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DC Motor Operating in a Wide Range

Chenjun Cui, Gang Liu, and Kun Wang

AbstractIn this paper, a novel drive method, which is different from the traditional motor drive techniques, for high-speed

brushless DC (BLDC) motor is proposed and verified by a series

of experiments. It is well known that the BLDC motor can be

driven by either pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques with

a constant dc-link voltage or pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)

techniques with an adjustable dc-link voltage. However, to our best

knowledge, there is rare study providing a proper drive method for

a high-speed BLDC motor with a large power over a wide speed

range. Therefore, the detailed theoretical analysis comparison of

the PWM control and the PAM control for high-speed BLDC motor

is first given. Then, a conclusion that the PAM control is superior

to the PWM control at high speed is obtained because of decreasing the commutation delay and high-frequency harmonic wave.

Meanwhile, a new high-speed BLDC motor drive method based

on the hybrid approach combining PWM and PAM is proposed.

Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the performance analysis comparison and the new drive method are verified by several

experiments.

Index TermsBrushless DC (BLDC) motor, commutation delay,

drive method, high-speed, pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM).

I. INTRODUCTION

ECENTLY, high-speed brushless DC (BLDC) motor,

which is with the advantages of high efficiency, compactness, low cost, and maintenance compared with the traditional

brush dc motor [1][3], is getting more and more interest in

industrial automation area, especially on blowers and compressors. Because the rotation speed of high-speed motor can reach

up to tens of thousands revolutions per minute (r/min) due to

the development of bearing technology [4], [5], a proper drive

method to ensure low loss and high efficiency in a wide speed

range is a critical issue.

Generally, the BLDC motor can be driven by either pulsewidth modulation (PWM) or pulse-amplitude modulation

(PAM) techniques. However, it is well known that the inverter,

which is applied to most of the BLDC motor drive systems,

Manuscript received March 17, 2014; revised June 14, 2014 and August 19,

2014; accepted October 1, 2014. Date of publication October 8, 2014; date of

current version April 15, 2015. This work was supported in part by the National

Nature Science Funds of China under Grant 61374029 and Grant 61403015,

and in part by the National Major Project for the Development and Application of Scientific Instrument Equipment of China under Grant 2012YQ040235.

Recommended for publication by Associate Editor P. C. Loh. (Corresponding

author: G. Liu).

C. Cui and K. Wang are with the School of Instrumentation Science

and Optoelectronics Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing100191, China

(e-mail: cuichenjunupc@163.com; wangkunggg@163.com).

G. Liu is with the School of Instrumentation Science and Optoelectronics

Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing100191, China (e-mail: lgang@buaa.

edu.cn).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2361752

Moreover, the PWM control is extensively used in high-power/

low-power BLDC motor drives [6], [7], and the motor performance is decided by the commutation control techniques.

The common PWM control contains six different PWM techniques namely, H-PWM-L-ON [8][10], H-ON-L-PWM [9]

[12], PWM-ON [13], [14], ON-PWM [15], H-PWM-L-PWM,

and PWM-ON-PWM [16], [17], respectively. For example,

when H-PWM-L-ON is employed, the high-side power device is

controlled by the PWM chopper signal every consecutive 120

in a fundamental period. Meanwhile, the low side of the same

leg control signal is shifted by 180 without the PWM chopper

signal, as compared to its high-side one, to clamp the related

inverter output to the negative dc-link rail. The control signals

for the other two legs are shifted by 120 and 240, respectively.

Unfortunately, the PWM techniques can induce serious current and torque ripples for the ironless stator motor that will tend

to very low inductance [18]. Moreover, the high-frequency and

large-range current ripple will inevitably increase the copper

and iron losses [18], [19] at high speed. The assessment of the

aforementioned PWM techniques for the BLDC motor drives at

low speed is given in [20]. The criteria for assessment include

the drive circuit, reversal dc-link current, circulating current of

the floating phase, and back electromotive force (back-EMF) detection. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these

PWM techniques for the BLDC motor drives are analyzed by

several experimental results. A comprehensive analysis on the

generated torque ripples of trapezoidal back-EMF due to the

phase commutation in the six-switch three-phase inverter BLDC

drives is proposed in [21]. The consultation that the PWM-ON

pattern achieves the smallest torque ripple due to the current

commutation is also given. The performances of the PWM techniques at low speed are compared in the efficiency, reliability,

torque ripple, EMC, and vibration [16] through the theoretical analysis and simulation verification. It is shown that the

PWM_ON_PWM method is superior to the other PWM methods. A novel PWM technique is introduced in [22] to reduce the

motor loss, but only suits for the motor with very small power.

