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HOW TO DESIGN

CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
Getting Started

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ERMCO to submit for authorisation the national version of the Concise Eurocode 2 and the "How to
leaflets" to their respective national standardisation committee responsible for the Eurocodes.

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To be adapted at national level:


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How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2

2. Getting started
Introduction
This to be redrafted as appropriate in
each country.

The design process


This guide is intended to assist the designer determine all the design
information required prior to embarking on detailed element design. It
covers design life, actions on structures, load arrangements,
combinations of actions, method of analysis, material properties, stability
and imperfections, minimum concrete cover and maximum crack widths.
Where NDPs occur in the text in this publication, recommended values
in EN 1992 are used and highlighted in yellow. The UK values have
been used for NDPs embedded in figures and charts and the relevant
NDPs are scheduled separately to assist other users in adapting the
figures and charts.
The process of designing elements will not be revolutionised as a result
1
of using Eurocode 2 , although much of the detail may change as
described in subsequent guides in this series.
Detailing is not covered in these guides, but the process will not vary
significantly from current practice. With regard to specification, advice
2
can be found in the guide Introduction to Eurocodes .
In the long-term it is anticipated that Eurocode 2 will lead to more
economic structures.

Design life
The design life for a structure is given in Eurocode: Basis of structural
3
design . These are noted in Table 1 (overleaf). These should be used to
determine the durability requirements for the design of reinforced
concrete structures.

Actions on structuresEurocode 1: Actions on structures4


consists of 10 parts giving details of a wide variety of actions. Further
information on the individual codes can be found in the first guide in this
series, How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Introduction
to Eurocodes.
Eurocode 1, Part 11: General actions Densities, self-weight, imposed
5
loads for buildings gives the densities and self-weights of building
materials (see Table 2 overleaf). It should be noted that there is no
advice given for loading in plant rooms.
At the time of writing not all the parts of Eurocode 1 and their National
Annexes are available. Advice on the use of current national standards
in conjunction with EC2 should be determined by the relevant authorities
in a country.

Load arrangements
The term load arrangements refers to the arranging
of variable actions(e.g. imposed and wind loads) to
give the most onerous forces in a member or
structure and are given in Eurocode 2 and National
Annexes are allowed to provide simplifications.
For building structures Eurocode 2 Part 11
recommends the following load arrangements for
both the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit
state:

Alternate or adjacent spans loaded


The design values should be obtained from the more
critical of:
Alternate spans carrying the design variable and
permanent loads with other spans loaded with only
the design permanent load (seeFigure 1). The
value of G should be the same throughout.
Any two adjacent spans carrying the design
variable and permanent loads with other spans
loaded with only the design permanent load (see
Figure 2). The value of G should be the same
throughout.

Combination of actions
The term combination of actions refers to the value of
actions to be used when a limit state is under the
influence of different actions.
The numerical values of the partial factors for the ULS
combination canbe obtained by referring to Eurocode:
Basis of structural design or the guide Introduction to
2
Eurocodes .
There are three SLS combinations of actions
characteristic, frequent and quasi-permanent. The
numerical values are given in Eurocode: Basis of
structural design.

Material properties
Concrete
In Eurocode 2 the design of reinforced concrete is
based on thecharacteristic cylinder strength rather than
cube strength and should be specified according to

EN 2061 (e.g. for class C28/35 concrete the


cylinderstrength is 28 MPa, whereas the cube strength
is 35 MPa).Typical concrete properties are given in
Table 4.
Concrete up to class C90/105 can be designed using
Eurocode 2. For classes above C50/60, however, there
are additional rules and variations. For this reason, the
design of these higher classes is not considered in this
series of guides.

Reinforcing steel
Eurocode 2 can be used with reinforcement of
characteristic strengths ranging from 400 to 600 MPa.
The properties of steel reinforcement are summarised
in Table 5 (on page 4). There are three classes of
reinforcement, A, B and C, which provide increasing
ductility. Class A is not suitable where redistribution of
20% and above has been assumed in the design.There
is no provision for the use of plain bar or mild steel
reinforcement.

