm Cross-sectional Survey of Bovine Fasciolosis in
Kenya.
Local and International
Courses Attendend: -The Design of Vaccination Programmes-From Field Studies to
Economics. Warwick University (UK.) ILRI(Kenya). Sponsored
by Department of International Development.
-Application of DNA Technology in Research (Molecular
Epidemiology).
-Application of Computer Soft-Wares In Research Data Analyses
(Epidemiological, Statistical, Presentation and Report Writing).
-Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases by Loop-Mediated Isothermal
Amplification of DNA (LAMP). Hokkaido and Obihiro
Universities, Japan and ILRI, Kenya.
-E-Content Development and E-Content Curriculum-CoDevelopment for Teaching and Communication of Reasearch
findings.-Tufts University, (USA) and School of Computing and
Informatics (UON).
-Rapid Results Initiative Training Workshop. CCU. University of Nairobi, Kenya. 2008.
-Performance-Enhancement and Team Building Training Workshop. CCU. Univesity of Nairobi.
31st January, 2009.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

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Curriculum Vitae for Nduhiu Gitahi


Proposed Position:

Laboratory Expert & Logistics

Name of Firm: University of Nairobi


Name of Staff: Johnson Nduhiu Gitahi
Profession: Chief Technologist
Years with the Firm: 16
Nationality:

Kenyan

Membership in Professional Societies:


Detailed Tasks Assigned:

RECAN

Laboratory diagnosis of Zoonotic diseases and Logistics.

Mr. Nduhiu has a Master of Science. He is in-charge of the food hygiene, microbiology and
immunology. He has participated in a number of research projects, and has been involved in
conducting analysis of a number of donor funded consultancies. He has participated in AMREFTERRANOVA commissioned training consultancy to train slaughterhouse inspectors on laboratory
management and Training of staff from VSF Germany on milk hygiene and quality assurance. He is
currently Chief Technologist, in a study on camel milk hygiene in Isiolo, Kenya.
He has experience in field logistics and data collection, and has special skills in I.T.
Key Qualifications:
1.
Laboratory diagnostics of food-borne bacteria in processed food samples, my MSc thesis
The development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for direct detection of
enterotoxignic Bacillus cereus in food. October, 2008.
2.
Laboratory Consultant on Food and Dairy Laboratory Assessment in Kenya for Land O
Lakes, on December 2008 February 2009.
3.
Field Team Leader on Carnivore in Conflict Project for Earthwatch, from 2005 to 2009.
4.
Chief Technologist in charge of methodologies and procurements for Post-Harvest
Handling Practices for Value Addition to Enhance Safety, Quality and Marketing of Carmel Milk in
Laikipia and Isiolo District of Kenya.

Education:
Kenyatta University: Master of Science

2005-2008

Kenya Polytechnic University College: Higher Diploma

1999- 2000

Kenya Polytechnic University College: Diploma

1991-1994

Kenya Christian Industrial Training Institute:

1997-1998

Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute:

February 2008

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

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Employment Records:
Chief Technologist, University of Nairobi, Department of PHPT -

Feb. 2009 To date

Senior Technologist DEF, University of Nairobi, Department of PHPT - 2002 2008


Technologist ABC, University of Nairobi, Department of PHPT -

1996 2002

Summary of Relevant Experience:


1.
Laboratory diagnostics of food-borne bacteria in processed food samples, my MSc thesis
The development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for direct detection of
enterotoxignic Bacillus cereus in food. October, 2008.
2.
Laboratory Consultant on Food and Dairy Laboratory Assessment in Kenya for Land O
Lakes, on December 2008 February 2009.
3.

Field Team Leader on Carnivore in Conflict Project for Earthwatch, from 2005 to 2009.

4.
Chief Technologist in charge of methodologies and procurements for Post-Harvest
Handling Practices for Value Addition to Enhance Safety, Quality and Marketing of Carmel Milk in
Laikipia and Isiolo District of Kenya.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

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Curriculum Vitae for Mr. Stanley W. Chege


Mr. Chege is an experienced data analyst, who is well trained and gained a lot of exposure on
statistical analysis, having worked with the University of Nairobi for several years. He has over the
years work with donor funded consultancies and with researchers on data analysis and has excellent
skills.