In summary, the aforementioned studies are all based on the

low-speed operations instead of the high-speed performance.

Moreover, there are no detailed analyses about the performance

improvement.

The PAM control is another popular control method for the

BLDC motor. For PAM control, 120 commutation control, i.e.,

the so-called six-step mode is generally used and the dc-link

voltage can be adjusted according to the error between the

speed and its reference. It is shown that the PAM control is

superior to the PWM control [23]. Due to the PWM period

0885-8993 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

CUI et al.: NOVEL DRIVE METHOD FOR HIGH-SPEED BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR OPERATING IN A WIDE RANGE

interruption caused by the commutation and limitation of the resolution of PWM generator, more torque ripple can be produced

in the performance of PWM-controlled BLDC motor drives.

This phenomenon will become more serious when the motors

work at high speed. Moreover, it will lead to high motor loss.

But it does not give enough theoretical analysis. The advantages

and disadvantages of PWM and PAM are assessed in [24] using

BLDC motor drives which are applied to the refrigerator. The

result shows that the PAM control can provide higher efficiency

than the PWM control. However, it only gives several low-power

experimental results without any detailed analysis. A so-called

PAM/PWM method [25] is proposed to control the adjustable

speed drives. The realization of PAM relies on a current source

rectifier which adjusts the dc-link voltage. As compared to the

conventional PWM inverter with a constant dc-link voltage, this

method can reduce the dc-link current ripples and prolong the

lifetime of the capacitor effectively. However, the performance

of controlling a BLDC motor is not involved. In order to improve

the motor efficiency and provide the desired current waveform,

a quasi-current source inverter is employed in [26] to adjust the

dc-link voltage. The high-speed performance is improved, but

the analysis and performance comparison with the PWM control are not mentioned. A PWM-controlled buck-type dc-to-dc

power converter in front of the three-phase bridge inverter is

employed for the low-inductance and low-power BLDC motor [27][29]. The variable dc voltage is adjusted by the buck

converter, and the inverter legs participate only in commutation

instead of involved in modulation. But the detailed analysis is

not discussed although the power consumption is reduced.

To the best knowledge of the authors, the detailed analysis of

whether the PWM control is suitable for the high-speed BLDC

motor in a large speed range or not has not been fully investigated. Therefore, it attracts the authors to give the analysis

and performance comparison between the PWM control and

the PAM control at high-speed region, thus providing a proper

drive method in a wide speed range.

In this paper, the theoretical analysis comparison between the

PWM control and the PAM control at high-speed region is first

given. Then, a new BLDC motor drive method over a wide speed

range based on the analysis results is proposed. Therefore, the

organization of this paper is as follows. Section II describes the

detailed analysis about the advantages and disadvantages of the

PWM control and the PAM control. Section III presents the new

high-speed BLDC motor drive method. Section IV introduces

the experimental results to validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the performance comparison analysis and the new drive

method. Some important conclusions can be found in Section V.

II. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS COMPARISON BETWEEN

THE PWM CONTROL AND THE PAM CONTROL

The criteria of the performance comparison include the commutation delay analysis, harmonic component analysis, and motor power factor analysis.

A. Commutation Delay Analysis

In this paper, TI TMS320F28335 digital signal processor

(DSP) is taken as the controller to generate the PWM signals.

Fig. 1.

4999

period (TBPRD) register and the mode of the time-base counter.

The time-base counter has three modes of operation selected by

the time-base control register, i.e., up-down-count mode, upcount mode, and down-count mode.

The up-down-count mode is selected to generate the triangular carrier as shown in Fig. 1. In this mode, the time-base counter

starts from zero and increments until the period (TBPRD) value

is reached. When the period value is reached, the time-base

counter will decrement until it reaches zero. At this point,

the counter repeats the pattern and begins to increment. When

the time-base counter value is increasing to the counter-compare

value, the output signal will be active high. On the contrary,

when the time-base counter value is decreasing to the countercompare value, the output signal will be active low.

In the BLDC motor control system, if the PWM control is

selected, the period value and the PWM period will be constant.

The speed adjustment is achieved by changing the countercompare value (counter-compare A/B register) to modulate the

pulse width, i.e., the duty ratio D. If a high-speed is needed, a

large counter-compare value will be set to increase the output

voltage. On the other hand, if a low speed is needed, a small

counter-compare value will be set to decrease the output voltage.