Structural analysis
The primary purpose of structural analysis in building
structures is to establish the distribution of internal
forces and moments over the whole or part of a
structure and to identify the critical design conditions
at all sections. The geometry is commonly idealised
by considering the structure to be made up of linear
elements and plane
two-dimensional elements.
The type of analysis should be appropriate to the
problem being considered. The following may be
used: linear elastic analysis, linear elastic analysis
with limited redistribution, and plastic analysis. Linear
elastic analysis may be carried out assuming cross
sections are uncracked (i.e. concrete section
properties); using linear stress-strain relationships,
and assuming mean values of elastic modulus.
For the ultimate limit state only, the moments derived
from elastic analysis may be redistributed (up to a
maximum of 30%) provided that the resulting
distribution of moments remains in equilibrium with
the applied loads and subject to certain limits and
design criteria (e.g. limitations of depth to neutral
axis).
Regardless of the method of analysis used, the
following principles apply:

Where a beam or slab is monolithic with its


supports, the critical design hogging moment
may be taken as that at the face of the support,
but should not be taken as less than 0.65 times
the full fixed end moment.

Where a beam or slab is continuous over a


support that may be considered not to provide
rotational restraint, the moment calculated at the
centre line of the support may be reduced by
(FEd,sup t/8),where FEd,sup is the support reaction
and t is the breadth of the support.

For the design of columns the elastic moments


from the frame action should be used without any
redistribution.
Bending moment and shear force co-efficients for
beams are given in Table 6; these are suitable where
spans are of similar length and the other notes to the
table are observed.

Minimum concrete cover


The nominal cover can be assessed as follows:
cnom = cmin + cdev

Exp. (4.1)

Where cmin should be set to satisfy the requirements


below:
safe transmission of bond forces
durability
fire resistance
and cdev is an allowance which should be made in the
design for deviations from the minimum cover. It
should be taken as 10 mm, unless fabrication (i.e.
construction) is subjected to a quality assurance
system, in which case it is permitted to reduce cdev to
between 10 mm and 5 mm.

Design for fire resistance

Eurocode 2 Part 12: Structural fire design8, gives


several methods for determining the fire resistance of
concrete elements; further guidance can be obtained
from specialist literature. Design for fire resistance
may still be carried out by referring to tables to
determine the minimum cover and dimensions for
various elements, as set out below.
Rather than giving the minimum cover, the tabular
method is based on nominal axis distance, a (see
Figure 4). This is the distance from the centre of the
main reinforcing bar to the surface of the member. It
is a nominal (not minimum) dimension. The designer
should ensure that
a cnom + link + bar /2.
There are three standard fire exposure conditions that
may be satisfied:
R Mechanical resistance for load bearing
E Integrity of separation
I
Insulation
Tables 9 and 10 give the minimum dimensions for
columns and slabs to meet the above conditions.
Further information is given in Eurocode 2 and
subsequent guides in this series, including design
limitations and data for walls and beams.

Minimum cover for bond


The minimum cover to ensure adequate bond should not
be less than the bar diameter, or equivalent bar diameter
for bundled bars, unless the aggregate size is over 32 mm.

Minimum cover for durability


The recommendations for durability in Eurocode 2 are
based on BS EN 206112. In the UK the requirements of
BS EN 206 1 are applied through the complementary
standard BS 8500.

Stability and imperfections

Crack control

The effects of geometric imperfections should be considered


in combination with the effects of wind loads (i.e. not as an
alternative load combination). For global analysis, the
imperfections may be represented by an inclination i.

Crack widths should be limited to ensure appearance


and durability are satisfactory.In the absence of specific
durability requirements (e.g. water tightness) the crack
widths in reinforced members may be limited to 0.3 mm
in all exposure classes under the quasi-permanent
combination. In the absence of requirements for
appearance, this limit may be relaxed (to say 0.4 mm) for
exposure classes X0 and XC1 (refer to Table 7). The
theoretical size of the crack can be calculated using the
expressions given in Cl 7.3.4 from Eurocode 211 or
from the deemed to satisfy requirements that can be
obtained from Table 11, which is based on tables 7.2N
and 7.3N of the Eurocode. The limits apply to either the
bar size or the bar spacing, not both.

i = (1/200) x ah x am
where
ah

(2/l), to be taken as not less than 2/3 nor


greater than 1.0
= [0.5 (1 + 1/m)]0.5
am
l is the height of the building in metres
m is the number of vertical members contributing to the
horizontal force in the bracing system.

The effect of the inclination may be represented by


transverse forces at each level and included in the analysis
with other actions (see Figure 5):
Effect on bracing system:
Hi = i (Nb Na)
Effect on floor diaphragm: Hi = i (Nb + Na)/2
Effect on roof diaphragm:
Hi = i Na
where Na and Nb are longitudinal forces contributing to Hi.
In most cases, an allowance for imperfections is made in the
partial factors used in the design of elements. However for
columns, the effect of imperfections, which is similar in
principle to the above, must be considered (see How to
9
design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Columns ).

References
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. BSI (4 parts).


