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T00L AND DIE MAKING

T00L AND DIE MAKING


We feel great pleasure to present this project, as it takes our hard work to bring it out to its
best performance.
We are sincerely thanks to Mr. R. SADASHIVAN, for his suggestion of project work and
enabling us to gain more knowledge in this endeavour.
We take privilege to thanks our vice Principal Mr. S. P. BARFUNGPA for his corporation and
support in the completion of our project.
We would like to place on record our gratefulness of Head of Department Mr. BHASKAR
SHARMA for his encouragement and corporation.
We are thankful to our course in-charge Mr. TENZING PRADHAN for suggesting to us this
project, guiding and encouraging to successfully completion of our project.
We thank our section in- charge Mr. SANGAY DORJEE and our project in-charge Mr.
SANGAY DORJEE, for his constant encouragement for enlightening. It was his backing
healing touches that made the project the success that it is.
Last but not the least we offer our thanks who helps us directly and indirectly to complete
our project successfully.

T00L AND DIE MAKING

T00L AND DIE MAKING


SYNOPSIS
This project was decided by our group (group-3) in the month July 2010.The main purpose
of selecting this component is because the marketing demand is high. The component is
Shock Absorber Washer of Mild Steel (M.S) material. And the tool is Compound tool.
The component manufacturing incorporates:
1.

Single stage tooling

Advantages:
1.

Easy to manufacture.

2. Simple design.
3. Low cost.
4. Easy to sale
5. High demand in motor vehicle workshop.
6. Can be use in any type of work.
Market potential and competitive advantage:
1.

It is commercial.

2. Easy to manufacture.
3. The machinery required for the manufacturing of project is available in the institute.
SCOPE OF A PROJECT
1.

To understand the concepts of press tool.

2. Estimation of press tool.


3. Exposure of modern techniques of manufacturing.
4. To acquire knowledge and practical skills on conventional machining like, power
hacksaw, radial drilling machine, lathe, tool and cutter grinder, milling machine,
surface grinder, bench drilling machine, cylindrical grinder etc.
5. Develop knowledge about fit and tolerance.
6. Design of press tool with the use of CAD.
7. Inspection methods and quality control.
8. To study about the properties of different materials used in press tool.
9. To acquire knowledge and practical skills on highly precision machines like CNC
machine, CMM machine etc.
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CONTENTS
1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

LITERATURE SURVEY

3.

COMPONENT DETAILS

4.

DESIGN CALCULATION

5.

PROCESS PLANNING

6.

ESTIMATION AND COSTING

7.

DEFFECTS AND CORRECTION

8.

DRAWING

9.

APPLICATION

10.

CONCLUTION

11.

REFRENCES

T00L AND DIE MAKING

INTRODUCTION

T00L AND DIE MAKING

CHAPTER 1:

INTRODUCTION

COMPOUND PIERCING AND BLANKING TOOLS

Compound tools also produce blanks having holes.

In a compound tool both the piercing and blanking operations are performed
simultaneously.

The conventional positions of punch and die are inverted.

The blanking punch is clamped to the bottom plate of the tool.

The blanking die is clamped to the top plate.

The piercing punches are positioned in-side the blanking die opening.

They are mounted on punch holders.

Their mating piercing dies are formed in the blanking punch.

Because of the positions the mating parts assume, the blanking and piercing
operations take place in the opposite directions, but simultaneously.

Because of this the piercing' and blanking burrs are formed on the same side of the
piece part.

Compound
Compound tools pierce and blank simultaneously at the same station. They are more
expensive to build and they are used where considerable accuracy is required in the part.

COMPOUND PIERCING AND BLANKING TOOLS

T00L AND DIE MAKING

Compound tools also produce blanks having holes.

In a compound tool both the piercing and blanking operations are performed
simultaneously.

The conventional positions of punch and die are inverted.

The blanking punch is clamped to the bottom plate of the tool.

The blanking die is clamped to the top plate.

The piercing punches are positioned in-side the blanking die opening.

They are mounted on punch holders.

Their mating piercing dies are formed in the blanking punch.

Because of the positions the mating parts assume, the blanking and piercing
operations take place in the opposite directions, but simultaneously.