However, it is noted that if a new counter-compare value is

written, the new value will not work immediately. Because the

new value will be first written to the shadow register associated

with the counter-compare A/B register. Only when the counter

value reaches zero, the new value will be loaded into the countercompare A/B register from the shadow register.

Assuming at a particular commutation process that the current

transfers from phase C to phase A. This transfer is performed by

switching OFF VT2 and switching ON VT4. Before the transfer,

VT3 is ON and VT2 is controlled by the chopper signal. When a

commutation signal interruption occurs at t2 as shown in Fig. 1,

theoretically, VT2 should be turned OFF and VT4 should be

turned ON simultaneously. However, because the new counter

value cannot work immediately until t4 , the ideal conduction

signal of VT4 as shown in the dashed line of Fig. 1 cannot be

5000

starts from zero and increments until the new counter-compare

value at t5 when the actual conduction signal of VT4 works and

VT4 is ON. Therefore, there is a lag time deviation t between

the ideal conduction signal and the actual conduction signal,

which can be expressed as

t = t5 t2 .

(1)

=

360

t

Tk

(2)

From (2), we can see that if the speed is low, will be very

small and negligible due to t < Ts << Tk (Ts is the PWM

period). However, if the speed is too high to ensure Ts < Tk ,

will be large enough because t may be close to the PWM

period Tk which is the same order of magnitude with Ts . For

example, for a motor with two pole pairs, if it runs at 30 000

r/min with a 10 k carrier frequency, Tk will be 1 ms (Tk = 1/

1000 Hz) and may be close to 36. The large will result in a

large commutation delay. Even though this commutation delay

can be neglected for a medium speed range, it has a significant

influence on the phase current and drive performance at high

speed, since the 60 interval in which the commutation arises

is relatively small. Moreover, the large lag angle will increase

the motor loss and decrease the motor efficiency [29].

In Fig. 1, assuming that a commutation signal interruption

occurs in the interval (t1 , t4 ], we can also see that if the interruption near t1 , the large t will lead to a large , while if the

interruption near t4 , the small t will lead to a small . Moreover, is variable because the commutation signal interruption

time varies with the speed.

However, if the PAM control is employed, the PWM chopper

signal will be no longer needed, since can be eliminated by setting the PWM generator port as the general-purpose input/output

(I/O) port. When a commutation signal interruption occurs, the

associated (I/O) port will immediately output a high/low level

to turn ON/OFF the power device without delay.

B. Harmonic Component Analysis

In this paper, the adopted drive circuit structure for high-speed

BLDC motor control is shown in Fig. 2.

For facilitate analysis, only the fundamental waves of the

back-EMFs are considered, which can be expressed as

2E sin(t) = Em ax sin(t)

=

e

Af

(3)

where eAf , eBf , and eCf are the fundamental waves of the backEMFs,

E is the virtual value of the fundamental wave, Em ax =

Fig. 2. Adopted drive circuit structure for high-speed BLDC motor control.

u d is the output voltage of the rectifier, eA , eB , and eC are the back-EMFs,

R is the phase-winding resistance, L is the phase-winding inductance, N is

the neutral point, S is the virtual neutral point, O is the midpoint of the dc

bus, and the voltage between S and O is used to generated the sensorless

commutation signals [30].

Fig. 3.

can be obtained as

eBCf = 6E sin(t /2) = 3Em ax sin(t /2)

(4)

where eABf , eBCf , and eCAf are the fundamental waves of the

line-to-line back-EMFs.

For PWM control, the line-to-line voltages are modulated by

the chopper signals. In this paper, uAB is taken as an example

to be analyzed, and its fundamental wave can be expressed as

uABf = M Um ax sin (t+)

(5)

where uABf is the fundamental wave of uAB , Um ax is the maximum value of uABf , 0 M 1 is the modulation ratio, and

is the angle between uABf and eAf .

The scheme of the PWM generator is shown in Fig. 3, where

1 and 2 can be described as

M sin(t+)

1 =

2

2

sin(t+)

2 = +

.

2

2

(6)

CUI et al.: NOVEL DRIVE METHOD FOR HIGH-SPEED BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR OPERATING IN A WIDE RANGE

ud

4

uAO =

M sin(t + ) +

2

n

n =1

M n

n

sin(t + ) +

sin

cos (ns t) (7)

2

2

5001

Fig. 4. Equivalent circuit of the fundamental wave and the harmonic wave.

(a) Fundamental wave equivalent circuit. (b) Harmonic wave equivalent circuit.

Also, uBO can be obtained as

4

ud

2

+ +

uBO =

M sin t

2

3

n

n =1

M n

2

n

sin t

+ +

sin

cos(ns t) .

