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You are on page 1of 7

Given

A N,

[1A

(aA a+1A)]

A = N.

Let P(x) be a proposition (open sentence), if we put

A = {x : x N

If

then

P(n) is true n N.

(3) Second Principle of Mathematical Induction

If

(2) 1 i k, P(i) is true

P(k+1) is true

then

P(n) is true n N.

If

(2) P(k-1) P(k)

then

is true;

is true for some

P(n) is true n N.

If

(2) P(k)

then

is true;

k N P(k+m) is true

P(n) is true n N.

If

(2) P(k)

then

is true;

k N P(k+2) is true

P(n) is true n N.

Page

(7) Backward M.I.

If

kN

then

P(k1) is true

P(n) is true n N.

If

k N P(2k+1) is true;

kN

then

P(k1) is true

P(n) is true n N.

If

k N, where k a

then

P(k+1) is true

If

k N Q(k) is true

k N P(k+1) is true

then

Double M.I. involves a proposition P(m, n) with two variables m, n.

If

is true m, n N;

P(m+1, n+1) is true

then

P(m, n)

is true m, n N.

Page

m, n N

p n < 22 .

n

Solution

p n < 22 .

n

Let

P(n)

be the proposition :

For

P(1),

p1 = 2 < 2 2

Assume

P(i)

is true

P(1)

is true.

1

s.t. 1 i k , i.e.

1

For

P(k + 1),

1

Since p1, p2 , ., pk

p k +1 p < 2 2

of

k +1

Let

{an}

P(k + 1)

< 22

k +1

p < 22

k +1

is true.

P(n)

is true n

n-1

an = 2

Prove that

Recurrive formula

k +1

a1 = 2, a2 = 3

+1.

Solution

Let

P(n)

For

P(1) P(2),

Assume

i.e.

be the proposition :

a1 = 2 = 21-1 + 1,

ak = 2k-1 + 1

ak+1 = 2 + 1

P(k+2),

a2 = 2 = 22-1 + 1 .

k

For

an = 2n-1 + 1 .

(1)

(2)

is true.

Odd Even Mathematical Induction

Let

a1 = 2,

Prove that

a2 = 2

an =

P(1) P(2)

ak+2

P(k + 2)

an+2 = an + 1

1

(n + 1) + 1 1 + ( 1)n

2

4

].

Solution

Page

P(n)

is true n

is true.

an =

1

(n + 1) + 1 1 + ( 1)n

2

4

For P(1),

a1 = 1 =

1

(1 + 1) + 1 1 + ( 1)1

2

4

For P(2),

a2 =1 =

1

(2 + 1) + 1 1 + ( 1)2

2

4

Assume

].

i.e. a k =

1

(k + 1) + 1 1 + ( 1)k

2

4

(*)

ak+2 = ak + 1 =

=

1

(k + 1) + 1 1 + ( 1)k + 1

2

4

1

[(k + 1) + 1] + 1 1 + ( 1)k +1

2

4

, by (*)

P(k + 2) is true.

P(n) is true n

x + x2

Let f(x) be a convex function defined on [a, b], i.e. f ( x 1 ) + f ( x 2 ) 2f 1

for all x1, x2 [a, b].

2

For each positive integer n, consider the statement:

x + ... + x n

I(n) : If xi [a, b], i = 1, 2, , n, then f ( x 1 ) + ... + f ( x n ) nf 1

.

n

(a)

(b)

(c)

Solution

(a)

x + ... + x n

I(n) : If xi [a, b], i = 1, 2, , n, then f ( x 1 ) + ... + f ( x n ) nf 1

n

For I(21), since it is given that

Assume

I(2k)

x + x2

f ( x 1 ) + f ( x 2 ) 2f 1

.

2

I(21)

x 1 + ... + x 2 k

is true. i.e. f ( x 1 ) + ... + f ( x 2k ) 2 k f

2k

is true.

.(1)

For I(2k+1),

f ( x 1 ) + ... + f ( x 2k ) + f ( x 2k +1 ) + ... + f ( x 2k +1 )

x k + ... + x 2k +1

x + ... + x 2k x 2k +1 + ... + x 2k +1

x 1 + ... + x 2k

k

k 1

2k f

+ 2 f 2 +1 k

= 2 f

+ f

k

2

2

2k

2k

x 1 + ... + x 2k x 2k +1 + ... + x 2k +1

= 2 k f

+ f

2k

2k

x 1 + ... + x 2k + x 2k +1 + ... + x 2k +1

= 2 k +1 f

2 k +1

1 x 1 + ... + x 2k x 2k +1 + ... + x 2k +1

+

2 k 2 f

, by I(2)

2k

2k

2

Page

, by (1)

I(2k+1)

is true

(b)

Assume

i.e.

x + ... + x n

f ( x 1 ) + ... + f ( x n ) nf 1

Put

xn =

x 1 + ... + x n 1

n 1

n 1 x 1 + ... + x n 1

+ n

= nf

n

n 1

n 1

, then

x + ... + x n 1

x 1 + ... + x n 1

f ( x 1 ) + ... + f ( x n 1 ) + f 1

nf

n 1

n 1

x + ... + x n 1

f ( x 1 ) + ... + f ( x n 1 ) ( n 1)f 1

n 1

(c)

n ,

(k

n = 2k r.