NARAYANAN, R S & BROOKER, O. How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Introduction to
Eurocodes (TCC/03/16). The Concrete Centre, 2005.
EN 1991, Eurocode: Basis of structural design. 2002.
EN 1991, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures. (10 parts).
EN 1990, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures Part 11: General actions Densities, self-weight, imposed loads for
buildings2002.
EN 10080: Steel for the reinforcement of concrete Weldable reinforcing steel General. 2005.
EN 2061: Concrete Part: Specification, performance, production and conformity. 2000.
EN 199212, Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. General rules structural fire design, BSI, 2004.
MOSS, R M & BROOKER, O. How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Columns, (TCC/03/20).
The Concrete Centre, 2006.

Additional references for precast construction


1.
2.

EN 13369-Common rules for precast concrete products


NARAYANAN, RS - Precast Eurocode 2 - Design Manual. British precast, 2006

Further guidance and advice

Guides in this series cover: Introduction to Eurocodes, Getting started, Slabs, Beams, Columns, Foundations, Flat
slabs and Deflection. For free downloads, details of other publications and more information on Eurocode 2 visit
www.eurocode2.info
This guide is taken from The Concrete Centres publication, How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2
(Ref.CCIP-006)
For information on all the new Eurocodes visit www.eurocodes.co.uk

Acknowledgements
This guide was originally published by BCA and The Concrete Centre in the UK. The author of the original
publication was O Brooker BEng, Ceng, MICE, MIStructE.

Tables & Charts: Word versions (corrected text highlighted in green)


Table 1 Indicative design working life
Design life (years)
10
1025
1530
50
100

Examples
Temporary structures
Replaceable structural parts
Agricultural and similar structures
Buildings and other common structures
Monumental buildings, bridges and other civil engineering
structures.

Table 2 Selected bulk density of materials (from Eurocode 1, Part 11)


Bulk density (kN/m3)
24.0
25.0
26.0

Material
Normal weight concrete
Reinforced normal weight concrete
Wet normal weight reinforced concrete

Table 3 Selected imposed loads for buildings (recommended values in EN 1991-1-1)


Category
A
A
A
B
C5

D1
D2
E1
F

Example use
Floors
Stairs
Balconies in single family dwelling
units
Office areas
Areas susceptible to large crowds
(e.g.) in buildings for public events like
concert halls, sports halls including
stands, terraces and access areas and
railway platforms
Areas in general retail shops
Areas in department stores
Areas of storage use including storage
of books and other documents
Gross vehicle weight 30 kN

qk (kN/m2)
2.0
2.0
2.5

Qk (kN)
2.0
2.0
2.0

3.0
5.0

4.5
4.5

4.0
5.0
7.5

4.0
7.0
7.0

2.5

20.0

Table 4 Selected concrete properties based on Table 3.1 of EN 1992- 11


Symbol
fck (MPa)
fck,cube (MPa)
fctm (MPa)
Ecmb (GPa)

Description
Characteristic
cylinder strength
Characteristic cube
strength
Mean tensile
strength
Secant modulus of
elasticity

Properties
12
16 20

25

30

35

40

45

50

28a

32a

15

20

25

30

37

45

50

55

60

35

40

1.6

1.9

2.2

2.6

2.9

3.2

3.5

3.8

4.1

2.8

3.0

27

29

30

31

33

34

35

36

37

32

34

Key
a Concrete class not cited in Table 3.1, EN 1992- 11
b Mean secant modulus of elasticity at 28 days for concrete with quartzite aggregates. For
concretes with other aggregates refer to Cl 3.1.3 (2) of EN 1992-1-1

Table 5 Characteristic tensile properties of reinforcement


Ductility class
A
Characteristic yield strength fyk or f0.2k (MPa)
400 - 600
Minimum value of k =(ft/fy)k
1.05
Characteristic strain at maximum force uk (%)
2.5
Notes
1 Table derived from EN 199211 Annex C and EN 1008010.