2

3

2

(8)

Therefore, uAB can be expressed as

uAB = uAO uBO = uABf + uABh

(9)

where uABf and uABh are the fundamental wave and the harmonic wave of uAB , respectively.

From (7)(9), uABf and uABh can be described as

ud

2

uABf =

M sin(t + ) M sin t +

2

3

3

1

=

M ud sin t + +

(10)

2

6

ud

4

M n

(n +1)/2

(1)

Jk

2 n =1

n

2

k =2

k

sin (k ns )t + k

2 sin

3

3

(n = 1, 3, 5, . . . , k = 2, 4, 6, . . . , )

uABh =

(11)

u

4

M

n

(1)n /2

Jk

2 n =2

n

2

k =1

k

cos (k ns )t + k

2 sin

3

3

(k = 1, 3, 5, . . . , n = 2, 4, 6, . . . , )

where Jk is the k-order Bessel function.

From (11), we can see that the harmonic waves with the

frequency of k ns are introduced because of the PWM

control.

The equivalent circuit of the fundamental wave and the harmonic wave are shown in Fig. 4(a) and (b), respectively. It can

be seen that the distorted voltage uABh will induce the distorted

current iABh , which will inevitably increase the copper loss of

the motor. It is well known that the iron loss of the motor also

increases with the frequency. Therefore, the harmonic wave will

increase both the copper loss and the iron loss.

C. Motor Power Factor Analysis

The vector diagram illustrating the relationship between uAB

and iAB (iAB = iA ) after the transfer is shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Vector diagram about the relationship between u A B and iA B after the

transfer.

i.e., the displacement factor, can be obtained from the angle

between UAB and IAB as shown in Fig. 5 and expressed as

= cos 1

(12)

factor angle.

However, if the PWM control is employed, the actual current

will lag the ideal current IAB of about electrical degrees

IAB

due to the lag angle mentioned above. Therefore, the actual

displacement factor angle equals 1 + , and the displacement

factor can be expressed as

= cos (1 + ) .

(13)

factor.

In addition, we should note that (12) and (13) are only associated with the fundamental component. If the harmonics wave

is considered, the motor power factor can be expressed as

P

=

PF =

S

U1 I1 cos 1 +

n

h=2

UI

Uh Ih cos h

(14)

where PF is the power factor, P is the active power, S is the apparent power, and 1 = 1 + is the displacement factor angle.

U is the RMS magnitude of the line-to-line voltage and U1 is the

RMS magnitude of the fundamental component, I is the RMS

magnitude of the total current and I1 is the RMS magnitude

of the fundamental component, Uh is the RMS magnitude of

the line-to-line voltage harmonic component and Ih is the RMS

magnitude of the current harmonic component, and h is the

angle between Uh and Ih .

5002

TABLE I

MOTOR PARAMETERS

Surface Mounted BLDC Motor

Rated DC voltage

Rated current

Rated speed, n

Number of pole pairs, P

Phase resistance, R

Phase inductance, L

Line-to-line back-EMF constant, K e -l i n e

Moment of inertia, J

Fig. 6.

480 V

218 A

32 000 r/min

2

1.5 m

0.053 mH

0.0127 V/ r/min

0.024059 kgm2

The first term, i.e., U1 I1 cos1 , shows the main power term,

which is associated with the fundamental frequency. The second

(summation) term accounts for the harmonics powers absorbed

by the loads and other system components. Because of the PWM

control, the lag angle and the harmonic component decrease

the power factor. It is well known that when the active power

is constant, the small power factor will increase the reactive

power, apparent power, and motor loss.

III. PROPOSED DRIVE METHOD

A. Drive Circuit Selection of High-Speed BLDC Motor

As analyzed above, the PAM control for the BLDC motor

can provide less motor loss and higher efficiency than the PWM

control at high speed. So the PAM control should be employed,

especially at high speed. However, from the specification of the

experimental BLDC motor as shown in Table I, it is interesting

to find that the phase-winding resistance and the phase-winding

inductance of high-speed BLDC motor are far smaller than those

of the common low-speed BLDC motor. When the motor starts,

the initial DC voltage of the three-phase inverter should be

smaller enough to limit the startup current, as the back-EMF

is too small to counteract a large dc voltage at the very low

speed. Therefore, a suitable drive circuit should be first selected

to reduce the initial dc voltage and guarantee the safe motor

starting process. During the experimental process, the authors

have tried three drive circuit structures to limit the startup current

as shown in Figs. 2, 6, and 7.