Education:
1982
1986
1975

Certificate in Statistics
Diploma in Statistics
Part of the Institute of Statisticians

University of Dar
University of Dar

Employment Records:
1978- To date University of Nairobi, Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection.

Summary of Relevant Experience:


2009
data analysis for Prof. Njeru: wholesale price inter-relationship on eggs detween Kenyan
urban centers
2009 Data analysis for Dr. Mbaria : The distribution and usage of Veterinary pharmaceuticals
in Kenya.
2008

World Vision: Referred by Prof. Mbogo S. G., University of Nairobi.

2008 FITCI-KENYA LIVESTOCK CENSUS; Referred by Prof. Mosi R. O. University of


Nairobi.
2007

Cross boarder trade; Referred by Prof. Agutu C. A., University of Nairobi.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

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ANNEX 1

General Information on Stakeholders

Table 11. Summary of Dairy Producers in the Programme area.


Districts

Respondents

Nakuru
Nyamira
Bomet
Central Kisii
Uasin-Gichu
Lugari
Nandi North
Trans Nzoia
Bungoma
Totals

37
39
37
38
32
38
42
37
37
336

Male
21
29
26
26
22
25
35
26
23
235

Gender
Female
16
10
11
13
7
14
7
11
14
101

The number of respondents and their gender are shown in Table 11. Nandi North District had the
highest number of respondents followed by Nyamira, Uasin Gishu recorded the least number of
respondents. Nakuru District recorded the highest number of female respondents while Uasin Gichu
and Nandi north had the least female respondents. A total of 336 respondents filled the dairy
famers questionnaires and 101(30%) of respondents were females while 235(70%) were males.
Table 12. Summary of Dairy Producers Farms visited in the Programme Area.
Districts
Nakuru
Nyamira
Bomet
Central Kisii
Uasin-Gichu
Lugari
Nandi North
Trans Nzoia
Bungoma
Totals

Dairy Cattle
27
37
31
35
31
37
36
35
35
304

Dairy Goats
31
8
22
5
5
4
5
4
5
89

Some of the farms that were visited had both dairy cattle and dairy goats. Information about both
species of animals was obtained from one respondent at the farm. In total 304 dairy cattle producer
questionnaires and 89 dairy goat keepers questionnaires were administered in the 9 programme
Districts (Table 12).
The common breeds of dairy goats in the programme area were Toggenburg, German Alphine,
Saanen, Nubian cross and Cross breeds.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

85

Table 13. Summary of Key Informants in the Programme Area.


Districts

Nakuru
Nyamira
Bomet
Central Kisii
Uasin-Gichu
Lugari
Nandi North
Trans Nzoia
Bungoma
Total

Key Informants
DVO VO DLPO DLEO AHA FFM VCO DMC PCU

Totals

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9

15
5
5
5
6
6
7
10
6
66

1
1
1
3

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
27

2
2
4

3
3

1
-

1
1
1
2
2
1
8

2
2

DVO = District Veterinary Officer, VO = Veterinary Officer, DPLO = District Livestock Production Officer, DLEO = Division Livestock
Extension Officer, AHA = Animal Health Assistant, FFM = Food/Feed manufactures, VCO = Vector control officer, PCU = Prpgramme
Coordination Unit, DMC = Dip Management Committee.

The information obtained from key informant was of great importance in understanding
challenges facing the dairy producers in the programme Districts. The information was obtained
using questionnaires as well as interviews, which were conducted by the consultants. DVOs from
each of the 9 programme Districts filled a detailed questionnaire on diseases control and
management as occurring in their District. Veterinary Officers from three Veterinary Investigation
laboratories located in the programme area also gave information on diseases affecting dairy
animals in their area of operation in form of a questionnaire. Feed manufacturer, dairy processor
and a milk trader also filled a detailed questionnaire. The key informants were also interviews by
the consultants on their specialized areas of operation. In total 66 key informants provided very
useful information on diseases control and management in the programme area (Table 13).
Table 14. Summary of Focus Group Discussions in the Programme Area.
Districts

No. of FGD
Respondents for FGD

Nakuru
Nyamira
Bomet
Central Kisii
Uasin-Gichu
Lugari
Nandi North
Trans Nzoia
Bungoma
Totals

2
2
2
2
2
10

12
15
10
10
16
63

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi

86