B
400 - 600
1.08
5.0

Table 6 Bending moment and shear coefficients for beams


Moment
Shear
Outer support
25% of span moment
0.45 (G +Q)
Near middle of end span
0.090 Gl + 0.100 Ql
At first interior support
0.094 (G + Q)l
0.63 (G + Q)a
At middle of interior spans
0.066 Gl + 0.086 Ql
At interior supports
0.075 (G + Q)l
0.50 (G + Q)
Key
a 0.55 (G + Q) may be used adjacent to the interior span.
Notes:
1 Redistribution of support moments by 15% has been included.
2 Applicable to 3 or more spans only and where Qk Gk.
3 Minimum span 0.85 longest span.
4 l is the effective length, G is the total of the ULS permanent actions, Q is the
total of the ULS variable actions.
Table 7 Exposure Classes (in accordance with EN 206-1)
Class
Description
No risk of corrosion or attack
XO
For concrete without reinforcement or embedded metal
where there is no significant freeze/thaw, abrasion or
chemical attack
Corrosion induced by carbonation
XC1
Dry or permanently wet
XC2
Wet, rarely dry
XC3/4 Moderate humidity or cyclic wet and dry
Corrosion induced by chlorides other than from seawater
XD1
Moderate humidity
XD2
Wet, rarely dry
XD3
Cyclic wet and dry
Corrosion induced by chlorides from seawater
XS1
Exposed to airborne salt but not in direct contact with sea
water
XS2
Permanently submerged
XS3
Tidal, splash and spray zones
Freeze/thaw with or without de-icing agents
XF1
Moderate water saturation without de-icing agent
XF2
Moderate water saturation with de-icing agent
XF3
High water saturation without de-icing agent
XF4
High water saturation with de-icing agent or sea water
Chemical attack
XA1
Slightly aggressive chemical environment (EN 206 -1, Table 2)
XA2
Moderately aggressive chemical environment (EN 206 -1,
Table 2)
XA3
Highly aggressive chemical environment (EN 206 -1, Table 2)

C
400 - 600
1.15 < 1.35
7.5

Table 8 Selecteda recommendations for normal-weight reinforced concrete quality for combined exposure classes
and cover to reinforcement for at least a 50-year intended working life and 20 mm maximum aggregate size.
(Note: Any country adapting this Table should substitute data applicable in the country)
Exposure conditions
Typical
example

Primary Secondary

Internal
X0
mass
concrete
Internal
elements
(except
XC1
humid
locations)
Buried
concrete in
XC2
AC-1
ground
conditionse
Vertical
surface
protected
from direct
rainfall
Exposed
vertical
surfaces

Cement/
Strength classc, maximum w/c ratio, minimum cement or combination content (kg/m3) or
combination equivalent designated concrete (where applicable)
designationsb
Nominal cover to reinforcementd
15 + cdev

Car park
decks,
ramps and
external
areas
subject to
freezing
and deicing salts

30 + cdev

35 + cdev

40 + cdev

45 + cdev

50 + cdev

All

Recommended that this exposure is not applied to reinforced concrete

All

C20/25,
0.70, 240 <<<
or RC20/25

<<<

<<<

<<<

<<<

<<<

<<<

AC-1

All

C25/30,
0.65, 260 <<<
or RC25/30

<<<

<<<

<<<

<<<

All except
IVB

C28/35,
C40/50,
C25/30,
C30/37,
0.60, 280
0.45, 340 0.55, 300
0.65, 260 <<<
or
or RC40/50 or RC30/37
or RC25/30
RC28/35

<<<

<<<

XF1

All except
IVB

<<<

<<<

<<<

XF3

All except
IVB

<<<

<<<

<<<

C25/30,
0.60, 280
<<<
plus airg,h,j
or PAV1

<<<

<<<

<<<

<<<

<<<

C35/45,
0.40, 380
See BS
8500
C32/40,
0.40, 380
C35/45,
0.40, 380
See BS
8500

C32/40,
0.45, 360
C40/50,
0.40, 380
C28/35,
0.45, 360
C32/40,
0.45, 360
C40/50,
0.40, 380

C28/35,
0.50, 340
C35/45,
0.45, 360
C25/30,
0.50, 340
C32/40,
0.50, 340
C35/45,
0.45, 360
C32/40,
0.50, 340

XC3 &
XC4

C28/35,
C40/50,
C30/37,
0.60, 280
0.45, 340 0.55, 300
<<<
or
or RC40/50 or RC30/37
RC28/35
C40/50,
0.45, 340g
<<<
<<<
<<<
or
RC40/50XF
g

XD1f

C28/35,
0.60, 280
plus airg,h
or PAV2

C32/40,
0.55, 300
plus airg,h

C40/50,
0.45, 360

C32/40,
C28/35,
0.55, 320 0.60, 300

IIB-V, IIIA

CEM I, IIA,
IIB-S, SRPC

IIIB, IVB-V

IIB-V, IIIA

CEM I, IIA,
IIB-S, SRPC

IIIB, IVB-V

C32/40,
0.40, 380

C32/40,
0.45, 360

CEM I, IIA,
IIB-S, SRPC

See BS
8500

C40/50,
<<<
0.40, 380g

XF4 (air
IIB-V, IIIA, IIIB
entrained)