Fig. 6 shows the common drive circuit structure for the BLDC

motor control. The dc voltage, i.e., the output voltage of the

three-phase uncontrolled rectifier, is more than 500 V. Though

the three-phase inverter is controlled by the PWM scheme for

reducing the voltage, the startup current is still far larger than the

Fig. 7. Drive circuit structure based on the dcdc converter for the BLDC

motor control.

the protection circuit blocks the inverter due to the large current.

So this common circuit structure is not employed.

Fig. 7 shows the drive circuit structure based on a front-end

PWM-controlled dcdc converter. A buck converter is taken

to reduce the dc voltage of the three-phase inverter. Moreover,

the motor starts normally. Unfortunately, the buck converter increases the complexity mainly due to the dc inductance, LB , as

marked in Fig. 7. Let us assume that the working frequency of

the buck converter is 6 kHz. As the rated power of the experimental motor is up to100 kW, the normal dc current flowing

through LB may be more than 250 A which will cause the bulky

size and weight as shown in Fig. 7. Moreover, the bulky LB will

increase the difficulty of the whole circuit layout design because

the unreasonable layout will induce strong electromagnetic interference, which may affect the normal operation of high-speed

and high-power BLDC motor.

Finally, taking into account the subsequent PAM control and

the disadvantages of the above-mentioned circuit structures, a

motor drive circuit as shown in Fig. 2 is employed in this paper. The front-end phase-controlled rectifier can provide an adjustable dc-link voltage to limit the startup current and achieve

the PAM control, while the back-end three-phase inverter can

achieve the commutation control.

B. Proposed Drive Method

In order to satisfy the commutation control of high-speed

BLDC motor in a wide speed range and improve the motor efficiency, a hybrid drive method combining PWM and PAM is

proposed. When the motor runs at low speed, the PWM control

is adopted with a fixed dc-link voltage. With the motor accelerating, the back-EMF will increase with the speed. When the

motor speed reaches a threshold value, i.e., the enough backEMF can counteract the dc-link voltage, the PAM control works

with an adjustable dc-link voltage.

It should be noted that though the PAM control for the BLDC

motor is superior to the PWM control, the PAM control is

not employed in the whole speed range for the following two

reasons.

The first one is that the larger dc-link voltage fluctuation of

the rectifier limits its application at low and medium speed.

Moreover, at low speed, it may be unable to produce a small

enough dc voltage to achieve the PAM control due to the small

CUI et al.: NOVEL DRIVE METHOD FOR HIGH-SPEED BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR OPERATING IN A WIDE RANGE

Fig. 9.

Fig. 8.

5003

phase-winding resistance and phase-winding inductance. Therefore, if we want to take the PAM control in a wide speed range,

the range of dc-link voltage should be expanded at medium and

low speed. Meanwhile, a front-end PWM-controlled dcdc converter as shown in Fig. 7 is needed to produce such a low dc

voltage. But the complexity of the system design is increased as

explained above.

The second one is that, to our best knowledge, the PWM

control is the auxiliary drive method of high-speed BLDC motor,

while the PAM control is the main drive method, since the highspeed region is the most common working range. The aim of the

PWM control is merely to guarantee that the high-speed motor

can be accelerated to a high speed. Therefore, the operation time

of the PWM control is far shorter than that of the PAM control,

thus mitigating the disadvantage of the PWM control. However,

both the two drive methods are indispensable.

The transition process between PWM and PAM is achieved

by a hysteresis comparator expressed as

1, (n(k + 1) > n+ )

(15)

(n(k + 1)) = (n(k)), (n n(k + 1) n+ )

0, (n(k + 1) < n )

where (n(k + 1)) is the (k + 1)th hysteresis comparator output value, (n(k)) is the (k)th hysteresis comparator output value,

n and n+ are the two endpoint speeds of the hysteresis comparator, n(k + 1) is the (k + 1)th calculated speed value, and

n(k) is the (k)th calculated speed value.

The hysteresis loop schematic diagram is shown in Fig. 8. The

region between n and n+ is defined as the transition region.

If (n(k + 1)) = 1, the PAM control mode will start to work,

while if (n(k + 1)) = 0, the PWM control mode will start to

work.

Fig. 10.

ud(0) = uAB = 2RiA + 2LdiA /dt + eAB

(17)

eAB = ke -line n+

where ud(0) is the initial voltage of the rectifier, i.e., the fixed

dc-link voltage when the PWM control works, and ke -line is the

line-to-line back-EMF constant.

Therefore, we can obtain the online result of n+ by solving

(17). In this paper, n+ is about 10 000 r/min. Meanwhile, n

can be obtained as n = n+ n (n is the hysteresis width).