Because of this the piercing' and blanking burrs are formed on the same side the
piece part.

A fixed stripper cannot be clamped to the die because the die is mounted on the top
plate.

A moveable stripper is fitted around the blanking punch.

The stripper is actuated by self-contained purr or by the die cushion of the press.

In addition to stripper some means should be provided to knockout or shed the


piece art from the blanking die as well as to strip itself from the piercing punches.

This is achieved by a shedder which is closely fitted in the blanking die and around
the piercing punches.

The shedder can be actuated by a compression spring or can be connected to the


knockout mechanism of the press.

The slug produced from the piercing operation falls down through the opening
provided in the bottom plate.

The blanking die walls are straight without angular clearance.

The piece parts are knocked out of the die as soon as the blanking is over.
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LITERATURE
SURVEY

T00L AND DIE MAKING


CHAPTER 2:

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 PRESS:-

Fig:- 2.1(A)
Presses are powered machines having stationary bed and slides (ram) which have
controlled reciprocating motions towards and away from the bed guided by their pillar.
2.2 Classification of press:
Presses are classified by following characteristics:

Source of power.

Method of actuation of slides.

Number of slides.

Frame types.

Intended use.

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2.3 Sources of power:The press is powered by one of the following sources:

Manual press.

Mechanical press.

Hydraulic press.

Pneumatic press.

Hydro pneumatic press.

2.4 According to their action:

Single action.

Double action.

Triple action.

2.4.1 Single action:One ram is operated by a mechanism located in the crown or under the bed of the
press.
2.4.2 Double action:One inner ram and one outer ram operated by mechanism located in the crown or
under the bed of the press. The ram moves from the crown towards the bed on the down
stroke.
2.4.3 Triple action:Same as double action with the addition of a third ram located in the bed soon after
the two rams lower.

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TYPES OF PRESS TOOLS / OPERATIONS. DRAWING

In drawing, a flat blank is transformed into a cup or shell.

The parent metal is subjected to severe plastic deformation.

TYPES OF PRESS TOOLS / OPERATIONS. CURLING

Curling is an operation of rolling the edges of a sheet metal into

a curl or roll.

The purpose is to strengthen and provide a protective edge.

It also improves the appearance of the part.

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Some press tool operations are:
Blanking:

Blanking is a process of producing flat stampings.


The entire periphery is cut and cut out piece is called the blank

Piercing:
It is the operation of making hole in the stamping. Here also the entire periphery is cut
and cut piece is waste

Cut-off:
Cut off operation separates the work material along a straight line or angular or irregular
in a single cut. No scrap is produced in cutting off operation.

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Parting off:
Parting off is an operation which involves cutoff operation to produce blank from the
strip as shown in the figure. During parting, some scrape is produced. There fore,
parting is the next best method for cutting blanks.

Perforating:
If more number of holes are pierced, it is called perforating.

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Side cam tool :
Side cam transforms vertical motion from the press ram into horizontal or angular
motion in the tool.

Dinking:
To cut paper, leather, cloth, rubber and other soft materials a dinking tool is used. The
cutting edges penetrate the material and cuts. The die will be usually a plane material like
wood or hard rubber.

Trimming:
It is the operation of cutting the edges of the drawn components which are wavy and
irregular. The term trimming is also used when the material of a strip or the portion of a
blanked component or a portion of a pierced hole is partially removed

Broaching:
It is similar to shaving operation. In this a tool having a series of teeth profile
removes metal from the edges of the blanked component in a progressive way.

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Bending:
It is the shaping of material around a straight axis which extends completely across the
material. The result is a plane surface at an angle to the original plane of the flat blanked
component.

Drawing:
In drawing a flat blank is transformed into a cup or shell.
Shell or cup produced may be cylindrical or rectangular with straight or tapered
sides.

Planishing:
Planishing tool is used to straighten, blanked components. Very fine serration points
penetrate all around the surface of the component.
.

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SHEARING THEORY.

Shearing is the method of cutting sheets or strips without


forming chips.
The material is stressed in a section which lies parallel to the
forces applied.
The forces are applied by means of shearing blades or punch
and die.