C28/35,
0.40,
380g,h

C28/35,
0.45,
360g,h

XF3 (air
All except
entrained) IVB

Vertical
elements
subject to
de-icing
spray and
freezing

25 + cdev

Exposed
horizontal
surfaces

Elements
subject to
airborne
chlorides
Car park
decks and
areas
subject to
de-icing
spray

20 + cdev

XF2
XD3f

XF4

All

C28/35,
0.50,
340g,h

Table 8 continued
Exposed
vertical
surfaces
near coast

CEM I, IIA,
IIB-S, SRPC
XF1
XS1

IIB-V, IIIA

IIIB

See BS
8500
See BS
8500
C32/40,
0.40, 380

C35/45,
0.45, 360
C32/40,
0.45, 360
C25/30,
0.50, 340

C32/40,
0.50, 340
C28/35,
0.50, 340
C25/30,
0.50, 340

<<<
C25/30,
0.55, 320
C25/30,
0.55, 320

<<<
<<<
<<<

Exposed
See BS
C40/50,
horizontal
CEM I, IIA,
<<<
<<<
<<<
XF4

8500
0.40, 380g
surfaces
IIB-S, SRPC
near coast
Key
a This table comprises a selection of common exposure class combinations. Requirements for other sets of exposure classes, e.g. XD2, XS2 and
XS3 should be derived from BS 85001: 2002. Annex A.
b See BS 85002, Table 1. (CEM I is Portland cement, IIA to IVB are cement combinations.)
c For prestressed concrete the minimum strength class should be C28/35.
d cdev is an allowance for deviations.
e For sections less than 140 mm thick refer to BS 8500.
f Also adequate for exposure class XC3/4.
g Freeze/thaw resisting aggregates should be specified.
h Air entrained concrete is required.
j This option may not be suitable for areas subject to severe abrasion.
Not recommended
<<< Indicates that concrete quality in cell to the left should not be reduced

Table 9 Minimum column dimensions and axis distances for columns with rectangular or circular section Method A
Standard fire resistance

R 60
R 120

Minimum dimensions (mm)


Column width (bmin)/axis distance (a) of the main bars
Column exposed on more than
Exposed on one side
one side (fi = 0.7)
(fi = 0.7)
250/46
155/25
350/40
350/57*
175/35
450/51*

295/70

R 240
Notes
1 Refer to EN 199212 for design limitations.
2 fi is the ratio of the design axial load under fire conditions to the design resistance of the
column at normal temperature conditions. Conservatively fi may be taken as 0.7.
* Minimum 8 bars
Method B indicates 600/70 for R 240 and fi = 0.7 and may be used. See EN 199212 Table 5.2b
Table 10 Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced concrete slabs
Standard fire
resistance

REI 60
REI 120
REI 240

hs =
a=
hs =
a=
hs =
a=

Minimum dimensions(mm)
One-way Two-way spanning slab
spanning
1.5 < ly/lx 2
ly/lx 1.5
slab
80
80
80
20
10
15
120
120
120
40
20
25
175
175
175
65
40
50

Flat
slab

Ribs in two-way spanning ribbed slab


bmin is the width of the rib

180
15
200
35
200
50

bmin =
a=
bmin =
a=
bmin =
a=

Note
1 Refer to EN 199212 for design limitations.
2 a is the axis distance (see Figure 4).
3 hs is the slab thickness, including any non-combustible flooring.

100
25
160
45
450
70

20
15
190
40
700
60

200
10
300
30

Table 11 Maximum bar size or spacing to limit crack width


Steel
stress
( s) MPa

wmax = 0.4 mm
Maximum bar
size (mm)
40
32
20
16
12
10

wmax = 0.3 mm
Maximum bar
spacing (mm)
300
300
250
200
150
100

Maximum bar
size (mm)
32
25
16
12
10
8

Maximum bar
spacing (mm)
300
250
200
150
100
50

160
200
OR
OR
240
280
320
360
Note
When the cracking is load induced, the steel stress may be estimated from the expression
below (or see Figure 6):
s = fyk m As,req
ms n As,prov
where
fyk = characteristic reinforcement yield stress
ms = partial factor for reinforcing steel
m = total load from quasi-permanent combination
n = total load from ULS combination
As,req = area of reinforcement at the ULS
As,prov = area of reinforcement provided
= ratio of redistributed moment to elastic moment
When the cracking is caused by restraint, steel stress immediately after cracking should
be calculated for the chosen bar diameter. An iterative process will be required.Bar
spacing rule does not apply to this condition