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Usama Asad

150629890
Matt Yosurack, Sherilyn
Matthew Smith
CH110-L4 Monday 7-9:50pm

11/4/2015

Experiment 4: Thermochemistry
Hesss Law
Abstract
This experiment was performed to determine the enthalpies of
reaction of several different reactions using Hesss Law and
calorimetry, in order to determine the enthalpies of formation for
aqueous ammonium chloride and aqueous ammonium nitrate.
Chemists use several simpler enthalpy steps, or reactions, to calculate
the overall molar enthalpy of formation for one reaction, since the
enthalpy of formation of a desired substance cannot be directly
determined in a lab. This process is known as Hesss law, and the same
process was used in this experiment. A Styrofoam calorimeter and lid
was used, while a flask containing cool water of known mass and
temperature was placed inside. Next, hot water of known mass and
temperature was poured into the flask as well, and the top of the flask
was sealed with a stopper and calorimeter lid. The temperature probe,
passing through the stopper, recorded the temperature change, and
the calorimeter heat flow, q, was determined. Next, the temperature
change of several chemical reactions was determined using the same
process, and gave the enthalpies of reaction. These results were then
used to determine the overall molar enthalpy of formation of aqueous
ammonium chloride and aqueous ammonium nitrate, using Hesss Law.
The enthalpies of reaction for equations 26,27,28 and 29 were
, respectively. The molar enthalpies of formation for equations 30 and
31 were
, respectively. Finally, the percent difference
between using Hesss Law and the standard enthalpies of formation for
equations 30 and 31 were
, respectively. These
results proved that finding the enthalpies of consecutive smaller steps,
would lead to determining the overall enthalpy of formation of one big

reaction. This experiment concluded that Hesss Law was very effective
at determining the molar enthalpies of formation of different
substances and solutions.

Procedure
For the procedure, see lab manual (CH110 Lab Manual, Fall 2015)
pages 72-87.
Wilfrid Laurier University Chemistry Department. Fall 2015.
Experiment 4. Thermochemistry: Hesss Law. Pages 72-87 in Chemistry
110 Lab Manual. Wilfrid Laurier University, ON, Canada.

Results
Trial 1

Trial 2

Volume of warm
water (mL)
Mass of warm water
(g)
Mass of Flask (g)

50.05

50.00

50.05

50.00

93.4

93.44

Mass of flask + cool


water (g)
Initial Temp. Of
warm water (C)
Initial Temp. Of cool
water (C)
Final Temperature
(C)
T warm water (C)

142.22

143.2

68.84

65.23

22.16

22.90

39.07

40.08

-29.77

-25.15

T cool water (C)

16.91

17.18

Table 1: Data for determining the heat capacity of the Calorimeter for
Part II
Table 2: Determining H of reaction (26) for Part III
Trial 1
Trial 2

Volume of 1.0M of
HCl (mL)
Volume of 1.0M of
NaOH (mL)
Initial Temp. (C)
Final Temp. (C)
T (C)
Volume of Solution
(mL)
Mass of Solution (g)

24.9

25.0

25.0

25.0

21.58
27.5
5.92
49.9

21.34
27.35
6.01
50

49.9

50

Table 3: Determining H of reaction (27) for Part IV


Trial 1
Trial 2
Volume of 1.0M
HNO3 (mL)
Volume of 1.0M
NaOH (mL)
Initial Temp. (C)

25.00

25.00

24.95

25.00

22.13

23.43

Final Temp. (C)

27.77

28.52

T (C)

5.64

5.09

Volume of Solution
(mL)
Mass of Solution (g)

49.95

50.00

49.95

50.00

Table 4: Determining H of reaction (28) for Part V


Trial 1
Trial 2
Volume of 1.0M
CH3COOH (mL)

25.00

25.00

Volume of 1.0M
NaOH (mL)
Initial Temp. (C)

25.00

25.00

21.92

23.10

Final Temp. (C)

27.54

28.07

T (C)

5.62

4.97

Volume of Solution
(mL)
Mass of Solution (g)

50.00

50.00

50.00

50.00

Table 5: Determining H of reaction (29) for Part VI

Trial 1

Trial 2

Volume of 1.0M
CH3COOH (mL)

25.00

25.00

Volume of 1.0M
NH3 (mL)
Initial Temp. (C)

25.00

25.00

21.88

22.25

Final Temp. (C)

26.70

27.08

T (C)

4.82

4.83

Volume of Solution
(mL)
Mass of Solution (g)

50.00

50.00

50.00

50.00

Table 6: Qualitative Observations of Different Chemicals


Chemical
Observation
CH3COOH
NH3

Sharp Vinegar smell, clear,


colorless.
Clear, Colorless.