Critical stages in shearing


Stage 1 : Plastic deformation.
The force applied by the punch on the stock-material tends to
deform it into the die opening.
When the elastic limit is exceeded by further application of
force the material is forced into the die opening in the form of
an embossed pad on the lower face of the material.

Stage 2: Penetration.

As the load is further increased, the punch will penetrate the

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material to a certain depth.

An equally thick portion of the metal is forced into the dies.

This imparts a bright polished finish (cut band) on both the strip

and the blank or the slug. On optimum cutting conditions the

Stage 3: Fracture
In this stage, fracture starts from both upper and lower cutting

edges.
As the punch travels further, these fractures will extend towards

each other and meet to cause complete separation.


This stage imparts a dull fractured edge.

ELEMENTS OF PRESS TOOL


DIE SET
The following elements are considered before selecting the die set:1. Make or manufacture,
2. Type,
3. Size,
4. Material,

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5. Thickness of the die holder,
6. Type & length of the bushing,
7. Thickness of the punch holder,
8. Length of guide post,
9. Shank diameter,
10. Grade of precision.
DIE SET COMPONENTS:
Top plate.
Guide bushing.
Guide pillar.
Bottom plate.

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Top plate:

Punch assembly is mounted on this plate.


Tool shank is also screwed into this plate.
Made out of mild steel or cast iron.
Should be thick enough to prevent bending.

Bottom plate:

Gives cushioning effect to the die.


Opening in the Base plate allows the blank or slug to fall clear of the tool.
Made out of mild steel or cast iron.

Stripper:

Stock strip is guided and fed in line with the profile, thus maintaining scrap
equally.
It aligns punch with the plate which does not allow the strip to go along with the
punch.
the die in case the stripper also functions as a guide plate.
Made out of Mild steel , Medium carbon steel & OHNS
Hardened up to 45-50HRC

. Strippers can be classified into 2 groups:


,
1. Fixed strippers.
2. Traveling strippers.

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Thrust plate:

Observes the upward thrust of the punch.


Prevents from digging into the punch holder.
Hardened up to 45-48HRC.

Punch holder:

Punch is fixed with a light press fit in punch holder.


Punch holder ensures the position of the punch. In case of profiled punches
fitted on the face of the punch holder, dowels are fixed to prevent rotation.

Shank:

Locates and clamps the tool to the press ram.


Diameter of shank depends upon the Dia of bore in the press ram.
Shanks are standardized to suit different presses.

Dowels:
This is a cylindrical pin hardened and ground on center less grinder. This dowel is
made to m6 tolerance. Dowel pins keep the alignment between the plates and prevent it
from lateral movement.
Screws:
This is fastening element. Screws are used to hold the plates together. The sizes of
the screws are selected on the basis of tool size
Stopper:
The stopper shown is a plain cylindrical pin. The pin is mounted in the die block. The
function of the stopper is to arrest the movement of the strip when it is fed forward to one
pitch length. Various types of stoppers are available.

PUNCH
Punch is the cutting element of the tool. Punch gives the hole size and shape of the
component. This is made out of high carbon high chromium steel,(D, M grade in AISI) and
hardened and tempered to 58-60 HRc

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PUNCH

Punches can be classified into three categories:


Cutting punches
Non cutting punches
Hybrid punches

Cutting punches:
These punches are mainly preferred for the
shearing actions and these can perform operations like
blanking, piercing, notching, trimming etc.

Non cutting punches:


These punches are preferred when operations
like bending, forming, drawing, extruding etc are
required to perform on the component which are said to
be forming operations.

Hybrid Punch:
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Hybrid punches do both cutting and non-cutting operations like shear and form,
pinch trim etc.

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COMPONENT
DETAIL

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Chapter3:
Component name
Type of tool

COMPONENT DETAIL
: Shock Absorber Washer.
: Compound Tool.

Sheet metal material

: Mild steel

Sheet metal thickness

: 2 mm

Press tonnage

: 14.24 tones

Type of feed

: single row single pass.

Pitch of the strip

: 42.4 mm

Scrap bridge

: 2.4mm/side.