D. Calculation Principle for n

The motor torque balance equation of the BLDC motor can

be obtained as

2 dn

d

=

J

(18)

TM TZ = J

dt

60 dt

where TM is the electromagnetic torque, TZ is the load torque,

J is the moment of inertia, and is the mechanical angular

velocity of the motor.

Generally, for a BLDC motor, TM can be expressed as

TM = (eA iA + eB iB + eC iC )/

= 60 (eA iA + eB iB + eC iC )/(2n).

From Fig. 2, we can obtain

uBN = RiB + LdiB /dt + eB

(19)

TM as

TM = 60iA (uAB 2RiA LdiA /dt)/(2n).

(16)

where uAN , uBN , and uCN are the three phase voltages.

Let us assume that VT1 and VT6 are switched ON, i.e.,

phases A and B are conducted simultaneously with iA = iB

and iC = 0. So the equivalent circuit can be shown in Fig. 9.

(20)

It can be deduced from [29] that the commutation delay induced by the PWM control will lead to a serious torque ripple.

So when the drive method transfers from the PWM control to

the PAM control, a torque ripple, TM , will be introduced, and

(18) can be expressed as

TM + TM TZ =J

2 dn

d

=

J .

dt

60 dt

(21)

5004

Fig. 11.

Waveform of iA and u A B at different speeds. (a) PWM n = 6000 r/min. (b) PWM n = 24000 r/min. (c) PAM n = 24000 r/min.

increase, while if TM < 0, the speed will decrease. Unfortunately, TM is uncertain during the transition. It can be seen

from Fig. 8 that when the speed reaches n+ , if the speed is decelerating, the drive method may switch between the PAM control

and the PWM control repetitiously which aggravates the current ripple. Therefore, a proper hysteresis width is critical to

eliminate the unexpected repetitious switching.

The proper hysteresis width is selected from many initial experiments, of which accelerate and decelerate the motor to pass

the transition region with different hysteresis widths automatically, when the motor first runs. Once n is selected, it will

be saved and does not need to be calculated in the subsequent

experiments.

Considering (21), n can be obtained as

60

dn

+ 1 n1 = t

dt

2J

(TM + TM TZ ) + 1 n1

n = t

(22)

fluctuation during the transition, t = Ts /6 is the commutation

interval, TM is the electromagnetic torque that can be obtained

from (20), TM = (12)TZ is a experiential worst torque

ripple that the motor can endure, 1 = 1.21.5 is the experiential rate accuracy safety factor, and n1 = (13%)n+ is the

rate accuracy.

In this paper, n is set 500 r/min according to (22).

A. Experiment Setup

The experiment about the performance analysis comparison

and the proposed drive method has been successfully implemented on the experimental high-speed magnetically suspended

BLDC motor that coupled to a magnetically suspended generator by a flexible coupling. A variable resistance is taken as

the load. The specification of the experimental BLDC motor is

shown in Table I, while the experimental platform is shown in

Fig. 10.

Fig. 11(a) shows the waveform of iA and uAB at 6000 r/min

under PWM control with the dc voltage equal to 450 V, while

Fig. 11(b) shows that at 24 000 r/min under PWM control. As

explained above, the PWM control will lead to a commutation

delay. Moreover, although this commutation delay can be neglected in a medium speed range, it has a significant influence

on the phase current and the drive performance at high speed.

When the speed is low as shown in Fig. 11(a), the commutation delay is unconspicuous. However, when the speed is high

as shown in Fig. 11(b), the commutation delay is so obvious

that iA and uAB are seriously distorted. It is well in accord

with the operation given in [31][33] when the lagged commutation occurs. Fig. 11(c) shows the operation at 24 000 r/min

with PAM control. It can be seen that the commutation delay

is eliminated and the distortion of iA and uAB is improved

greatly.

Fig. 12 shows the spectrum map comparison of iA and uAB

between the PAM control and the PWM control at different

speeds. Fig. 12(a) and (b) shows the spectrums at 12 000 r/min.