(

(

)

)

2

S 2 m 1 = 2 m 4m 3m + 1

1

S 2 m = m 4m 2 + 3m + 1

2

S n = a i , prove that

Let

satisfying

i =1

where

....(1)

....(2)

Solution

Let

For

P(m)

be the proposition :

S2 m 1 =

Q(m)

be the proposition :

S2m =

S1 = a1 = 1

P(1),

Assume

P(k)

For

(b)

For

P(k + 1),

S2k+1 = S2k + a2k+1 =

Since

Since

1

m 4m 2 + 3m + 1

2

(1)

is true for

., i.e. S 2 k 1 =

(a)

1

m 4m 2 3m + 1

2

m=1.

1

k 4k 2 3k + 1

2

1

1

k 4k 2 3k + 1 + 3k 2 = k 4k 2 + 3k + 1 .

2

2

(*)

Q(k)

P(k + 1) is true.

is true.

1

k 4k 2 + 3k + 1 + [3(k + 1)k + 1]

2

[(

) (

1

4k 3 + 12k 2 + 12k + 4 3k 2 + 6k + 3 + (k + 1)

2

1

1

3

2

2

4(k + 1) 3(k + 1) + (k + 1) = (k + 1) 4(k + 1) 3(k + 1) + 1 .

2

2

(1)

P(1) is true.

(2)

P(k) is true

(1)

P(1) is true.

(2)

Q(k)

is true

Q(k)

Q(1)

is true

P(k + 1) is true

P(n) is true n

is true

P(k + 1) is true

Page

Q(k + 1) is true

Q(n) is true n

Let

, when a = 1

1

f(a, 1) =

.

0 , when a > 1, a N

and

f (a , n ) + 1

, when a = 1

f(a, n+1) =

.

f (a, n ) + f (a 1, n ) , when a > 1, a N

f (a , n ) =

Prove that

n (n 1)...(n a + 1)

a!

Solution

(1)

(2)

For

n (n 1)...(n a + 1)

a!

R.H.S. =

1

=1

1!

When a > 1,

L.H.S. = f(a, 1) = 0.

R.H.S. =

1(n 1)...(1 a + 1)

=0 .

a!

Assume

For

P(k)

., i.e.

When a > 1,

k (k 1)...(k a + 1)

a!

is true.

(2)

k

k +1

+1 = k +1 =

= R.H.S.

1!

1!

=

k (k 1)...(k a + 1) k (k 1)...(k a + 2)

+

, by (2), f(a,k) and f(a 1, k) hold .

(a 1) !

a!

k (k 1)...(k a + 2)

[(k a + 1) + a ]

a!

Comment

f (a , k ) =

P(1)

(1)

(k + 1)k (k 1)...(k a + 2)

a!

= R.H.S.

P(k + 1) is true.

P(n) is true n

n contains a parameter

Page

Prove that the number of non-negative integral solution sets of the equation

x1 + x2 + + xm = n

is

f(m, n) =

m,n

(n + m 1) !

n !(m 1) !

(1)

Solution

Let P(m, n)

(a)

For

In

P(1, n), The only non-negative integral solution set of the equation

(1) , f(1, n) =

(n + 1 1) ! = 1

n !(1 1) !

P(1, n) is true .

For

P(m, 1),

x1 = n is only itself .

x1 + x2 + + xm = 1

are

In (1),

(b)

f(m, 1) =

P(m, 1)

Assume

(1 + m 1) ! = m

1!(m 1) !

is true .

m,n

. . i.e

are

For

x1 + x2 + + xm = n +1

(2)

x1 + x2 + + xm + xm+1 = n

(3)

f(m, n+1) =

P(m+1, n+1),

(n + m ) !

(n + 1) !(m 1) !

and

f(m+1, n) =

(n + m ) !

respectively .

n !m !

x1 + x2 + + xm + xm+1 = n + 1

(4)

(i)

For

xm+1 = 0 , equation (4) becomes equation (2), and the number of non-negative integral solution

sets is

(ii)

For

f(m, n+1) =

(n + m ) !

(n + 1) !(m 1) !

x1 + x2 + + xm + xm+1 = n , and the number of non-negative integral solution

sets is

f(m+1, n) =

(n + m ) !

n !m !

(n + m ) ! + (n + m ) !

(n + 1) !(m 1) ! n !m !

(n + m ) ! [(n + 1) + m] = [(n + 1) + (m + 1) 1]

(n + 1) !m !

(n + 1) ![(m + 1) 1]!

Page

P(m, n)

is true m, n

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