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DESIGN
CALCULATION

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Chapter 4 :
Scrap bridge

DESIGN CALCULATION
= 1.2 sheet thickness
= 1.2 2
= 2.4 mm/side

Pitch

= component size + scrap bridge


= 40 + 2.4
= 42.4mm

Strip width

= component size + 2 * scrap bridge


= 40 + 2 2.4
= 44.8 mm

Cutting force

= length sheet thickness Tmax


= 197.82 2 360
= 142430.4 N
= 14.24 tones

Cutting clearance

= constant sheet T max /10


= 0.01 2 360/10
= 0.12 mm/side

Economic factor

= Area of blank number of rows 100


Pitch strip width
=
=

1256 1 100
42.4 44.8

66.12%

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PROCESS
PLANNING

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Chapter5:

PROCESS PLANNING

Process planning is the process of design specification from drawing in operating


instruction from the necessary manufacturing.
The manufacturing process plan refers to either machining process planning or
assembly.
5.1 THE PURPOSE OF PLANNING ARE:
1. Interpretation of product design.
2. Tool design.
3. Selection of machining operation.
4. Selection of machines tool.
5. Determination of fixture tool.
6. Calculation of total time.
7. Sequence of operation.
8. Generation of process status.
The process planning of compound tool was done in a systematic manner. The
process planning was done as soon as the drawing was completed.

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ESTIMATION
AND
COSTING
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Chapter6:

ESTIMATION AND COSTING

ESTIMATION

It is the process of finding the probable cost of article before manufacturing


or finding the approximate cost the would incur in the process of manufacturing the tool,
which is the key for quoting the tenders invited by the customers.
6.1 An ideal estimator should posses the following qualities:
1. Should be able to read blue prints.
2. Should through knowledge of various activities about procedure and markets
rates.
3. Should have an up-to date knowledge of the market scenario and price
fluctuation of the commodities.
4. Should have enough experience to take decision in short time. And good
communicative skills.
6.2 Estimation methods:
Rough method
Cost centre method
NTTF method
6.2.1 Rough method:
In this method the estimation of the tool is done on the basis of experience and is done by
the experience tool maker. It is not so accurate therefore its preference is very less.
6.2.2 Cost centre method:
This method is an accurate method of estimation. It is based on scientific reasoning and
calculations. It is time consuming but accurate. The estimator should be experience to
perform the task. This method essentially requires the detail drawing of the design. The cost
of each estimate is calculated to reach the final result.
6.2.3 NTTF method:
This method uses an estimation guide. These guides have been prepared by the tool maker
through studies conducted during a period of time.

6.3 Costing of the tool


It is the determined of actual cost of an article after it has manufactured by adding expenses
that has incurred in the various departments. It is the method of finding the final cost of an
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article. The total cost of a product manufactured can be divided into three main heads. They
are:
Material
Labor
Expenses
OPERATION CARRIED AT EACH STATION:
TOP PLATE:
Milling
Bench work
Drilling
surface grinding
BOTTOM PLATE:
Milling
Bench work
Drilling
Surface grinding
GUIDE BUSH:
Lathe
Cylindrical grinding
Heat treatment
GUIDE PILLAR:
Lathe
Cylindrical grinding
Heat treatment
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PUNCH HOLDER:
Milling
Bench work
Surface grinding
CNC milling
DIE PLATE:
Milling
Bench work
Drilling
surface grinding
Heat treatment
CNC milling
STRIPPER PLATE:
Milling
Bench work
Drilling
Surface grinding
CNC milling
BACK PLATE:
Milling
Bench work
Drilling
Surface grinding

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BLANKING PUNCH:
Lathe
Cylindrical grinding
Heat treatment
PIERCING PUNCH:
Lathe
Cylindrical grinding
heat treatment
Cylindrical grinding
FIXED STOPPER:
Lathe
STANDARD ITEMS:
SHCS screws
Dowels
Guide screws
Estimation of tool by cost centre method:
Top plate:-

Volume = lbh
=25013525
=843750mm3
Weight = Volume density
106
=8437507.87
106
= 6.64kg

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Bottom plate

= 6.64kg

Piercing back plate

= 1.26kg

Punch holder (Piercing)


Punch holder (Blanking)