NaOH

Clear, Colorless.

HCl

Clear, Colorless.

HNO3

Clear, Colorless.

Discussion
The enthalpy of formation for aqueous ammonium chloride and
aqueous ammonium nitrate was determined successfully (Calculations
4,5). The enthalpies of reaction for several different reactions that were
determined experimentally were also successfully determined. The
enthalpy of reaction for reactions 26,27,28 and 29 were
respectively (Calculation #3). The molar enthalpy of formation for
reactions 30 and 31 using Hesss Law was
respectively (Calculation #4,5). Also, the enthalpy of formation was
determined using the standard enthalpy of formation for reactions 30
and 31, and were
respectively (Calculations
#4b, 5b). This gave us percent differences for the reactions, which
were
(Calculations #4c, 5c). These differences
showed that the experiment was successful. The average mass of the

calorimeter was determined using the results from (Table 1), and was
131.23 J/C. The difference was noticeable between the two trials, and
this was because of the change of differences in the final temperatures
of the warm and cool water (Table 1). When cool water was poured into
the flask, not much care was given into keeping the temperatures close
to same, and the hot water was not kept exactly between the 50C and
60C range (Table 1). The enthalpies of formation and standard
enthalpies of formation had a significant difference too (Calculation
#4b, 5b). This was solely due to experimentally determining the
enthalpies of reaction for several equations (Table #2,3,4,5). The
equipment used was not cleaned with care after each trial, causing
impurities to form in the flask. An experimental source of error was the
calorimeter itself. Small gaps between the lid and the cup let some
heat escape, and the space between the stopper holes and the
temperature probe also let heat escape, affecting the change in
temperature significantly. Finally, the concentrations of the chemicals
used (Table #6) might have not been exactly 1.0M in molarity. This
wouldve affected the moles calculated in (Calculation #2), which
wouldve affected the molar enthalpy of reaction for the several
reactions used. All of these factors combined wouldve led to the
significant difference in the answers between the two methods of
enthalpy of formation calculations. The same flask, stopper, and
calorimeter were used to determine the temperature change between
various chemicals. A way to improve this experiment wouldve been to
have more accurate calorimeters at hand, which contained thermal
energy inside more effectively. Using two stacked coffee cups to
create a calorimeter, and obtaining stoppers with the perfect hole size
to fit the temperature probes into would improve this experiment,
hence improving the answers.

Conclusion
The molar enthalpies of formation were determined successfully
using Hesss Law for both chemical equations 30 and 31, being
, respectively (Calculation #4,5). The molar enthalpies of reaction were
also determined for reactions 26,27,28 and 29, being
, respectively (Calculation #3). Finally, the percent differences between
using Hesss Law, and using the standard enthalpy of formation, were

, for reactions 30 and 31, respectively (Calculation #4b, 4c, 5b, 5c).
Therefore, to conclude, this experiment was very successful in
determining the molar enthalpies of formation for aqueous ammonium
chloride and aqueous ammonium nitrate using the standard enthalpies
of formation, and Hesss Law.

References
Wilfrid Laurier University Chemistry Department. Fall 2015.
Experiment 4. Thermochemistry: Hesss Law. Pages 72-87 in Chemistry
110 Lab Manual. Wilfrid Laurier University, ON, Canada.
"ChemTeam: Hess' Law - Using Four or More Equations and Their
Enthalpies." ChemTeam: Hess' Law - Using Four or More Equations and
Their Enthalpies. ChemTeam, n.d. Web. 06 Nov. 2015.
<http://www.chemteam.info/Thermochem/HessLawIntro1b.html>.