We can see that the harmonic component under PWM control is

larger than that under PAM control. The THD of iA decreases

from 1.245 to 0.663, while that of uAB decreases from 1.955

to 0.679. Meanwhile, Fig. 12(c) and (d) shows the spectrums

at 20 000 r/min. Also, the harmonic component under PWM

control is serious. We can also find from these four figures that

when the PWM control is employed, the THD will decreases at

high speed. To our best knowledge, this is because that the duty

ratio can be maintained at higher level at high speed with the

same generator load resistor. However, the improvement of THD

is more insignificant than that under PAM control. Fig. 12(e)

and (f) shows the spectrums at 24 000 r/min. Compared with

the conditions at 12 000 and 20 000 r/min, the load is heavy

due to the high speed. Nevertheless, the PAM control can still

decrease the harmonic content greatly. In addition, it is noted

that the THD under PAM control at 20 000 r/min is lower than

that at 24 000 r/min. Therefore, for PAM control, the THD is

not decreased with speed. The relationship between the THD

and the speed under PAM control needs further research.

CUI et al.: NOVEL DRIVE METHOD FOR HIGH-SPEED BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR OPERATING IN A WIDE RANGE

5005

Fig. 14. Information of the losses at 24 000 r/min under PWM control and

PAM control, respectively. (a) PWM control. (b) PAM control.

and PWM control at different speeds. (a) iA at 12 000 r/min. (b) u A B at

12 000 r/min. (c) iA at 20 000 r/min. (d) u A B at 20 000 r/min. (e) iA at 24 000

r/min. (f) u A B at 24 000 r/min.

Fig. 15. Waveforms of iA and u A B at 3000 and 5000 r/min under PWM

control. (a) Unloaded condition at 3000 r/min. (b) Loaded condition at 3000

r/min. (c) Unloaded condition at 5000 r/min. (d) Loaded condition at 5000 r/min.

Fig. 13. Experimental comparisons of the motor power factor and the motor

efficiency under PWM control and PAM control. (a) Power factor. (b) Overall

efficiency.

The experimental comparisons of the motor power factor and

the motor overall efficiency under the two controls are shown in

Fig. 13. Fig. 13(a) shows the motor power factor. It can be seen

that the power factor under PAM control is far higher than that

under PWM control due to the less harmonic content and the

smaller lag angle. Fig. 13(b) shows the motor overall efficiency

comparison. In this paper, the overall efficiency is defined as

the ratio of the generators output power to the phase-controlled

rectifiers input power. From Fig. 13(b), we can see that the

overall efficiency is improved under PAM control compared

with that

Fig. 16. Waveforms of iA and u A B in the transition process between the PWM

control and the PAM control. (a) Unloaded condition with proper hysteresis

width. (b) Loaded condition with proper hysteresis width. (c) Loaded condition

with improper hysteresis width.

5006

Fig. 17. Waveform of iA , u A B , and u d at 15 000 and 24 000 r/min. (a) PAM control at 15 000 r/min. (b) PAM control at 24 000 r/min. (c) PWM control at

24 000 r/min.

quality reduces the motor loss and the harmonic content.

The overall system loss consists of the motor loss (including the active motor loss and the passive generator loss),

L1 , the inverter loss, L2 , the rectifier loss, L3 , and the control system loss, L4 . Fig. 14 shows the information of the

above-mentioned losses at 24 000 r/min under PWM control

and PAM control, respectively. It can be seen that the motor

loss and the inverter loss under PAM control are greatly decreased because of the low harmonic content and switching

frequency.

E. New Drive Method Validation

A hybrid drive method combining PWM and PAM is proposed in this paper. The PWM control is adopted at low speed

while the PAM control is adopted at high speed. Fig. 15 shows

the operation of the motor with unloaded and loaded conditions

under PWM control at low speed such as 3000 and 5000 r/min,

respectively. The loaded condition is achieved by setting the

resistor of generator load equal to 2.5 . Fig. 15(a) and (b)

shows the operation at 3000 r/min with unloaded and loaded

conditions, respectively. We can see that the distortion of iA

and uAB alleviates under loaded condition because the duty

ratio can be maintained at higher level. Similarly, Fig. 15(c)

and (d) shows the operation at 5000 r/min with unloaded and

loaded conditions. Compared with Fig. 15(a) and (b), we can

find that the amplitudes of iA and uAB increase because the

high speed lead to a heavy load with the same generator load

resistor.

As mentioned above, the PAM control will begin to work

when the speed reaches n+ . The transition process between

the PWM control and the PAM control is shown in Fig. 16.