= 1.85kg
= 1.85kg

Shank holder

= 2.11kg

Stripper plate

= 2.26kg

Die plate

= 2.52kg

Blanking back plate

= 1.26kg

Blanking punch: Volume

r 2 h

=3.14252568
=133450 mm3
Weight = Volume density
106

1 33450 8

106
= 1.06kg
Piercing punch

= 0.23kg

Shank

= 2.11kg

Shedder

= 0.21kg

Pillar

= 0.312 = 0.63kg

Bush

= 0.212 = 0.42kg

Dowel

= 0.13kg

Guide pin

= 0.013kg

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Stopper

= 0.06kg

Total weight of Mild steel material = 21.2kg


Total weight of En230 material

= 1.05kg

Total weight of OHNS material

= 5.2kg

Total weight of HCHCR material = 3.81kg


Total cost of Mild steel material = 21.247 = Rs.996.4
Total cost of En230 material

= 1.0542 = Rs.44.1

Total cost of OHNS material

= 5.260 = Rs.312

Total cost of HCHR material

= 3.81120 = Rs.457.2

Total material cost

= Rs.1809.7

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Component Cost
Amortization Cost

press tool Cost/total No of Components


= 14,220/25,000
= 0.56 paise

Material cost

= Rs.45/kg

Weight of component

= 10gm

No. of component produced in 1kg mat.

= 100nos

Component cost

= Rs.0.45/component

Cycle time

= 5sec(approx.)
= 3600/5
= 720cycles

No. of component produced in hour

= 720 component

No. of blank

=1

Therefore no. of component produced in hour

= 7201
= 720

M/cing hr rate of hydraulic press

= Rs350/hr

M/cing cost for 1 cycle time

= 350/720
= 0.48 paise

Total cost of component

= 0.56+0.45+0.48
= 1.49/component

Estimation of tool by cost centre method:


Top plate:- Volume = lbh
=25013525
=843750mm3

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Weight = Volume density
106
=8437507.87
106
= 6.64kg
Bottom plate

= 6.64kg

Piercing back plate

= 1.26kg

Punch holder (Piercing) = 1.85kg


Punch holder (Blanking)= 1.85kg
Shank holder

= 2.11kg

Stripper plate

= 2.26kg

Die plate

= 2.52kg

Blanking back plate

= 1.26kg

Blanking punch: Volume =

=3.14252568
=133450 mm3
Weight= Volume density
106
=

1 33450 8

106
= 1.06kg
Piercing punch

= 0.23kg

Shank

= 2.11kg

Shedder

= 0.21kg

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Pillar

= 0.312 = 0.63kg

Bush

= 0.212 = 0.42kg

Dowel

= 0.13kg

Guide pin

= 0.013kg

Stopper

= 0.06kg

Total weight of Mild steel material = 21.2kg


Total weight of En230 material

=1.05kg

Total weight of OHNS material

=5.2kg

Total weight of HCHCR material

= 3.81kg

Total cost of Mild steel material

= 21.247 = Rs.996.4

Total cost of En230 material

= 1.0542 = Rs.44.1

Total cost of OHNS material

= 5.260 = Rs.312

Total cost of HCHR material

=3.81120 = Rs.457.2

Total material cost

= Rs.1809.7/-

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Machining
Turning
Milling
Drilling
Cylindrical grinding
Surface grinding
CNC milling
Bench work
Heat treatment
Total machining cost
Raw material
Design charge
Assembly charge
Trial charge
Standards items
Total cost

Machine hr
15
35
20
10
25
4
5
8

Machining cost hr
60
70
125
80
120
300
30
70

0
0
1hr press machining cost

40

Total cost
900/2450/2500/800/3000/1200/150/560/11560/1810/0
0
350/500/14220/-

T00L AND DIE MAKING

DEFECTS AND
CORRECTION

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DEFECT AND REMEDIES:

Chapter 8:
8.1 INTRODUCTION:
8.1.1 Defects:

The word defect is derived from the word techniques which mean mistakes on
the system.
8.1.2 Remedies:
The word remedies means to recover a right, or to obtain redress from wrong.
8.2 Some of the following major causes which we have come across are described:
8.2.1 Material cutting:
Cause
Solution

: Due to more hardness material was not cutting.


: Done annealing process to relief the stress of the material.

8.2.2 Changes made in design:


Cause
Solution

: Economically the rate of the tool was high.


: Instead of die plate we used die inserts.

8.2.3 Unavailability of tools:


Cause

: Required tool were not available for drilling of large holes.

Solution

: This problem was solved by using CNC machine.

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INSPECTION
REPORT

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DRAWING

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APPLICATIONS

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Chapter10:

Washer Applications

There was dozens of uses for different kinds of washer. Generally shock absorber
washers are used:

As a seat for a head or nut

To help disperse a load

To prevent leakage

To decrease friction

Used in hollow eroded shaft to support clamping so that it can prevent rapture of the
parts.

OBJECTIVE AND AIMS:


To manufacturing a press tool
Planning organizing scheduling follow up need analysis ad inspection for various
elements of press tool
Exposure to press tool designing
Knowledge in fits between various elements of press tool
Exposure to assembly of press tool, maintaining the clearance between punch and
die
Exposure to the trial of press tool

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2.19 HEAT TREATMENT:
It is the process of heating and cooling of metal to get desire property.
2.19.1 ANNEALING:

A process involving the heating and cooling of a metal, commonly used to induce
softening.

The term refers to treatments intended to alter mechanical or physical properties or


to produce a definite microstructure.

2.19.2 STRESS RELIEVING:


This is an important aspect of heat treatment dies which is often overlooked. This
operation is to be carried out after rough machining i.e. after heavy stock removal,
especially in case of dies of intricate shape with changes in cross-section area, residual
stresses are developed after machining. These stresses have to be relived before the die is
taken for hardening process. If stress relieving operation not carried out, residual stresses
will add to thermal stress during hardening and may cause the die either to distort crack.
The stress- relieving operation is normally carried out in temperature range of 650750c. This operation is carried out in muffle furnace. Dies are slowly heated it the desired
temperature for about one hour per 20mm heated to the desired soaking time is over they
are taken up for- final machining or hardening.

2.19.3 HARDENING:
While manufacturing the dies, the heat treatment cycle plays an important role.
The heat treatment cycle for hardening of dies can be divided into following steps:

Pre- heating.

Final heating.

Soaking.

Quenching.

Tempering

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PRE-HEATING:
If dies are heated directly to the hardening temperature, there is a chance that the
surface and the care will give to internal stresses due to uneven expansion. And cracks will
be inevitably developed in die. This can be avoided by pre- heating the in two or three
steps, kept until the temperature is even through the die before continuing heating to the
hardening temperature.
FINAL HEATING AND SOAK:
The selection of hardening temperature and soaking are determined with the help of
carbon iron diagram/suppliers data. After dies have reached the hardening temperature
throughout the cross section, it is soaked at this temperature for sufficient time to allow
enough of the carbides to be dissolved to ensure the desired hardness
QUENCHING:
After the soaking time is over, the dies are taken out of the hardening bath and
quenching in media which can cool the die at a rapid rate. Quenching media are air, oil,
water or salt bath.
TEMPERING:
This is done after the quenching process. It consists of the following steps:
1. Heating the steel below the lower critical temperature.
2. Holding the steel at that temperature for 3 to 5 minutes for each mm of
thickness or diameter.
3. Cooling the steel (in water, oil, or air) either rapidly or slowly expect in case
of steel susceptible to temper brittleness.
2.10 HARDNESS TESTING:
Hardness testing immediately after quenching is not absolutely necessary with
alloyed steels, hardness testing after quenching has been properly carried out as in some
cases the desired hardness is first after tempering.

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CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION

HAPTER 11:

11.1 TANGINABLE BENEFITS:

Self-confidence to work effectively.


Ability to understand the customers need and requirements.
Learn the benefits of TEAM WORK.
Opportunity to develop the quality control skills.
Learn different manufacturing parameters.
Opportunity to develop leadership qualities.

BEHIND OUR SUCCESS:


We would like to heartily thank the staff and management of ATTC SIKKIM for
the successful completion of our project.
We wish that their good wishes would be always there with us.
We hope they will continue to imparting such an excellence in technical education, to
produces the quality TOOLS AND DIE MAKERS.

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