Fig. 16(a) and (b) illustrates the motor operation during the

transition process under unloaded and loaded condition with a

proper hysteresis width, respectively. Low current ripples occur

due to the proper selection of the hysteresis width both on load

and unload. Meanwhile, the current ripple on load increase in

contrast that on unload. It can also be seen that for PAM control, the fluctuation of iA is decreased compared with the PWM

control. Moreover, the decreasing extent will be more obvious

with load. Also, the improved current and voltage quality will

the other hand, we can also find that the PWM control leads

to large commutation delay. Fig. 16(c) shows the experimental results during the transition process under loaded condition

with an improper hysteresis width. As explained above, if an

improper hysteresis width is employed, the drive method will

switch between the PAM control and the PWM control repetitiously, which will aggravate the current ripple. Moreover, the

large current ripple (more than 450 A as shown in the dashed

box of Fig. 16) goes beyond the current range of the inverter,

thus blocking the inverter bridge drive signals by the overcurrent protection circuit. Also, the current is down to zero when

the inverter overcurrent protection occurs. Therefore, we can

find the proper hysteresis width can be beneficial to eliminate

the unexpected repetitious switching and guarantee a reliable

operation.

In addition, it should be noted that when the overcurrent protection occurs, uAB is equal to eAB due to the current is zero.

However, the back-EMFs of the experimental prototype are designed into nonideal trapezoidal close to sinusoidal waveforms

in this paper. So uAB is approximately sinusoidal waveform

after the overcurrent protection as shown in Fig. 16(c). Generally speaking, an idealized BLDC motor should have trapezoidal

back-EMFs waveforms. However, for practical reasons, nonuniformity of the magnetic material and design tradeoffs make it

hard to produce the desired trapezoidal back-EMFs waveforms

exactly. Meanwhile, considering the structure and strength of

the rotor and the permanent magnet at high speed, the ring magnet is selected and the back-EMFs are designed into nonideal

trapezoidal close to sinusoidal waveforms. But no matter what

back-EMFs waveforms are employed in the BLDC motor, the

proposed drive method and the corresponding theoretical analysis method are still applicable.

Fig. 17 shows the motor operation with loaded conditions

at 15 000 and 24 000 r/min. Fig. 17(a) and (b) shows the

motor operation at 15 000 and 24 000 r/min when the PAM

control is employed. In order to show the performance comparison between the PAM control and the PWM control at high

speed, we also give the motor operation at 24 000 r/min under

PWM control with a 450-V dc voltage as shown in Fig. 17(c).

Compared with the PAM control as shown in Fig. 17(b), the

waveforms of iA and uAB are seriously distorted due to an

CUI et al.: NOVEL DRIVE METHOD FOR HIGH-SPEED BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR OPERATING IN A WIDE RANGE

invariable dc voltage. On the other hand, the distorted waveforms will increase the motor loss and decrease the motor

efficiency.

V. CONCLUSION

The detailed theoretical analysis comparison of the PWM

control and the PAM control for high-speed BLDC motor is

presented. The criteria for performance comparison include

the commutation delay analysis, harmonic component analysis,

and motor power factor analysis. Meanwhile, a new high-speed

BLDC motor drive method is proposed. It has been shown that

the PAM control is superior to the PWM control for providing

good performance at high speed by several experiment results.

Unfortunately, the performance comparison between the PWM

control and the PAM control at low speed cannot be provided

due to the limited experimental condition. However, this disadvantage can be mitigated since the common work speed of the

magnetically suspended motor in actual application is between

12 000 and 35 000 r/min.

In addition, it is noted that the experiment at 32 000 r/min

requires further follow-up test for the following two reasons:

one is the coupling resulting in changes in the rotor mode which

affects the stability of the magnetic bearing suspended. The

other is the limited power of the generator load resistance which

cannot endure high power.

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5008

from the China University of Petroleum, Qingdao,

China, in 2007 and 2010, respectively. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at the School

of Instrumentation Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China.

He is currently also a Research Member of the Key

Laboratory of Fundamental Science for National Defense, Novel Inertial Instrument and Navigation System Technology. His research interests include power

electronics and high-speed permanent magnet motor

control.

University, Jinan, China, in 1992, the M.S. degree

from Shandong University, Jinan, China, in 1998,

and the Ph.D. degree from the Dalian University of

Technology, Dalian, China, in 2001.

He is currently with the School of Instrument

Science and OptoElectronic Engineering, Beihang

University, Beijing, China, as a Ph.D. Supervisor.

His research interests include permanent magnet motor control, spacecraft attitude control, and electrical

control systems.

from the Robotics Institute, School of Mechanical

Engineering and Automation, Beihang University,

Beijing, China, in 2007 and 2010, respectively.

He has been a Postdoctoral Researcher with the

Science and Technology on Inertial Laboratory, Fundamental Science on Novel Inertial Instrument &

Navigation System Technology Laboratory, School

of Instrument Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, Beihang University. His current research interests include magnetic levitation technology, highspeed motor design, wall-climbing robot development, and vibrating suction

method research.

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